The Book of Woodcraft, 1912 (book)

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1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) THE BOOK OF WOODCRAFT 12) 13)

The Book of Woodcraft

With 500 Drawings

By the Author

Ernest Thompson Seton

Author of "Wild Animals I Have Known",

"Two Little Savages", "Biography of a Grizzly",

"Life Histories of Northern Animals".

"Rolf in the Woods", "The Foresters' Manual"

Head Chief of the Indian Scouts

and of the Seton Indians.

Garden City New York.

Doubleday Page & Company

MCMXII 14) Copyright, 1912 by Ernest Thompson Seton. 15)

PREFACE

For over twenty-five years I have been giving the talks and demonstrations that are gathered together in this book. Many of them have appeared in magazines or in the "Birch-Bark Roll" that has come out annually for ten years. But this is the first time in which a comprehensive collection has been made of the activities, customs, laws, and amusements that have been developed in my camps.

Some of the related subjects I have treated at too great length for enclosure in one book. Of this class are the "Life Histories of Northern Animals," "Animal Stories," "Sign Language" and "Forestry," which appear as separate works. All are merely parts of a scheme that I have always considered my life work, namely, the development or revival of Woodcraft as a school for Manhood.

By Woodcraft I mean outdoor life in its broadest sense and the plan has ever been with me since boyhood.

Woodcraft is the first of all the sciences. It was Woodcraft that made man out of brutish material, and Woodcraft in its highest form may save him from decay.

As the model for outdoor life in this country I took the Indian, and have thus been obliged to defend him against the calumnies of those who coveted his possessions. In giving these few historical extracts to show the Indian character, it must be remembered that I could give hundreds, and that practically all the travelers who saw with their own eyes are of one mind in the matter.

Commissioner Robert G. Valentine, of the Indian Bureau, the first Indian Commissioner we have ever had who knew and sympathized with the Indians, writes after reading my manuscript: 16) "On the question of the character of the Indians I am in absolute accord with you on everything that I believe any one would consider a basic point. In speech after speech I have fought the idea that Indians were cruel or lazy or vicious, and dwelt on their positive virtues — among these their sense of humor, and their deep reverence."

The portions of the manuscript called "Spartans of the West," and "Campfire Stories of Indian Character," have been submitted to George Bird Grinnell, of New York, whose life has been largely spent among the Indians, and have received from him a complete endorsement.

In a similar vein I have heard from Dr. Charles A. Eastman, and from nearly all of the many who have seen the manuscript. Some of my friends at the Smithsonian Institution take exception to certain details, but no one denies the main contentions in regard to the character of the Indian, or the historical accuracy of the "Campfire Stories."

Gen. Nelson A. Miles, for example, writes me: "History can show no parallel to the heroism and fortitude of the American Indians in the two hundred years' fight during which they contested inch by inch the possession of their country against a foe infinitely better equipped with inexhaustible resources, and in overwhelming numbers. Had they even been equal in numbers, history might have had a very different story to tell."

I was taught to glorify the names of Xenophon, Leonidas, Spartacus, the Founders of the Dutch Republic or the Noble Six Hundred at Balaclava, as the ideals of human courage and self-sacrifice, and yet I know of nothing in all history that will compare with the story of Dull Knife as a narrative of magnificent heroism and human fortitude.

While I set out only to justify the Indian as a model for our boys in camp, I am not without hope that this may lead to a measure of long-delayed justice being accorded him. He asks only the same rights as are allowed without question to all other men in America — the protection of the courts, the right to select his own religion, dress, amusements, and the equal... 17) right to the pursuit of happiness so long as his methods do not conflict with the greater law of the land.

This book is really the eleventh edition of the "Birch-Bark Roll," which I have published yearly and expanded yearly since 1902. On the first day of July that year I founded the first band of Woodcraft Indians. Since then the growth of the movement has called for constant revision and expansion. In the present volume, for the first time, I have fully set forth a justification of my Indian Ideal.

I am deeply indebted to my friend, Edgar Beecher Bronson, for permission to include the History of Chief Dull Knife's March, which appeared in his "Reminiscences of a Ranch-man." It is a story that should be known to all the world.

I have also to express my obligations to Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons for permission to quote from Capt. J. O. Bourke's writings, to J. W. Schultz for the use of his charming story of "No-Heart," to Messrs. The Fleming H. Revell Co., for permission to quote F. W. Calkins' story of the "Two Wilderness Voyagers," to Miss Alice C. Fletcher for the use of two Indian songs from her book "Indian Story and Song," as noted, to Edward S. Curtis for the use of Sitting Bull's "War Song," to Miller Jordan and Geo. L. White for help in revising the parts on organization and honors; to Dr. Clinton L. Bagg for help in the " First Aid." To Dr. C. C. Curtis for the identification of toadstools; to Dr. Charles A. Eastman (Ohiyesa) for general criticism and for special assistance in the chapters on "The Indian's Creed," "Teepee Etiquette, " and the "Teachings of Wabasha I."

Also to Robert G. Valentine (Indian Commissioner) and George Bird Grinnell of New York for critical reading of the historical parts of the book.

When I was a boy I hungered beyond expression for just such information as I have tried herein to impart. It would be a great joy to me if I could reach and help a considerable number of such heart-hungry boys tormented with an insatiate... 18) ...instinct for the woods, and if I fail of this, I shall at least have the lasting pleasures of having lived through these things myself and of having written about them.

Ernest Thompson Seton (v.r.) 19)

CONTENTS

20)21)22)23)24)25)26)27)28)29)30)31)
page

Preface

v
Table of the Seventeen Sections:
I. Principles of Scouting
Nine Important Principles
3
Recreation
4
Camp-life
4
Self-government, with Adult Guidance
4
The Magic of the Campfire
4
Woodcraft Pursuits
5
Honors by Standards
6
Personal Decoration for Personal Achievements
6
A Heroic Ideal
6
Picturesqueness in Everything
7
The Ideal
7
II. The Spartans of the West
The Indian Way
9
The Indian's Creed
11
The Dark Side
13
The Bright Side
18
Reverence
20
Cleanliness
24
Chastity
27
Bravery
28
Thrift and Providence
29
Cheerfulness or the Merry Indian
31
Obedience
32
Kindness
34
Hospitality
36
Treatment of Their Women
37
Courtesy and Polite Behavior
41
Honesty
43
Truthfulness and Honor
45
Temperance and Sobriety
47
Physique
49
In General
51
Summary
55
Standard Indian Books
59
III. The Purpose and Laws of the Woodcraft Indians
The Redman's Way
61
Watchword
61
Totem
61
War-cry
62
Sign
62
The Laws
62
The Rulers of the Nation
64
The Great Council
64
The High Council of Guidance
64
The Medicine Lodge or Lodge of the Old Guides
64
The Initiation of a Brave
65
The Little Lodge
67
The Big Lodge
68
The Laws for the Ruling of the Tribe
69
1. Name
69
2. Purpose
69
3. Who May Enter
69
4. Councils
70
5. The Rulers of the Tribe
70
The Vow of the Head Chief
72
The Vow of Each Brave
72
6. Changes of the Law
72
7. Dues
72
8. Secret
72
9. Laws and Punishments
72
The Band or Clan
73
Costumes
73
Titles of Nobles
74
Badges of Rank
75
The Standard
76
Totems
77
Order of Doings in Council
79
How to Begin
79
The Tally Book and How to Keep It
81
For Example
81
The Indian Laws in Brief
83
The War-cry of the Band
85
IV. Honors and Degrbes and Indian Names:
Honors
93
Decorations for Individual Honors
93
Decorations for Group Honors or Degrees
93
Standards of Honors
94
Red Honors:
Heroism
95
Riding
95
General Athletics
95
Athletic Specialties
101
Water Sports and Travel
102
Mountain Climbing
103
Target Shooting
105
Eyesight
105
Big-game Hunting
106
White Honors:
Campercraft and Scouting
107
Archery
112
Long Range, Clout, or Flight Shooting
112
Fishing
113
Bait Casting
114
Blue Honors:
Nature Study — Vertebrates
115
Nature Study — Lower Forms of Life
115
Geology, etc.
116
Photography
116
The Degrees in Woodcraft
117
Athlete (Song-adis)
119
Camper (Gabeshiked)
120
Camp Cook (Chabakwed)
121
Camp Craftsman (Enokid)
121
Camp Doctor (Mashkiki)
122
Canoeman (Chemaunigan)
124
Fisherman (Gagoiked)
125
Forester (Mitigwakid)
126
Frontier Scout (Gimab)
125
Gleeman or Camp Conjurer (Nagamed)
129
Herald or Crier (Bibaged)
129
Horseman (Bebamomigod)
130
Hunter (Gaossed)
131
Mountaineer (Wadjiwed)
132
Pathfinder or Scout (Mikan)
133
Scout Runner (Kee-mo-sah'-bee)
134
Sharpshooter (Godaakwed)
135
Star Wiseman (Gijiged)
136
Swimmer (Shingebis)
137
Traveler (Bebamadisid)
137
Village Scout or Big Village Scout (Odena-winini)
135
Whiteman's Woodcraft (Dibaakid)
139
Wise Woodman (Nibwaka-winini)
140
Winning a Name
141
Indian Names that Have Been Won by Scouts
142
English Names that Have Been Given
143
Indian Names Given in Ridicule
144
English Names Given in Ridicule
144
Names Given to Women
144

V. Woodland Songs, Dances, and Ceremonies

Omaha Tribal Prayer
145
Sitting Bull's War Song
146
The Ghost Dance Song
147
The Peace Pipe Ceremony
148
The Scalp Dance
149
Bird Dance Song
150
The Mujje Mukesin
150
The Lament
152
The Caribou Dance
152
The Dance of the White Caribou
154
The Dog Dance
156
The Ojibwa Snake Dance
158
The Hunting of Mishi-Mokwa
159
Indian Song Books
164
The Weasel in the Wood
164
Le Furet
165
Rouser or Reveille
166
VI. Suggested Programs
A Series of Monthly Programs
167
Suggestions for Evenings
171
Animal Story Books for Evenings
172
Indoor or Winter Activities
173
Handicraft
173
Games
173
Studies
174
Songs
174
Dances
174
Robe Contest
174
Suggested Camp Routine
176
Good Program of an Entertainment at a Council
176
Indoor Competition for a Prize
176
One-day Hikes
177
VII. General Scouting Indoors
Handicraft Stunts
180
Fork and Spoon
180
Needle Case
180
Tackle Box
180
Peach Stone Basket
180
Turkey Call
180
Chicken Squawk
180
Picture Frames
180
Birch-bark Vessels
182
Souvenir Spoons
182
Knots
183
Fireside Trick
186
The Lone Star Trick
186
Bird Boxes or Houses
187
How to Raise Some Money
190
VIII. General Scouting Outdoors
Rubbing-stick Fire
192
Hiking in the Snow
194
Weather Wisdom
199
Outdoor Proverbs
201
The Stars
202
The Pleiades as a Test of Eyesight
208
The Twin Stars
211
The Planets
211
The Moon
213
Making a Dam
213
When Lost in the Woods
214
Indian Tweezers
215
A Home-made Compass
216
An Indian Clock, Shadow Clock or Sundial
216
Lights
217
Hunter's Lamp
217
Woodman's Lantern
217
Camp Loom and Grass Mats
219
Navaho Loom
220
Camp Rake
222
Camp Broom
223
Building a Boat
224
A Dugout Canoe
225
Camp Horn
226
Sleep Outdoors
226
The Gee-string Camp
227
IX. Signaling and Indian Signs
Sign Language
228
Picture-writing
239
Blazes and Indian Signs
245
Blazes
245
Stone Signs
247
Grass and Twig Signs
247
Smoke Signals
248
Signal by Shots
249
Special Signs
249
Weather Signals
251
Signals on the Railway
252
The Code
253
Colors
253
Hand, Flag, and Lamp Signals
253
Other Hand Signals
253
Signals by Engine Whistle
253
Air Whistle or Cord-pull
254
X. Campercraft or the Summer Camp
Camping Out
256
Outfit for Six (one week)
257
Outfit for Each Brave
260
Tents
261
Teepee
261
The Camp Ground
262
Latrine
262
Arriving on the Camp Ground
263
Camp Officers and Government
263
The Dog Soldiers
265
Inspection
265
The Horns of the High Hikers
266
Council-fire Circle
266
Totem-pole
267
Councils
268
Beds
269
Water or the Indian Well
270
Mosquitoes, Black Flies, etc.
270
Lice and Vermin
271
Suggested Camp Routine
271
Campfires
271
Council-fire
274
Firearms
275
Camp Cookery
276
War-sack
278
Scout Buttons
278
Lace or Thong
279
XI. Games for the Camp
Interesting Pursuits
280
Tilting Spears
280
Tilting in the Water
281
Tub-Tilting on Land
282
Still-hunting the Buck, or the Deer Hunt
283
The Bear Hunt
286
Spearing the Great Sturgeon
288
Canoe Tag
290
Scouting
290
Quicksight
291
Far-sight or Spot-the-rabbit
292
Home Star or Pole Star
292
Rabbit Hunt
293
Arrow Fight
293
Hostile Spy
294
Scout Messenger
295
Challenge for Scout Messenger
295
Tree the Coon
296
Navajo Feather Dance
296
Feather Football or Feather-blow
297
Cock-fighting
297
One-legged Chicken Fight
297
Stronghand
297
Badger-pulling
298
Stung, or Step-on-the-rattler
298
Buffalo Chips
298
Rat-on-his-lodge
299
Watching by the Trail
300
Trailing
300
Apache Relay Race
301
The Weasel in the Wood
301
Throwing the Spear
301
Water-boiling Contest
302
Medley Scouting
302
XII. Health and Woodland Medicine
First Aid:
To Revive from Drowning
305
Sunstroke
306
Burns and Scalds
306
Hemorrhage or Internal Bleeding
306
Cuts and Wounds
307
Lightning
307
Shock or Nervous Collapse
307
Fainting
307
Mad Dog or Snake Bite
308
Insect Stings
308
Tests of Death
308
Cinders or Sand in the Eye
308
Books Recommended
308
Wildwood Remedies or Simples:
Antiseptic or Wound Wash
309
Balm for Wounds
309
Bleeding, to Stop
309
Bowel Complaint
309
Bowel Tonic
309
Chills and Fever
309
Cold or Fever Cure
309
Cough Remedy
309
Cough and Irritated Throat
312
Cough and Lung Remedy
312
Diuretic
312
Face-ache
312
Inflammation of the Eyes or Skin
312
Ink
312
Lung Balm
312
Nose-bleed
312
Nose Stopped up at Night
312
Pimples and Skin Rash
312
Poison Ivy Sting
312
Purge, Mild
314
Purge, Strong
314
Purge, Fierce
314
Rheumatism
314
Sores and Wounds
315
Sunburn
315
Sweater
316
Tapeworm
316
Throat Irritation (at night)
317
Tonic
317
Wash for Sore Throat
317
Worms
317
Worms and Tonic
318
Wound Wash, (see Antiseptic)
318
Indian Bath or Sweat Lodge
318
Latrine
319
The Keen Eyes of the Indian
319
Near-sightedness
319
The Remedy
319
Dry Socks
320
Shut Your Mouth and Save Your Life
320
Don't Turn out Your Toes Much
321
Tobacco
321
Sex Matters
323
Starvation Foods in the Northern Woods
324
Rabbits
325
Mice
327
Ants
327
Insect Borers
327
Rawhide and Leather
327
Bark and Buds
328
Toadstools
328
Lichens
329
Iceland Moss
329
Reindeer Moss
330
Rock Tripe
331
Drinks: Labrador Tea
333
XIII. Natural History
Our Common Birds, or Forty Birds that Every Boy Should Know
334
How to Stuff a Bird
352
Making a Skin
353
Mounting the Bird
359
Owl-stuffing Plate
363
Stuffing an Animal
363
Preserving Small Mammal Skins
365
Directions for Measurement
365
Directions for the Preparation of Skins
367
Trapping Animals
369
The Secrets of the Trail
369
Trailing
370
Hard to Photograph Tracks
370
No Two Tracks alike
371
Dog and Cat
372
Wolf
375
Rabbits and Hares
377
The Newton Jack-rabbit
379
Fox
382
The Fox's Hunt
385
Closing In
388
Books and Articles Recommended
390
XIV. Mushrooms, Fungi or Toadstools
Abundance
391
Dangers
392
Symptoms of Poisoning
392
Remedy
392
To Make Spore Prints for Study
393
Poisonous Toadstools
394
Unwholesome but Not Deadly Toadstools
399
Wholesome Toadstools
402
Uncertain Kinds
407
Cautions for the Inexperienced
409
Mushroom Growing
409
Books Recommended
409
XV. Forestry
Fifty Common Forest Trees of Eastern North America
411
Pines
411
Spruces
413
Cedars
415
Poplars
417
Walnuts
418
Birches
423
Hornbeams
425
Oaks
426
Chestnuts
431
Elms
431
Gums
436
Maples
438
Basswoods
440
Ashes
442
Books Recommended
443
XVI. Some Indian Ways
Teepees
444
Storm-cap or Bull Boat
444
Putting up the Teepee
448
Teepee Life
449
Hairy-Wolf's Teepee
451
Art
454
Indian Seats
455
Head Band
458
Warbonnet or Headdress
459
Its Meaning
459
Plenty- Coups
461
Details of the Warbonnet
463
Making the Warbonnet
464
Indian Costume
465
War-shirt
465
Leggings
469
Moccasins
469
War-clubs
469
Paddles
469
Drum
469
Peace Pipe
469
The Indian or Willow Bed
471
Indian Paints
475
Indian Dyes
477
Naming the Camp or Keeping the Winter Count
478
Archery
478
How to Make a Bow
479
Holding and Drawing
481
The Warbow of the Penobscots
481
Scalps
483
Indian Work
484
XVII. Campfire Stories or Glimpses of Indian Character
The Teachings of Winnemucca
485
The Teachings of Wabasha I.
485
The Lessons of Lone Chief
486
The Teachings of Tshut-che-nau
487
Courage or the Trained Scout
488
An Indian Prayer
488
Genesis (Omaha)
488
The Quiche's Story of Creation
489
Clean Fatherhood
400
Omaha Proverbs
400
The Medicine Man and His Ways
490
The Indian Silence
401
The Indian Babes in the Woods
492
The Story of No-Heart
493
Tecumseh
500
Kanakuk, the Kickapoo Prophet
502
Chief Joseph of the Sahaptin
504
White Calf, Chief of the Blackfeet
507
Wovoka, the Prophet
510
The Apache Indian's Case
513
The Wiping-out of Nanni-Chaddi
515
The Ending of Dull Knife's Band
524
The Message of the Indian
548
Index
553

32) 33) THE BOOK OF WOODCRAFT 34) 35)

I. Principles of Scouting

Nine Important Principles of Scouting

THIS is a time when the whole nation is turning toward the Outdoor Life, seeldng in it the physical regeneration so needful for continued national existence — is waking to the fact long known to thoughtful men, that those live longest who live nearest to the ground — that is, who live the simple life of primitive times, dives- ted, however, of thee'ils that ignorance in those times begot. Consumption, the white man's plague since he has be- come a house race, is vanquished by the sun and air, and many ills of the mind also are forgotten when the sufferer boldly takes to the Hfe in tents. Half our diseases are in our minds and half in our houses. We can safely leave the rest to the physicians for treatment. Sport is the great incentive to Outdoor Life; Nature Study is the intellectual side of sport. I should like to lead this whole nation into the way of Hving outdoors for at least a month each year, reviving and expanding a custom that as far back as Moses was deemed essential to the national well-being. Not long ago a benevolent rich man, impressed with this idea, chartered a steamer and took some hundreds of slum boys up to the Catskills for a day in the woods. They were duly landed and told to "go in now and have a glorious time." It was like gathering up a netful of catfish and 36) 4 The Book of Woodcraft throwing them into the woods, saying, "Go and have a glorious time." The boys sulked around and sullenly disappeared. An hour later, on being looked up, they were found in groups under the bushes, smoking cigarettes, shooting "craps," and playing cards — the only things they knew. Thus the well-meaning rich man learned that it is not enough to take men out of doors. We much also teach them to enjoy it. The purpose of this book is to show how Outdoor Life may be followed to advantage. Nine leading principles are kept in view: (i) This movement is essentially for recreation. (2) Camp-life. Camping is the simple hfe reduced to actual practice, as well as the culmination of the outdoor Hfe. Camping has no great popularity to-day, because men have the idea that it is possible only after an expensive journey to the wilderness; and women that it is inconven- ient, dirty, and dangerous. These are errors. They have arisen because camping as an art is not understood. When intelligently followed, camp-life must take its place as a cheap and dehghtful way of living, as well as a mental and physical savior of those strained or broken by the grind of the over-busy world. The wilderness affords the ideal camping, but many of the benefits can be got by living in a tent on a town lot, a piazza, or even a housetop. (3) Self-government with Adult Guidance. Control from without is a poor thing when you can get control from within. As far as possible, then, we make these camps self- governing. Each full member has a vote in affairs. (4) The Magic of the Camp fire. What is a camp with- out a campfire? — no camp at all, but a chilly place in a 37) Principles of Scouting 5 landscape, where some people happen to have some things. When first the brutal anthropoid stood up and walked erect — was man, the great event was symbolized and marked by the Lighting of the first campfire. For millions of years our race has seen in this blessed fire, the means and emblem of light, warmth, protection, friendly gathering, council. All the hallow of the ancient thoughts, hearth, fireside, home is centred in its glow, and the home- tie itself is weakened with the waning of the home-fire. Not in the steam radiator can we find the spell; not in the water coil; not even in the gas log; they do not reach the heart. Only the ancient sacred fire of wood has power to touch and thrill the chords of primitive remembrance. When men sit together at the campfire they seem to shed all modern form and poise, and hark back to the primitive — to meet as man and man — to show the naked soul. Your campfire partner wins your love, or hate, mostly your love; and having camped in peace together, is a lasting bond of union — however wide your worlds may be apart. The campfire, then, is the focal centre of all primitive brotherhood. We shall not fail to use its magic powers. (5) Woodcraft Pursuits. Reahzing that manhood, not scholarship, is the first aim of education, we have sought out those pursuits which develop the finest character, the finest physique, and which may be followed out of doors, which, in a word, make for manhood. By nearly every process of logic we are led primarily to Woodcraft — that is. Woodcraft in a large sense — meaning every accomplishment of an all-round Woodman — Rid- ing, Hunting, Camper-craft, Scouting, Mountaineering, Indian-craft, First aid, Star-craft, Signaling, and Boating. To this we add all good Outdoor Athletics and Sports, including Sailing and Motoring, and Nature Study, of 38) 6 The Book of Woodcraft which Wild Animal Photography is an important branch; but above all, Heroism. Over three hundred deeds or exploits are recognized in these various departments, and the members are given decorations that show what they achieved (6) Honors by Standards. The competitive principle is responsible for much that is evil. We see it rampant in our colleges to-day, where every effort is made to discover and develop a champion, while the great body of students is neglected. That is, the ones who are in need of physical development do not get it, and those who do not need it are over-developed. The result is much unsoundness of many kinds. A great deal of this would be avoided if we strove to bring all the individuals up to a certain standard. In our non-competitive tests the enemies are not" the other fellows," but time and space, the forces of Nature. We try not to down the others, but to raise ourselves. A thorough appli- cation of this principle would end many of the evils now demoralizing college athletics. Therefore, all our honors are bestowed according to world-wide standards. (Prizes are not honors.) (7) Personal Decoration for Personal Achievements. The love of glory is the strongest motive in a savage. Civil- ized man is supposed to find in high principle his master impulse. But those who believe that the men of our race, not to mention boys, are civilized in this highest sense, would be greatly surprised if confronted with figures. Nevertheless, a human weakness may be good material to work with. I face the facts as they are. All have a chance for glory through the standards, and we blazon it forth in personal decorations that all can see, have, and desire. (8) A Heroic Ideal. The boy from ten to fifteen, like the savage, is purely physical in his ideals. I do not know that I ever met a boy that would not rather be John L. Sullivan 39) Principles of Scouting 7 than Darwin or Tolstoi. Therefore, I accept the fact, and seek to keep in view an ideal that is physical, but also clean, manly, heroic, already familiar, and leading with certainty to higher things. (9) Picturesqueness in Everything. Very great impor- tance should be attached to this. The effect of the pictur- esque is magical, and all the more subtle and irresistible because it is not on the face of it reasonable. The charm of titles and gay costumes, of the beautiful in ceremony, phrase, dance, and song, are utilized in all ways. THE IDEAL When two or three young people camp out, they can live as a sort of family, especially if a grown-up be with them; but when a dozen or more are of the party, it is necessary to organize. What manner of organization will be practical, and also give full recognition to the nine principles of scouting? What form of government lends itself best to — Recreation ; Outdoor Life; Self-rule ; The Campfire; Woodcraft traditions; Honors by standards; Personal decoration for personal achievement; A heroic ideal; Picturesqueness in all things? In my opinion, the Tribal or Indian form of organization. Fundamentally, this is a republic or limited monarchy, and many experiments have proved it best for our purpose. It makes its members self-governing; it offers appropriate things to do outdoors; it is so plastic that it can be adopted 40) 8 The Book of Woodcraft in whole or in part, at once or gradually; its picturesqueness takes immediate hold of all ; and it lends itself so well to our object that, soon or late, other forms of organization are forced into its essentials. No large band of boys ever yet camped out for a month without finding it necessary to recognize a leader, a senior form (or ruUng set whose position rests on merit), some wise grown person to guide them in difficulties, and a place to display the emblems of the cam.p; that is, they have adopted the system of the Chief, Council, Medicine Man and Totem-pole. Moreover, the Ideal Indian stands for the highest type of primitive Hfe. He was a master of woodcraft, and unsordid, clean, manly, heroic, self-controlled, reverent, truthful, and picturesque always. America owes much to the Redman. When the struggle for freedom came on, it was between men of the same blood and bone, equal in brains and in strength. The British had the better equipment perhaps. The great advantage of the American was that he was a trained scout, and this training which gave him the victory he got from the Redman. But the Redman can do a greater service now and in the future. He can teach us the ways of outdoor Hfe, the nobility of courage, the joy of beauty, the blessedness of enough, the glory of service, the power of kindness, the super-excellence of peace of mind and the scorn of death. For these were the things that the Redman stood for; these were the sum of his faith. 41)

II. The Spartans of the West

No world-movement ever yet grew as a mere doctrine. It must have some noble example; a living, appealing personality; some man to whom we can point and say, “This is what we mean.” All the great faiths of the world have had such a man, and for lack of one, many great and flawless truths have passed into the lumber-room.

To exemplify my outdoor movement, I must have a man who was of this country and climate; who was physically beautiful, clean, unsordid, high-minded, heroic, picturesque, and a master of Woodcraft, besides which, he must be already well-known. I would gladly have taken a man of our own race, but I could find none. Rollo the Sea-King, King Arthur, Leif Ericsson, Robin Hood, Leatherstocking, all suggested themselves, but none seemed to meet the requirements, and most were mere shadows, utterly unknown. Surely, all this pointed the same way. There was but one figure that seemed to answer all these needs: that was the Ideal Indian of Fenimore Cooper and Longfellow.

For this reason, I took the Native American, and called my organization “Woodcraft Indians.”[1] And yet, I am told that the prejudice against the word “Indian” has hurt the movement immensely. If so, it is because we do not know what the Indian was, and this I shall make it my 42) sad and hopeful task, at this late day, to have our people realize.

We know more about the Redman to-day than ever we did. Indeed, we knew almost nothing of him twenty years ago. We had two pictures offered us; one, the ideal savage of Longfellow, the primitive man, so noble in nature that he was incapable of anything small or mean or wicked; the other was presented by those who coveted his possessions, and, to justify their robberies, they sketched the Indian as a dirty, filthy, squalid wretch, a demon of cruelty and cowardice, incapable of a human emotion, and never good till dead.

Which of these is the true picture? Let us calmly examine the pages of history, taking the words and records of Redmen and white, friends and foes of the Indian, and be prepared to render a verdict, in absolute accordance with that evidence, no matter where it leads us.

Let us begin by admitting that it is fair to take the best examples of the red race, to represent Indian philosophy and goodness; even as we ourselves would prefer being represented by Emerson, Tolstoi, Lincoln, Spencer, Peabody, General Booth, or Whitman, rather than by the border ruffians and cut-throat outlaws who were the principal exemplars of our ways among the Indians.

It is freely admitted that in all tribes, at all times, there were reprobates and scoundrels, a reproach to the people; just as amongst ourselves we have outcasts, tramps, drunkards, and criminals. But these were despised by their own people, and barely tolerated.

We must in fairness judge the Indian and his way of life and thought by the exemplifications of his best types: Hiawatha, Wabasha I, Tshut-che-nau, Ma-to-to-pa, Tecumseh, Kanakuk, Chief Joseph, Dull Knife, Washakie, 43) and many that loved their own people and were in no wise touched by the doctrines of the whites.

If from these men we gather their beliefs, their teachings, and the common thoughts that guided their lives, we may fairly assume that we have outlined the creed of the best Indians.

the indian's creed

These are the main thoughts in the Redman's creed:

(1) While he believed in many gods, he accepted the idea of one Supreme Spirit, who was everywhere all the time; whose help was needed continually, and might be secured by prayer and sacrifice.

(2) He believed in the immortality of the soul, and that its future condition was to be determined by its behavior in this life.

(3) He reverenced his body as the sacred temple of his spirit; and believed it his duty in all ways to perfect his body, that his earthly record might be the better.

We cannot, short of ancient Greece, find his equal in physical perfection.

(4) He believed in the subjection of the body by fasting, whenever it seemed necessary for the absolute domination of the spirit; as when, in some great crisis, that spirit felt the need for better insight.

(5) He believed in reverence for his parents, and in old age supported them, even as he expected his children to support him.

(6) He believed in the sacredness of property. Theft among Indians was unknown.

(7) He believed that the murderer must expiate his crime with his life; that the nearest kin was the proper avenger, but that for accidental manslaughter compensation might be made in goods. 44)

(8) He believed in cleanliness of body.

(9) He believed in purity of morals.

(10) He believed in speaking the truth, and nothing but the truth. His promise was absolutely binding. He hated and despised a liar, and held all falsehood to be an abomination.

(11) He believed in beautifying all things in his life.

He had a song for every occasion — a beautiful prayer for every stress. His garments were made beautiful with painted patterns, feathers, and quill-work. He had dances for every fireside. He has led the world in the making of beautiful baskets, blankets, and canoes; while the decorations he put on lodges, weapons, clothes, dishes, and dwellings, beds, cradles, or grave-boards, were among the countless evidences of his pleasure in the beautiful, as he understood it.

(12) He believed in the simple life.

He held, first, that land belonged to the tribe, not to the individual; next, that the accumulation of property was the beginning of greed that grew into monstrous crime.

(13) He believed in peace and the sacred obligations of hospitality.

(14) He believed that the noblest of virtues was courage, and that, above all other qualities, he worshipped and prayed for. So also he believed that the most shameful of crimes was being afraid.

(15) He believed that he should so live his life that the fear of death could never enter into his heart; that when the last call came he should put on the paint and honors of a hero going home, then sing his death song and meet the end in triumph.

If we measure this great pagan by our Ten Commandments, we shall find that he accepted and obeyed them, all 45) but the first and third: that is, he had many lesser gods besides the one Great Spirit, and he knew not the Sabbath Day of rest. His religious faith, therefore, was much the same as that of the mighty Greeks, before whom all the world of learning bows; not unlike that of many Christians and several stages higher than that of the Huxley and other modern schools of materialism.

the dark side

These are the chief charges against the Indian:

First: He was cruel to his enemies, even torturing them at the stake in extreme cases. He knew nothing about forgiving and loving them.

In the main, this is true. But how much less cruel he was than the leaders of the Christian Church in the Middle Ages! What Indian massacre will compare in horror with that of St. Bartholomew's Eve or the Massacre of Glencoe? Read the records of the Inquisition, or the Queen Mary persecutions in England, or the later James II. abominations for further light!

There was no torture used by the Indians that was not also used by the Spainards. Every frontiersman of the Indian days knows that in every outbreak the whites were the aggressors; and that in every evil count – robbery, torture and massacre – they did exactly as the Indians did. “The ferocity of the Redman,” says Bourke, “has been more than equaled by the ferocity of the Christian Caucasian.” (“On the Border with Crook,” p. 114.)

There are good grounds for stating that the Indians were cruel to their enemies, but it is surprising to see how little of this cruelty there was in primitive days. In most cases the enemy was killed in battle or adopted into the tribe; very, 46) very rarely was he tortured. Captain Clark says of the Cheyennes:

“There is no good evidence that captives have been burned at the stake, flayed alive, or any other excruciating torture inflicted on persons captured by these fierce, war-loving and enterprising barbarians.” (“Sign Language,” p. 106.)

But we know now that the whites did use diabolical tortures in their dealings with the Indian, and deliberately and persistently misrepresented him in order to justify their own atrocities.

The whites, however, had print to state their case, while the Indians had none to tell their story or defend them. Furthermore, it is notorious that all massacres of Indians by the whites were accomplished by treachery in times of peace, while all Indian massacres of whites were in time of war, to resist invasion. At present, I know of no exception to this rule.[2]

In almost every case, it must be said that the army officers and men were personally guiltless. They were impressed with the heroism of the Indians, admired them for their bravery, were horrified by the wickedness of the orders sent them, and did all they could to mitigate the atrocious policies of the shameless Indian Bureau. But there were instances in which the army officers showed themselves the willing tools of the politicians. Among the notorious cases was the cold-blooded massacre, in 1864, by Col. J. H. Chivington, of several hundred Cheyennes. Men, women, and children had surrendered and disarmed, and were, indeed, at the time, under military protection. The fiendish cruelty and cowardice of that one attack on these defenseless beings was enough to more than justify 47) everything the Cheyennes have ever done to the race of the assassins. (See "Century of Dishonor," pp. 341-358.) Still worse was the Baker massacre of Blackfeet, on January 23, 1870.

A border ruffian, a white man named Clark, had assaulted a young Indian, beating him severely, and the Indian, in retaliation, had killed Clark and gone off into Canada. Without troubhng to find the guilty party, or even the band he belonged to. Brevet Col. E, M. Baker, major Second Cavalry, stationed at Fort Shaw, marched out, under orders from Gen. Philip H. Sheridan, to the nearest Indian village, on Marias River; as it happened, they were peace- able, friendly Indians, under Bear's Head. Without warning, the soldiers silently surrounded the sleeping village. But the story is better told by Schultz, who was on the spot later, and heard it all from those who saw:

"In a low tone Colonel Baker spoke a few words to his men, telling them to keep cool, aim to kill, to spare none of the enemy; and then he gave the command to fire. A terrible scene ensued. On the day previous, many of the men of the camp had gone out toward the Sweetgrass Hills on a grand buffalo hunt; so, save for Chief Bear's Head and a few old men, none were there to return the soldiers' fire. Their first volley was aimed low down into the lodges, and many of the sleeping people were killed or wounded in their beds. The rest rushed out, men, children, women, many of the latter with babes in their arms, only to be shot down at the doorways of their lodges. Bear's Head, frantically waving a paper which bore testimony to his good character and friendliness to the white men, ran toward the command on the bluff, shouting to them to cease firing, entreating them to save the women and children; down he also went with several bullet holes in his body. Of the more than four hundred souls in camp at the time, very few escaped. And when it was all over, when the last wounded woman and child had been put out of misery, the soldiers piled the corpses 48) on overturned lodges, firewood and household property, and set fire to it all.

Several years afterward I was on the ground. Everywhere scattered about in the long grass and brush, just where the wolves and foxes had left them, gleamed the skulls and bones of those who had been so ruthlessly slaughtered. 'How could they have done it?' I asked myself, time and time again. ' What manner of men were these soldiers who deliberately shot down defenseless women and innocent children? ' They had not even the excuse of being drunk; nor was their commanding ofiicer intoxicated; nor were they excited or in any danger whatever. Deliberately, coolly, with steady and deadly aim they shot them down, killed the wounded, and then tried to burn the bodies of their victims. But I will say no more about it. Think it over, yourself, and try to find a fit name for men who did this. " (" My Life as an Indian, " pp. 41-2.)

According to G. B. Grinnell, one hundred and seventy-six innocent persons were butchered on this day of shame; ninety of them women, fifty-five babies, the rest chiefly very old or very young men, most of the able-bodied hunters being away on a hunt. No punishment of any kind was given the monster who did it.

There is no Indian massacre of whites to compare with this shocking barbarity, for at least the Indian always had the excuse that war had been declared, and he was acting on the defensive. Of a similar character were the massacres at Cos Cob, 1641; Conestoga, 1763; Gnadenwhiitten, 1782; Coquille River, 1854; Wounded Knee, 1890; and a hundred more that could be mentioned. And no punishment was ever meted out to the murderers. Why? First, because appar- ently the Bureau at Washington approved; second, because An Indian has no legal status; he is merely a live and particularly troublesome animal in the eye of the law." (New York Times, February 21, 1880.) (See "Century of Dishonor," p. 367.) Governor Horatio Seymour says: 49)

"Every human being born upon our continent, or who comes here from any quarter of the world, whether savage or civiHzed, can go to our courts for protection — except those who belong to the tribes who once owned this country. The cannibal from the islands of the Pacific, the worst criminals from Europe, Asia or Africa, can appeal to the law and courts for their rights of person and property — all save our native Indians, who, above all, should be protected from wrong." (Century of Dishonor, " title-page.)

And this is the land whose Constitution grants equal rights to all ahke. This is the land that waxes virtuously indignant when Russia expels or massacres Nihilists, Poles or Jews. Have we not enough courage left to face the sim- ple truth that every crime of despotism in Russia has been more than doubled in atrocity by what has but recently been done in America? Nihilists, Jews and Poles were certainly breaking the law, usually plotting against the Government, when attacked. Russia never used burnings at the stake, as did the American unofficial Indian-killers. And never did Russia turn batteries of machine-guns on masses of men, women and children who were absolutely quiet, unarmed, helpless and submissive: who had indeed thrown themselves on the mercy of the Government, and were under its protection.

Americans were roused to a fury of indignation by doubt- ful newspaper accounts of Spanish misrule in Cuba. But the atrocities so credited to Spain pale into insignificance beside the unspeakable abominations proved against the United States by records of its own officials in its deaUngs with the native American race during the last hundred years.

There are many exceptions to this charge that the Indian is cruel to his enemies, enough, almost, to justify a complete rebuttal, and among these was none more honorably 50) distinguished than Tecumseh, the war chief of the Shawnees; perhaps the greatest of all historic Indians. Like a new incarnation of Hiawatha, he planned a de- fensive federation of the whole red race, and led them in war, that he might secure for them lasting peace. All great Indians had taught the doctrine "Love your friend." But Tecumseh was the first in authority to extend the heaven-taught precept, so they should be kind, at least, to their enemies; for he put an end in his nation to all tortur- ing of prisoners.

Above all whose history is fully known, Tecumseh was the ideal noble Redman realized; nevertheless, he was not alone; Wabasha, Osceola, Kanakuk, and Wovoka must be numbered among those whose great hearts reached out in kindness even to those who hated them.

Tecumseh taught, "Love your enemy after he is con- quered"; Kanakuk preached non-resistance to evil; Wovoka, "Be kind to all men."

Second: The Indian had no property instincts. He was a Socialist in all matters of large property, such as land, its fruits, rivers, fish, and game.

So were the early Christians. "And all that believed were together; had all things in common, and sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men, as every man had need." (Acts, ii., 44-45.)

They considered that every child had a right to a bring- ing up, and every old person to a free living from the tribe. We know that it worked well, for there was neither hunger nor poverty, except when the whole tribe was in want. And we know also that there were among them no men of shameful, monstrous wealth.

Third: He was improvident. He is now, just like our own drunkards. He was not, until after the Great Degra- dation that we effected in him. All the old travelers, 51) testify that each Indian village had its fields of corn, beans, and pumpkins. The crops were harvested and safely carried them over long periods when there was no other supply. They did not believe in vast accumulations of wealth, because their wise men had said that greed would turn their hearts to stone and make them forget the poor. Furthermore, since all when strong contributed to the tribe, the tribe supported them in childhood, sickness and age. They had no poor; they had no famine until the traders came with whiskey and committed the crimes 'for which we as a nation have yet to answer.

Fourth: He was dirty. Many dirty habits are to be seen to-day among the Reservation Indians, but it was not so in the free days. A part of the old Indian's religion was to take a bath every day the year round for the helping of his body. Some tribes bathed twice a day. Every village had a Turkish bath in continual use. It is only the de- graded Indian who has become dirty, and many of the whites who oftenest assail him as filthy never take a bath from birth to judgment day.

Fifth: He was lazy. No one who saw the Indian in his ancient form has preferred this charge. He was not fond of commercial manufacturing, but the regular work of tilling his Kttle patch of corn and beans he did not shirk, nor the labor of making weapons and boats, nor the frightful toil of portaging, hunting and making war. He undertook these at all times without a murmur.

Many men will not allow their horses to bear such bur- dens as I saw the Chipewyans bear daily, without a thought of hardship, accepting all as a part of their daily lot.

Sixth: He degraded woman to be a mere beast of burden. Some have said so, but the vast bulk of evidence to-day goes to show that while the women did the household drudgery and lighter tasks, the men did all the work beyond 52) 20 The BcK)k of Woodcraft yond their partners' strength. In making clothes, canoes, and weapons, as well as in tilling of the fields, men and women worked together. The woman had a voice in all the great affairs, and a far better legal position than in most of the civilized world to-day. Seventh: He was treacherous. Oh ! how ill it becomes us to mention such a thing! Every authority tells us the same — that primitive Redman never broke a treaty; his word was as good as his bond; that the American Govern- ment broke every treaty as soon as there was something to gain by doing so. Captain J. G. Bourke thus scores the continual treachery of the whites: "The occasional treach- ery of the aborigines," says he, "has found its best excuse in the unvarying Punic faith of the Caucasian invader." ("On the Border with Crook," p. 114.) But let us look for evidence of the Indian's character among those who saw with their own eyes, and had no ob- ject to serve by blackening the fair fame of the bravely dying race. It would be easy to fill a large volume with startling and trustworthy testimony as to the goodness of the old Indian of the best type; I shall give a few pages bearing on the Indian Hfe and especially relating to the various charac- teristics for which the Redman has been attacked, selecting the testimony preferably from the records of men who knew the Indian before his withering contact with the white race. REVERENCE In 1832 George Catlin, the painter, went West and spent eight years with the unchanged Indians of the Plains. He lived with them and became conversant with their lives. He has left one of the fullest and best records we have of the 53) The Spartans of the West 21 Redman. From his books I quote repeatedly. Con- cerning the Indian's rehgion, he says: "The North American Indian is everywhere, in his native state, a highly moral and religious being, endowed by his Maker with an intuitive knowledge of some great Author of his being, and the Universe, in dread of whose displeasure he con- stantly lives, with the apprehension before him of a future state, where he expects to be rewarded or punished according to the merits he has gained or forfeited in this world. "Morality and virtue I venture to say the civilized world need not undertake to teach them. " I never saw any other people of any color who spend so much of their lives in humbling themselves before and worship- ping the Great Spirit. " (Catlin's "N. A. Indian, " Vol. II., p. -) "We have been told of late years that there is no evidence that any tribe of Indians ever believed in one overruling power; yet, in the early part of the seventeenth century, Jesuits and Puritans alike testified that tribes which they had met, believed in a god, and it is certain that, at the present time, many tribes worship a Supreme Being who is the Ruler of the Universe." (Grinnell's "Story of the Indian," 1902, p. 214.) "Love and adore the Good Spirit who made us all; who sup- plies our hunting-grounds, and keeps us alive." (Teachings of Tshut-che-nau, Chief of the Kansas. J. D. Hunter's "Cap- tivity Among the American Indians," 1798-1816, p. 21). And, again, Hunter says (p. 216): "A day seldom passes with an elderly Indian, or others who are esteemed wise and good, in which a blessing is not asked, or thanks returned to the Giver of Life, sometimes audibly, but more generally in the devotional language of the heart. 54) 22 The Book of Woodcraft " Every Indian of standing has his sacred place, such as a tree, rock, fountain, etc., to which he resorts for devotional ex- ercise, whenever his feelings prompt to the measure; some- times many resort to the same place. " (P. 221). A typical prayer is recorded for us by Grinnell. A Pawnee, in dire distress and despair, through a strong enemy, decided to sacrifice his horse to the unseen powers, that they might intercede for him with the Creator, and thus prayed beforehand :

  • 'My Father [who dwells] in all places, it is through you that

I am living. Perhaps it was through you that this man put me in this condition. You are the Ruler. Nothing is impossible with you. If you see fit, take this [trouble] away from me. Now you, all fish of the rivers, and you, all birds of the air, and all animals that move upon the earth, and you, O Sun! I present to you this animal. You, birds in the air, and you, animals upon the earth, we are related; we are alike in this respect, that one Ruler made us all. You see how unhappy I am. If you have any power, intercede for me." (Grinnell's "Story of the Indian," p. 213.) Capt. W. P. Clark, one of our best authorities on the Plains Indians, says: There are no people who pray more than Indians." (** Indian Sign Language," 1885, p. 309.) And, again, he says: "Indians make vocal petitions to the God or Force which they wish to assist them, and also make prayer by pointing the long stem of the pipe. The Poncas call the sun God or Grandfather, and the earth Grandmother, and pray to both when making supplications. Running Antelope, a chief of the Uncapapa Band of Sioux, said in regard to pointing the pipestem, that the mere motion meant, 'To the Great Spirit: give me plenty of ponies; plenty of meat; let me live in peace and comfort with my wife, and stay long with my children. To the Earth, my 55) The Spartans of the West 23 Grandmother: let me live long; hold me good and strong. When I go to war, give me many ponies and let me count many "coups." In peace, let not anger enter my heart.'" (P. 309.) But the best account of the Indian's belief and mode of worship is given to us by Dr. Charles A. Eastman, himself a Sioux Indian; he has written of the things that were his daily life in youth. He says: "When food is taken, the woman murmurs a 'grace' as she lowers the kettle, an act so softly and unobtrusively performed that one who does not know the custom usually fails to catch the whisper: 'Spirit partake!' As her husband receives the bowl or plate, he likewise murmurs his invocation to the spirit. When he becomes an old man, he loves to make a notable effort to prove his gratitude. He cuts off the choicest morsel of the meat and casts it into the fire — the purest and most ethereal element." ("Soul of the Indian," 191 1, pp. 47-48.) "The first hambeday, or religious retreat, marked an epoch in the life of the youth, which may be compared to that of con- firmation or conversion in Christian experience. Having first prepared himself by means of the purifying vapor bath, and cast off, as far as possible, all human or fleshly influences, the young man sought out the noblest height, the most commanding sum- mit in all the surrounding region. Knowing that God sets no value upon material things, he took with him no offerings or sacrifices, other than symbolic objects, such as paints and tobacco. Wishing to appear before Him in all humility, he wore no clothing save his moccasins and breech-clout. At the solemn hour of sunrise or sunset, he took up his position, over- looking the glories of earth, and facing the 'Great Mystery,' and there he remained, naked, erect, silent, and motionless, exposed to the elements and forces of His arming, for a night and a day to two days and nights, but rarely longer. Sometimes he would chant a hymn without words, or offer the ceremonial ' filled pipe. ' In this holy trance or ecstasy the Indian mystic found his highest happiness, and the motive power of his exis- tence." ("Soul of the Indian," Eastman, pp. 7-8.) 56) 24 The Book of Woodcraft "In the life of the Indian there was only one inevitable duty, the duty of prayer — the daily recognition of the Unseen and Eternal. His daily devotions were more necessary to him than daily food. He wakes at daybreak, puts on his moccasins and steps down to the water's edge. Here he throws handfuls of clear cold water into his face, or plunges in bodily. After the bath, he stands erect before the advancing dawn, facing the sun as it dances upon the horizon, and offers his unspoken orison. His mate may precede or follow him in his devotions, but never accompanies him. Each soul must meet the morning sun, the new, sweet earth, and the Great Silence alone! "Whenever, in the course of the daily hunt, the red hunter comes upon a scene that is strikingly beautiful or sublime — a black thunder-cloud, with the rainbow's glowing arch above the mountain; a white waterfall in the heart of a green gorge; a vast prairie tinged with the blood-red of sunset — he pauses for an instant in the attitude of worship. He sees no need for setting apart one day in seven as a holy day, since to him all days are God's." ("Soul of the Indian," Eastman; pp. 45-6.) In the light of all this evidence, is it to be wondered that most of the early historians v/ho lived with the primitive Indians of the Plains, were led to believe, from their worship of God, their strict moral code, their rigid laws as to foods clean and unclean, and their elaborate system of bathings and purifications, that in these red men of the New World, ^hey had indeed found the long-lost tribes of Israel? CLEANLINESS Nothing will convince some persons but that "Yankees have tails," because, in their nursery days, these persons always heard it was so. That is exactly the attitude of the world on the subject of dirty Indians. Alexander Henry II., a fur and whiskey trader, who did his share in degrading the early Indians, and did not love them, admits of the Mandans, in 1806: 57) The Spartans of the West 25 " Both men and women make it a rule to go down to the river and wash every morning and evening, " ("Journal, " Vol. i., P- 325-) "These people, like their neighbors, have the custom of wash- ing, morning and evening." ("Journal," Vol. i., p. 348.) Catlin, after eight years in their lodges (1832-40) says that notwithstanding many exceptions, among the wild Indians the "strictest regard to decency and cleanliness and elegance of dress is observed, and there are few people, perhaps, who take more pains to keep their persons neat and cleanly, than they do." (Vol. I., p. 96.) " In their bathing and ablutions at all seasons of the year, as a part of their religious observances — having separate places for men and women to perform these immersions — they resemble again [the Jews]." (Vol. II., p. 233.) J. W. Schultz, who spent his life among the Blackfeet, comments on their wonderful hardiness. During the intensest zero weather, he, himself, wore twice as much clothing as they did, and yet was suffering severely, while "They never froze, nor even shivered from the cold. They attributed their indifference to exposure, to the beneficial effect of their daily baths, which were always taken, even if a hole had to be cut in the ice for the purpose. And they forced their children to accompany them, little fellows from three years of age up, dragging the unwilling ones from ther beds, and carrying them under their arms to the icy plunge." ("My Life as an Indian," pub. 1907; p. 63.) This same experienced observer says: " I have seen hundreds of white homes — there are numbers of them in any city — so exceedingly dirty, their inmates so slovenly, that one turns from them in absolute disgust, but I have seen nothing like that among the Blackfeet. " (P. 413.) Friendly enthusiasts like Catlin may sometimes get only part of the facts, but the trained observers of the Smith- 58) 26 The Book of Woodcraft sonian Institution usually have absolute and complete evidence to offer. Here is J. O. Dorsey's paragraph on Omaha cleanliness: "The Omahas generally bathe (hica) every day in warm weather, early in the morning and at night. Some who wish to do so, bathe also at noon. Jackson, a member of the Elkgens, bathes every day, even in winter. He breaks a hole in the ice on the Missouri River, and bathes, or else he rubs snow over his body. In winter the Omahas heat water in a kettle and wash themselves (kigcija). . . . The Ponkas used to bathe in the Missouri every day." (Dorsey, 3th Ann. Dep. Eth.; p. 269.) Every Indian village in the old days had a Turkish bath, as we call it; a "Sweat Lodge," as they say, used as a cure for inflammatory rheumatism, etc. Catlin de- scribes this in great detail, and says : "I allude to their vapor baths, or sudatories, of which each village has several, and which seem to be a kind of public property — accessible to all, and resorted to by all, male and female, old and young, sick and well." (Vol. I., p. 97.) The "Sweat Lodge" is usually a low lodge covered with blankets or skins. The patient goes in undressed and sits by a bucket of water. In a fire outside, a number of stones are heated by the attendants. These are rolled in, one or more at a time. The patient pours water on them. This raises a cloud of steam. The lodge becomes very hot. The individual drinks copious draughts of water. After a sufficient sweat, he raises the cover and rushes into the water, beside which, the lodge is always built. After this, he is rubbed down with buckskin, and wrapped in a robe to cool off. This was used as a bath, as well as a religious purification. 59) The Spartans of the West 27 I have seen scores of them. Clark says they were " common to all tribes," (p. 365). Every old-timer knows that they were in daily use by the Indians and scoffed at by the white settlers who, indeed, were little given to bathing of any kind. CHASTITY About one hundred years ago the notorious whiskey- trader, Alexander Henry, already mentioned, went into the Missouri region. He was a man of strange character, of heroic frame and mind, but unscrupulous and sordid. His only interest and business among the Indians was beating them out of their furs with potations of cheap alcohol. This fearless ruffian penetrated the far North- west, was the first trader to meet certain "Western tribes, and strange to tell he wrote a full, straightforward and shocking account of his. wanderings and methods among the red folk he despised for not being white. In spite of arro- gance and assumed superiority, his narrative contains much like the following: "The Flatheads on the Buffalo Plains, generally encounter the Piegans and fight desperately when attacked. They never attempt war themselves, and have the character of a brave and virtuous people, not in the least addicted to those vices so common among savages who have had long intercourse with Europeans. Chastity is particularly esteemed, and no woman will barter her favors, even with the whites, upon any mer- cenary consideration. She may be easily prevailed upon to reside with a white man as his wife, according to the custom of the country, but prostitution is out of the question — she will listen to no proposals of that nature. Their morals have not yet been sufl5ciently debauched and corrupted by an intercourse with people who call themselves Christians, but whose licentious and lecherous manners are far worse than those of savages. A striking example is to be seen throughout the N. W. country, of the depravity and wretchedness of the natives; but as one 60) 28 The Book of Woodcraft advances into the interior parts, vice and debauchery become less frequent. Happy those who have the least connection with us, for most of the present depravity is easily traced to its origin in their intercourse with the whites. That baneful source of all evils, spirituous liquor, has not yet been introduced among the natives of the Columbia. To the introduction of that subtle poison among the savage tribes may be mainly attributed their miserable and wretched condition." [So at once he set about introducing it. E. T. S.] (A. Henry's Journal, 1811; pp. 710-11.) Jonathan Carver, who traveled among the Sioux from 1766-9, says: "Adultery is esteemed by them a heinous crime, and pun- ished with the greatest rigor." (Travels, 1796; p. 245.) George Catlin, after his eight years among the wild Man- dans of the Missouri (1832), says of them: "Their women are beautiful and modest — and amongst the respectable families, virtue is as highly cherished and as inap- proachable, as in any society whatever." (Vol. I., p. 121.) Colonel R. I. Dodge, an Indian fighter and hater, says: "The Cheyenne women are retiring and modest, and for chastity will compare favorably with women of any other nation or people . . . almost models of purity and chastity." (" Hunting-groimds of the Great West," p. 302.) I am well aware that the Crows, the Arapaho and some West coast tribes were shockingly immoral in primitive times, but these were the exceptions, and in consequence they were despised by the dominant tribes of the Plains. BRAVERY Old-time travelers and modern Indian fighters agree that there was no braver man on earth, alive or in history, than the Redman. Courage was the virtue he chiefly honored. His Vv'hole life and training were with the pur- 61) The Spartans of the West 29 pose of making him calm, fearless and efficient in every possible stress or situation. Father Lafitau said of the Eastern Indians, in 1724: "They are high-minded and proud; possess a courage equal to every trial; an intrepid valor; the most heroic constancy under torments, and an equanimity which neither misfortune nor reverses can shake." (Moeurs des Sauv. Amer.) "An Indian meets death, when it approaches him in his hut, with the same resolution he has often faced him in the field. His indifference relative to this important article, which is the source of so many apprehensions to almost every other nation, is truly admirable. When his fate is pronounced by the phy- sician, and it remains no longer uncertain, he harangues those about him with the greatest composure." (Carver's "Travels Among the Sioxix," 1766-9; p. 261.) "The greatest insult that can be offered to an Indian, is, to doubt his courage." (J. D. Hunter, "Captivity"; 1798-1816; P- 30I-) " These savages are possessed with many heroic qualities, and bear every species of misfortune with a degree of fortitude which has not been outdone by any of the ancient heroes either of Greece or of Rome." (Carver's "Travels Among the Sioux," 1766-9; pp. 221-2.) None of us are likely to question the Redman's prowess when we remember for example that Black Hawk with 40 warriors utterly routed 270 American riflemen in 1832, Chief Joseph in 1877 with inferior weapons beat the American soldiers over and over again vith half their number, and in 1878 Dull Knife with 69 war- riors fought and defied 2000 American troops for over four months. THRIFT AND PROVIDENCE Every Indian village in the old days had its granaries of corn, its stores of dried beans, berries, and pumpkin-strips, as well as its dried buffalo tongues, pemmican and deer's meat. To this day all the Fisher Indians of the north and west dry great quantities of fish, as well as berries, for the famine months that are surely coming. Many of the modern Indians, armed with rifles, have 62) 30 The Book of Woodcraft learned to emulate the white man, and slaughter game for the love of slaughter, without reference to the future. Such waste was condemned by the old-time Indians, as an abuse of the gifts of God, and which would surely bring its punish- ment. When, in 1684, De la Barre, Governor of Canada, com- plained that the Iroquois were encroaching on the country of those Indians who were allies of the French, he got a stinging reply from Garangula, the Onondaga Chief, and a general statement showing that the aborigines had game- laws, not written, indeed, but well known, and enforced at the spear-point, if need be: "We knock the Twightwies [Miamis] and Chictaghicks [Illinois] on the head, because they had cut down the trees of peace, which were the limits of our country. They have hunted beaver on our lands. They have acted contrary to the customs of all Indians, for they left none of the beavers alive, they killed both male and female." (Sam G. Drake's "Indian Biog." 1832, p. in.) Hunter says of the Kansas Indians: "I have never known a solitary instance of their wantonly destroying any of those animals [buffalo, elk, and deer], except on the hunting-grounds of their enemies, or encouraged to it by the prospect of bartering their skins with the traders. " (Hun- ter's Captivity," 1 798-1816, p. 279.) "After all, the Wild Indians could not be justly termed im- provident, when the manner of life is taken into consideration. They let nothing go to waste, and labored incessantly during the summer and fall, to lay up provisions for the inclement season. Berries of all kinds were industriously gathered and dried in the sun. Even the wild cherries were pounded up, stones and all, made into small cakes, and dried, for use in soups, and for mixing with the pounded jerked meat and fat to form a much-prized Indian deUcacy. " ("Indian Boyhood," East- man; pp. 237-8.) 63) The Spartans of the West 31 Their wise men were not blind to the dangers of greed, as we know, from many sources, and, in particular, their attitude toward money-getting is full of interest: "The Indians, except those who live adjoining to the Euro- pean colonies, can form to themselves no idea of the value of money; they consider it, when they are made acquainted with the uses to which it is applied by other nations, as the source of innumerable evils. To it they attribute all the mischiefs that are prevalent among Europeans, such as treachery, plundering, devastations and murder." (Carver's "Travels," p. 158.) Could we have a more exact paraphrase of "The love of money is the root of all evil?" Beware of greed which grows into cHme and makes men for- get the poor. A man's life should not be for himself, but for his people. For them he must be ready to die. This is the sum of Indian economic teaching. (See Eastman Soul of Indian," pp. 94 and 99-103.) CHEERFULNESS OR THE MERRY INDIAN Nothing seems to anger the educated Indian, to-day, more than the oft-repeated absurdity that his race was of a gloomy, silent nature. Any one that has ever been in an Indian village knows what a scene of joy and good cheer it normally was. In every such gathering there was always at least one recognized fun-maker, who led them all in joke and hilarious jest. Their songs, their speeches, their fairy- tales are full of fun and dry satire. The reports of the Ethnological Bureau sufficiently set forth these facts. Eastman, the Sioux, says on this subject: "There is scarcely anything so exasperating to me as the idea that the natives of this country have no sense of humor and no 64) 32 The Book of Woodcraft faculty for mirth. This phase of their character is well under- stood by those whose fortune or misfortune it has been to live among them, day in and day out, at their homes. I don't believe I ever heard a real hearty laugh away from the Indians' fireside. I have often spent an entire evening in laughter with them, until I could laugh no more. There are evenings when the recognized wit or story-teller of the village gives a free entertainment which keeps the rest of the community in a convulsive state until he leaves them. However, Indian humor consists as much in the gestures and inflections of the voice, as in words, and is really untranslatable. " ("Indian Boyhood, " p, 267.) And, again, Grinnell: "The common belief that the Indian is stoical, stolid, and sullen, is altogether erroneous. They are really a merry people, good-natured and jocular, usually ready to laugh at an amusing incident or a joke, with a simple mirth that reminds one of children. " (" Ind. To-day, " p. 9.) There is, however, an explanation of our widespread mis- conception. Many a time in Indian camp or village, I have approached some noisy group of children or hilarious ring of those more grown. My purpose was wholly sympathetic, but my presence acted as a wet-blanket. The children were hushed or went away. I saw shy faces, furtive glances, or looks of dis- trust. They hate us; they do not want us near. Our presence is an evil influence in their joy. Can we wonder? OBEDIENCE — REVERENCE FOR THEIR PARENTS AND FOR THE AGED We cannot, short of the Jews or the Chinese, perhaps, find more complete respect for their parents than among the Indians. Catlin says: " To each other I have found these people kind and honorable, and endowed with every feeling of parental, of filial, and con- 65) The Spartans of the West 33 jugal affection, that is met in more enlightened communities. I have found them moral and religious; and I am bound to give them credit for their zeal, which is often exhibited in their modes of worship, however insufficient they may seem to us, or may be in the estimation of the Great Spirit." (Vol. 11., p. 242.) While Hunter, after living with the Kansas Indians for nineteen years, says: "They are very assiduous and attentive to the wants and comforts, particularly, of the aged; and kind to all who require their assistance. And an Indian who failed in these respects, though he otherwise merited esteem, would be neglected and despised. To the credit of their morals, few such are to be found, except where debauched by the vices of the white people." (Hunter's "Captivity," 1798-1816; p. 251.) Among the maxims laid down by the venerable Chief of the Kansas, was: "Obey and venerate the old people, particularly your par- ents." ("Teachings of Tshut-che-nau, Chief of the Kansas;" Hunter; p. 21.) Father J. F. Lafitau, the Jesuit missionary, was far from being predisposed in favor of savage ways or views, yet says of the Eastern Indians: "Toward each other, they behave with a natural politeness and attention, entertaining a high respect for the aged," (Moeurs des Sauv. Am., 1724.) "The Indians always took care of their aged and helpless. It was a rare exception when they did not." (Francis La Flesche, Conversation, April 27, 1912.) There have been cases of Indians abandoning their very aged to die, but it was always done by request of the vie- 66) 34 The Book of Woodcraft tims, under dire stress of hunger or travel, and was dis- approved and denounced by all their great teachers. During my Northern journey in 1907 I selected for one of my guides a fine young Indian named Freesay. At the end of our first journey I said to him: "Would you like to go with me still farther, to the Far North country, and see the things your people have not yet seen? I will give you good wages and a big present. " He replied: "Yes; I would like to go very much, but my uncle [his adoptive father] told me not to go beyond Pike's Lobstick, and so I cannot go. " And he did not, though his uncle was 350 miles away. This was one case out of several noted, and many heard of. The Fifth Command- ment is a very big, strong law in the wigwam. KINDNESS At every first meeting of red men and whites, the whites were inferior in numbers, and yet were received with the utmost kindness, until they treacherously betrayed the men who had helped and harbored them. Even Christopher Columbus, blind and burnt up with avarice as he was, and soul-poisoned with superstition, and contempt for an alien race, yet had the fairness to write home to his royal accompHces in crime, the King and Queen of Spain: "I swear to your Majesties that there is not a better people in the world than these; more affectionate, affable or mild. They love their neighbors as themselves, and they always speak smilingly. (Catlin, "N. A. Indian," II., p. 246.) Jonathan Carver, who Hved among the Sioux from 1766-9, after speaking of their severity in dealing with enemies, says: 67) The Spartans of the West 35 "But if they are thus barbarous to those with whom they are at war, they are friendly, hospitable, and humane in peace. It may with truth be said of them, that they are the worst enemies and the best friends of any people in the whole world. " (" Trav- els, "p. 157.) "We shall likewise see them sociable and humane to those whom they consider as their friends, and even to their adopted enemies: and ready to partake with them of the last morsel, or to risk their lives in their defence." (P. 269.) And, again: "No people are more hospitable, kind and free than the Indians." (P. 171.) "Nothing can exceed the tenderness shown by them to their offspring." (P. 247.) Catlin, writing of the Plain Indians generally, says: "To their friends, there are no people on earth that are more kind; and cruelties and punishments (except for capital offences) are, amongst themselves, entirely dispensed with." (Vol. IL, p. 241.) Schultz evidently went among the Blackfeet with the usual wrong ideas about the Indians, but he soon wrote: "I have read, or heard, that an Indian's loss of to-day is for- gotten on the morrow. That is certainly not true of the Black- feet, nor the Mandans. Often and often I have heard many of the Blackfeet mourn for one dead long years since." ("My Life as an Indian," p. 154.) And again: " I have often heard the Blackfeet speak of various white men as utterly heartless, because they had left their parents and their youthful home to wander and seek adventure in a strange land. They could not comprehend how one with right feeling might 68) 36 The Book of Woodcraft absent himself from father and mother, as we do, for months and years. 'Hard hearts,' 'stone hearts,' they call us, and with some reason." (Schultz, p. 155.) "There are few people so generous as the Indians. In their religious and war ceremonies, at their feasts, festivals, and funerals, the widows and orphans, the poor and needy are always thought of; not only thought of, ... but their pov- erty and necessity are relieved. iti ifi * Hi 41 * * "I have seen white men reduced to the last 'hard tack,' with only tobacco enough for two smokes, and with no immediate prospect of anything better than horse-meat 'straight.' A portion of the hard bread was hidden away, and the smokes were taken in secret. An Indian, undemoralized by contact with the whites, under similar circumstances, would divide down to the last morsel." (Clark's "Sign Language," p. 185 and 186.) HOSPITALITY This is a point that needs little discussing, even the sworn enemy was safe, once he was admitted to an Indian lodge "as a guest." Carver says of the Sioux, in 1766 ("Travels," p. 172): "No people are more hospitable . . . and free than the Indians. " And, again, I found them ready to share with their friends the last morsel of food they possessed. (P. 269,) The Jesuits testify of the Iroquois, 1656: "Hospitals for the poor would be useless among them, because there are no beggars; those who have are so liberal to those who are in want, that everything is enjoyed in common. The whole village must be in distress before any individual is left in necessity." ("Century of Dishonor," p. 379.) 69) The Spartans of the West 37 Catlin, in 1832-40, enthusiastically writes of the Plains Indians and their hospitality: " I have been welcomed generally in their country, and treated to the best that they could give me [for eight years], without any charges made for my board." (Vol. I., p. 9.) "No matter how great the scarcity of food might be, so long as there was any remaining in the lodge, the visitor received his share without grudging." (Grinnell, "Ind. of To-day," p. 9.) The same authority writes me: "When Lone Chief had gone into the Lodge of the Chief of the enemy, and food and water had been given to him, the Chief stood up and spoke to his tribespeople saying, 'What can I do? They have eaten of my food, I cannot make war on people who have been eating with me and have also drunk of my water. ' " ("Pawnee Hero Stories," pp. 59-60.) TREATMENT OT THEIR WOMEN "The social condition of the North Americans has been greatly misunderstood. The place of woman in the tribe was not that of a slave or of a beast of burden. The existence of the gentile organization, in most tribes, with descent in the fe- male line, forbade any such subjugation of woman. In many tribes, women took part in the councils of the chiefs; in some, women were even the tribal rulers; while in all, they received a fair measure of respect and affection from those related to them." (Grinnell's "Story of the Indian," p. 244.) This is Grinnell's summing up of what every student of Indians has known for long. Here in addition are the statements of other good authorities: " I have often heard and read that Indian women received no consideration from their husbands, and led a life of exceedingly hard and thankless work. That is very wide of the truth, so 70) 38 The Book of Woodcraft far as the natives of the northern plains were concerned. It is true, that the women gathered fuel for the lodge — bundles of dry willows, or limbs from a fallen cottonwood. They also did the cooking, and, besides tanning robes, converted the skins of deer, elk, antelope, and mountain sheep, into soft buckskin for family use. But never a one of them suffered from overwork; when they felt like it, they rested; they realized that there were other days coming, and they took their time about anything they had to do. Their husbands, never interfered with them, any more than they did with him in his task of providing the hides and skins and meat, the staff of life. The majority — nearly all of them — were naturally industrious, and took pride in their work; they joyed in putting away parfleche after par- flecheof choice dried meats and pemmican; in tanning soft robes and buckskins for home use or sale, in embroidering wonderful patterns of beads or colored porcupine quills upon moccasin tops, dresses, leggings and saddle trappings. When robes were to be traded, they got their share of the proceeds. " (Schultz, p. 64.) "It has often been asserted that the 'Indian' did no work, even leaving the cultivation of the corn and squashes to the women. That the women in some of the tribes tended the crops, is true, but in others, like the Pueblos, they seldom or never touched hoe or spade. The Eastern men were hunting or build- ing boats, or were on the war-path, hence it was necessary for the women to look after the fields. " ("The N. A. of Yesterday," by F. S. Dellenbaugh, p. 333.) Schultz tells us that the men had to make their own clothing. ("My Life as an Indian," p. 180.) Prof. J. O. Dorsey writes of Omaha manners: "Politeness is shown by men to women. Men used to help women and children to alight from horses. When they had to ford streams, the men used to assist them, and sometimes they carried them across on their backs. " (Dorsey, 270-1 ; 3rd Ann. Rep. Ethn.) "One of the most erroneous beliefs relating to the status and condition of the American Indian woman is, that she was, both before and after marriage, the abject slave and drudge of the 71) The Spartans of the West 39 men of her tribe, in general. This view, due largely to inac- curate observation and misconception, was correct, perhaps, at times, as to a small percentage of the tribes and peoples whose social organization was of the most elementary kind politically and ceremonially, and especially of such tribes as were non- agricultural. " ("Handbook of American Indians," Bur. Am. Ethn., p. 968.) "Among the Iroquoian tribes — the Susquehanna, the Hurons, and the Iroquois — the penalties for killing a woman of the tribe were double those exacted for the killing of a man, because in the death of a woman, the Iroquoian lawgivers recognized the probable loss of a long line of prospective offspring." ("Handbook American Indian," p. 971.) " In most, if not in all, the highly organized tribes, the woman was the sole master of her own body." ("Handbook North American Indian," p. 972.) " The men are the warriors and hunters, though an old woman of rank usually steers the war-canoe." ("Coast Indian"; Niblack; 1889; p. 253.) "A mother possessed the important authority to forbid her sons going on the war-path, and frequently the chiefs took advantage of this power of the woman, to avoid a rupture with another tribe." ("Handbook North American Indian," p. 971.) "Roger Williams, with reference to another subject, brings this same respect for woman to view; he wrote: 'So did never the Lord Jesus bring any unto his most pure worship, for he abhors, as all men, yea, the very Indians, an unwilling spouse to enter into forced relations. " ("Handbook North America, " p. 972.) "At a later day, and in the face of circumstances adverse to the Indians, Gen. James Clinton, who commanded the New York Division in the Sullivan expedition in 1779, against the hostile Iroquois, paid his enemies the tribute of a soldier, by writing in April, 1779, to Colonel Van Schaick, then leading the troops against the Onondaga, the following terse compliment: ' Bad as the savages are, they never violate the chastity of any woman, their prisoners.'" " Among the Sioux and the Yuchi, men who made a practice of seduction were in grave bodily danger, from the aggrieved women and girls, and the resort by the latter to extreme meas- 72) 40 The Book of Woodcraft ures was sanctioned by public opinion, as properly avenging a gross violation of woman's inalienable right — the control of her own body. The dower or bride-price, when such was given, did not confer it, it seems, on the husband, absolute right over the life and liberty of the wife: it was rather compensation to her kindred and household for the loss of her services." ("Handbook American Indian," pp. 972,3.) "It is the universal testimony, as voiced by Portlock (1787), that they [the Coast Indians] treat their wives and children with much affection and tenderness. " ("Voyages," p. 290.) "In the approach to political and industrial equality of the sexes, and in the respect shown for the opinions of their females, these Indians furnish another refutation of the old misconception concerning the systematic mal-treatment of the women by savages. Such a thing is incompatible with the laws of nature. Good treatment of the female is essential to the preserv- ation of the species, and it will be found that this ill-treatment is more apparent than real." (Niblack, "Coast Indian," 1889, p. 238-9.) That is, the sum of evidence, according to all reliable authority, plainly shows that the condition of the women among the primitive Indians was much as with white folks. They had the steady, dreary work of the household, while the men did the intermittent, yet much harder work of por- taging, hunting and fighting. But the Indian woman had several advantages over her white sister. She owned the house and the children. She had absolute control of her body. There could be no war without her consent; she could and often did become the Head Chief of the Nation. Awashonks, the Woman Chief of Seconset, R. I. (1671), and Wetamoo, the beautiful woman Sachem of the Massa- chusetts Wampanoags (1662) were among the many famous women whose lives and positions give the lie to the tiresome calumny that the "Indian women were mere beasts of burden ; they had no rights, nor any voice in their public affairs. " 73) The Spartans of the West 41 COURTESY AND POLITE BEHAVIOR There has never been any question of the Redman's politeness. Every observer remarks it. I have seen countless cases of it, myself. The white who usurped his domain are immeasurably his inferiors in such matters. For fuller testimony, let us note these records by early travelers : "Toward each other, they behave with natural politeness and attention." (Pere Lafitau, 1724.) Catlin says of the Mandans : "They are handsome, straight, and elegant in their forms — not tall, but quick and graceful ; easy and polite in their manners, neat in their persons, and beautifully clad." (Catlin; Vol. I., p. 96.) "The next and second Chief of the [Mandan] tribe is Ma-to- to-pa (The Four Bears). This extraordinary man, though sec- ond in office, is undoubtedly the first and most popular man in the nation. Free, generous, elegant and gentlemanly in his deportment — handsome, brave and valiant ; wearing a robe on his back with the history of his battles emblazoned on it, which would fill a book of themselves, if properly translated. This, readers, is the most extraordinary man, perhaps, who lives at this day, in the atmosphere of Nature's nobleman." (Catlin; Vol. L, p. 92.) Omaha politeness: " When persons attend feasts, they extend their hand and return thanks to the giver. So, also, when they receive presents. « * * * * « * " If a man receives a favor and does not manifest his gratitude, they exclaim, 'He does not appreciate the gift; he has no man- ners!'

            • *

" Mothers teach their children not to pass in front of people, if they can avoid it." (Dorsey, 3d Ann. Rep. Bur. Eth., 1881-2, p. 270.) 74) 42 The Book of Woodcraft TEEPEE ETIQUETTE — THE UNWRITTEN LAW OF THE LODGE {Gathered chiefly from observations of actual practice, but in many cases from formal precept.) Be hospitable. Always assume that your guest is tired, cold, and hungry. Always give your guest the place of honor in the lodge, and at the feast, and serve him in reasonable ways. Never sit while your guest stands. Go hungry rather than stint your guest. If your guest refuses certain food, say nothing; he may be under vow. Protect your guest as one of the family; feed his horse, and beat your dogs if they harm his dog. Do not trouble your guest with many questions about himself; he will tell you what he wishes you to know. In another man's lodge follow his customs, not your own. Never worry your host with your troubles. Always repay calls of courtesy; do not delay. Give your host a little present on leaving; little presents are little courtesies and never give offence. Say "Thank you" for every gift, however small. CompHment your host, even if you strain the facts to do so. Never walk between persons talking. Never interrupt persons talking. Let not the young speak among those much older, unless asked. Always give place to your seniors in entering or leaving the lodge; or anywhere. Never sit while your seniors stand. Never force your conversation on any one. Speak softly, especially before your elders, or in presence of strangers. 75) The Spartans of the West 43 Never come between any one and the fire. Do not touch live coals with a steel knife or any sharp steel. Do not stare at strangers; drop your eyes if they stare hard at you ; and this, above all, for women. The women of the lodge are the keepers of the fire, but the men should help with the heavier sticks. Always give a word or sign of salute when meeting or passing a friend, or even a stranger, if in a lonely place. Do not talk to your mother-in-law at any time, or let her talk to you. Be kind. Show respect to all men, but grovel to none. Let silence be your motto till duty bids you speak. Thank the Great Spirit for each meal. HONESTY Catlin says: "As evidence of . . . their honesty and honor, there will be found recorded many striking instances in the following pages. "I have roamed about, from time to time, during seven or eight years, visiting and associating with some three or four hundred thousands of these people, under an almost infinite variety of circumstances; ana under all these circumstances of exposure, no Indian ever betrayed me, struck me a blow, or stole from me a shilling's worth of my property, that I am aware of." (Vol. I., p. 9-10.) "Never steal, except it be from an enemy, whom it is just that we should injure in every possible way." ("Teachings of Tshut-che-nau, Chief of Kansas," Hunter; p. 21.) "Among [between] the individuals of some tribes or nations, 76) 44 The Book of Woodcraft theft is a crime scarcely known." (Hunter's "Captivity Among American Indians," 1798-1816; p. 300.) "Theft was unknown in an Indian camp." (G. B. Grinnell; "Indians of To-day," p. 8.) Every traveler among the highly developed tribes of the Plains Indians tells a similar story, though, of course, when at war, it was another matter. Even that roUicking old cut-throat, Alexander Henry II, says after fifteen years among the Wild Indians: "I have been frequently fired at by them and have had several nar- row escapes for my Hfe. But I am happy to say they never pillaged me to the value of a needle." ("Journal" 1799- 1814, p. 452-) In my own travels in the Far North, 1907, I found the Indians tainted with many white vices, and in many re- spects degenerated, but I also found them absolutely honest, and I left valuable property hung in trees for months, without fear, knowing that no wild Indian would touch it. There is a story told of Bishop Whipple: He was leaving his cabin, with its valuable contents, to be gone some months, and sought some way of rendering all robber-proof. His Indian guide then said: "Why, Brother, leave it open. Have no fear. There is not a white man within a hundred miles!" On the road to a certain large Indian Ojibway village in 1904 1 lost a considerable roll of bills. My friend, the white man in charge, said: "If an Indian finds it, you will have it again within an hour; if a white man finds it, you will never see it again, for our people are very weak, when it comes to property matters." Finally, to cover the far Southwest, I found that the experience of most travelers agrees with the following: 77) The Spartans of the West 45 "I lived among the Wild Indians for eight years (1872-1880); I know the Apaches, the Navajos, the Utes, and the Pueblos, and I never knew a dishonest Indian." (Robert A. Widenmann, West Haverstraw, N. Y.) TRUTHFULNESS AND HONOR "Falsehood they esteem much more mean and contemptible than stealing. The greatest insult that can be offered to an Indian, is, to doubt his courage: the next is to doubt his honor or truth! " Lying, as well as stealing, entails loss of character on habitual offenders; and, indeed, an Indian of independent feelings and ele- vated character will hold no kind of intercourse with any one who has been once clearly convicted." (Hunter's "Captivity Among Indians," 1797-1816, p. 301.) "This venerable, worn-out warrior [the Kansas Chief, Tshut-che-nau, Defender of the People], would often admonish us for our faults and exhort us never to tell a lie. " (Hunter, p. .) "On all occasions, and at whatever price, the Iroquois spoke the truth, without fear and without hesitation." (Morgan's "League of the Iroquois," p. 330.) "The honor of their tribe, and the welfare of their nation is the first and most predominant emotion of their hearts; and from hence proceed in a great measure all their virtues and their vices. Actuated by this, they brave every danger, endure the most exquisite torments, and expire triumphing in their forti- tude, not as a personal qualification, but as a national charac- teristic." (Carver's "Travels," p. 271.) The Indian's assent to a treaty was always binding. I cannot discover a case of breach, excepting when the whites first broke it; and this does not mean the irresponsible whites, but the American Government. The authorities at Washington never hesitated to break each and every 78) 46 The Book of Woodcraft treaty apparently, as soon as some material benefit seemed likely to accrue. Col. R. I. Dodge says: "The three principal causes of wars with the Indians are: "First, Non-fulfilment of treaties by the United States Government. "Second, Frauds by the Indian agents. " Third, Encroachments by the whites. " ("Hunting-grounds of the Great West," 1878, pp. XLIII-XLIV.) Captain John G. Bourke, who served under General Crook in 1872, when the Apaches were crushed by over- whelming numbers and robbed of their unquestioned heri- tage, says: "It was an outrageous proceeding, one for which I should still blush, had I not long since gotten over blushing for any- thing that the United States Government did in Indian mat- ters. " ("On the Border with Crook," p. 217.) "The most shameful chapter of American history is that in which is recorded the account of our dealings with the Indians. The story of our Government's intercourse with this race is an unbroken narrative of injustice, fraud and robbery." (Grin- neh's "Blackfoot Lodge Tales," 1892, p. IX.) In brief, during our chief dealings with the Redman, our manners were represented by the border outlaws, the vilest criminals the world has known, absolute fiends; and our Government by educated scoundrels of shameless, heartless, continual greed and treachery. The great exception on American soil was that of William Penn. He kept his word. He treated the Indians fairly; they never wronged him to the extent of a penny, or harmed him or his, or caused a day's anxiety; but con- tinued his loyal and trusty defenders." (See Jackson's Century of Dishonor.") 79) The Spartans of the West 47 How is it that Canada has never had an Indian war or an Indian massacre? Because the Government honorably kept all its treaties, and the Indians themselves were honorable, by tradition; they never yet broke a treaty. In northwestern Canada, there were two slight outbreaks of half-breeds (187 1 and 1885), but these were misunder- standings, easily settled. There was little fighting, no massacres, and no heritage of hate in their track. What wonder that all who could, among the Indian tribes, moved over the "Medicine Line," and dwell in Canada to-day ! TEMPERANCE AND SOBRIETY When the white traders struck into the West with their shameful cargoes of alcohol to tempt the simple savages, it was the beginning of the Great Degradation for which we must answer. The leading Indians soon saw what the drink habit meant, and strove in vain to stem the rising current of madness that surely would sweep them to ruin. About 1795, Tshut-che-nau, chief of the Kansas, did his best to save the youth of his people from the growing vice of the day. '"Drink not the poisonous strong-water of the white people;' he said, 'it is sent by the Bad Spirit to destroy the Indians.' He preached, but preached in vain." (J. D. Hunter, p. 21.) Pere Lafitau says, in 1724: "They never permit themselves to indulge in passion, but always, from a sense of honor and greatness of soul, appear masters of themselves." (P. 378, "Century of Dis- honor.") 80) 48 The Book of Woodcraft In 1766, living among the Sioux, Carver writes: "We shall find them temperate, both in their diet and pota- tions (it must be remembered that I speak of those tribes who have little communication with Europeans) that they withstand with unexampled patience, the attacks of hunger, or the incle- mency of the seasons, and esteem the gratification of their appetites but as a secondary consideration. ' (" Travels," p. 269.) Concerning the temperance of the Wild Indian, Catlin writes, in 1832: "Every kind of excess is studiously avoided.

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"Amongst the wild Indians in this country, there are no beg- gars — no drunkards — and every man, from a beautiful natural precept, studies to keep his body and mind in such a healthy shape and condition as will, at all times, enable him to use his weapons in self-defense, or struggle for the prize in their manly games." (Catlin, Vol. I., p. 123.) And, how was it he fell from these high ideals? Alas! we know too well. G. B. Grinnell has sent me a record which, in one form or another, might have been made about every western tribe: "The Reverend Moses Merrill, a missionary among the Oto Indians from 1832 to the beginning of 1840, kept a diary from which the following account is taken: "'April 14, 1837. Two men from a trading expedition in the Indian country called on me to-day. They state that one half of the furs purchased in the Indian country are obtained in exchange for whiskey. They also stated that the Shiennes, a tribe of Indians on the Platte River, were wholly averse to drink- ing whiskey, but, five years ago — now (through the influence of a trader, Captain Gant, who, by sweetening the whiskey, induced them to drink the intoxicating draught), they are a tribe of drunkards.'" ("Trans, and Repts. Nebraska State Historical Society, IV.," p. 181.) 81) The Spartans of the West 49 After describing the rigid dieting that formed part of the Indian's training, Eastman adds: " In the old days, no young man was allowed to use tobacco in any form until he had become an acknowledged warrior and had achieved a record." ("Ind. Boy.," p. 50.) PHYSIQUE We need but little evidence on this head. All historians, hostile or friendly, admit the Indian to have been the finest type of physical manhood the world has ever known. None but the best, the picked, chosen and trained of the whites, had any chance with them. Had they not been crushed by overwhelming numbers, the Indians would own the continent to-day. Grinnell says ("Indians of To-day," p. 7.): "The struggle for existence weeded out the weak and the sickly, the slow and the stupid, and created a race physically perfect, and mentally fitted to cope with the conditions which they were forced to meet, so long as they were left to them- selves. " Speaking of the Iroquois in primitive condition, Brinton says that physically "they were unsurpassed by any other on the continent, and I may even say by any other people in the world." ("The American Race," p. 82.) The most famous runner of ancient Greece was Phi- dippides, whose record run was 152 miles in 2 days. Among our Indians such a feat would have been consid- ered very second rate. In 1882, at Fort ElUce, I saw a young Cree who, on foot, had just brought in despatches from Fort Qu' Appelle (125 miles away) in twenty-five hours. It created almost no comment. I heard Httle from the trad- ers but cool remarks like, "A good boy " ; "pretty good run." It was obviously a very usual exploit, among Indians. 82) so The Book of Woodcraft "TlieTaraliumare mail carrier from Chihuahua toBatopilas, Mexico, runs regularly more than 500 miles a week; a Hopi messenger has been known to run 120 miles in 15 hours." ("Handbook American Indians," Part II., p. 802.) The Arizona Indians are known to run down deer by sheer endurance, and every student of southwestern his- tory will remember that Coronado's mounted men were unable to overtake the natives, when in the hill country, such was their speed and activity on foot. We know that white men's ways, vices, and diseases have robbed them of much of their former physique, and yet, accord- ing to Dr. Daniel G. Brinton ("The American Race," 1891.) "The five Companies (500 men) recruited from the Iroquois of New York and Canada, during the Civil War, stood first on the list among all the recruits of our army, for height, vigor, and corporeal symmetry. " (Grinnell's " Indian of To-day, " p. 56.) The wonderful work of the Carlisle Indian School foot- ball team is a familiar example of what is meant by Indian physique, even at this late date, when the different life has done so much to bring them low. (While this was in press the all round athletic champion- ship of the w^orld was won at the Olympic games (191 2) by James Thorpe, a Carlisle Indian. He was at best the pick of 300,000, while against him were white men, the pick of 300,000,000.) The whole case, with its spiritual motive, is thus summed up by Eastman in his inspiring account of the religion of his people, the Dakotas: "The moment that man conceived of a perfect body, supple, symmetrical, graceful, and enduring — in that moment he had laid the foundation of a moral life. No man can hope to main- tain such a temple of the spirit beyond the period of adolescence. 83) The Spartans of the West 51 unless he is able to curb his indulgence in the pleasures of the senses. Upon this truth the Indian built a rigid system of physical training, a social and moral code that was the law of his life. "There was aroused in him as a child a high ideal of manly strength and beauty, the attainment of which must depend upon strict temperance in eating and in the sexual relation, together with severe and persistent exercise. He desired to be a worthy link in the generations, and that he might not destroy by his weakness that vigor and purity of blood which had been achieved at the cost of so much self-denial by a long line of ancestors. " He was required to fast from time to time for short periods and to work off his superfluous energy by means of hard running, swimming and the vapor bath. The bodily fatigue thus induced, especially when coupled with a reduced diet, is a reliable cure for undue sexual desires." (Eastman's "Soul of the Indian," pp. 90-92.) In their wonderful physique, the result of their life-long, age-long training, in their courage, their fortitude, their skill with weapons, their devoted patriotism, they realize more than any other modern race has done the ideal of the Spartan Greek, with this advantage; that, in his moral code, the Indian was far superior. IN GENERAL "I admit, " says Father Lallemant, of the Hurons, "that their habits and customs are barbarous in a thousand ways, but, after all, in matters which they consider as wrong, and which their public condemns, we observe among them less criminality than in France, although here the only punishment of a crime is the shame of having committed it." ("Century of Dishonor, " p. 378.) Even stronger is the summary of the Jesuit Father, J. F. Lafitau: "They are high-minded and proud; possess a courage equal to every trial, an intrepid valor, the most heroic constancy under 84) $2 The Book of Woodcraft torments, and an equanimity which neither misfortunes nor reverses can shake. Toward each other they behave with a natural politeness and attention, entertaining a high respect for the aged, and a consideration for their equals which appears scarcely reconciliable with that freedom and independence of which they are so jealous." (Moeurs des Sauv. Amer., 1724, quoted in "Century of Dishonor" p. 378.) Long afterward the judicial Morgan in his League of the Iroquois, says, (p. 55): "In legislation, in eloquence, in fortitude, and in military sagacity, they had no equals. " Crimes and ofifences were so infrequent, under their social system, that the Iroquois can scarcely be said to have had a criminal code." Captain John H. Bourke, who spent most of his active life as an Indian fighter, and who, by training, was an Indian hater, was at last, even in the horror of an Indian- crushing campaign, compelled to admit: "The American Indian, born free as the eagle, would not tolerate restraint, would not brook injustice; therefore, the restraint imposed must be manifestly for his benefit, and the government to which he was subjected must be eminently one of kindness, mercy and absolute justice, without necessarily degenerating into weakness. The American Indian despises a liar. The American Indian is the most generous of mortals; at all his dances and feasts, the widow and the orphan are the first to be remembered." (Bourke's "On the Border with Crook," p. 226.) " Bad as the Indians often are, " says this same frontier veteran, "I have never yet seen one so demoralized that he was not an example in honor and nobility to the wretches who enrich them- selves by plundering him of the little our Government appor- tions for him." (Bourke's "On the Border with Crook," p. 445-) 85) The Spartans of the West 53 Catlin's summary of the race is thus: "The North American Indian, in his native state, is an honest, hospitable, faithful, brave; warlike, cruel, revengeful, relent- less — yet honorable — contemplative and religious being." (Vol. I., p. 8.) Omitting here what he gives elsewhere, that the Redman is clean, virtuous, of splendid physique, a master of wood- craft, and that to many of his best representatives, the above evU. adjectives do not apply. Bishop Whipple thus sums up the wild Indian, after intimate knowledge, during a lifetime of associations, ("Century of Dishonor," Jackson; p. VII.): " The North American Indian is the noblest t)^e of a heathen man on the earth. He recognizes a Great Spirit; he believes in immortality; he has a quick intellect; he is a clear thinker; he is brave and fearless, and, until betrayed, he is true to his plighted faith; he has a passionate love for his children, and counts it a joy to die for his people. Our most terrible wars have been with the noblest types of the Indians and with men who had been the white man's friends. Nicolet said the Sioux were the finest type of wild men he had ever seen. " Wliy, then, has he so long been caluminated? "Be- cause," explains the Bishop, "Ahab never speaks kindly of Naboth whom he has robbed of his vineyard. It soothes conscience to cast mud on the character of the one whom we have wronged. " When General Crook, after he had crushed, and enabled the nation to plunder the Apaches, was ordered to the northward on a similar expedition against the Sioux, a friend said to him, "It is hard to go on such a campaign," the General replied, "Yes, it is hard; but, sir, the hardest thing is to go and light those whom you know are in the right. " (" Century of Dishonor, " p. VI.) 86) 54 The Book of Woodcraft Finally, let me reproduce in full the account by Bonne- ville, from which I have already selected portions: In 1834, he visited the Nez Perces and Flatheads, and thus sums up these wholly primitive Indians, for they were as yet uncorrupted by the whiskey-trader or those who preached the love of money. "They were friendly in their dispositions, honest to the most scrupulous degree in their intercourse with the white man." (P. 200.) " Simply to call these people rehgious would convey but a faint idea of the deep hue of piety and devotion which pervades their whole conduct. Their honesty is immaculate, and their purity of purpose and their observance of the rites of their religion are most uniform and remarkable. They are certainly more like a nation of saints than a horde of savages. " (" Cap- tain Bonneville's Narrative;" by Washington Irving, p. 171, 1837.) It would, I know, be quite easy to collect incidents — true ones — that would seem to contradict each of these claims for the Redman, especially if we look among the degraded Indians of the Reservations. But I do not con- sider them disproofs any more than I consider our religion disproved by the countless horrors and wickedness recorded every day as our daily history, in every newspaper in every corner of the land. The fact remains that this was the ideal of the Indian, and many times that ideal was exemplified in their great men, and at all times the influence of their laws was strong. One might select a hundred of these great Indians who led their people, as Plato led the Greeks or as Tolstoi led the Russians, and learn from each and all that dignity, strength, courtesy, courage, kindness, and reverence were indeed the ideals of the teepee folk, and that their ideal was realized more or less in all their history — that the noble Redman did indeed exist. 87) The Spartans of the West 55 The earliest of the northern Indians to win immortal fame was the great Mohawk, Hiawatha. Although the Longfellow version of his life is not sound as history, we know that there was such a man; he was a great hero; he stood for peace, brotherhood, and agriculture; and not only united the Five Nations in a Peace League, but made provision for the complete extension of that League to the whole of America. Pontiac, the Napoleon of his people; Tecumseh, the chevalier Bayard, who was great as warrior and statesman, as well as when he proclaimed the broad truths of humanity; Dull Knife, the Leonidas of the Cheyennes; Chief Joseph, the Xenophon of the Nez Perces; Wabasha, Little Wolf, Pita-Lesharu, Washakie, and a hundred others might be named to demonstrate the Redman's progress toward his ideals. SUMMARY Who that reads this record can help saying: "If these things be true, then, judging by its fruits, the Indian way must be better than ours. Wherein can we claim the better thought or results?" To answer is not easy. My first purpose was to clear the memory of the Redman. To compare his way with ours, we must set our best men against his, for there is Httle difference in our doctrine. One great difference in our ways is that, like the early Christians, the Indian was a Socialist. The tribe owned the ground, the rivers and the game; only personal property was owned by the individual, and even that, it was consid- ered a shame to greatly increase. For they held tnat greed grew into crime, and much property made men forget the poor. Our answer to this is that, without great property, that is 88) 56 The Book of Woodcraft power in the hands of one man, most of the great business enterprises of the world could not have been; especially enterprises that required the prompt action impossible in a national commission. All great steps in national progress have been through some one man, to whom the light came, and to whom our system gave the power to realize his idea. The Indian's answer is, that all good things would have been established by the nation as it needed them; anything coming sooner comes too soon. The price of a very rich man is many poor ones, and peace of mind is worth more than railways and skyscrapers. In the Indian Ufe there was no great wealth, so also pov- erty and starvation were unknown, excepting under the blight of national disaster, against which no system can insure. Without a thought of shame or mendicancy, the young, helpless and aged all were cared for by the nation that, in the days of their strength, they were taught and eager to serve. And how did it work out? Thus: Avarice, said to be the root of all evil, and the dominant characteristic of our race, was unknown among Indians, indeed it was made impossible by the system they had developed. These facts long known to the few are slowly reaching all our people at large, in spite of shameless writers of history, that have done their best to discredit the Indian, and to that end have falsified every page and picture that promised to gain for him a measure of sympathy. Here are the simple facts of the long struggle between the two races: There never yet was a massacre of Indians by whites — and they were many — except in time of peace and made possible by treachery. There never yet was an Indian massacre of whites except in times of declared war to resist invasion. 89) The Spartans of the West 57 There never yet was an Indian war but was begun by the whites violating their solemn treaties, encroaching on the Indians' lands, stealing the Indians' property or murdering their people. There never yet was a successful campaign of whites against Indians except when the whites had other Indians to scout, lead and guide them ; otherwise the Redmen were too clever for the whites. There never yet was a successful war of whites against Indians except when the whites were in overwhelming numbers,with superior equipments and unHmited resources. There cannot be the slightest doubt that the Indian was crushed only by force of superior numbers. And had the tribes been united even, they might possibly have owned America to-day. Finally, a famous Indian fighter of the most desperate period thus summarizes the situation and the character of the dispossessed: "History can show no parallel to the heroism and fortitude of the American Indians in the two hundred years' fight during which they contested inch by inch the possession of their coun- try against a foe infinitely better equipped, with inexhaustible resources, and in overwhelming numbers. Had they even been equal in numbers, history might have had a very different story to tell. " (Gen. Nelson A. Miles, U. S. A., Letter, February i6, 1912.) I never yet knew a man who studied the Indians or lived among them, without becoming their warm friend and ardent admirer. Professor C. A. Nichols, of the South- western University, a deep student of Indian life, said to me, sadly, one day last autumn: "I am afraid we have stamped out a system that was producing men who, taken all around, were better than ourselves." 90) S8 The Book of Woodcraft Our soldiers, above all others, have been trained to hate the Redmen, and yet the evidence of those that have lived years with this primitive people is, to the same effect as that of missionaries and travelers, namely, that the high-class Indian was brave; he was obedient to authority. He was kind, clean and reverent. He was provident, unsordid, hospitable, dignified, courteous, truthful, and honest. He was the soul of honor. He lived a life of temperance and physical culture that he might perfect his body, and so he achieved a splendid physique. He was a wonderful hunter, a master of woodcraft, and a model for outdoor life in this country. He was heroic and picturesque all the time. He knew nothing of the forgiveness of sin, but he remembered his Creator all the days of his life, and was in truth one of the finest types of men the world has ever known. We set out to discover the noble Redman. Have we entirely failed? Surely,it is our duty, at least, to do justice to his memory, and that justice shall not fail of reward. For this lost and dying type can help us in many ways that we need, even as he did help us in the past. Have we forgotten that in everything the white pioneer learned of woodcraft, the Indian was the teacher? And when at length came on the white man's fight for freedom, it was the training he got from the Redman that gave him the victory. So again, to fight a different enemy to-day, he can help us. And in our search for the ideal outdoor Hfe, we cannot do better than take this Indian, with his reverence and his carefully cul- tured physique, as a model for the making of men, and as a pattern for our youth who would achieve high manhood, in the Spartan sense, with the added graces of courtesy, honor and truth. 91) The Spartans of the West 59 The world knows no higher ideal than the Man of Gali- lee; nevertheless, oftentimes, it is helpful to the Plainsmen climbing Mount Shasta, if we lead them, first, to Sheep- Rock Shoulder, before attempting the Dome that looks down upon the clouds. STANDARD INDIAN BOOKS "Drake's Indian Chiefs, the lives of more than 200 Indian Chiefs, by Samuel G. Drake. Boston. 1832. "Adventures of Captain Bonneville," by Washington Irving, in 3 vols. London. 1837. An amazing record of the truly noble Redmen. "North American Indians," by George Catlin, in 2 vols. London. 1866. A famous book; with many illustrations. "Life Amongst the Modocs," by Joaquin Miller, Bentley & Son. London. 1873. A classic. The story of a white boy's life among the uncontaminated Redmen. "Indian Sign Language," by W. P. Clark. Philadelphia, Pa. 1884. A valuable cyclopedia of Indian life, as well as the best existing treatise on Sign Language. "A Century of Dishonor," by Helen Jackson (H. H.). Boston. 1885. Treats of the shameful methods of the U. S. in dealing with Indians, an unbroken record of one hundred years of treachery, murder and infamy. "On the Border With Crook," by John G. Bourke, U. S. A. Scribner's Sons. New York. 1891. A soldier account of the Apache War. Setting out an Indian hater, he 92) 6o The Book of Woodcraft learned the truth and returned to make a terrible ar- raignment of the U. S. Government. "Indian Boyhood," by Charles A. Eastman, M. D. Mc- Clure, Phillips & Co. New York. 1902. A Sioux Indian's story of his own boyhood. The Story of the Indian," by G. B. Grinnell. Appleton & Co. New York. 1902. "Two Wilderness Voyagers," by F. W. Calkins. Fleming H. Revell Co. New York. 1902, The Indian Babes in the Woods. "Lives of Famous Indian Chiefs," by W. B. Wood. Ameri- can Indian Hist. Pub. Co. Aurora, 111. 1906. "My Life as an Indian," by J. W. Schultz. Doubleday, Page & Co. New York. 1907. A white man's Ufe among the Blackfeet in the old days. "Handbook of American Indians," by F. W. Hodge and associates. Pub. in 2 large vols, by Smithsonian Insti- tution, Washington, D. C. 1907. This is a concise and valuable encyclopedia of Indian names and matters. "Famous Indian Chiefs I have Known," by Gen. O. O. Howard. U. S. A. The Century Co. New York. 1908. Treats of Osceola, Washakie, etc. from the white man's standpoint. "The Soul of the Indian," by Charles A. Eastman. Houghton, Mifilin Co. Boston & New York. 191 1. A Sioux Indian's account of his people's religion. "Legends of Vancouver," by Pauline Johnson. Thomson Stationery Co., Vancouver, B. C. 1912. A valuable collection of charming legends gathered on the West coast. Besides these the Annual Reports of the Bureau of Eth- nology, (1878 to date, Smithsonian Institution, Washing- ton, D. C.) are full of valuable information about Indians. 93) IIL The Purpose and Laws of the Woodcraft Indians The Redman's Way THUS have I shown forth the ways of the great Redmen. And their high code I would here set down for the growth and guidance of all young people, for the building up of their bodies and the helping and strengthening of their souls. That they may go forth with the seeing eye, the steady hand and muscles that fail not; and learn to know the pleasant ways of the woods, and be in all-wise masters of themselves. That no manner of stress or ill-fortune or hardship or wounding of the spirit may come, but they shall face it without flinching. Yea, with the calm fortitude of the Proven Minisino, rather rejoicing that the Great Spirit has been pleased to send them so noble an occasion to show forth how fully each one, by his will, is ruler of a great soul in its worthy tabernacle. This is, indeed, the thought in our Nation and in the Lodge of Vigil: Our watchword is "Blue Sky." For under the blue sky, in the sunlight, we seek to Hve our lives; and our thoughts are of "blue sky," for that means "cheer"; and when there are clouds, we know that the blue sky is ever behind them, and will come again. Our totem is the white horned-shield, with horns of blue. i 94) 62 The Book of Woodcraft The horns are given to fight, and the shield to ward off. In these, we symbolize that we are ready for all manner of trial. Our war-cry is '^How Kola! How Kola! How Kola! Shunka meneetu Yaooooooo! (which is the "Hail! Brother," and the wolf, and the howl of the wolf). Our sign is the closed hand held up, with little finger and thumb out as horns; and raising the hand, so held palm forward to the head, and down, is both a courteous salute and a sign that we are of the Brotherhood. Some also in salute add the word "Zfow," or "Haw." THE LAWS . Obedience. Obedience is the foundation of all law; therefore, at all times; obey the law and the Chief and the Council of your Tribe, without evil-speaking or resentment or delay. . Courage. The greatest of all gifts is courage, and the meanest of faults is fear. In the words of Quonab, "My father taught me there is nothing that can shame a man but being afraid." . Cleanliness. There is no strength without cleanliness. While the Redmen took an ice-cold morning plunge 95) Purpose and Laws 63 each day, from snow around again to snow, there were none on earth to match them in their strength. But when they fell from this high estate, and forgot the old way, their strength went from them, because with dirt came in disease, and they became its prey; for foul disease is ever the child of dirt, be it in per- son, in camp, in speech, or in mind. Smoking. Let no one use tobacco till he be a full- grown man of eighteen snows; and then only as a burnt sacrifice to the Great Spirit. In the child or the young brave, it saps the strength; but in the man it may be a helper of prayer and meditation. Fire-water. No Fire-water in camp. Should we drink of destruction, or surrender to an enemy that will wreck our bodies and turn our wisdom into folly? Wild-life. The Great Spirit made all things, and we have no right to unmake them, except we know it be to preserve ourselves. Therefore, protect all song- birds and harmless squirrels. Keep the game-laws, and do no harm to the beauty of the landscape. Wild-fire. The forest is the father of the rivers and the game. There can be no good thing without the forest. The enemy of the forest is wild-fire. There- fore, at all times, be sure to fight it, and leave no camp fire unguarded, lest it should become wild- fire. Kindness. Above all others, the great Tecumseh was kind to every man and to the beasts. And his kind- ness came again to him. It caused him no loss; no, not the value of a hair, and it gave him power over all men. Let each one strive to do at least one act of kindness every day, for thereby he becomes kinder, and his kindness comes to him again. Play Fair. Play no game except according to the 96) 64 The Book of Woodcraft rules of the game. Loyalty is playing fair; foul play is treachery. . Silence. Do not hasten to speak before your elders. Keep silence in youth, then it may be your older thoughts will be worth the telUng. . Reverence. Respect all worship of the Great Spirit; and show deference to those that are your elders. . Word of Honor. Word of honor is sacred. THE RULERS OF THE NATION The whole Nation is ruled by The Great Council, to which all our Head Chiefs, Rulers, Nobles, and Medicine Men may belong, if the Council itself invite them. They are many. They meet once a year, and elect in person: The High Council of Guidance, which shall be made up of fifteen leaders of the Nation and the Head Chief of all the Medicine Lodges. They meet as often as they need, and in them is power to make change and enforce all laws. These sixteen shall elect their own Chief, one of themselves. Seven shall be a sufficient and lawful meeting if duly heralded. The whole Nation is divided into three Lodges: The Little Lodge, for the very young (all under 15). The Big Lodge, for the young men (of 15 years and all above). The Medicine Lodge of the Old Guides and the Medicine Men (for those who have reached the years of manhood, even 21). Tribe. Each of the first two Lodges is further divided into Tribes numbering from 20 to 100 members in each. Band. And, again, each Tribe into Bands of 5 to 10 members each. The Medicine Lodge, or Lodge of the Old Guides. This is 97) Purpose and Laws 65 open to all men of ripe years, who have shown a right spirit within, and loving the ways of the woods are wilHng to help ; and who also are voted worthy by the Council of their Medi- cine Lodge. Nevertheless, the High Council of Guidance may withhold its consent, so the election becomes void. If besides being Old Guides, they take also the degrees of Camper, Camp Cook, Camp Doctor, and Gleeman, or Herald, they may become Medicine Men of the Lodge, and for those who would follow further, there is the Inmost or Red Lodge of Power whose secrets are known only to the Head Chief of the Lodge and to certain others, but are not to be set down on paper, or given to the people at large. In the Medicine Lodge, each Medicine Man has two votes, whereas each Old Guide has but one. In every Tribe is at least one Old Guide or Medicine Man, who presides over their search for wisdom, and their Councils, in tfme of difficulty, helping with his experience and riper knowledge. Four times in every Moon, he should hold Council with his Tribe, from snow around again to snow. THE INITIATION OF A BRAVE All who would learn the hfe, and take on the vows of the other Lodges, must pass through three stages of: (i) Indian Boy; (2) Young Brave; and (3) Minisino or Tried Warrior. Before being admitted as an Indian Boy, he must: (i) Know the laws of the Lodge. (2) Have slept out three nights without a roof overhead (tents allowed). (3) Be proposed, seconded, posted, for one Moon, if not in camp, or for seven suns when in camp; and then voted into a Band by that Band (one blackball to exclude). After this, he faces some trial of his fortitude, and, if found worthy, may take the vow in this wise: 98) 66 The Book of Woodcraft Standing before the Old Guide or Medicine Man in operj Council, he shall be questioned and instructed, so he shall; know more fully of the sacred purpose of the Order. Then,! the Medicine Man shall say to him: "Is it your serious wish to become a member of thej Order of Woodcraft Indians?" Ans. "It is." "Can any here testify that you have fully quaHfied, byj learning the law of the Lodge, by sleeping out for threej nights, and by being found acceptable to the Band you wish! to join?" Ans. (by the officer who knows): "Yes, O Chief, I can: vouch for him." "You know our laws; we shall take them one by one. (i) "Do you promise obedience to the Council?" Ans. "I do." (And so, through the twelve laws, whereby he is bound to obedience, courage, cleanliness, abstinence from fire- water, tobacco; and to cherish the Great Spirit's gifts; and to kindness, fair-play, loyalty, silence, reverence, honor.) The Medicine Man then says: "Raise your right hand and say after me : '7 give my word of honor that I will obey the Chief and Council and the laws of my Tribe, and if at any time I fail in my duty, I will appear before the Council, when ordered, and submit without murmuring to its decision. ' " Now, the Medicine Man pins the badge over the candi- date's heart, takes him by the hand, and says: "I receive you into our Order, and, by this badge, I confer on you the degree of Indian Boy in the Band, and declare your instal- ation complete, as a member of ... . Band in the fLittle Lodgel iBig Lodge.") Thus he enters the Tribe and the Order by joining a Band. 99) Purpose and Laws 67 THE LITTLE LODGE (For those under 15 years old.) Having thus entered the Little Lodge as Indian Boy, the next step is Young Brave. To become a Young Brave, the Indian Boy must: (i) Have served one month at least in his low degree. (2) Know fifty signs of the Sign Language. (3) Know ten forest trees. (4) Walk a mile in fifteen minutes. (5) Swim fifty yards. (6) Follow a trail a quarter of a mile (no snow) in one hour. (7) Know the Dipper and the Pole Star. (8) Light five successive fires with one match each, in different places; wildwood material only. (9) Have slept out twelve nights (it need not be in succession). Minisino or Tried Warrior, To become a Minisino the Young Brave must: (i) Know elementary first aid. (2) Know twenty forest trees; fruit, leaf and trunk. (3) Know one hundred signs of the Sign Language. (4) Light ten successive campfires with ten matches (with wildwood material). (5) Tie five standard knots in a rope. (6) Swim one hundred yards. (7) Walk three miles in one hour. (8) Know the Pole Star, the two Dippers, and at least three of the other constellations. (9) Have slept out thirty nights. (10) Be sunburnt to the waist. (11) Have cooked nine digestible meals by the campfire. (i 2) Have a good record in keeping the Laws of the Order. 100) 68 The Book of Woodcraft THE BIG LODGE (For those 15 years of age, and over.) To become an Indian Boy in the Big Lodge, the quali- fication is the same as in the Little Lodge, excepting that the candidate must be fifteen or over. If he is a graduate of the Little Lodge, he may take his Second Degree without waiting a month. Young Brave. To become a Young Brave, the Indian Boy must: Have had one month's service as Boy, and take the same tests as in the Little Lodge are required to quahfy for Minisino or Tried Warrior. Minisino. To become a Minisino, the Young Brave must: (i) Have a thorough course in first aid. (2) Know two hundred signs of the Sign Language. (3) Know ten constellations. (4) Know twenty-five native wild birds. (5) Know fifteen native wild quadrupeds. (6) Know thirty forest trees. (7) Know twenty wild flowers. (8) Swim one hundred yards in three minutes. (9) Make a rubbing-stick fire %vith tools made by himself. (10) Light fifteen successive fires with fifteen matches all in different places and with wildwood stuff. (11) Single-paddle a canoe one mile in twenty minutes, (i 2) Tie ten standard knots in a rope. (13) Make an Indian bed, or else a serviceable bow an(j arrow. (14) Dance any good campfire dance. (15) Walk four miles in one hour. I 101) Purpose and Laws 69 (16) Set up a two-man tent, single-handed. (17) Be able to make a comfortable, rainproof shelter, and a dry, comfortable bed, also light a fire and cook a meal, including roast meat, boiled potatoes, and fresh bread, with no tools or utensils but a hatchet and what he can make with it. THE LAWS FOR THE RULING OF THE TRIBE I, NAME This Brotherhood shall be called " The (any local Indian name) Tribe of the < L. ^>Lodge of Woodcraft Indians." II. PURPOSE The true purpose of this Tribe in its Councils shall be to learn of the great Redmen, and to seek out and follow such things as they teach in the outdoor life and the pleasures of woodcraft, and help us to work actively for the preser- vation of wild-life and landscape, and cherish the spirit of Brotherhood, and, above all, see the Beautiful in all things, and through all these achieve a high manhood. III. WHO MAY ENTER Those who would enter must show themselves worthy, according to the established initiation. The number in the Tribe may not exceed 50 (or other number, as agreed). Those who would enter must be admitted to a Band, which is already part of the Tribe, or is afterward made such. The Indian Boy has no vote in the Tribe, nor can he hold 102) yo The Book of Woodcraft office; he must first become a Young Brave. Young Braves and Minisino have each a vote, and may hold office. IV. COUNCILS A Council of the Tribe should be held in the first part of each Moon. The yearly Council for the election of officers shall be held on the first sun of the Crow Moon (March) or as soon after as possible. The moons are: Snow (Jan.), Hunger (Feb.), Crow or Wakening (March), Grass (April), Planting (May), Rose (June), Thunder (July), Red (Aug.), Hunting (Sep.), Leaf-falling (Oct.), Mad (Nov.), Long-night (Dec). Special Councils may be called by the Chief, and must be called by him upon the written request of one fourth of the Council, or one third of the Tribe. A quarter of the whole number shall be a quorum of the Council or Tribe. Seven suns' notice must be given before each Council. A Brave or Minisino may vote at any Council of the Tribe, by proxy in his own handwriting. V. THE RULERS OF THE TRIBE Head Chief, elected by the whole Tribe. He should be strong and acceptable, for he is the leader and must enforce the laws. He is Head of the Council and of the Tribe and has charge of the standard which bears the totem of the Tribe. The Second Chief takes the Head Chief's place in his absence; otherwise, he is merely a Councilor. He is elected by the whole Tribe. So, also, the elected Third Chief is leader, only when the other two are away. 103) Purpose and Laws 71 Wampum Chief or Keeper. He is not elected, but appointed for one year by the Chief. He is charged with keeping the money and public property of the Tribe, except the records. He ought to have a lock-box or small trunk to keep valuables in. Chief of the Painted Robe or Feather Tally. He is not elected, but appointed for one year by the Chief. He keeps the tribal records, including the Book of Laws, the Roster or Roll, the Winter Count or Record of Camps and Seasons, and the Feather Tally, or Record of Honors and Exploits. He enters nothing except as commanded by the Council. He should be an artist. Sometimes one Councilor or Chief holds more than one office. The Old Guide or Medicine Man is elected and appointed by the whole Tribe. He is a member of the Council with- out election. Add to these the Chief of each Band or Clan in the Tribe, and all the Sachems and Sagamores (see page 74); pro- vided always that that number of non-elective members shall not exceed the number of elective members. These officers and Councilors form the governing body. (If there are too many Nobles, omit those who were latest raised to rank.) All disputes, etc., are settled by the Chief and the Coun- cil. The Council makes the laws and fixes the dues. The Chief enforces the laws. All rulers are elected or appointed for one year, or until their successors are chosen. The election to take place on, or as soon as possible after, Spring Day, which is the first Sun of the Crow Moon (March ist). Each year an Honorary Life Member may be elected. {Whenever in doubt, follow the National Constitution.) 104) 72 The Book of Woodcraft Vow of the Head Chief. (To be signed with his name and totem in the Tally Book.) I give my word of honor that I will maintain the Laws, see fair play in all the doings of the Tribe, and protect the weak. Vow of each Brave. {To he signed with the name and totem of each in the Tally Book) I give my word of honor that I will obey the Chief and Council of my Tribe, and if I fail in my duty, I will appear before the Council, when ordered, and submit without murmuring to their decision. VI. CHANGES OF THE LAW Changes of this code may be in harmony with the National laws made at any Council by a two-thirds vote of all the Tribe. Notice of proposed amendments shall be made public for at least seven suns before the meeting. VII. DUES Dues shall be, first a year; second, all assessments made by the Council for Tribal property; and, third, when necessary, the Council shall assess those taking part in camp. The initiation fee for new Braves shall be which shall include the first year's dues, but this shall not include assessments. VIII. SECRET It is charged that all keep secret the doings in Council. IX. LAWS AND PUNISHMENTS The laws are as already given on pages 62-64. Punishments are meted out by the Chief and Council, after a hearing of the case. They consist of: 105) Purpose and Laws 73 Exclusion from the games or boats for a time. Reduction in rank, or of fines, etc. The extreme penalty is death; that is, banishment from the Tribe. THE BAND OR CLAN Each Band or Clan of not less than five or more than ten members, elects its Chief for one year, or until his successor is elected. The Chief appoints his own Second Chief, to act in his absence, and also a Tally Keeper, who should be an artist, for it is his office to keep the records, the Winter Count, and the Tally Robe of his Band, and it is his glory to embellish them in all ways. A Wampum Keeper, also, is needed, and may be appointed by the Chief, though he, himself may act, unless otherwise arranged. The other members, even those of lowest degree, sit in the Council without election. Two to fifteen, or even twenty, Bands, unite to form a Tribe. Every member of the Band is a member of the Tribe, because the tests are the same; and he may use the Tribal Totem and War Cry. But the Band has also a Totem and a War Cry of its own. The Band keeps its own Tally, and raises what dues it pleases. But it also pays dues to the Tribe and is repre- sented in the Tribal Council by its Chief and Nobles (if any) and such Tribal Councillors as it can elect. One Medicine Man or Old Guide may serve for the whole Tribe. COSTUMES The costume of the Little Lodge is a coat of oHve-green khaki, with knee breeches of the same. Across the back from shoulder to shoulder, a Une of fringe one inch deep. The costume of the Big Lodge, of the Old Guide, and of 106) 74 The Book of Woodcraft the Medicine Man, is the same, with fringe on the shoulders but not across the back; and may have on the trousers, down the outer seam, from the knee to the bottom, a fringe which begins at a quarter-inch deep, and widens gradually till it ends an inch deep at the bottom. On great occasions, much regaha and gorgeous Indian costumes are worn, but the badges are the same. TITLES OF NOBLES When a Brave has won 24 honors in either Lodge, accord- ing to the Standard of Honors, he may claim the title of Sagamore* He that has won 24 grand honors becomes a Grand Saga- more. He that has won 48 honors becomes a Sachem. He that has won 48 grand honors becomes a Grand Sachem. All Sachems and Sagamores sit in the Council of their Tribe without election, and by right of their honors. But the Lodges do not mingle; that is, a member of the Little Lodge cannot sit by right in a Council of the Big Lodge.

  • During the ten years since the Order was founded only ten have won

the Sagamore's Crown, viz: Sagamore Plenty-Coups, 1905. (Douglas A. Miller, of Greenwich, Conn.) " Deerfoot, 1906. (Loraine M. Wood, of Rutherford, N.J.) " Deerslayer, 1906. (Willis R. Monroe, of Cos Cob, Conn.) " Silver-Fox, 1908. (S. Miller Jordan, of Rutherford, N. J.) " Kingbird, 19 10. (Jas. F. Gilkinson, of Middletown, Conn.) " Eagle-eye, 191 1. (Geo. L. White, of Cos Cob, Conn.) " Little Thunder, 191 2. (Albert E. Finiels, of Cos Cob, Conn.) " Little Beaver, 191 2. (Richard L. Burdsall, of Port Chester, N. Y.) " Karonawa, 191 2. (Paul Cecil Spofford, of Port Chester, N. Y.) " Ningonit, 191 2. (Edward D. Graber, of Greenwich, Conn.) 107)

BADGES OF RANK

The badge of the Indian Boy in the Little Lodge is a green ribbon, fastened on with a green pin bearing the blue horned white shield of the Woodcraft Indians.

The badge for the Young Brave in the Little Lodge is a blue ribbon, pinned on with the horned-shield pin. It is worn on the breast, but may be repeated, with the symbol cut out of cloth, and sewn on the arm.

INDIAN BOY (Little Lodge)

YOUNG BRAVE (Little Lodge)

MINISINO (Little Lodge)

(Big Lodge)

The badge for the Minisino or Tried Warrior in the Little Lodge is the same, but with red ribbon.

The badge of the Chief in either Lodge is a head-band with two horns on it, worn in addition to his other badge.

The badges for the Big Lodge are the same as for the Little Lodge, excepting that behind the emblem is a triangle or "Big Lodge" of yellow cloth. This is not seen in the badge of the Little Lodge, for the reason that the "Lodge" is so small, it is surely hidden behind the shield.

The titles, Sagamore, Grand Sagamore, Sachem, and Grand Sachem, also may be won by those of the Big Lodge, taking, however, the standards proper for their age.

On entering the Big Lodge, he does not carry with him the 108) The Book of Woodcraft titles won in the Little Lodge, but begins again in his new degree. The badge of the Old Guide is the horned-shield on a broad blue band which goes around the left arm. The badge of the Medicine Man is the same, but with a red band, and on the shield are two eyes, to signify that he is a Seer, whereas, others move in blind- ness. The badge of the Sagamore is a black and white warbonnet. The badge of the Grand Sag- amore is a black and white, tuf- ted warbonnet. The badge of the Sachem is a black and white warbonnet with tail. The badge of the Grand Sachem is a black and white tufted warbonnet with two tails. All are worn on the spear arm, or on the breast. GRAND SACHEM THE STANDARD The standard of the Tribe or Band is a staff about eight feet long, painted red, and bearing a shield on which is the totem of the Tribe or Band. A small shield on top is white with blue horns, to typify the whole nation. The standard is carried around when a proclamation is being made. If the Chief deputes another to be Herald, he also gives him the standard to carry as a badge of authority. « 109) Purpose and Laws

Some carry a banner standard instead of a shield stand- ard in which case the. banner is hung on a cross piece. When not in use, it is stuck in the ground, near the Chief's teepee or place in Council. TOTEMS The Totem of the whole Nation of BANNER STANDARDS. Woodcraft Indians is the White Buffalo head, symbolized by the Horned White Shield. This is used chiefly on Totem poles and on publications. Each Tribe, of course, has a special Totem. This is selected by the Council, and should be something easy to draw. So, also, each Band has its totem and, finally, each Brave adds a private Totem of his own, usually a drawing of his Indian name, if he wins one. The first of these Tribes took as its Totem a Blue Buffalo, and so became the Blue Buffalo Tribe ; and Deerf oot , the Chief, uses the Blue Buffalo Totem, with his own added underneath. ^ 110) 78 The Book of Woodcraft As soon as organized, the Tribe or Band should select a Totem and a Call. Take one out of the accompanying Hst, or a modification of one of them; or take any one that is suggested by them. Thus, you might take the "Wild Cat," but wish to have it of some other color. This you are free to do. Take one, two, three, or even four colors if you like, but two are most convenient. When the book says "purple on green," that means the Totem is in purple; all the rest of the flag is green. Do not be afraid to select other colors, but always keep them as flat tints; avoid mere pictures on the flag. Lines are easily put in with black paint, when they are needed, which is not often. Any bird, animal, tree, or flower, will do for To- tem, but it is all the better if it have some special reason. One Tribe set out on a long journey to look for a Totem. They agreed to take the first living wild thing that they saw and knew the name of. They traveled all one day and saw nothing to suit, but next day, in a swamp, they startled a blue heron. It went off with a harsh cry. So they be- came the "Blue Herons," and adopted as a war cry the croak of the bird and its name — "Hrrrrr — Blue Heron. " Another Band may have the Wolf Totem. The Snap- ping Turtles were formed because their camp was on a lake that was the haunt of a huge snapper. The Flying Eagles had organized, but were sitting in Council waiting for a sign to guide them in choice of a name. A bald eagle came from the lake, flew over the camp, then went back on the lake. This was accepted as the sign, and the Tribe became the Flying Eagle Band of New Jersey 111) Purpose and Laws 79 ORDER OF DOINGS IN COUNCIL The Head Chief, or the Herald he may appoint, walks around with the standard, announcing that a Council is to be held, and all must come to Council. The form used among the Ogallala is Neetah Kolah nahoonpo omneechee-yay nee-chopi. (My friends, give ear, a Council we hold.) For "assent" or "approval" we say How, for "dissent" or "no" we say Wah. Opening Council with Omaha Tribal Prayer. (See page 145) Roll Call. Tally of last Council and report of Tally Chief. Report of Wampum Chief. Reports of Scouts. Left-over business. Complaints. Honors awarded. New braves. New business. Challenges, etc. Social doings, songs, dances, stories. Closing Council. HOW TO BEGIN Suppose that you have a lot of fellows that want to form a Band of Woodcraft Indians. They ought to be a gang that usually goes together, not less than five or more than ten, between 8 and 15, or 15 and 18 years of age. They should live near each other. It is no use taking in fellows that live in another town. With these you organize a Band. This is how to go about it: Get a copy of the "Book of Woodcraft" from your local book-seller or from Doubleday, 112) 8o The Book of Woodcraft Page & Co., Garden City, L. I., N. Y., and read or tell them the first few pages, the Laws of the Lodges, and the Life of Tecumseh. Talk it over and see if all are fully inspired with the idea. If they take to it, get some suitable man to act as your Old Guide, which means he is a man of good character and able and willing to give the time. He must begin by breaking you in as Indian Boys. For this you quaUfy as follows: Know the Indian laws, signs, and salute. Have slept out three nights without a roof overhead. Be proposed, recorded, posted for one Moon, if not in camp, or for Seven Suns when in camp, and then voted into the Band by that band (one blackball to exclude). Unless this is the foundation of a new band in which case it is enough if all are willing to accept the candidate as a founder without waiting. Each then takes the pledge as given on pages 65-6, is enrolled as an Indian Boy, and is invested with the green badge. While the fellows are preparing, it is well to think on what name the band is to bear. Turn to the pages given Totems and Calls for suggestions. You should use some animal or object that is easy to draw and not already used by a band in your region, preferably one or something, that belongs to your country. Do not hesitate to make Uttle changes in the color, etc., of the design if you can make it more acceptable. Thus you may wish to use the Wolf Totem because some of your fellows are good at howling, or the Hoot Owl be- cause your leader has had some good lessons in hooting; but you cannot take them as they stand because there is already a Wolf and Hoot Owl Band in your region. All you need to do is to change the color, and make it the Black Wolf, Red Hoot Owl, etc., as you please. 113) Purpose and Laws 8i For colors take two, three or four if you like, but two is the best combination. Having got the Band together let them elect for one year a Chief, one of their number, the natural leader of the gang. Let this leader get a blank book about 7x9, with about 200 pages in it, to be the Tally Book of the band. This he should either keep himself or appoint one of his band to keep. He should also appoint a Wampum Keeper or else take the office himself. THE TALLY BOOK AND HOW TO KEEP IT The Tally Book is the record of the Band's doings. It should be kept Uke the proceedings of any other society. The Tally Keeper who is an artist has a great advantage, as a few sketches and photographs thrown in make a most interesting variation. Some of these Tally Books are beautifully illustrated with colored drawings and are highly prized. In some cases each member has added his thumb mark in printer's ink opposite his name when first entered. The first page of the Tally Book should bear an inscrip- tion thus: The Tally Book of the Thunder Band (or whatever it is) of Woodcraft Indians For Example. The next page should say for example: On the First day of the Snow Moon (January) of 1910, the following assembled at No. 139 Tenth Avenue, to form a Band of Indians. 114) 82 The Book of Woodcraft Jas. Cameron as their Old Guide, John Smith Peter Petro Jas. O'Brien Sam Selig Patrick Keenan John June Robert Junk (The address of each added,) It was agreed that the regular order of business should be followed in all business meetings: The Old Guide takes the chair, or in his absence, or at his request, the Chief of the Band takes the chair and the meeting goes as follows: Roll Call New Braves Read the Tally of the last New business meeting Studies Report of Scouts Social doings, songs, dances, Left-over business stories Complaints Adjournment. Honors th Sun Snow Moon, 1910. Second meeting of Band. The Band assembled at 1149 East 9th St., the home of Sam Selig. At 7 o'clock the meeting was opened with Guide Cameron in the chair. The following also present: Smith, O'Brien, Keenan, Junk, Petro, and June. First the Old Guide announced that the Mohawks of Manhattan were not willing to take us in as a Band of their Tribe, as they had already 50 members. Next the following were examined, passed and duly sworn in as Indian Boys: Smith, O'Brien, Keenan, Junk, and June. This took in all the Band except two. It was decided therefore to go ahead and complete the organi- zation. After discussion it was agreed to call this the THUNDER BAND OF MANHATTAN (unattached)," 115) Purpose and Laws 83 its Totem and colors to be a red thunder-bolt on a black circle in the middle of the white flag; our War Cry is to be: Rumble, Rumble, Thunder, Bang, Crash-sh-sh, begin- ning low and rising higher and stronger to the Bang then dying away on the sh-sh. A resolution to call it the "Bowery Pirates" was voted down, as was the suggestion to call it the "Yellow Dogs" — in spite of the fact that O'Brien could lead with a fine imi- tation of a small dog in deep trouble. Keenan said it was better than the dog could do it. Smith was elected Chief for one year. He appointed Keenan as his Second and Petro as his Tally Keeper. The rest of the time was spent teaching the laws to the other two and in taking the first lesson in Sign Language. The Old Guide gave us the Laws in a shorter form: The Indian Laws in Brief Obedience is the brave's first duty. Courage is the brave's highest gift. Keep yourself and your camp Clean. No Smoking till you are eighteen. No Alcohol in Camp. Take care of all harmless Wild-life. Ever guard against Wild-fire. Do at least one Kindness every day. . Play Fair. Foul play is treachery. . Keep Silence before your elders, unless duty bids you speak. . Respect all Worship of the Great Spirit. . Word of Honor is sacred. An assessment of loc each was made to buy badges and cover postage. 116) 84 The Book of Woodcraft An application was made by three fellows on Fourth Avenue for membership, but was refused as the Band was full. But they were invited to join the meetings as outside Scouts or visitors until they had enough to form a new Band under the same Guide. It was arranged to hold the next meeting at Keenan's, iioo Fifth Avenue. Meeting adjourned at 9 o'clock. th Sun Snow Moon, 1910. Third meeting of the Thunder Band. Held at Selig's as arranged. Old Guide Cameron in the chair. Etc., etc., etc. ist Sun Hunger Moon, 1910. Fifth meeting, etc. At this meeting Smith, the Chief, was able to qualify as a Young Brave, and so the Old Guide has sent for the badge. Two others expect to qualify before a month. The Thunder Band was sent into another room while the Old Guide organized the new band of six members. They are now THE SCREECH OWLS because two of them can screech so loud; but they wouldn't tell us how they did it, or what their War Cry is. Now we had two Bands, we agreed to unite and form a tribe, keeping our own Band just the same. The name decided on was the TRIBE OF THUNDER-ROLLERS OF THE LITTLE LODGE. So each puts a smaU Thunder Bird under the Totem of his Band. Nomina- tions were made at once for Tribal officers. The election came seven suns later. The Thunder Band got their Chief in as Head Chief. The other officers were about divided. Whenever we can, we have Tribal meetings, but Band meetings where only one Band is represented are easier to arrange. We have one about once a week. 117) Purpose and Laws 85 The Guide says he will take us out camping next summer if we all pass as Young Braves. We are trying hard and mean to go. Our Guide says The Indian Brave must be like Tecumseh; besides a great master of Woodcraft he was H — onorable. O — bedient. W — ild-fire fighter. K — ind. O — pposed to foul play. L — over of wild life. A — Icohol hater. B — rave. R — everent. A — nti-smoker. V — ery modest. E — ver clean. Which, reading down the initials, gives us the greeting of our Tribes — How, Kola, Brave. WAR CRY OF THE BAND The Call or War Cry is something to be carefully con- sidered. It is a great help if you get it right. The howl of a wolf as suggested by " Yow-w-w" is not the same as the howl suggested by the wolf itself. Go to some zoo where they have a lot of wolves and wait till you hear a real howl. Oftentimes one can start them by howling. If you cannot get a wolf to show you, listen to some big dog doing it; it is pretty much the same. Remember the Call was used as a signal when in the enemy's country. If it is done exactly right, the enemy think it is done by the animal not by the Scout. The friends of the Scout know it is he that calls because he gives it the right number of times or at the right 118) 86 The Book of Woodcraft intervals. Thus perhaps the Barred Owl Call is given three times and the reply to that is arranged to be the cry but once. If the answer is given three times to the three-times Call that would mean that the one answering was not. a friend — it is either an enemy or the owl itself. It is such a great help to get the Call just right that cer- tain patrols have decided on a given Call, because that was one which they knew or could do. For these reasons it is well to avoid foreign animals, etc. Nevertheless those who have taken such as "Kangaroo," "Cockatoo," and "Rhino," need not change them but rather adopt some call that will serve their purpose in our own country. When it comes to such things as "Blue-Moon," "Echo," "Horseshoe," "Red-hand," etc., the Band can of course decide on any good yell, howl, whistle, squeak noise or call they like, only make it something pecuKar and far-reaching. They should practise it only among themselves. Out- siders are not supposed to know it. Remember then that the Calls and Totems given here are mere suggestions, you can take one of these (if it is not already in use in your town) or take any other bird, reptile, lish, animal or object that commends itself to you and is easy to draw. In many of the Totems suggested no Call or War Cry is given. To supply this use any local yell or cry that your fellows can do or invent or make with two sticks, stones, or other apparatus. 119) Purpose and Laws BLUE BUFFALO. . On white ground. HORNED KINGBIRDS. . Black and white on pale red. AHMEEKS. . Black on red. A loud "slap-plong.' FLYING EAGLES. . Black and white on red. "Yek-yek-yek." MOON BAND. S. Yellow on blue. SINAWA. . Black on red. SILVER FOXES. . Black on white. OWENOKES. . Red with black lines on pale blue.

BLUE HERONS . Blue on green. "Hrrrrr." BLACKBEARS. . Black on red. RED TRAILERS. IQ03. Red on pale yellow. OWENOKES. V"^ MOON BAND. ,„„. V BLAZING ARROW. Red on pale yellow. 120) 88 The Book of Woodcraft RAVEN. Black on red. Hroo-Hroo. HOOT OWL. Black and yellow on green. Wa-ha-hoo-hoo. SCREECH OWL. Dark red, white face oo purple ground. Whil-il-il-loo A soft quavering cry. WOLF. Black on red for Wolves Brown on yellow for Brown Wolves. Red on pale blue for Red Wo'ves, etc., etc. Yew-w-w. WILD CAT. Gray or brown on tea green. Yah-row-roiu BLACK WOLF. Black on yellow or LOBO BAND; Gray on pink. Ya-hoooooo, Yow-woiv-wow. OKOKOHOO or CAT OWL. Red and white on purple. Eoo-lwo-hoo. ^ BLACK CAT. Black with yellow eyes oa yellow ground. Me-ow. FOX. Red on yellow for Red Foxes. Silver on gold tor Silver Foxes. Yap-yurrr. WILD CAT GRIZZLY. LITTLE BEAR. • brown on tea green. Brown. Black or brown on pale Yah-row-row Grr-woof. Woof-woof. 121) Purpose and Laws

FIREBOAT. Dark blue on pale green. A long whistle. FLYING BLACK HAWK. Black on orange or red. THUNDER CANOE. Black or dark gray on pale blue. A whistle then a bang. % BLACK HAWK. Black on red. Kek-kek-kek. BALD EAGLE. White and brown on yellow. Krek-krek-kay. LOON. Black and white for Red Loon, Amber Loon, etc., on blue ground. A tremulous wkeoo. r"^ MUSTANG. Black Mustang, Red Mus- tang, and Wild Horse; on yellow ground. A long neigh. Y BUCKHORN. Black buck, etc., on pale green ground. A shrill, hissing whistle. BLUEHAWK. Blue on blood red. Indian ivarwhoop. NIGHT-BIRD. Brown andwhiteon pale blue- green. Peabody-peahody-peabody whistled. V JiH. A. FORKED LIGHTNING. Red or yellow on blue-green. Fizz-bang. .>=^v^ THUNDER. BUCK. SEABIRD. Orange on black. Purple on blue. Black and white. Bang-rumble-boom. A shrill whistle. Kee-way-u. 122) 90 The Book of Woodcraft SILENT BEAVER. Brown on blue. No mouth — no cry. RED-GODS. Red on pale blue. SHUNKA-REELA. (running fox) Yellow and black on pale blue. Yap-yahoo. STING RAY. Green with black marks oi pale red ground. BADGER. White and black on yellow ground. A rattling whistle. BLAZING STAR. Yellow star — red tail — oi blue. WHOOPING CRANE White on blue ground — black ^ij,g WOLVERINE. BLUE MOON. XaA-roo, a trumpeted croak. Black and pale brown on Pale blue on deep green, vhite. Any known night song. Garoooo. RED-GODS. COUGAR. Red with black lines on pale Dark brown on pale blue. blue. An awful yell. ECHO BAND. Pale on dark blue. Ek-ko. 123) Purpose and Laws

BUGLING ELK. Dark brown on rose red. MOOSE. Black on pale green. A long smooth bellow. i ^H^ M^ FIRE-MOUNTAIN BAND. ^^I^^Kl^ ^ Blue mountain, red flames ^^^ on black. COYOTE. Yip-yip-yahoo-bang. Brown and white on yellow. Yoop-yoop-yah-yov) in as- cending side like a coyote's SyX^ WHITE MOUNTAINS CAT-IN-THE-NIGHT. Gray on black. Prow-row, THUNDERBIRD, Dark blue on yellow, white head. Lightning comestfrom his eye. FLYING EAGLE. White and brown on pale blue. Kek-Kek-Kek, WHITE MOUNTAINS or SNOW PEAK BAND. White on dark blue. Rutnble-shshsh. ARROW-FOOT. Red on blue field. SUNRISE BAND. Yellow on pale blue. Call a loud Yo-ho, yo-ho, yo- ho on ascending notes. f.^i MOHAWK. Black and red on olive green Indian whoop. COON. Gray with black marks on a SUNSET BAND, red ground. Red or yellow on blue-green A high pitched quavering or pink. Hoo-oo-oo-oo. A long descending whistle. 124) 92 The Book of Woodcraft LIGHT HEART. Red on pale blue. SHINING MOUNTAIN. Dark blue semi-circle with white mountain. KINGSNAKE. ^^^ q^ILL. YeUow with red spots. ^.^^ j^^^^^^ j,,^^^ ^.^ ^^j ground pale green. ^^^ ^^^^_ ^^ yg,j„^ ARROWHEADS. Turquoise blue arrow on dark brown. Ping. BLUE SKY Large blue circle on white. OJIBWA. Orange on pale blue. Peace Whoop. RED ARROW. Red on white. Zip-zip. BLACKFOOT. Black and red War Whoop. FLYING PATROL or FLEET FOOT or WINGED HEEL. White on red. YELLOW QUILL. All yellow with black tip on pale green.

o o O O <? THE SEVEN STARS. Pale pink on dark blue. / DEERFOOT. Yellow and black on blue- green. Pat-Pat-Pat RED-HAND. Red hand on gray. Eo.

HORSESHOE. Blue on pale yellow. Clink-Clank. SNAPPER BAND. Red on turquoise. Snap-ouch, 125) IV Honors, Degrees and Indian Names

Honors

HONORS are of two kinds, individual, and group or degree. Any brave may take both kinds, if he wishes. The standards for the individual honors, it will be seen, are higher.

I shall give these first, as they have been in use from the beginning.

DECORATIONS FOR INDIVIDUAL HONORS

The decorations for the exploits are: eagle-feathers and wampum medals. Thus, the emblems of a high honor or grand coup would be ai| eagle feather with a red tuft on the end, and a wampum or beaded medal for the head band or necklace.

The symbol for a low honor or coup would be a plain eagle feather — that is without any tuft and a wampum or beaded medal of half-size.

Thus, it will be seen that the medals do not take the place of the feathers, but repeat the honor in another form.

DECORATIONS FOR GROUP HONORS OR DEGREES

The decoration for the group honors or degrees, of which there are twenty-four, set forth on pages 117-141 is an honor band made in beads, quills, or embroidery. These honor bands are used as arm bands or as decorations of the war shirt. 126) STANDARDS OF HONORS

These exploits are intended to distinguish those who are first-class in their department, and those who are so good that they may be considered in the record-making class. They may be called Honors and High Honors, but the Plains Indians speak of their exploits as Coup (pronounced coo) and Grand Coup. The Sioux, I am informed, use the French word coup, but call them "Justee-na coo", and "Tonka coo", the "Little Deed," and the "Big Deed."

No one can count both Coup and Grand Coup, or repeat their honor in the same department, except for heroism, mountain climbing, and others that are specified as "repeaters," in which each honor is added to that previously worn.

No honors are conferred unless the exploit has been properly witnessed or proven, as though for the Century Bar of the L. A. W. When it is a question of time under one minute, only stop-watches are allowed.

Honors are allowed according to the standard of the year in which the application was made.

An honor, once fairly won, can never be lost for subsequent failure to reach the standard.

Except when otherwise stated, the exploits are meant for all ages.

Any one counting coup, according to the class above him may count it a grand coup in his own class, unless otherwise provided.

This list is made by the High Council of Guidance. The exploits are founded on world-wide standards, and with the help of the best experts. The Council will gladly consider any suggestion, but it must be understood that no local group has any power to add to or vary the exploits in any way whatsoever. 127)

Class I. Red Honors — Heroism

Honors are allowed for saving a human life at risk of one's own; it is a coup or a grand coup, at the discretion of the Council.

A soldier's war medals count for a grand coup each.

Courage. (The measure of courage has not yet been discovered.)

RIDING

To ride a horse 1 mile in 3 minutes, clearing a 4-foot hurdle and an 8-foot water jump, counts honor; to do it in 2 minutes, clearing a 5-foot hurdle and a 12-foot water jump, high honor.

Trick-riding. To pick up one's hat from the ground while at full gallop on a horse of not less than 13 hands, counts honor.

To do it 3 times without failure, from each side, with horse of at least 15 hands, counts high honor.

GENERAL ATHLETICS

(Advisers — J. E. Sullivan, secretary of Amateur Athletic Union; Dr. Luther H. Gulick of Russell Sage Foundation, New York.)

Those under 10 are children; those over 10 and under 16 are boys; those over 16 and under 18 are lads; those over 18 are men.

Girls take the standards according to their ages up to 18, but for athletics are never over that. No matter what their age, thenceforth they continue in the "lad class", and in filing the claim need only mention their class.

Men over 70 return to the lad class.

The records are given according to Spalding's Almanac, where will be found the names of those who made them, with date and place.

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grand coup (A cc. to L. A . W. ru ies) Weight-throwing. Throw the 56-lb. weight from a 7-ft. circle: coup 22 ft.; grand coup 28 ft.; Rec. 38 ft. yf in. Dumb-hell. Pushing up one 50-lb. dumb-bell with one hand to full arm length above the shoulder: 15 times for coup; 30 times, gravid coup; Rec. 94 times. Ditto with loo-ib. dumb-bell: 5 times, coup; 10 times, grand coup; Rec. 20 times. Ditto with two loo-lb. dumb-bells once; one in each hand, same time grand coup. To turn a wheel, coup. 134) I02 The Book of Woodcraft Handspring. To throw a tumbler or 4-legged hand- spring, coup; to throw a clean handspring, grand coup. Back handspring. A clean back handspring, grand coup. WATER-SPORTS AND TRAVEL (For swimming, rowing, etc., see classified athletics on a previous page.) Bathing. A coup for having bathed out of doors in water of natural temperature anywhere north of N. Lat. 30, or south of S. Lat. 30, for 300 days in the year; a grand coup for 365 days. Sailing. To have sailed any two-man craft for 30 successive days, 12 hours a day at the wheel — the other man not a professional sailor — coup. Sixty days of the same in salt water, grand coup. Log-riding. Tread a sawlog 100 yards in any time, without going overboard, for coup; do it 100 yards and back in 30 minutes, for grand coup. Canoeman. A coup is allowed to those who can paddle (single) a canoe on dead water, make their paddling cotip (see p. 100), spill the canoe and get into her again, and bale her alone. A grand coup, when they make their paddling coup, spill, right, and bale the canoe alone, three times in succession, and have run a rapid that falls 6 feet in 200 yards. Canoe-camper. To have made a continuous canoe trip of 500 miles, sleeping out every night, coup; 1,000 miles of the same, grand coup. Saddle-camper. To have made a continuous saddle trip of 500 miles, sleeping out every night, coup; 1,000 miles, grand coup. Camper. A coup, for passing 30 successive nights out of doors, never once sleeping under shingles, but in tent, 135) Honors, Degrees, and Indian Names 103 teepee, or bivouac, every night. A grand coup, for 60 nights of the same. Lone-tramper. A coup, for traveling alone, on foot, 100 miles, carrying one's outfit, sleeping out every night; a grand coup, for 200 miles. Gang-tramper. A coup, for traveling 150 miles on foot with a party, carrying one's own outfit, sleeping out every night; a grand coup, for 250 miles. Ski-man. To have traveled 6 miles in an hour, 40 miles in one day, covered 40 feet in a jump, and traveled 500 miles all told, counts a coup. To have traveled 7 miles in an hour 50 miles in one day, made a 50-foot jump, and traveled 1,000 miles all told, counts a grand coup. Arctic Traveler. A coup, for entering the Arctic Circle by sea; a grand coup, by land. Tropic Traveler. A coup, for crossing the Equator by sea or rail; a grand coup, on foot. Motoring. To have covered 1,000 miles within 30 days, acting as your own chauffeur and mechanic, coup. To have covered 1,000 miles in 4 days, 100 miles in 2 hours, acting as your own chauffeur and mechanic, grand coup. (In both cases garage privileges allowed.) MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING (aLL AFOOt) (Not open to boys, i.e., those under 14.) By Sir Martin Conway, ex-President of the Alpine Club. The exploits in this class are repeaters. The first one to climb a standard peak gets double honors ; one for climh, one for first climb. For lads {i.e., over 14 and under 18.) 136) I04 The Book of Woodcraft COUP In Great Britain — Ben Macdhuie, Ben Nevis, Ben Lomond, Ben Cruachan, Snowdon, Scarfell. In Europe — Vesuvius, Breithorn. In North America — Mt. Washington; Electric Peak, Wyo. GRAND COUP In Europe — Mt. Blanc, Monte Viso, Etna, Monte Rosa, In North America — Pike's Peak, Shasta, Adams. In Asia — Fujiyama; Tabor. Add to this all the honor list of next. For men {i.e., all over i8.) COUP In Europe — Mt. Blanc, Monte Rosa, Monte Viso, Ecrins, Grand Paradis, Jungfrau, Finsteraarhorn, Wetter- horn, Bernina, Ortler, Gross Glockner, Matterhorn from Zermatt. In North America — St. Helen's, Adams, Shasta, Hood, Rainier, Mt. Shaughnessy, Mt. Stephen, Popocatepetl; Orizaba. GRAND COUP In Europe — Meije, Aig. du Grepon, Aig. du Geant, Aig. du Dru, Matterhorn (by Itahan or Stock je ridges). Dent Blanche, Mischabelhorner from Seas, Schreckhorn, Monte di Scerscen, Fiinfhnger Sp., Kleine Zinne. In North America — Mt. Sir Donald, Mt. Logan, Mt. Assiniboine, Mt. Fairweather, Mt. St. Elias, Grand Teton, Mt. McKinley. Any peak in Alaska over 13,000 feet high. In South America — Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, Illimani, Aconcagua. 137) Honors^ Degrees, and Indian Names 105 In Asia — Any peak 19,000 feet high. In Africa — Any peak over 15,000 feet high. TARGET-SHOOTING (Open to men only.) Everything that can be said in favor of firearms for use in general sport applies to the rifle only (and its understudy the revolver). The scatter-gun has no official existence for us. It is ruination to the marksman's power and should be abolished. A rifle range is a desirable adjunct to all grown-up camps. Honors awarded according to the army standards. Revolver-shot. Target 4x4 ft. Bull's eye 8 inches (counts 4 points). Inner ring 2 feet (3 points). Outer, the rest of target (2 points). Distance, 30 yards. Ninety-six shots divided in any number up to six days, one hand, standing:

points count coup] 300, grand coup. 

Half with left hand only; half with right only: 230 points, coup; 260, grand coup. Rifleman. To be a marksman of the highest rank but one, according to militia standards, a coup; to be an expert rifleman of the highest rank, a grand coup. EYESIGHT To spot the Rabbit three times out of five at 60 yards, also to distinguish and map out correctly six Pleiades and see clearly the "Pappoose (Alcor) on the Squaw's (Mizar) back," counts a coup; to spot the Rabbit three times out of live at 70 yards and seven Pleiades and the Pappoose, counts a far sight grand coup. (Those who habitually wear glasses may use them in this test.) (See "Far-sight," among the games.) To make a 75 score in ten tries in the game of Quick- sight, with ten counters, counts coup; a 95 score counts 138) io6 The Book of Woodcraft a grand coup. (See "Quick-sight," among the games.) BIG-GAME HUNTING (By permission of the Campfire Club of America.) Inasmuch as Hunting Big Game must be recognized in our list of national outdoor sports, it should be elevated to a higher plane by the adoption of these rules, because they tend to give the utmost prominence to the many ad- mirable features of the chase, and at the same time reduce the total sum of destruction. To have gone alone into the haunts of big game, that is to say, without professional guide, and by fair hunting, unaided by traps or poison, or dogs (except where marked "d"), have killed and saved for good purposes, in absolute accordance with the game laws, any of the following kinds of game (or others of a corresponding character), counts honors as below: Each species counts one coup; that is, one Tiger would count one coup, ten Tigers would not count any more, and when he gets his Tiger, his Moose, etc., the sportsman is supposed to stop so far as that species is concerned. The presence of a professional hunter reduces a grand coup to a coup, and if he took any part in the actual killing it does not count at all. A native gun-bearer is not nec- essarily a professional guide. COUP Black Bear (d) Water-buck Puma (d) Deer Gray Wolf (d) Moose, Wapiti, etc. Wild Boar, otherwise than Tiger (from elephant-back with spear (d) or Machan) Caribou 14-foot Crocodile or Alligator 139) Honors, Degrees, and Indian Names 107 GRAND COUP Elephant Hippopotamus Lion Moose (by stalking) Tiger (without help of ele- Mountain Goat phants) Mountain Sheep, adult ram Jaguar Chamois Leopard Himalayan Tahr, adult male Puma Gray Wolf Rhinoceros Grizzly Bear Indian Bison Spectacled Bear African BufiFalo Wild Boar, with spear, etc. Gorilla Sword fish, 15 feet long, Okapi from small boat Class IL White Honors CAMPERCRAFT AND SCOUTING Bee-line. Come to camp through strange woods from a point one mile off and return in 30 minutes, for coup; in 20 for grand coup. Match-fire. Light 15 campfires in succession with 15 matches, all in different places, all with stuff found in the woods by himself, one at least to be on a wet day, for coup; if all 15 are done on wet days, or if he does 30, of which two are on wet days, it counts grand coup. Flint and Steel Fire. To light 15 campfires in succession with wildwood tinder, one at least on a wet day, and none to take over a minute from striking the flint, to having the blazes, coup; if all 15 are done on one day, or if he does 30 fires in unbroken succession, two at least on wet days, and in no case more than half a minute from strike to blaze, grand coup. 140) io8 The Book of Woodcraft Rubbing-stick Fire. Light a fire with a fire-drill or rub- bing-sticks, with material of one's own gathering, counts coup; to do it in one minute counts grand coup. Water Boiling. Boil one quart of water in a 2 -quart pail in 1 1 minutes for coup; in 9 minutes for grand coup. Allowed one log, one match, one axe or hatchet. The water is boiling when jumping and bubbling all over the surface. Axeman. To chop down three 6-inch trees in succession in 60 seconds each, throwing them to drive each a given stake, coup; in 45 seconds each, grand coup. Knots. To make 30 different standard knots in a rope, for coup; 50 for grand coup. Lasso. To catch 10 horses or cattle in corral, with 10 throws of the lasso, counts coup; to catch 10 on the range in 10 throws counts a grand coup. Lasso. To catch a horse or beef by each of his four feet in four successive throws, grand coup. Lasso. To catch, throw, and "hog-tie" a beef or horse in 2^ minutes for coup, in i| minutes for grand coup. The record is said to be 40 seconds. Diamond Hitch. Pack a horse with not less than 100 pounds of stuff, with diamond hitch, to hold during 8 hours of travel, coup. Ten days in succession, a grand coup. Size Guessing. To guess one inch, one foot, one yard, one rod, one acre, 100 yards, 200 yards, one quarter mile, one half mile, and a mile, within 20 per cent, of average error, for coup; 10 per cent, for grand coup. Height and Weight Guessing. To guess the height of 10 trees or other high things, and the weight of 10 stones or other things ranging from one ounce to 100 pounds, within 10 per cent, of average error, for coup; 5 per cent, for grand coup. Gauging Farness. To measure the height of 10 trees without climbing, or 10 distances across a river, etc., with- 141) Honors, Degrees, and Indian Names 109 out crossing, within 10 per cent, of average error, for coup; 5 per cent, for grand coup. Tools: an axe and a pocket rule only. Star Gazing. Know and name 15 star groups, for coup; know 20 star groups and tell the names and something about at least one star in each, for grand coup. Latitude. Take the latitude from the stars at night with a cart wheel, or some home-made instrument, 10 times'^ from different points, within one degree of average error, for coup; one half degree for grand coup. Traveler. A coup for being able to take correct latitude, longitude, and local time. A grand coup for having passed the Royal Geographical Society's examination of "expert traveler." Red Cross. A grand coup for having passed the Red Cross examination of first aid to the wounded. Life Saving: For passing the U. S. Vol. Life Saving Corps diploma test for Kfe saving in the water, a coup. For the same and an actual rescue, grand coup. Throwing Life Buoy. For those under 18: To throw it 40 feet wdthin 10 feet of the mark, is coup; the same but 45 feet within 5 feet of the mark is grand coup. In each case 3 out of 5. For those over 18: To throw it 55 feet within 10 feet of the mark is coup; 60 feet within 5 feet of the mark is grand coup. In each case 3 times out of 5 . Boat-builder. Build a boat that will carry two men and that can be paddled, rowed, or sailed by them 6 miles an hour, coup; 7 miles an hour, grand coup. Birch Canoe. To have made a birch canoe that has traveled, with at least one man aboard, 100 miles or more in safety, grand coup. In Sign-talking to know and use correctly 200 signs for coup; 400 signs, grand coup. 142) no The Book of Woodcraft Wigwag or Myer Signaling. To know this code and signal, as well as receive a message a quarter mile off, at the rate of lo words a minute, for coup. The same, at a mile, 24 words a minute, for grand coup. Morse Code. The same. Trailing. Know and clearly discriminate the tracks of 25 of our common wild quadrupeds, also trail one for a mile and secure it, without aid of snow, coup. Similarly dis- criminate 50 tracks, and follow 3 tracks a mile as before, but for 3 different animals, grand coup. Indian Bed. Make an Indian bed of at least 60 rods, all tied tight for coup. Make one of 80 or more rods with 4 cords all straight, and bound at the edges, for grand coup. Cooking. Cook 12 digestible meals for at least three persons, using ordinary camp outfit, coup. Or 21 meals and in addition make good bread each day for grand coup. Wilderness Cooking. Make and bake bread, fry fish or meat and boil potatoes or fish without pots or pans. Coup or grand coup, according to merit. Cabin. Build a habitable log cabin not less than 6x8, with wind-tight walls and waterproof roof. Coup or grand coup, according to merit. Tejit or Teepee. Make a two-man tent or an 8-foot teepee, or better, single handed and set them up; for coup or grand coup, according to merit. Latrine. To have made and run for three days a perfect latrine in Army fashion, coup or grand coup, according to merit. Basket. To have made a serviceable basket of wild- wood materials and not less than 5 inches across; for coup or grand coup, according to merit. Weaving. To have woven a good grass or rush rug, square and even, not less than 2x5 feet, coup or grand coup, according to merit. 143) Honors, Degrees, and Indian Names in Blazes and Signs. Make the 4 usual Indian Signs or Blazes on tree trunk, in twigs, grass, stones, give the smoke signals, and add 25 other signs or pictographs used by the Indians. Coup or grand coup, according to merit. Herald. Open and lead the Council, light the sacred fire, performing the Peace Pipe ceremony and the Naming ceremony. Know three Indian dances songs and the Omaha Invocation. Coup or grand coup, according to merit. Dancer. Know three Indian dancing songs and be able to dance and teach the Snake dance, the War dance, the Caribou dance and the Scalp dance, for coup. Add the New Sun dance, the Seneca War dance and the Dog dance for grand coup. Peace Messenger. Know 100 signs of the Sign Language and translate into English from any other language sen- tences amounting to 300 words, coup. Know 200 signs and translate from two languages, grand coup. Indian Clock. Make an Indian clock, that is, a sun- dial, that works. Coup or grand coup, according to merit. Map. Make a correct map of a region one mile long,

mile wide, such as a mile of highway, taking in | of a 

mile on each side, marking every house, fence, hill, and prominent tree, etc. When there is a stream, indicate the size, speed, gallons it runs per hour and bridges. Coup or grand coup, according to merit. 'Stweat Lodge. Make and use properly a Sweat Lodge three times in one week, in two of the times it may be given to another person for coup. Run a Sweat Lodge successfully for one month, treating at least a dozen patients, grand coup. Bow and Arrows. Make a bow and 6 arrows that will carry 100 yards, coup; 150 yards, grand coup. Tomtom. Make and decorate a tomtom ; coup or grand coup, according to merit. 144) 112 The Book of Woodcraft ARCHERY (Revised by Will H. Thompson, of Seattle, Wash.) Make a total score of 300 with 60 shots (in one or two meets), 4-foot target at 40 yards (or 3-foot target at 30 yards) , for coup; make 400 for grand coup. Shoot so fast and far as to have 6 arrows in the air at once, for coup; 7, for grand coup. (According to Catlin, the record is 8.) For children (under 10), to send an arrow 90 yards, coup; 115 yards, grand coup. For boys (10 to 14), to send an arrow 125 yards, cow/>; 1^0 grand coup. For lads (14 to 18), to send an arrow 175 yards, coup; 200 grand coup. For men (over 18), to send an arrow 250 yards, coup; 275, grand coup. To hit the Burlap Deer in the heart, first shot: For Boys at 45 yards, coup; 55 yards, grand coup " Lads " 60 " " 70 " " Men " 75 " " 85 " " " (The heart is 9 inches across.) To cover a mile: Children in 19 shots for coup; 15 shots for grand coup Boys " 14 " " " II " " " Lads " 10 " " " 9 " " " Men " 8 " " " 7 " " " LONG RANGE, CLOUT, OR FLIGHT SHOOTING Lads. Three-foot target at 130 yards, if possible on a Steep hillside. In the target is a bull's eye, and counts . . 9 Within 3 feet of outside of target li /T U il (i U i( C( (( i( li a li 9 II 2 II li II II il 145) Honors, Degrees, and Indian Names 113 Coup is for 300 at 60 consecutive shots. Grand coup is for 400 at 60 consecutive shots. (In one or two meets.) Men. Four-foot target at 180 yards, if possible on a steep hillside. In the target is a bull's eye, and counts Within 6 feet of outside of target " a . a (( (( (( u (( (( Q a (I (( li (( a Coup for 300 at 60 consecutive shots. Grand coup for 400 at 60 consecutive shots. (In one or two meets.) FISHING (By Dr. Henry van Dyke, Author of "Little Rivers," "Fisherman's Luck," etc.) (Boys are those under 14; lads 14 to 18; men 18 and over.) Tackle-making. Boys: To make a 6-foot leader of clean gut, with smooth knots to stand a strain of 5 lbs., coup. To tie 6 different flies, of regular patterns, on num- ber 8-12 hooks, and take trout with each of them, by day- light casting, in clear water, grand coup. Lads: To make a bait rod of 3 joints, straight and sound, 14 oz. or less in weight, 10 feet or less in length, to stand a strain of i^ lbs. at the tip, 13 lbs. at the grip, cotip. To make a jointed fly-rod 8-10 feet long, 4-6 02s. in weight, capable of casting a fly 60 feet, grand coup. Fly-fishing. Boys and lads: To take with the fly, un- assisted, a 3-lb. trout or black bass, on a rod not m.ore than 5 oz. in weight, coup. To take a 5-lb. trout or black bass or a 4-lb. landlocked salmon under the same conditions, grand coup. 146) 114 The Book of Woodcraft Men : To hook and land with the fly, unassisted, without net or gaff, a trout or landlocked salmon over 4 lbs., or a salmon over 12 lbs., cotip. To take, under the same condi- tions, a salmon over 25 lbs., grand coup. General Fishing. Boys, lads, and men: To take on a rod, without assistance in hooking, placing, or landing, a trout, black bass, pike, muscallonge, grayling, salmon, bluefish, weakfish, striped bass, kingfish, sheepshead, or other game fish, whose weight in pounds equals or exceeds that of the rod in ounces, coup. To take under the same conditions a game fish that is double in pounds the ounces of the rod, grand coup. Indoor Fly-casting. Boys: To cast a fly with a rod of 5 oz. or less, not over 10 feet long, 40 feet, coup; 55 feet, grand coup. Lads: 65 feet, coup; 80 feet, grand coup. Men: 80 feet, coup; 95 feet, grand coup. "Every fish caught and kept, but not used, is a rotten spot in the angler's record" (H. v. D.).

BAIT-CASTING

(Revised by Lou S. Darling, of New York. Author of “Tournament Casting and the Proper Equipment.”)

With J-oz. dummy frog, 5-ft. rod, indoors, overhead casting, tournament style: Child class, 40 feet for coup; 50 feet for grand coup. Boy " 60 " " 70 " " " Lad " 80 " " " 90 " " " Man " 100 " " 120 " " " If out of doors add 10 per cent, to each of the distances, if cast is made with the wind. If a wooden plug is used instead of the dummy frog, add 30 per cent, to each distance. 147) Honors, Degrees, and Indian Names 115 Class IIL Blue Honors* NATURE STUDY — VERTEBRATES (Revised by Frank M. Chapman, of the American Museum of Natural History, New York City,) Know and name correctly 25 native wild quadrupeds, for coup; know and name correctly 50, and tell something about each, for grand coup. Know and draw unmistakable pictures of 25 tracks of our four-foot animals, for coup; of 50 for grand coup. Know and name correctly 100 of our native birds as seen mounted in a museum, the female and young to count separately, when they are wholly different from the male. This counts coup; 200 birds for grand coup. Know and name correctly 50 wild birds in the field; this counts coup; 100, grand coup. Recognize 50 wild birds by note, for coup; 100 for grand coup. Know and name 10 turtles for coup; 20 for grand coup, with something interesting about each. Know and name 10 different snakes, tell which are poi- sonous, for coup; 20 snakes for grand coup. Know and name correctly 10 Batrachians for coup; 20 for grand coup. Know and name 25 fish for coup; 50 fish for grand coup. NATURE STUDY — LOWER FORMS OF LIFE (Revised by John Burroughs.) Know and name 25 native land and fresh- water shells, for coup; 50 for grand coup. Know and name 25 moths, for coup; 50 for grand coup. Know and name 25 butterflies, for coup; 50 for grand coup. Know and name 50 other insects for coup; 100 for grand coup. 148) ii6l The Book of Woodcraft Know and name correctly, i.e., with the accepted English names, according to any standard authority, 25 trees, and tell something interesting about them, counts coup; 50 for grand coup. Know and name correctly 50 of our wild flowers, for coup; 100 for grand coup. Know and name correctly 25 of our wild ferns, for coup; 50 for grand coup. Know and name correctly 25 of our native mosses, for coup; 50 for grand coup. Know and name 50 common toadstools or mushrooms, for coup; 100 for grand coup. GEOLOGY, ETC. (Revised by Prof, Charles D. Walcott, Secretary, Smith- sonian Institution.) Paleontology. Know and name, referring to their proper strata, 50 native fossils, for coup; 100 for grand coup. Mineralogy. Know and name 50 minerals, for coup; or 100 for grand coup. Geology. Know and name and describe the 14 great divisions of the earth's crust, according to Geikie, also define watershed, delta, drift, fault, glacier, terrace, stratum, dip, and identify 10 different kinds of rock, for coup. In addition to the first, define sediment metamorphic, anti- clinal, synclinal, moraine, coal, metal, mineral, petroleum, and identify in all 20 kinds of rock, for grand coup. PHOTOGRAPHY (Revised by A. Radclyffe Dugmore, of [[Country Life in America]], New York.) Make a good recognizable photograph of any wild bird larger than a robin, while on its nest, for coup.. With image 3 inches long for grand coup. 149) Honors, Degrees, and Indian Names 117 Make a good photograph of a Ruffed Grouse drumming, a Prairie chicken dancing, a Woodcock, or a Wild Turkey strutting, for grand coup. Make a good recognizable photograph of a wild animal in the air, for coup, or grand coup, according to merit. Ditto for a fish. Get a good photograph of any large wild animal in its native surroundings, and not looking at you, for coup or grand coup, according to merit. (As these are tests of woodcraft, menagerie animals do not count.) THE DEGREES IN WOODCRAFT With standards for the Big Lodge (Kitchi Wigwam) . And with the standards for the Little Lodge (Pangi Wigwam) added in parenthesis. Those for the Medicine Lodge (Mashkiki Wigwam) would be the same as for the Big Lodge, if any are desired LiiiMi;,.""!;! Bead-badges The badges may be worn across the arm in the fashion of the white man; or in a band across the breast or down the breast from the shoulders after the manner of the Indian. These are the same for all lodges. Events marked * are not optional. 150)

Song-adis Athlete (Song-adis) Gabeshiked Camper (Gabeshiked) Chabakwed Camp Cook (Chabakwed) Enokid Camp Craftsman (Enokid)
Mashkiki Camp Doctor (Mashkiki) Chemaunigan Canoeman (Chemaunigan) Gagoiked Fisherman (Gagoiked) Mitigwakid Forester (Mitigwakid)
Gimab Frontier Scout (Gimab) Nagamed Gleeman (Nagamed) Bibaged Herald (Bibaged) Bebamomigod Horseman (Bebamomigod)
Gaossed Hunter (Gaossed) Wadjiwed Mountaineer (Wadjiwed) Mikan Pathfinder (Mikan) Kee-mo-sah'-bee Runner (Kee-mo-sah'-bee)
Godaakwed Sharpshooter (Godaakwed) Gijiged Star Wiseman (Gijiged) Shingebis Swimmer (Shingebis) Bebamadisid Traveler (Bebamadisid)
Odena-winini Village Scout (Odena-winini) Dibaakid White Woodcraft (Dibaakid) Nibwaka-winini Wise Woodman (Nibwaka-winini)

151)

ATHLETE OR STRONGMAN

(Song-adis) 152)

CAMPER

(Gabeshiked)

The Degree of Camper may be conferred on those who take lo of these tests:

1.* Can light 15 fires in succession with 15 matches, at different places, one, at least, on a wet day. (10 for L. L.)

2. Have put up a 2-man tent alone, ten times, for actual service, ready for storms. (5 times for L. L.)

3. Can make the fire with rubbing-sticks of own preparation.

4. Can boil water in 10 minutes with 1 match, 1 log, 1 axe; 1 quart of water in a 2-quart pail. (15 min. for L. L.)

5.* Have made a willow bed, or a rush mat, or an equally good one of wild material.

6. Have made a waterproof roof of wildwood miaterials.

7. Have cooked 21 digestible meals with ordinary camp outfits, for at least three persons. (12 meals for L. L.)

8. Know how to make a raft.

9.* Know how to choose a camp site and how to prepare for rain.

10.* Know how to build a latrine (toilet).

11.* Know how to dispose of the camp garbage and refuse.

12.* Have slept out 100 nights (no roof but canvas); not necessarily consecutive nights. (50 for L. L.)

13. Have traveled 500 miles, all told, in canoe, on foot, or in saddle, while sleeping out. (250 for L. L.)

14. Have had charge of a camp of five or more for seven suns (one week) and kept all going in good shape. 153)

CAMP COOK

(Chabakwed)

The Degree of Camp Cook is conferred on those who take 6 of these tests:

1. Can make a good fireplace of wood, of stone, sod, or earth.

2.* Light 15 fires with 15 successive matches, one on a wet day. (10 fires and 10 matches for L. L.)

3.* Cook 5 batches of good bread in a Dutch oven. (3 for L. L.)

4. Cook 5 batches of good bread without any utensils but a hatchet. (3 for L. L.)

5.* Cook 21 digestible meals over campfire for a party of two or more. (12 for L. L.)

6.* Boil a quart of water in a 2-quart pail in 10 minutes. (15 for L. L. given 1 match, 1 log, 1 axe.)

7. Cook a meal consisting of baked bread, fried meat or fish, roast meat or boiled potatoes without any utensils or tools but a hatchet.

8. Have trained a class in cooking; showing and making them do it properly.

CAMP CRAFTSMAN

(Enokid)

The Degree of Camp Craftsman may be conferred on those who take 15 out of these tests:

1. Have a knowledge of tanning and curing.

2.* Can sole and heel a pair of boots, sewed or nailed, and generally repair boots and shoes.

3. Can dress a saddle, repair traces, stirrup leathers, etc., and know the various parts of harness.

4. Can patch a garment. 154)

5.* Can make a lace or a button of a leather patch

6. Make set of 6 camp chairs and a camp table.

7. Make a waterproof vessel of birch bark.

8.* Repair a broken boat or canoe.

9. Repair a tent cover so it will not leak.

10. Make an axe helve or a hoe handle.

11. Can repair a leaky kettle or pot.

12. Can solder a tin.

13. Make a basket of wildwood materials.

14.* Make an Indian bed.

15.* Make a grass mat.

16. Can fell a 6-inch tree in 60 seconds and drive with it a given stake.

17. Cut down a 6-inch tree, and chop and split it into stove wood, using axe only.

18. Cut and flat with 2 true surfaces a railway tie 8 feet long, 9-inch face and 6 inches thick, using axe only.

19.* Distinguish between rip saw, crosscut, keyhole saw, 2 -handed crosscut and show how they are used.

20.* Show the right and wrong way of putting nails into two boards, one of which is to be fastened across the other.

21. Make a boat or a birch canoe.

22. Build a log cabin.

CAMP DOCTOR

(Mashkiki)

The Degree of Camp Doctor is conferred on those who take out of these tests:

1.* Can demonstrate the Schaefer method of resuscitation.

2. Carry a person down a ladder.

3. Bandage head and ankle. 155)

4.* Demonstrate treatment of wound of the neck with severe arterial hemorrhage.

5. Treat mangled injury of the leg without severe hemorrhage.

6. Demonstrate treatment for rupture of varicose veins of the leg with severe hemorrhage.

7. Show treatment for bite of finger by mad dog.

8. Demonstrate rescue of person in contact with electric wire.

9. Apply tourniquet to a principal artery.

10. State chief difference between carbolic poisoning and intoxication.

11.* Pass first-aid tests of American Red Cross Society.

12. Write a statement on the care of the teeth.

13. State a principle to govern in eating, and state in the order of their importance, five rules to govern the care of his health.

14. Be able to tell the difference in effect of a cold and hot bath.

15.* Describe the effect of alcohol and tobacco on the growing boy.

16. Tell how to care for the feet on a march.

17. Describe the effect of walking as an exercise.

18. Know how to treat sprains.

19. Tell how athletics may be overdone.

20.* State what the chief causes of each of the following diseases are: tuberculosis, typhoid, malaria.

21. Tell what should be done to a house which has been occupied by a person who has had a contagious disease.

22. Tell how they may cooperate with the board of health in preventing disease.

23. Describe the method used in their community in disposing of garbage and the evil effect of flies.

24.* Know how to treat for bad sunburn. 156)

25. Tell how a city should protect its foods; milk, meat, and exposed foods.

26. Tell how to plan the sanitary care of a camp.

27. State the reason why school children should undergo a medical examination.

28. Must know what wood herbs, etc., or camp staples will produce sweat, purge, vomit, or warmth; what will make a quick poultice which will check diarrhoea, etc.

29.* Know poison ivy, sumac, oak, etc., and the proper treatment for cases of poisoning by these.

30. Make, use, and teach others to use, the Indian Sweat Lodge.

31. Have taught a class in first aid.

(The Little Lodge can scarcely expect to take this.)

CANOEMAN

(Chemaunigan)

The Degree of Canoeman may be conferred on those who take 15 of these tests:

1.* Can tie rapidly 6 different useful knots. (4 in L. L.)

2. Splice ropes.

3. Can find, collect, prepare and use "wattap," that is spruce roots for canoe binding, etc.

4. Can find, collect, prepare and use gum for canoe gumming.

5. Use a palm and needle.

6. Fling a rope coil.

7.* Row, pole, scull, and steer a boat; also bring a canoe or boat properly alongside and make fast.

8. Can build a boat or built canoe.

9. Can make a paddle and paint it Indian fashion.

10.* Repair a boat or canoe.

11. Repair a birch-bark or canvas canoe. 157)

12. Must know the laws of mooring, beaching, caching, or portaging a canoe, also how to sit in it and how to change seats with another when afloat.

13.* Can swim 100 yards.

14. Can swim 50 feet with boots, pants and shirt on. (For L. L. 25 feet.)

15. Have sailed any 2-man craft for 30 successive days, 12 hours a day at the wheel — the other man not a professional sailor.

16.* Have paddled (single) a canoe on dead water, 1 mile in 12 min. (15 min. L. L.)

17. Have spilled the canoe and got into her again, and baled her without help.

18. Have taken canoe camper's honor, that is made a continuous canoe or rowboat trip of at least 500 miles, sleeping out every night. (100 miles for L. L.)

19. Have a knowledge of weather-wisdom and tides.

20. Can state direction by the stars and sun.

21. Can steer by compass.

22. Have taught a class to handle a canoe.

FISHERMAN

(Gagoiked)

The Degree of Fisherman may be conferred on those who take 9 of these tests:

1.* Catch and name 10 different species of fish: salmon or trout to be taken with flies; bass, pickerel, or pike to be caught with rod or reel, muskallonge to be caught by trolling. (7 for L. L.)

2. Make a bait rod of 3 joints, straight and sound, 14 oz. or less in weight, 10 feet or less in length, to stand a strain of 1½ lbs. at the tip, 13 lbs. at the grip. Or else 158) make a jointed fly-rod 8-10 feet long, 4-8 ozs. in weight, capable of casting a fly 60 feet.

3. Name and describe 25 different species of fish found in North American waters, and give a complete list of the fishes ascertained by himself to inhabit a given body of water. (15 for L. L.)

4. Give the history of the young of any species of wild fish from the time of hatching until the adult stage is reached.

5. Make a net and catch a fish in it.

6. Make a turtle trap and catch a turtle in it.

7.* Make a 6-foot leader of clean gut, with smooth knots to stand a strain of 5 lbs.

8.* Take with the fly, unassisted, a 3-lb. trout, land-locked salmon, or bass, or a 12 lb. salmon, on a rod not more than 5 oz. in weight.

9. Or else take on a rod, without assistance in hooking, playing, or landing a trout, black bass, pike (muscallonge), grayling, salmon, bluefish, weakflsh, striped bass, kingfish, sheepshead, or other game fish, whose weight in pounds equals or exceeds that of the rod in ounces.

10. Cast a fly with a rod of 5 oz. or less, not over 10 feet long, 65 feet. Or, with ¼-oz. dummy frog, 5-foot rod- outdoors, overhead casting, tournament style, send it 80 feet if under 18, no if over.

11. Swim a hundred yards.

11. Paddle (single) a canoe i mile in 12 minutes. (15 for L. L.)

12. Row without help i mile in 10 minutes. (14 for L. L.)

FORESTER

(Mitigwakid)

The Degree of Forester may be conferred on those who take 18 of these tests: 159)

1.* Can identify 25 kinds of trees when in leaf, or 15 kinds of deciduous (broad leaf) trees in winter, and tell some of the uses of each. (15 for L. L.)

2. Identify 12 kinds of shrubs. (8 for L. L.)

3. Collect and identify samples of 30 kinds of wood and be able to tell some of their uses and peculiar properties. (12 for L. L.)

4. Determine the height, and estimate the amount of timber, approximately, in 5 trees of different sizes.

5.* Can state the laws for transplanting, grafting, spraying, and protecting trees.

6. Make a collection of 60 species of wild flowers, ferns, or grasses dried and mounted in a book and correctly named. (30 for L. L.)

7.* Can recognize in the forest all important commercial trees in his neighborhood.

8. Can distinguish the lumber from each and tell for what purpose each is best suited.

9. Can tell the age of old blazes on trees which mark a boundary or trail.

10.* Can recognize the difference in the forest between good and bad logging, giving reasons why one is good and another bad.

11. Can tell whether a tree is dying from injury by fire, by insects, by disease or by a combination of these causes.

12. Knows what tools to use in lumbering.

13.* Knows how to fight fires in hilly or in flat country.

14. Knows the effect upon stream-flow of the destruction of forests at head waters.

15. Knows what are the 4 great uses of water in streams.

16. Knows what causes the pollution of streams, and how it can best be stopped.

17. Knows how, in general, water-power is developed. 160)

18. Can tell, for a given piece of farm land, whether it is best suited for use as a farm or forest, and why.

19. Can point out examples of erosion, and tell how to stop it,

20. Can estimate closely how much timber and how much cord wood is in a given acre of woods.

21. Name 6 trees that will float when green, and 6 that will not.

22.* Know something of the relation of birds and quad-rupeds to forest trees.

23. Can fell a 6-inch tree in 60 seconds, driving with it a given stake. (2 min., and to fall within 2 feet of a stake, for L. L.)

24. Have made 100 trees grow where none grew heretofore. (25 for L. L.)

25. Have camped in the woods for 30 nights.

26. Have taught a class the rudiments in forestry.

FRONTIER SCOUT

(Gimab)

The Degree of Frontier Scout may be conferred on those who take 8 out of these tests:

1.* Milk a cow.

2.* Interpret from any language into English.

3. Fell a tree in a given place.

4. Weld an iron.

5. Temper a knife.

6. Solder a tin.

7. Shoot to win honors with a rifle.

8. Tie 6 kinds of knots.

9. Make a thread lashing.

10. Use an axe correctly. 161)

GLEEMAN OR CAMP CONJURER

(Nagamed)

The Degree of Gleeman is conferred on those who take 8 of these tests:

1.* Can open and lead the Council.

2.* Light the Sacred Fire with rubbing-sticks.

3.* Know the Peace Pipe Ceremony.

4. Know the ceremony of giving names.

5.* Can sing many songs, including the Mudji-mukasin, Omaha, Zonzimondi, Bark Canoe, alone or as a leader.

6. Can dance the Caribou dance, the Scalp dance, the Snake dance

7. Can tell many stories.

8. And know the art of "making medicine," which is the making of goodfellowship by seeking out talent, selecting and leading it and stopping without offending those who are not helpful.

9. Know how to conduct in initiations and have the wisdom to stop them in decent season.

10. As well as to sing the Good-night song when goodnight time has come.

11.* Have camped out 30 nights.

12. Teach some one else to run the Council.

13. Teach a dance to a sufficient number to give it.

HERALD OR CRIER

(Bibaged)

The Degree of Herald is conferred on those who take 10 of these tests:

1. Can walk 1 mile in 11 min. (15 for L. L.)

2. " " 30 " " 12 hrs. (Not open to L. L.) 162)

3. Can run 100 yds. in 13 sec. (14 for L. L.)

4. " " 1 mile in 5⅓ min. (Not open to L. L.)

5. " swim 100 yards.

6. Have slept out 30 nights.

7. Can send and receive a message in one of the following systems of signaling: Semaphore, Morse, or Myer, not fewer than 24 letters per minute. (12 letters for L. L.)

8. Make correct smoke signals meaning "Camp is here," I am Lost," "All well," "All come to Council."

9.* Can talk Sign Talk, knowing at least 400 signs. (200 for L. L.)

10.* Know the 25 signs and blazes of the Indian code. (15 for L.L.)

11.* Can read and translate into his own language a page or conversation from some other language.

12.* Can conduct a Council.

13.* Know the ordinary rules of courtesy, precedence, introduction, salutation, etc.

14. Know the history of the National Flag and the proper way of saluting, etc.

15. Have taught half a dozen fellows to qualify.

HORSEMAN

(Bebamomigod)

The Degree of Horseman may be conferred on those who take 10 of these tests:

1.* Show that they are at home in a saddle and can ride at a walk, trot, and gallop.

2.* Know how to saddle and bridle a horse correctly.

3. Can catch 6 horses in corral or on range with 12 throws of the lasso.

4. Know how to water and feed and to what amount, and how to groom a horse properly. 163)

5. Know how to harness a horse correctly in single or double harness and to drive.

6.* Can pack 100 lbs. of stuff with diamond hitch, to stay during 4 hours of travel or 2 miles of trotting. (2 hours or 1 mile for L. L.)

7. Have a knowledge of the power of endurance of horses at work and know the local regulations concerning driving.

8. Know the management and care of horses.

9.* Can identify unsoundness and blemishes.

10. Know the evils of bearing or check reins and of illfitting harness or saddlery.

11. Know two common causes of, and proper remedies for, lameness, and know to whom he should refer cases of cruelty and abuse.

12. Are able to judge as to the weight, height, and age of horses.

13. Know 3 breeds and their general characteristics.

14. Are able to treat a horse for colic.

15. Describe symptoms and give treatment for the following: wounds, fractures and sprains, exhaustion, choking, lameness.

16. Understand horseshoeing.

17.* Can clear a 4-foot hurdle and an 8-foot water jump.

18. Pick up their hat from the ground going at full gallop on a horse not less than 13 hands high. (11 hands for L. L.)

HUNTER

(Gaossed)

The Degree of Hunter may be conferred on those who take 14 of these tests:

1. Can walk 1 mile in 11 minutes. (14 in L. L.)

2. " " 30 " " 12 hours. (Not open to L. L. )

3. " run 100 yards in 13 Secs. (15 in L. L.) 164)

4. Can run 1 mile in 5⅓ minutes. (Not open to L. L.)

5. " swim 100 yards.

6. " spot the Rabbit (see Games) 3 times out of 5 at 60 yards.

7. " see and map out 6 Pleiades.

8. " see the Pappoose on the Squaw's back (spectacles allowed if habitually worn.) (See p. 204.)

9.* Have killed according to the Campfire Law (p. 106), any one big game animal.

10.* Have got a good photograph of a big game animal wild in its native surroundings.

11.* Know and name correctly 25 native wild quadrupeds. (15 for L. L.)

12. Know and name correctly 50 wild birds in the field and their nests. (30 for L. L.)

13.* Know and clearly discriminate the tracks of 25 of our common wild quadrupeds. (15 for L. L.)

14. Can trail an animal or else iron track prints for half a mile without aid of snow. (Snow allowed in L. L.)

15. Have won honors with rifle. That is, be a marksman according to the rules of the National Rifle Association.

16. With bow make a total score of 300 points at 60 yards, standard target (see p. 112). (25 points for L. L.)

17.* Have caught alive and uninjured with his own make of trap one wild quadruped and one wild bird.

18.* Know the Pole Star and 15 star groups. (10 star groups in L. L.)

19. Have taught any one of these but the first 9 to some other brave.

MOUNTAINEER

(Wadjiwed)

The Degree of Mountaineer may be conferred on those who take 8 of these tests: 165)

1.* Take two honors at least in the list of mountainclimbing (see p. 103). (One in L. L.)

2. Have camped out at least 30 nights in the mountains.

3. Know, name and describe the 14 great divisions of the earth's crust (according to Geikie). (Any 8 for L. L.)

4.* Know and name 25 different kinds of rock. (10 in. L. L.)

5.* Define watershed, delta, drift, fault, glacier, terrace, stratum, dip. (Any 5 of these in L. L.)

6. Know at least 20 mammals that live in the mountains. (12 for L. L.)

7. " " " 50 mountain birds. (25 in L. L.)

8. " " " 25 mountain trees. (15 in L. L.)

9. Have made a journey alone on foot through the mountains of at least 100 miles, sleeping out every night. (Companion and horse allowed in L. L.)

10. Can swim 100 yards.

PATHFINDER OR SCOUT

(Mikan)

The Degree of Pathfinder is conferred on those who take 12 of these tests:

1. Know every land bypath and short cut for a distance of at least 2 miles in every direction around your local headquarters in the country, (1 mile in L. L.)

2.* Have a general knowledge of the district within a 5-mile radius of his local headquarters, so as to be able to guide people at any time, by day or night. (2 miles for L.L.)

3. Know the general direction and population of the 5 principal neighboring towns and be able to give strangers correct directions how to reach them. (3 towns in L. L.)

4. Know the country in 2-mile radius, or in a town 166) must know in a ½-mile radius what livery stables, garages, and blacksmiths there are. (1 mile in L. L.)

5. Know the location of the nearest meat markets, bakeries, groceries, and drug stores.

6.* Know where the nearest police station, hospital, doctor, fire alarm, fire hydrant, telegraph and telephone offices, and railroad stations are.

7.* Know something of the history of the place, its principal public buildings, such as town or city hall, postoffice, schools, and churches.

8. As much as possible of the above information should be entered on a large scale map.

9. Fell a 6-inch tree or pole in a prescribed direction so as to fall between two stakes 2 feet apart, within 60 seconds. (4 feet and 2 minutes for L. L.)

10. Tie 6 kinds of knots quickly. (4 for L. L.)

11. Lash spars properly together for scaffolding.

12.* Build a modern bridge or derrick.

13. Make a camp kitchen.

14. Build a shack or cabin of one kind or another suitable for three occupants.

15. Walk I mile in 11 minutes. (15 for L. L.)

16. Run 100 yards in 13 seconds, (Not open for L. L.)

17. Run 50 yards in 7⅘ seconds. (Not open to L. L.)

18. Swim 100 yards.

SCOUT RUNNER

(Kee-mo-sah'-bee)

The Degree of Scout Runner is conferred on those who take 9 of these tests:

1.* Can walk 1 mile in 11 minutes. (14 in L. L.)

2.* " " 30 miles in 12 hours. (Not open to L. L.) 167)

3. Can run 100 yards in 13 seconds. (Not open to L.)

4. " run 50 yards in 7⅘ seconds (Not open to B. L.)

5.* " " 1 mile in 5⅓ minutes. (Not open to L. L.)

6.* " swim 100 yards.

7.* " paddle a canoe 1 mile in 12 minutes. (15 in L. L.)

8. Know the Semaphore or Wigwag or Myer code and take as well as receive a message at the rate of at least 24 letters a minute.

9.* Know 200 signs of the Sign Language. (100 in L. L.)

10. Know the 25 secret signs and blazes of the Indian code (15 in L. L.)

11.* Have slept out 30 nights.

12. Know and can clearly discriminate the track of 25 of our common wild quadrupeds; also trail for a mile without snow, till near enough to photograph or bag it. (Snow allowed in L. L.)

13. Must have carried a letter 3 times over a mile of enemy's country with at least 20 hostiles out against him, of his own class.

SHARPSHOOTER

(Godaakwed)

The Degree of Sharpshooter is conferred on those who take 7 of these tests:

1.* Qualify as in "marksman" with the rifle in accordance with the regulations of the National Rifle Association.

2.* Make a bow and arrow which will shoot a distance of 100 feet with fair precision.

3. Make a regulation archery target - 4 feet across, with the 9-inch centre and 4 rings, each 4¾ inches wide.

4. Make a total score of 350 with 60 shots of bow and arrow in one or two meets, using standard 4-foot target at 40 yards or 3-foot target at 30 yards. (300 in L. L.) 168)

5. Make a total score of 300 with 72 arrows, using standard 4-foot target at a distance of 50 yards, or 3-foot target at 36 yards. (250 for L. L.)

6. Shoot so far and fast as to have six arrows in the air at once. (5 in L. L.)

7. See and map out 6 Pleiades.

8. See the Pappoose on the Squaw's back in the Dipper Handle.

9. Spot the Rabbit 3 times at 60 yards.

STAR WISEMAN

(Gijiged)

The Degree of Star Wiseman may be conferred on those who take 7 of these tests:

1.* Have a general knowledge of the nature and movements of the stars.

2.* Point out and name 10 principal constellations. (6 in L. L.)

3.* Can find the North by means of other stars than the Pole Star in case of that star being obscured by clouds.

4. Can tell the hour of the night by the stars and moon.

5. Know and can name 20 of the chief stars. (15 in L.L.)

6. Know, name and can point out 3 of the planets, (1 in L. L.)

7. Have a general knowledge of the positions and movements of the earth, sun, and moon.

8. Have a general kno wedge of tides, eclipses, meteors, comets, sun-spots, and planets.

9.* Take the latitude from the stars with home-made instruments, within 1 degree of error. (2 degrees in L. L.)

10.* Make a sundial that works. 169)

SWIMMER

(Shingebis)

The Degree of Swimmer may be conferred on those who take 8 of these tests:

1.* Can swim 100 yards.

2. Swim on the back 50 feet. (25 for L. L.)

3. Swim 50 feet with shoes and clothes on. (25 for L.L.]

4.* Demonstrate breast, crawl, and side stroke.

5. Dive properly from the surface of the water.

6. Can dive into from 7 to 10 feet of water and bring from bottom to surface a loose bag of sand weighing 5 lb. (4 to 7 feet and 3 lb. for L. L.)

7.* Demonstrate on land five methods of release from a drowning person who clutches you.

8. Demonstrate in the water two methods of release.

9. Demonstrate the Schaefer method of resuscitation (prone pressure).

10. Demonstrate safely crossing thin or rotten ice.

11. Have a knowledge of weather wisdom and tides.

12. Teach 3 fellows to swim, (1 for L. L.)

TRAVELER

(Bebamadisid)

The Degree of Traveler may be conferred on those who take 11 of these tests:

1. Have walked 1 mile in 11 minutes. (14 in L. L.)

2.* Have tramped 30 miles a day. (Not open to L. L.)

3. Have climbed 1 of the standard peaks (p. 103.)

4. Knows at least 15 star groups, including the Dipper and the Little Bear. (10 in L. L.) 170)

5.* Have camped out in at least lo different States or countries.

6. Have entered the Arctic or Antarctic circles.

7. Have crossed the Equator.

8. Can take exact latitude and longitude with instruments.

9.* Can take latitude within 2 degrees of error, with home-made instruments.

10. Have made a compass survey of 100 miles of country.

11. Have traveled at least 100,000 miles by rail or steamship or other means.

12.* Have traveled 500 miles on foot, by bicycle, by canoe, or in saddle, camping out.

13. Know 200 signs of the Sign Language. (100 for L. L.)

14. Can make himself comfortable in the woods with only wildwood material.

15. Can swim 100 yards.

16. Have slept out 30 nights.

VILLAGE SCOUT OR BIG VILLAGE SCOUT

(Odena-winini)

The Degree of Village Scout may be conferred on those who take 14 of these tests:

1.* Know how to turn in an alarm for fire.

2. Know how to enter burning buildings.

3.* Know how to prevent the spread of fire.

4. Understand the use of hose; unrolling, joining up, connecting two hydrants, use of nozzles, etc.

5. Understand the use of escapes, ladders, and chutes.

6. Know how to improvise ropes and nets.

7.* Know what to do in case of panic. 171)

8. Understand the fireman's lift and drag.

9. How to work in fumes.

10. Understand the use of fire-extinguishers.

11. How to rescue animals.

12. How to save property.

13. How to organize a bucket brigade.

14. How to aid the poHce in keeping back crowds.

15. How to ride a wheel.

16.* Repair a puncture.

17.* Walk 4 miles in one hour.

18. Know the signs:

Meaning respectively:

Official mark, fire-plug 8 feet out, please remove dust, add, subtract, divide, multiply, equals, parallel, plumb, circle, more than, less than, triangle, right-angle, square, because, therefore, this direction, male, female young.

WHITE MAN'S WOODCRAFT

(Dibaakid)

The Degree of White Woodcraftsman may be conferred on those who take 9 of the following tests:

1. Take, develop, and print photographs of 1 2 separate subjects, 3 interiors, 3 portraits, 3 landscapes, and 3 instantaneous "action photos."

2.* Make a recognizable photograph of any wild bird larger than a robin, while on its nest.

3.* Make a recognizable photograph of a wild animal in its native haunts.

4. Make a recognizable photograph of a fish in the water. 172)

5.* Map correctly from the country itself the main features of half a mile of road, with 440 yards each side to a scale of 2 feet to the mile, and afterward draw same map from memory.

6.* Measure the height of a tree, telegraph pole, and church steeple without climbing.

7. Measure width of a river without crossing.

8. Estimate distance apart of two objects a known distance away and unapproachable, within an average of 10 per cent, of error in 10 different trials.

9. Can measure a gradient.

10. Can estimate the speed of a stream.

11. Can tell the number of gallons of water going over a fall or down a stream.

12. Can estimate the horsepower of a given fall.

13. Teach the last seven to some one else.

(The Little Lodge may take three of the first six and three of the second — that is, six in all.)

WISE WOODMAN

(Nibwaka-winini)

The Degree of Wise Woodman may be conferred on those who take 12 of these tests:

1.* Have a list of 100 different kinds of birds personally observed on exploration in the field. (50 for L. L.)

2. Have identified beyond question, by appearance or by note, 45 different kinds of birds in one day. (25 for L. L.)

3. Have made a good clear photograph of some wild bird, the bird image to be over ½ inch in length on the negative. (Any size image for L. L.)

4. Have secured at least two tenants in bird boxes erected by himself, (1 for L. L.) 173)

5. Have daily notes on the nesting of a pair of wild birds from the time the first egg is laid until the young have left the nest. (Daily notes 20 to the month for L. L.)

6. Have attracted at least 3 kinds of birds, exclusive of the English sparrow, to a "lunch counter" which he has supplied. (Include English sparrow for L. L.)

7.* Have a knowledge of the game laws of the state in which he lives.

8.* Preserve and mount the skin of a game bird, or animal, killed in season. (Preserve only for L. L.)

9. Mount for a rug the pelt of some fur animal.

10.* Know 25 different kinds of trees. (15 for L. L.)

11.* Know 30 different wild flowers. (20 for L. L.)

12. Know 10 different snakes. (5 for L. L.)

13. Know 10 different fungi, (5 for L. L.)

14. Know the signs of weather.

15. Make fire with the rubbing-sticks.

Winning a Name

Each brave aims at winning a name. These Indian names are a sort of honorable nickname given in recognition of some exploit or personal gift. Thus Deerfoot was the great runner and Hawkeye had the sharp eyes. Killdeer was famous in our deer hunt, as also was Deerslayer; Grey-wolf was the best scout; Eel-scout was the one who slipped through the enemies' lines as often as he pleased; Little Beaver was the best worker; Chicadee was the smallest; the noisy chatterer, forever showing off without doing any work, was called Bluejay; Spycatcher was given to a warrior who captured a hostile spy by a deed of unusual daring.

On rare occasions the name was an inglorious one. Thus a lazy boy was called “Young-man-afraid-of-a-Shovel,” or “Shovel,” for short; another was “Scare-cat,” because of his 174) timidity; one small boy whose tears were ever ready to flow was named “Rain-in-the-Face”; a fellow without any grit was called the “Quitter,” and an awkward brave who upset the canoe several times was called “Tippecanoe.” But they can get rid of them as soon as they do something highly creditable.

Naming the Brave'. When the Council decides that a bad name or annoying nickname is to be dropped, the Chief or Medicine Man writes it on a piece of wood or bark. Then, making a speech explaining the circumstances, he burns the bark in the Council Fire, announcing that that name be forgotten. No one must mention it again under pain of punishment.

Then the brave is given his new name of honor; the Chief makes a speech as before, teUing of the exploit and announcing the name. It is written down in the Tally; then each Chief and Councilor comes forward, shakes hands with the brave, saying “Bo-jou, Nichy” — followed by the new name.

Indian Names That Have Been Won by Scouts.

As a rule, the idea — “wonderful,” “great,” “admirable,” or “above others” — is understood, else the name would not have been given.

Anoki — Actor. Bodaway — (He) makes fire.
Apenimon — Trusty. Chissakid — Juggler.
Apenindis — Self-reliant. Eesta-nax — Jack-rabbit.
Ay-no-keetch — Hunter. Eet-su-moot-si — Brave all alone.
Bebe-ji — Wild Horse. En-do-ban-uh — Scout.
Bebe-mak — Dark Horse. Etut-botsots — Strong alone.
Beedajim — (He) brings the news. Gash-wan — High Hop.
Beejee-gash — Leaping Panther. Gibodeg — Little Breeches.
Bemossed — Walker. Giganini — Man-fish.
Biminak — Slick Roper. Gimab — Spy.
Bisanabi — The Silent One. Gimo-gash — Silent power.
Bissanajib — Rock-splitter, or crusher. Gitch-amik — Mighty beaver.
  Gitchi-saka — Big Stick.

175) Honors, Degrees, and Indian Names 143 Gwaia-koose — He walks straight. Huya — Fighting Eagle. Ininaja — (He) was sent. Ishka-kid — Fire-juggler. Ishkotekay — (He) makes fire. Iss-see-kas — Top of the Mountain. Jangened — Hostile. Jibendam — Stay with it. Ka-ba-to — Runner. Ka-gi-git — Speak not. Kah-no-see-tuk — Pine Tree. Kak-i-no-sit — The tall one. Karonawa — Famous Runner. Kawin-jag — Fears not. Kee-mo Sah-bee — Trusty Scout. Kee-shee Ka-ba-too — Quick Runner. Kijika — (I) walk quickly. Kin-a-pik — Snake. Kinji-gisiss — Shining face. Manij-wa — Scalper. Mash-kiki — Doctor. Me-et-ees — Lone tree. Mingan — Grey- wolf ; that is, "Peerless Scout." Minikwa or Nita-anoki — Tumbler. Minobi — (I) am gay. Minoday — Well cooked. Minoway — Moving Voice Misatik — Big Stick. Mishe-gash — Mighty Jumper Mit-te-gwab — Bow. Mojag — Never Quit. Neetah Wass-wa — Good Spearman. Nibaw — I stand up. Nibenab or Nibab — Sits up all night. Nibe-jomini — Camp of Creepers. Nita-bimossed — Good Walker. Nodin — Wind. Nokidee — Soft Heart. Nokisan — Wonder Cook. Odagoma — Iron Nerve. Okemahgansis — A Little Chief. Oma-gash — Bounding Buck. On-jima — Strong Hand. Ooita-eish — Little Iron. Osh-ki-de — New Spirit within. Pajigwad — Stick to it. Pangi-Wendigo — Little Giant. Panossim — Water-dog or Sea-dog. Paw-pung-is — Jumping-jack. Pe-hask-a — Yellow Hair. Pee-mah-ta-ha-che-gay — Trailer. Mee-mah-te-gay — Swimmer. Pis-chig-ay — Spear. Sakawa — (He) makes fire. Sheboygo — Writer. Shee-mah-gan — Spear. Shingebis — Diver. Shunka-reela — Swift or Flying Fox. So-kit-tay — Strongheart. Songan — Strong. So-tee-ay-mo — Brave. Tchi-bak-we — Medicine Cook. Wabang — To-morrow. Wa-bee-no-sa — Walks all night. Wadjepi — Nimble. Wah-bit — Keen Eyes. Wah-da-ga — Swimmer. Wah-peh-soos — He jumps like a deer. Wapoos — Rabbit Wass-wa — Spearman, or Big Spearman. Wee-wees — Little Owl. English Names that Have Been Given Arrowfoot Bald Eagle. Black Hawk. Big Moose. Big Otter. Deerblinder. Deerslayer. Eagle-eye. Eel-scout. Hawk-eye. High-hop. Hoot-owl. Jack-rabbit. Jumping-jack. Krag. Leaping Panther. Little Thunder. Many-tongues. 176) 144 The Book of Woodcraft Mustang. Never-scare. Night-owl. Plenty-coups. Red Arrow. Redjacket. Spy-catcher. Sheet-Jightning. Spear-deep. Strongbow. Strongheart. Twinklefoot White Thunderbolt. Wing-foot. Wolverine. Indian Names Given in Ridicule. Ashki — Raw, fresh, new. Bakedon — Quitter. Gitchee-mukasin — Big shoes. Kittimi — Lazy. Kiwanis — A foolish noise. Mah-ka-ahuh — Plenty of whoop. Mangidon — Big mouth, or All mouth. Mewishkid — Cry-baby. Nagatew — Quitter. Onawama — Cheek Swangideed — An audacious person; the nervy one. Takiside — Cold feet. Wissa-nodin — Hot air. English Names that Have Been Given in Ridicule* Blue-jay — (Much talk; no work.) Chicken-heart. Chilly-feet. Funny-face. Quitter. Rain-in-the-face — (His tears came easily.) Scare-cat. Tippecanoe — (He upset the boat.) ^}ames Given to Women Agokay — I stick to it Anang — Star. Anangons — Little Star. Anohom — Singer. Awashonks, The Woman Chief of Seconsit, R. I 1671. Bimodon — A Grumbler. Gash-kit-on — I am a Winner Gijig — Sky Gamowini — Sweet Singer. Kis-ke-mas -^ Waving Grass. Mi jakwad — Skyblue. Minoway — Magic Voice. Mokatewis — Sunburnt. Namid-Anang — Star Dancer. Namid — Dancer. Nijanang — Twin Stars. Niji-Namid — Star Dancer. Ogin — Rose. O-jistoh — A Star. Osawi — Yellow. Osawindibe — Yellow Hair. Pag^vadgi — Wild thing. Pingosh — Stinger. Puppinshaas — Bird. Satinka — Magic Dancer. Uppishau — Flower. Wabigoon — White Flower. Wabisi — White Swan. Wap-o — Sunbeam (happiness). Wap-o-me-o — Happy Bird. Wetamoo, the beautiful Woman Sachem of the Wampanoags . Winne-taska — Pleasant Laughter. Wohsum-Naab — Shining Eyes. Wohsumoe — Shining.



  1. Also called Seton Indians and Indian Scouts.
  2. Many supposed massacres by Indians are now known to have been the work of whites disguised as Indians.