The Woodcraft Manual for Girls: The Fifteenth Birch-Bark Roll, 1916 (book)

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The Fifteenth Birch Bark Roll




Author of “Wild Animals I Home Known”, “Two Little Savages”, “Life Histories of Northern Animals”, “Forster’s Manual” etc.

Published for


13 West 29th Street, New York

Garden City New York


Copyright, 1916, by
Ernest Thompson Seton
All rights reserved, including that of
translation into foreign languages,
including the Scandinavian.



“The Woodcraft Manual for Girls for 1916”, is an official Manual of the Woodcraft League, giving full information as to the carrying on of the work of the Woodcraft Girls. It is also a handbook containing information on outdoor life for the girls of America.

Ernest Thompson Seton, whose life has beer a constant inspiration and help to all lovers of outdoor things, is the author. Much of the material appears for the first time, though some of it has been used from other books with the permission of Mr. Seton and of the publishers.

Mrs. Frederic R. Hoisington designed and presented to the League the Costume for the Woodcraft Girls and has assisted along several lines, particularly in the shaping of the Coups and Degrees as found in the fourth section. Miss Jean Miller and Miss Lina Miller have helped in organizing work, as have F. H. Schmidt, J. A. Wolf, Miss Anne Grumman, Hamlin Garland and other members of the Council of Guidance.

Mrs. Ernest Thompson Seton has contributed several articles and has given freely of her time in the working out of the many problems and in the editing of the book.

Mr. Philip D. Fagans, in addition to his duties as Executive Secretary, has written several articles and given of his time both in the working out of the organization and in editing the material.

The League acknowledges with hearty thanks the permission of Ernest Thompson Seton and Doubleday, Page & Company to use much of the material from the Book of Woodcraft; for the use of the poems and stories from “Woodmyth and Fable”, by Ernest Thompson Seton, published by the Century Company; to Alice Fletcher for permission to use the songs and music quoted from her “Indian Songs and Stories”; to H. M. Burr and Association Press for the use of stories from “Around the Fire”; to Mrs. S. A. Ward and Association Press for the use of the hymn “O Beautiful for Spacious Skies”; to Ginn and Company for the use of cuts from “School Needlework” by Olive C. Hapgood; to McClelland, Goodchild and Stewart, Ltd., for “The Seven White Swans” from “Legends of Vancouver“ 8) by E. Pauline Johnson (Takahionwake); for the use of the “Corn Smut Girl” from “Indian Days of the Long Ago” by Edward S. Curtis.

The League also acknowledges with many thanks the cover medallion by J. F. Kelly and the drawing of the Woodcraft Girl; the article on the “Life Force” and the “Woodcraft Girls' Invocation”, by Dr. Valeria Parker; permission of Raymond Ditmars to use material from which the article and drawing of “Snakes, Good and Bad” were made; and the games suggested by Miss Katherine Duffield, Mrs. Lotta Anthony, Miss Kate Karkus, Miss Jean Miller, Mrs. Grace Gallatin Seton and Mrs. Elizabeth T. Baylis.

The Committee has attempted to have the Manual contain information on most of the subjects which would come up in group work. Where a subject has not been carefully covered, reference books have been given.

While Woodcraft as founded by Mr. Seton has been carried on for fourteen years, the Woodcraft League in its present form is but a few months old. Owing to the necessity for a Girls' Manual the present Birch Bark Roll has been produced under pressure and does not include all the material originally planned. But it is given to the public with the thought as expressed in the Preface to “Two Little Savages”.

“Because I have known the torments of thirst,
I would dig a well wherein others may drink.”

And it is hoped that the spirit of the Manual is the same as has always characterized the work Mr. Seton has done with the boys and girls of the country.

The Manual Comittee.




Council of Guidance

John L. Alexander

Grace Cotton

Carl E. Ekstrand

Ann S. Grumman

May Folwell Hoisington

Grace Parker

Hamlin Garland, Historian

Jean W. Miller, Asst. Secretary

Grace Gallatin Seton, Chairman Business Committee

Harvey C. Went, and the Officers

National Council

Jules Bache

Irving Bacheller

E. C. Bishop

Neltje Blanchan

Arthur Brisbane

Stephen A. Breed

Mrs. Walston Hill Brown

John Burroughs

William Carroll Cornwall

Dr. Frank M. Chapman

Roland Ray Conklin

Honorable Frank I. Cohen

Natalie Curtis

William Curtis Demorest

Frank N. Doubleday

Mrs. C. Tarbell Dudley

Bertram H. Fancher

Ivan P. Flood

Willam H. Folwell

Dr. William Byron Forbush

Mrs. William H. Folwell

A. R. Forbush

Madison Grant

Wallace Heckman

Frederic R. Hoisington

Elon Huntington Hooker

Mrs. Elon Huntington Hooker

Mrs. Charlton T. Hudson

James L. Hughes

Joseph Howland Hunt

Charles L. Hutchinson

Herbert Hungerford

Mrs. Marietta Johnson

Mrs. Charles D. Lanier

S. Stanwood Menken

Enos Mills

Dr. Robert T. Morris

Preston G. Orwig

Honorable Stephen G. Porter

Reverend P. Edwards Powell

Martin A. Ryerson

Caroline Ruutz-Rees

Professor W. H. Scherzer

Bernard Sexton

Albert Shaw

Hugh Smiley

Mark Sullivan

Dr. Louis Livingston Seaman

Ida M. Tarbell

Lorado Taft

Mrs. Charles Edwin Townsend

William H. Thompson

His Excellency Dr. Henry Van Dyke

Professor Charles D. Walcott

John J. Watson, Jr.

George L. White

Ella Wheeler Wilcox 10) 11)



To the Girls of America:

There is a winding deer trail by a stream in the pine woods, and the glint of a larger breadth of water through the alders, with stars in the grass, a high shady rock for the nooning, and a bell-bird softly chiming.

I have found it very, very pleasant to go there whenever my life would permit, but the entrance was hidden, and I never should have seen it but for this — I was struggling and unhappy, worn out and lost, hoping to find it and fearing I never should, when one day a wonderful creature appeared to me. She was very old, I know, but She seemed very young, fresh and athletic, and She had a kind look in her eyes. She said, “Ho, Wayseeker, I have seen your struggle to find the pathway, and I know that you love the things you will see there. Therefore, I will show you the trail, and this is what it will lead you to: a thousand pleasant friendships that will offer honey in little thorny cups, the twelve secrets of the underbrush, the health of sunlight, suppleness of body and force unfailing, the unafraidness of the night, the delight of deep water, the goodness of rain, the story of the trail, the knowledge of the swamp, the aloofness of knowing, the power to see a bird when you hear its note, the upbuilding things which are never taught in schools; a crown and a little kingdom measured to your power, but all your own.

“These are the things I offer, because you have persevered, but there is a condition attached: When you discover the folksiness of some tree, the compact of bee and bloom, the allaboutness of some secret, the worthwhileness of the swamp, or the friendship of a frog-pond, you must in some sort note it down and pass it on to another truly a Wayseeker, that the liquid gold turn not to vitriol in your hand; for those who have won power, must with it bear responsibility.”

That same Fairy Godmother is waiting for you just beyond that bank of pussy willows in the Springtime, she is waiting in the alder bloom of Summer, and later when the maple red-dens the swamp. Faunima, Spirit of the wild things and of woodcraft is she, and very willing to show you the trail if you 12) are of good stuff proven. She it was that told me to write this book, in keeping of the promise that I gave her over forty years ago, when she held the bushes back for me to see the guide-blaze on the tree. Not that I needed any urge to write it, for I know no greater pleasure than showing others the things that mean so much to me. Perhaps you also will come to think of them as the best and most enduring things of life.

Ernest Thompson Seton m.p.



Our purpose is to learn the outdoor life for its worth in the building up of our bodies and the helping and strengthening of our souls; that we may go forth with the seeing eye, and the “thinking hand” to learn the pleasant ways of the woods and of life, that we be made in all wise masters of ourselves; facing life without flinching, ready to take our part among our fellows in all the problems which arise, rejoicing when some trial comes that the Great Spirit finds us the rulers of strong souls in their worthy tabernacles.

The Woodcraft League believes that its message comes to the people of America, young and old, rich and poor. The work of the League is divided as follows:

The Big Lodge of the Woodcraft Girls, from twelve to eighteen, for which group this Birch Bark Roll is the official handbook.

The Big Lodge for Boys from twelve to eighteen. Manual now ready.

The Little Lodge for children under twelve. Manual to be published later.

The Woodcraft Club for men and women over eighteen.

The Sun Lodge for men and women, twenty-one and over, interested in specializing in Woodcraft.

Each of these sections has its own printed matter and badge. The details of the work vary according to the needs of the group.

All are members of the Woodcraft League and wear the badge of the League, a white shield with blue horns.

The Headquarters are at 13 West 29th Street, New York City. 14)


Do you know the twelve secrets of the woods?

Do you know the umbrella that stands up spread to show that there is a restaurant in the cellar?

Do you know the “manna-food” that grows on the rocks, summer and winter, and holds up its hands in the Indian sign of “innocence”, so all who need may know how good it is?

Do you know the vine that climbs above the sedge to whisper on the wind “There are coconuts in my basement”?

Can you tell why the rabbit puts his hind feet down ahead of his front ones as he runs?

Can you tell why the squirrel buries every other nut and who it was that planted those shag-barks all along the fence?

Can you tell what the woodchuck does in midwinter and on what day?

Have you learned to know the pale villain of the open woods — the deadly amanita, for whose fearful poison no remedy is known?

Have you learned to overcome the poison ivy that was once so feared — now so lightly held by those who know?

Have you proved the balsam fir in all its fourfold gifts — as Christmas tree, as healing balm, as consecrated bed, as wood of friction fire?

Do you know the wonderful medicine that is in the sky?

Have you tasted the bread of wisdom, the treasure that cures much ignorance, that is buried in the aisle of Jack-o-Pulpit’s Church?

Can you tell what walked around your tent on the thirtieth night of your camp-out?

Then are you wise. You have learned the twelve secrets of the woods. But if you have not, come and let us teach you. 15) 16) 17)


18)19) COBllBli Rat on Lodge Waterboiling Contest . . . Medley Scouting .... Still Huntins the Buck Water Spearing the GfMt Stuigeon Canoe Tag Indoor Odds and Evens Blind Man's Bufif My Vacation Names by Topks Fortune Shopping Guessing Game Kingdom Geography Game of Menagerie . . . . Menagerie Party A Portrait Party Magic Music Hat Trimming G)ntest . . . Fire-side Trick The Lone Star Trick . . . . Feather Foot-ball Songs Group Singing America Star Spangled Banner . . . Oh Beautiful for Spacious Skies Rouser Alouette Omaha Tribal Prayer . . . Hike Song Good Night Canoeist Love Song Death Song Zonzimondi Mujje Mukesin Hither Thunder AcTiNO Songs The Weasel . MyManJdm . . . . | 20) ««« ^ A ^_ ZtuI VOB i W m When I Was a Youns Girl Roman and Engliih Soldien 79 Dancxno Dancing S$ Dances Storm Cloud 84 Hopi Corn Dances 85 Spring 87 Fall 88 Lone Hunter 88 Fire-fly Dance 90 Caribou Dance 96 Animal Dance of Nana-bojou 98 Plays, Pageani6 and Masques Suggested books xoo Camp Fire Stories and Poems The Road to Fairyland 103 The Fairy Lamps 103 The Origin of the Bhie Bird los Twin Stars 106 Gitche-o-kok-o-hoo 106 The Story of Com-smut Girl ...... X07 The First Gang xo8 The Seven Swans xi6 How Men Found the Great Spirit zaa SECTION m Tbdtgs to Know and Do Chapter I. City Woodcrapt Woodcraft in Town 129 The Value of Doing 130 Needlework Sewing ... 132 Bead Work 137 Housekeeping 139 Totems in Town 140 Fire — Servant or Master? 142 Health X45 Health Hints X47 The Life Force X48 21) Invocation '49 Breathing M9 Don't Turn Out Your Toes I49 Keen Eyes »5o Dry Footgear *. . . . x$o Ready Help • • ■ 'i>» Patriotism and Citizenship *S3 Hiking »S4 Sign Language *S<> Picture Writing »M Weather Signals «oo Railroad Signals '"9 Roof Camping '7* Individual Tally Book «7«  Indian Names for the Months ^73 Chapter II. Campercra/t Camping Out *77 Outfitting • • Outfit for Six «78 Tents 'J^ Teepees Running Camp Camp Grounds . Arriving Sanitation 'J* Leadership Team Work '82 Camp Officers '83 Camp Program 183 Group Work 183 Rules 184 Inspections '84 Horn of High B il'<.rs 184 Woodcraft Council Ring 185 Ccnincils 185 Making Council Fire 186 Totem Pole 187 Beds 187 Water ^ 1S8 Mosquitoes 189 Lighting a Fire 189 Camp Cookery 191 CooUng Without Utensib • '9^ 22) B Contanti Chapter III. Woodlope and Handicratt **" Edible WUd Plants 197 Mushrooms 200 White Man's Woodcraft — Measuring at a distance 204 Weather Wisdom ao6 When Lost in the Woods 208 Indian Tweezers 209 Indian Clock 210 The Watch as a Compass 210 Home Made Compass 211 Lights an Hunter's Lamp 211 Woodman's Lantern 211 Knife and Hatchet 213 A Waterproof Shelter 217 Camp Loom 218 Navajo Loom 219 Camp Rake , 221 Camp Broom , 221 Rubbing Stick Fire 222 Drum 224 The Woodcraft Willow Bed [225 Woodcraft Paints 229 Woodcraft Dyes 230 Lace or Thong 231 Woodcraft Buttons 231 Handicraft Stunts ,231 Miscellaneous 231 Spoons 233 Bird Boxes 234 Knots • 238 Blazes and Signs 240 Blazes 240 Stone Signs 242 Grass and Twig Signs 243 Smoke Signals 243 Signals by Shots 244 Raising Money 244 Chapter IV. Friends in the Out of Doors How to Know the Wild Things 247 Sixty-four Common Wild Flowers 250 The Woodcraft Girl in the Forest 262 Fifty Common Forest Trees 265 23)



Officers and Members or the National Council


Message from the Chief


The Woodcraft League


Twelve Secrets of the Woods


Organization and General Information

Woodcraft Women — Their Message to Woodcraft Girls


How to Form a Tribe

To become a Woodcraft Girl
To start a Tribe
Woodcraft Girl Costume
Band Meetings
A Meeting Place
Regular Council
Order of Doings
Decorum of Council
Indoor Council
The Woodcraft Laws
Initiation Trials
New Members' Work
Requirements for Ranks
Entering or Wayseeker
Titles and Officers
Meaning of the Badges

Meaning of the Council Ring


Ceremony of Grand Council


Council Robe


Model Constitution for a Tribe


The Inbringing of a Newcomer


Installation of the Higher Ranks


Conferring of Coups and Degrees


Winning a Name


Tribe and Council Activities

Suggestions on Tribal Work

First Three Months (Pathfinder)
Next Five Months (Winyan)
Navajo Feather Dance
Cock Fighting
One Legged Chicken Fight
Strong Hand
Watching by the Trail
Apache Relay Race
Chinese Tag
Bat Ball
Quick Sight
Far Sight
Home Star
Hostile Spy
Tree the Coon
The Stars
Forty Birds
Snakes, Good and Bad

Woodcraft Exploits and Achievements or Coups and Degrees

Woodcraft Exploits and Achievements




Their use

Class I — Athletics
Class II — Campercraft
Class III — Nature Study
Class IV — Crafts
Class V — Entertainer
Class VI— Life Craft


Their Use
List of Degrees— sixty-four in all



24) 25) SECTION I ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Woodcraft Women— Their Mes- sage to Woodcraft Girls How to Form a Tribe Meaning of tbie Comieil Bfaf Ceremony of Onud Council Modd Constitation for a Tribe The Inbringing of a Newcomer InstaUation of the Higher Ranks Conferring of Coups and Degrees WianfaicaNaiM . 26) 27)



Their Message to Woodcraft Girls

Woodcraft is the science of overcoming the daily obstacles of life and the real Woodcraft woman of all times is the one who knows and fearlessly stands for the big and worthwhile things.

This was the spirit of Grace Darling, who watched at the Longstone lighthouse and risked her life with undaunted courage in the midst of terrible storms to save the lives of shipwrecked men, women, and children.

This was the spirit that inspired Frances Willard, whose statue now stands in the Hall of Fame at Washington, a noble woman whose life resulted in good to the women of the Nation and to every one because of her work for temperance and progress.

This was the thought that sustained Florence Nightingale, who during the Crimean War did wonderful work as a nurse, and who organized the nurses into what was the forerunner of the Red Cross.

It was such a spirit that controlled the life of Nancy Hanks Lincoln, who molded her son Abe along the lines of integrity and developed those rare and noble moral traits which have given to Lincoln his spotless character and ever-enduring fame.

It was such a spirit that inspired Susan B. Anthony to labor unceasingly for the alleviation of hard and cruel conditions that pressed upon women and to advocate an equality standard between men and women in all the phases of domestic and govern-mental life. So active was she that a federal amendment to enfranchise women, bearing her name, has been submitted to Congress ever since 1869.

It was such a spirit that caused Elizabeth Cady Stanton to devote a long and brilliant life to the bettersent or women. Her 28) young soul burned with rebellion at the injustice to women which she heard rehearsed in her father’s law office and when she found the college closed to her because of her sex, although she was a more brilliant scholar than any of her brothers. She was chiefly responsible for the holding of the first Women's Rights Convention at Seneca, 1848.

The spirit which drove these wonderful women is the spirit of the Woodcraft Girl. The Woodcraft Girl of to-day is healthy. She knows how to live so as to have the overflowing sense of power. She is eager to get acquainted with the things in nature, the birds, the trees, the flowers, and to protect the beautiful things of her country. She sees the beauty of the sky and knows something of the mystery of the stars. She knows where to camp, how to sleep, how to cook, how to live comfortably in primitive conditions. She knows, too, how to make home happy and attractive, how to make her clothing, how to care for and make friends with the little children. She knows how to meet people simply and in a manner which makes every one at their best. She is brave in the presence of external dangers and in facing her own problems. She does her best, whatever her station may be, conscious of the Great Spirit’s presence and honors Him in her life.

Woodcraft says to all girls who would know the secrets of the woods, who would know the youth which comes from service and the secret trail to the upland of success: come, learn the meaning of the Council Ring, the Council Fire, and the friendship of the Tribe.

As you learn them the other things will come into your heart as gently as the crystal is formed in the heart of the rough hard emery ro…, to be known at length as the best and rarest of all gems. And it may be that it can be said of you, as it was said of old of one of the first great women of America, Wetamoo, the woman Sachem of Pocassett (1662):

“She was straight and supple; her simpie habits, active life, and her daily exposure to the healing sun rays had kept her figure girlish even at late age. She knew the ways of the Council Hall, so that she was never embarrassed by questions or interruptions. She was at home in the woods so that neither deep waters nor prowling dangers of the night could shake her heart with dismay, and she found the lasting interest that all may find in the simple daily things of the outdoor world. She was gentle and courteous because she knew her rights and the rights of others, and when she spoke to man or woman, old or young, it was in the same quiet dignity, so that the lowliest were not 29) cowed; the proudest did not dare a rude advance; and all her glory in all her life to her untimely end, when she swam Swansea inlet in the storm, was in the kindly service of the folk about her.”


To Become a Woodcraft Girl

One may easily become a Woodcraft Girl, either by joining a Tribe already organized or by forming a new Tribe. Get together nine other girls, twelve years of age or over and a woman twenty-one years of age to act as a Head Guide. Let each read the Birch Bark Roll for Girls carefully, so you may know what Woodcraft is and send to Headquarters for Application for Charter. Then select a name for the Tribe, usually of historic or special interest and often an Indian name; also select a totem. Have the girls sign the Application for Charter. Send the Application with three dollars to the National Headquarters, the Woodcraft League, 13 West Twenty-ninth Street, New York City, where the Council of Guidance will act on your Application and give your Tribe a Charter.

To Start a Tribe

The Tribe is the unit of organization, consisting of not less than ten nor more than fifty members. Each Tribe is divided into Bands of not less than five nor more than ten members. Each Band has a Guide, a woman eighteen years of age or over. One of the Guides should be selected as Head Guide of the Tribe and must be twenty-one years of age or over. The Guides direct the work of the Bands, the Head Guide being responsible to Headquarters.

In beginning it is wise to have the officers temporary or for a short time only. Elect, or have the Guide appoint, a Chief, a second Chief, a Tally Keeper, and Wampum Keeper. Decide the time and place of your meetings, the dues (about five cents a week is usual), and other matters of a similar nature.

You should then divide the group into Bands of not less than five girls and not more than ten. Each Band should elect, or the Guide appoint, a Chief, and if meeting separately, a Tally Keeper and Wampum Collector, who shall report to the Tribal officers. 30) Woodcraft Manual for Oiila 31) 7 Band Meetings Each Band should select a Band name and totem. The Band should hold a weekly meeting followed by a Tribal meeting (of all the Bands), or it may be dedded to make the tribal meet- ings less frequent. Charter The Charter, costuig $3.00 annually, certifies that the Tribe is registered at Headquarters and entitles the Tribe to a definite place in the Woodcraft League, to recognize achievements ac- cordhig to the Birch Bark RoU for Girls and to wear the badges of the League. With the Charter comes a Guide's Appoint- ment, also two Pledges to be pasted in the Tally Book, one for the members to sign and one for the officers to sign. The $3.00 charter fee covers all the expenses of chartering a group regard- less of its size (up to fifty). Individual bad' ^ of rank should be purchased as needed. See p. 23. A Meetinc Plaee One of the very first problems the Tribe will have to face is that of providing a place to meet. It should be comfortable, clean, quiet, and large enough to seat the Tribe in a circle. For the Band meeting a smaller room will do. If the room is used by others it will be necessary to use it without change ; but when a tribe has entire control of a room, or when the room is used by more than one tribe, it will be possible to 6x it up ..o as to suggest an outdoor coimcil ring, the interior of a log cabin or stockade. For the outdoor ring see page 185. Councils In the Woodcraft League the meetings .of the Bands and Tribes are called Councils. A weekly meeting would be called Regular Council, a ineeting with a more elaborate program and with visitors is called Grand Council. A meeting of the Guides and officers is called High Council. One at least of the Guides should familiarize herself with the running of the Qnmdl, as sora as possible. REGULAR COUNQL If it is possible, open the meeting by making the fire with the rubbing sticks, in which case thr Leader should b^;in with the 32) 8 Woodcfaft Bfaimal for GIrii paragraph " Now light we the Councfl Fire," as on page 25, end- ing with the paragraph, "That His Wisdom will be with us." (If matches are used omit the above.) Continue as follows: From this central fire, light we our candles four, standing each for Fortitude, Truth, Beauty, and Love, from which radiate the twelve golden li ws of Woodcraft." The Guide (or Chief) now speaks from the Council Rock: "Let the Keeper of the Tally call the roll." In large meetings this is done by Bands. Each Leader stands as her Band is called by name, salutes the Chief, and says: "0 Chief, Ten of our Band— all here," or "Eight here," as the case may be. After this is done, the regular order of parliamentary business is followed as below. ORDER OF DOINGS IN COUNCILS Roll CaU. Tally of Last Councfl or Report of TaUy Keeper. Report of Wampum Keeper. Business arising out of tally. . , . Scouts' Reports, also officers of the day. (This mcludes: first, all unusual work done for the Tribe by a member and is reported by the Guide; second, all matters of interest, particularly those relating to nature study by members of the Tribe.) Leftover Business. . For the Good of the Tribe. (At this point members may bring up any matter which ordinarily would not come up under other heads. Matters of discipline, etc.) , Achievement Badges claimed and awarded. (Previously jiassed in committee.) ' ' New Business. New Members. Initiations. Challenges, etc. (These may be athletics of any sort either at the Council ring or otherwise. They may also include challenges at story telling, dancing, singing, cooking, fire- lighting, nature study. The haUenger arises, salutes the Chief, and says: "O Chief I, of ^Band challenge of Band.") Games. (These may be individual such as hand wrestlmg, chicken fighting; or group games, such as "stung, etc. They may also include sudx things as, movies, etc.) S<»igs, dances, stories. 33) Of^ttiJiAtioii 9 Close the Council with the Omaha Tribal Prayer as all stand about the fire with hands and faces upraised. The Chief then announces, "Our Council is ended." DECOKUK or couroL In the Council no one may cross or remain within the open space, except the Chief presiding, the members speaking or performing, and the Keeper of the Fire when attending to her duties. ]^evertheless the Fire Keeper must not tend the fire at a time when it will interfere with any performance or distnct attention at an important moment. For assent or approval, we say "How"; for "No" we say "Wah"; the Chief at the "Council Rock" is addressed "O Chief," and speaks not from the chair, but from the "Council Rock." Any one wishing to speak, arises, salutes, giving the Woodcraft sign as given on page 24, says, "O Chief" and waits until the Chief recognizes her by name or gesture, thus giving the sole right of speech for the time. It is not proper to whisper in Council, nor to laugh when a serious matter is being presented, nor look around much, nor heed not the speaker, nor should one make noise or tap with one's feet or hands, or with a stick, or chew or eat or lounge about, or lie down, nor turn tc loci: when some one arrives late, but in all ways act as though each speaker were great and important, however much she may be otherwise. For this is good manners. The order of ceremony for Grand Council is found on page 25. INDOOR COUNCIL In the Indoor Council use the Four Fires, as illustrated, consisting of a flat centre 18 x 18 mches, decorated with animals to represent the four cor- ners of the earth. In the centre should be placed a shallow earthen dish to act as a fire bowl to hold the fire after it has been made by the rubbmg sticks or matches. Around this central fire are placed f'^ur pottery socketaior 34) 10 Woodcraft Manual for Girls the four candles. The candles should be long enough to bum two hours; the centre fire » allowed to die out after toe candles are lighted. (FdHkm the cerenumy of the Rqpdar CooadL) The Woodcraft Laws The laws for the Woodcraft Girls (and for the lea^rs as far as possible) are: X. Be Brave. Courage is the noblest of all gifts. 2. Be Silent while your elders are q[)eaking and otherwise show them deference. 3. Obey. Obedience is the first duty of the Woodcraft Girl. 4. Be Clean. Both yourself and the place you live in. 5. Understand and respect your body. It is the Temple of the Spirit. 6. Be a friend of all harmless wild life. Conserve the woods and flowers, and especially be ready to fight wild-fire in foiest ox in town. 7. Word of honor is sacred. 8. Play fair. Foul play is treachery. Q. Be Reverent; worship the Great Spirit and respect all wor- ship of Him by others. 10. Behind. Do at least one act of unbargaining service every day. 11. Be helpful. Do your share of the work. 13. Be joyful. Seek the joy of being alive. When brought m*o some new; group such as the school or club, one is naturally anxious to begin by makiv a ^ood im- pression oir the others, by showing wliat one can do, provmg wliat one is made of, and by making clear one's serioumess in asking to be enrolled. So also those who form the group; they wish to know whether the newcomer is made of good stuff, and is Ukely to be a valuable addition to thdr number. The result is ndiat we call initiation trials, the testing of the newcomer. The desire to initiate and be initiated is a /try ancient, deep- laid impiilse. Handled judiciously and undt r me direction of a competent adult guide, it becomes a powerful fnroe for char- acter building, for inculcatmg self-control. In Woodcraft we carefully sdect for these try-outs such tests as demonstrate the charactor and ability Of the newcomor, and 35) OigMiiistkMi II the initiation becomes a real proof of fortitude, so that the new girl is as keen U. face the trial, as the Tribe she would enter is to give it THE IKTriATION THAU The trial should be approved by the Council and be given to the candidate when her name is proposed for membership — that is, posted on the Totem pole where it remains for seven suns. In ramp a iltuxtar time may be allowed at the diseretioii <d the leaders. 1. Silence. Keep absolute silence for six hours during the day- tune in camp, while freely mixing with the life of the camp. In the city keep silence from after school till bedtime. 2. Keep good-natured. Keep absolutely unruffled, for one day of twelve hours, giving a smiling answer to all. 3. Exact (Htedience. For one week give prompt, smiling obe- dience to parents, teachers, and those who have authority over you. This must be certified to by those in question. 4. Make a useful woodcraft article, such as a basket, a bench, a bed, a bow, a set of fire-sticks, etc. 5. Sleep out, mthoul a built roof overhead, for three nights con- secutively, or ten, not consecutively. (Sleeping porch allowed by speda! permission of Council.) NEW member's work After the new member has learned the Laws and taken the Imtmtion test, the first thing to claim her attention is that of qualifying for the rank of Pathfinder and later of Winyan, then the Achievements, each with its appropriate badge, which are described on page 327. In time she wiU have amwdoaft suit, but this may come later. Growth The idea 01 growth, suggested by the opening in the rim of the mnir."^" to provide ior growth, is a big oneln the Woodcraft Poifi ^" . member should grow from Wayseeker to f^n 1^. ir'J '^^^'^ should advance so as to be able to make the achievements and degrees which are mentionedmSectionlV of the Woodcraft Mani2. 36) 12 Woodcraft Manual for Girls BLUE BUFFALO iQoa On white grauiML HORNED KINGBIRDS I0O2 Black and white on paie red. AHMEEKS igog Bbck on red. A loud "slap-tlunt." FLYING EAGLES IQ02 Black and white on red. SINAVVA 1003 BUKk on red. SILVER FOXES 1904 Black on white. BLUE HERONS 1Q04 Blue on gieen. "Hrm" BLACKBEARS igo6 Bhtck on red RED TRAILERS Red on pale yellow OWENOKES MOON BAND 1904 MOON BAND iOoS YeUow on biue. OWENOKES 1904 Red with faiMk <M pab tthtt. BLAZING ARROW RadoBj 37) 4' Oxganizatioii Z3 RAVEN Black on red. Broe-Broo HOOT OWL Black and yellow on green W» SCREECH OWI. Cark red, white - face on purple ground. WhU-U-U-ho A toh quavering ay. WOLF Black on rad for Wolva, Uiown on yeUow for Brown W<rfves. Red on pale blue for Red Wolves, etc., etc. WILD CAT Gray or brown on tea green. Yah-rvw-mt; BLACK WOLF Black on yellow or LOBO BAND Gray on pink. Ya-koo«m0 LYNX Blown on gray. Blown on bhie. Red on green. GMZZLY Grr-mtf OKOKOHOO or CAT OWL Red and white on puiide. BLACK CAT Bhck with yellow eyet yeUow ground. FOX Red on yeUow for Red Foiea. Silver on goU far SOvw Fons. LrrOEBEAR orbrawaoiptlil Wmt-mmt 38) 14 Woodcraft Manual for Girls FUtEBOAT buk bbe on pale gnen. A loof whittk. THUNDER CANOE Black or dark gray on pale blue. A whistle then a bang. I BLACK HAWK Black on red. BLUEHAWK Blue on blood red indioH war hoop THUNDEK OmwtMbbck. FLYING BLACK HAWK Black on orange or red. BALD EAGLE White and brown on yellow. NIGHT-BIRD Brawn and wUte OB pale bltt*> green. fmbtdy-ptaMy-ptabtiy wbktled. BUCK Pnipla o« bhM. AthifflwUMk. Black and wUte for Red Imm, Amber Loon, etc., on Uoe ground. A tnmulous niibM. u MUSTANG Black Mustang, Red Mus tang, and Wild Horse; on yellow ground. Aloof w BUCKHORN. Bhck buck, etc. on pak green ground. Ailiiffl.kiHkwwiMB.. A FORKED LIGHTNING Rad or yellow on bhmrwu Pitt ittiti^ OAMRD Black and uMla. 39) Oigwnization SILENT BEAVER Brown on blue. No BMWtli— no ay 8HUNKA-REELA. (ninning fox) YtHem and black ob pah blue. STINGRAY Gnn with Madk ouukt < INkhndgimud. RED-GODS Red on pale bhw. BADGER WUte and black oo yOkm ground. A rattling wbi^ BLAZING STAR YaOmr sttr-nd WHOOPING CRANE White on blue ground — black wing. iM-fM, a tiumpeted cnak. WOLVERINB Black and pale blOWB white. BLUE MOON Pale blue on deep gieea. Any kaowB aJgkt 40) i6 Woodcraft Manu«u for Girls BUGLINO ELK Daifc brown on iom nd. MOOSE Black on ptle gnan. A long ntooth bdlow. CAT-IN-THE-NIGRT Gnyoabbck. F n mn m COYOTE Brawn nnd white on ytSkm. Y»» p - y o» p -yak-y»m in m- cending ^ ISm • coyote^ buk. FLYING EAGLE White and brown on pale blue. FIRE-MOUMTAIN BAND. Bhw monntaitt, nd flamet OB Mack. WHITE MOUNTAINS or SNOW PEAK BAND White on dark blue. THUNDERBIRD ■ Daik blue on yellow, white head. U^tnlng cooMa fram Ida ore. MOHAWE Black and nd en oUve green* ARROW FOOT Redonbhwfidd. Gfay with hUdk maAa on • led ground. A high iHtched quavering SUNRISE BAND Yellow on pale blue. Call a loud Yo-io, yo-ie, yo- k» on aec a nrtln g noMa. 41) Organitatkm 17 LIGHT HEART lad OB p«le Una. ARROWHEADS Tuquoise blue anxnr OD dark brown. BLUE SKY Large blue circle on white. OJIBWA Orange on pale blue. Peace Wboop. RED ARROW Red on white. Zip-up BLACKFOOT Black and red. KINGSNAK^ YAxr with red spots, fVDOBd pale green. FLYING PATROL oc FLEET FOOT «  WINGED HEEL. White CO red. / DEERFOOT YcOoir and black on Una- HORSESHOE Blue on pale yaOow. 0% SHINING MOUNTAIN Dark blue semi-drcle with WAR QUILL WUte feather bhuk tip and red tuft on yellow. YELLOW QUILL AO ydaw with bladi OB pala graan* THE SEVEN STARS Pale pink on dark Uua. RED-HAND Red hand on gmr. B9 SNAPPER BAND Badcalaiiniihi, 42) z8 Woodcraft Mantial for Giils REQUIREMENTS IN THE BIG LODGE Wayseeker To qualify for a Big Lodge— that is, to enter as a Wayaeekc one must: Be over twelve years of age. Know the twelve laws and state the advan- tages of them. Take one of the initiations. Be voted in unanimously by other members of the group. Wayseeker Having passed this, the candidate becomes ^ a Wayseeker and receives the Big Lodge Badge of the lowest rank, tliat is, with two green tassels on it. The next hi^er rank is that of Pathfinder. Pathfinder To win the rank of Pathfinder, the Wayseeker must know the Star Spangled Banner and take the following fifteen tests: X. Have one month's honorable service without stain on record in Big Lodge as Wayseeker. 2. Walk four miles in two hours and write a satisfactory account of it. 3. Swim fifteen yards. (If this is impos- sible, the Tribal Council may substitute five minutes' daily calisthenics, followed by a wet or dry rub, for one month.) 4. Enlist a new member m one of the lodges. 5. Know the Pole Star, the twp Dippers, and at least uree other constellations. 6. Know ten forest trees, leaf and trunk. 7. Know ten wild flowers by observation. 8. Know fifty signs of the Sign Language. 9. Know ten totems as found in the aty; or ten edible wild plants. 10. Transplant successfully four kinds of trees, flowers, or plants, or make a bird box or restaurant, according to specifica- tions of the Audubon Society, and see that it is properly placed. 11. Prepare of wildwood materials only, and lirfit tmee suc- cessive camp fires with three matches; or siqqply wwkdeolt ptcM firewood for cooking three camp meals. 12. Tie five of the foSowing standajrd knots and know w sir Pathfinder 43) Oiganlutioii 19 uses: double bow, running noose, square, whip a rope's end, timber hitch, bowhne, hard loop, clove hitch, eye splice. 13. Understand and demonstrate the use of hammer and saw (such as putting a shelf in a wooden box), or understand and demonstrate use of hatchet and whittKng knife (under adult gmdance.) 14. Make a beaded head band, or show samples of the ten following stitches: running, overhanding, felUng, backstitching, hemming, gathering, darning, patching, herrmgbone, buttonhole. 15. Care for your own room in house including mak- ing bed, dusting, keeping tidy for one week, or set table or wash dishes for at least three persons for six meaJs during a week's time. When these tests have been satisfactorily passed the member is called out in Council, the Guide in charge tells of it in as much detail as is needed. Then taking a pair of scissors or a knife, announces: "Now, thereiore, acting for the Council, I clip from this mem- ber's badge, the first emblem of inexperience, the tassel of green, and consign it to the flames." Then shaking hands with the candidate says: " I now dedue complete your installaticm as a Pathfinder." Winyan To win the rank of Winyan, meaning "A Girl Tried and Proven" the following fifteen tests must be taken: 1. Cook a meal with no utensils but a hatchet and what one can make with it, or cook three digestible meals by camp fire for not less than three persons. 2. Know the essentials of camping, induding where to camp, how to put up a tent and pre- pare for rain, where and how to erect a latrine (see Campmg, Section III). "mnyia t^'^.^°'^ ^^""^^ "ake of wildwood materials, either a com- fortable ramproof shdter suitable for over-night, or a dry com- i(Mrtable camp bed. tit * serviceaWe rushes, grass or wood fibre (rf wildwood IS not obtamable, straw, hay, or com husks may be used) , or make a sUck bed. S- Row a boat one-half mile in twenty minutes. 0r (if one can swmi) paddle a canoe in same time. v 6. Take a six-mile hike most of wWch is in the country and wnte a satisfactory account of it. w«««j •«« 44) Woodcnu.^ Manual for GMa 7. Know fifteen native wild birds from observation in street, field, or woods. 8. Know ten native wild quadrupeds. 9. Know ready help for cuts, poisoning, faint ing, dislocations, and sprains, as found on page 151. 10. Show by exanunation and practice an acquaintance with the essentials of etiquette as used in Woodcraft Council and in daily acts. 1 1. Run a Council and teach a dance or song. 12. Spend at least three hoiurs a week for two weeks helping in home duties. 13. Keep temper quite unruffled, or speak no evil of any one, for one moon. 14. After consultation with Guide al^tain from besetting sin for two months. 15. Write a composition of not less than 1,000 words on three American women whose lives have had great influence on the nation. Now, as before, the Guide testifies in Council, the Pathfinder has the last green tassel cut from her Badge and is installed as a Winyan of the Big Lodge. Titles and Officers Head Guide — One at least twenty-one years of age, of good character, associated with some Woodcraft Tribe and actually giving time to leading in Woodcraft work. Also qualified or willing to qualify within a y^T as Gleeman or Council Leader. (See Degrees.) Is responsible to Headquarters for work of Tribe. Guide — One at least eighteen years of age, of good character, willing to give time to leading a Band in Woodcraft work. Is commissioned by Headquarters upon recommendation of the Head Guide. Shaman — a Guide who has qualified as Camper, Camp Doc- tor, Camp Coc'i, and Council Leader. Chief— A member of a Tribe appointed as Leader by the Guide or elected by tht members of the Tribe with the Guide's approval. She acts as the representative of the members (should team to run the Cuuncil), and cooperates with the Guide in conducting the work of the Tribe. Band Chief— A member of one of the Bands appointed as leader by the Guide or elected by the members of the Band with the Guide'f approval. She acts as the representative of the 45) OiymiMtion ai members and co6p«rates with tbt Guide iff OMKiucting the work of the Band. Tally Keeper— A mei iber of the Tribe apprinted by the Guide, or elected by the Tribe with the approvalof the Guide, to act as Secretary and keep the Tally. Wampum Keeper— A member of the Tribe appointed by the Guide, or elected by the Tribe with the approval of the Guide, to act as Treasurer. Sometimes it may be wise to have one member hold both this and the preceding office. Band Tally and Wampum Collector— A member of a band appointed by the Guide or elected by the Band with the approval of the Guide to act as Secretary for the Band and to coUect dues of the members. Reports to the Tribal officers. Wayseekkr— The lowest rank in the Big Lodge. Patkhnder— The next or second rank in the Big Lodge. WiNYAN— The highest rank in the Big Lodge. Father and Mother Councillor— Adult relative or friend, interested in work, welfare, and support of the Tribe, but not necessarily giving as much time as a Guide. Sagamore — A member who has achieved twenty-four Coups. Grand Sagamore— One who has achieved twenty-four Grand Coups. Sachem— A member who has achieved forty-eight Coups. Grand Sachem— A member who has achieved forty-eieht Grand Coups. Fire Keeper— A member of a Band or Tribe appointed by the Chief to attend to the Council Fire for any given period. Watch Lodge— It has been found very valuable in soi. o cases to have a group of select -d members of the Tribe who will assist at times when discipline necessary. This group may be called by any appropriate name, but should be called upon only in emergency. Band— A group of not less than five nor more than ten mem- bers under a Band Chief and a Guide. Tribe— A group of not less than two Bands, that is,at least ten members, chartered from Headquarters and empowered to confer Badges and Degrees according to the Laws of the Birch Bark KoU under aChief and a Head Guide appointed by Headquarters. The maxunum number in a Tribe is fifty members. Badges blStoS^^^ of the Woodcraft League is a white shield with 46) 22 Woodcraft Manual for Girls That of the Girls' Big Lodge has in addition a circle open at the bottom and enclosing a blue background with a purple four- pointed star, in the centre of which is an orange or flame-colored circle. On the outer circle between the points of the star are four small spots, indicating the four comers of the earth. That of the Little Lodge has an incomplete circle and a small brown lodge on it. The crown on the Chief's badge is in each case blue. That of the Coup is a black and white eagle feathor embroid- erer^ in wash silk. That of the Grand Coup is the same with a red tuft on the eod. That of the Sagamore has a crown with five p>oints. That of the Grand Sagamore, Sachem, and Grand Sachem is made in the same way as the Sagamore bodge with ihe addition of red tufts, etc. The badges for degrees are red squares (with a design in black) and blue horns. That of the Guiae nas a trail on it. That of the Shaman has on it the four mountains of attain- ment. The robe badge for degree is the Zuni Coil in the cue oi which is the emblem of the degree. The Head Band for the Girls' Big Lodge is composed of blue teraees on a white background. That of the Little Lodge has brown squares with a white back- ground. The Meaning of t^c Badges The badge of the Woodcraft League is an ancient Indian totem composed of a pair of horns attached to a shield ; the horns mean- ing "attack "and the shield " defense" ;the idea symbolized being, " trained ana ready..' ' This is used bv all in the League, whether boy or girl, Little Lodge or Adult. T le blue on the badge is to remind us of "Blue Sky," which is our watchword. For under the blue sky, in the sunlight, we seek to live our lives; and our thoughts are of "Blue Sky," for that means "cheer"; and when there are clouds, we know that the blue sky is ever behind them, and will come again. On the girls' badges the four-rayed star stands for the four- fold life reaching out to the four comers of the earth from the great central fire. The rays of the star are Fortitude, Beauty, Truth, and Love. They correqxmd with the four little fires about the Council Fire. The (»ange drde in the cmtn is the 47) OffuiiailkMi 2$ WOODCBATT GIRLS' BAD0B8 Wayseeker Pathfinder rM>< n n ^ StguKne Gnnd Sagamon SadMm Gmd Guide liediciiie Womaa C(wpB«lge IB! GittdCoq. Degree Zwni Coil Badges Blanket Uegiee Badge

  • o o

(UTILE LODGE) Wood Brownie Water Brownie Rn Brownie CUef Head Bands 48) 34 Woodciaft Mamud for Giflf symbol for fire, the gift of the Great Spirit and a help to ber Him. The four corners of the earth, the green patches on the outer rim, indicate that the Woodcraft Girl is prepared to meet life on every side, even as "the tower, four square to every wind that blows." The dark circle, encircling the whole, denotes continuity and completeness, but it is open at the bottom to symbolise that there is always an entrance for a new thought or growth. Salute The salute is given with the right hand with all the fingers closed to the palm, except the little finger and the thumb and the hand raised level with the head. The hand sign of the girls is the "Sun in the heart, rising to the Zenith," given by the right hand being placed over the heart, the first finger and the thumb making a circle then swinging the forearm so the hand is level with the forehead. The Meaning of the Council Ring Why do we sit in a drde around the fire? ThatisanoldsttHy and a new one. In the beginning, before men had fire, they were forced to sit up in the trees and shiver all night as they looked down at the shining eyes in the bushes below— the eyes of fierce creatures ready to destroy them. But fire, when it was found, enabled man to sit on the ground all night, for the brute beasts feared it and stayed afar. It afford- ed him protection, warmth, a place of meeting and comfort. All the good things that we think of when we say "home" belong to the place around the fire. And when man began to think of such matters, he accepted the fire as the Great M3rstery. Still Uiter, as he realized that the Sun was the Great Mystery by day, he reasoned that there could not be two great mysteries; therefore, Ve. Invisible Cause bdbind these two must be the cme Great lih -^ey ; and in this was the first thought of true religion. All of these things are deep in our nature, ground m thro the ages as we sat about the fire of wood that was our nighuy guardian in the forest. And all of these ancient thoughts and memories are played on, whether we realize it or not, when we gather ir; a circle about the Council Fiie. Ther. , ^oo, a circle is the best way of seating a group. Each has hei ^ 'a>^ and is so s^t^d ?is to see everything and be seen 49) Organization l)v everybody. As a result each feels a vcrv real part in the proceedings as they could not feel if there were corners in which one could hide. The circle is dignified and it is democratic. It was with this idea that King Arthur abolished the old-fashioned long table with two levels, one above the salt for the noble folk and one below for the common herd, and founded the Round Table. At his table all who were worthy to come were on the same level, were brothers, equal in dignity and responsibility; and each in honor bound to do his share. The result was a kindlier spirit, a sense of mutual dependence. These are the thoughts in our Council Ring. These are among the reasons why our Council is always in a circle and if possible around the fire. The memory of those long-gone days is brought back again with their simple, reverent spirit, their sense of brotherhood, when we sit as our people used to sit about the fire and smell the wood smoke of CouncU. Ceremony of Grand Conndl When the members have familiarized themselves with the work they will want to invite their friends and hold Grand Council, introducing various things, such as dramatic dances, songs, etc., in addition to the regmr Doings in Council. The following order is suggested for the (^ning: When all are assembled and seated, give a short roll of the drum. Then let the Guide or the appointed Chief of the Council call out : " My friends, give ear— we hold a Council " ; or if the Indian words are preferred, "Yo-hay-y- Yo-hay-y-y; Meetah Kola Nahoonpo Omnee-chee-yaynce-chopi. If one of th^ members is to make the fire with the rubbing sticks, the Chief, still standing, now says in a loud, clear voice: "Now light we the Council Fire after the manner of the forest chudren, even as Wakonda himself doth light his fire— liy the rubbing together of two trees in the storm wind, so cometh forth the sacred fire from the wood of the forest." (She uses the drill; the smoke comes, the flame bursts forth ) "Now know we that Wakonda the Great Spirit hath b<«n pleased to smile on His children, hath sent down Uic ^civd fire. By this we know He will be present at our Council, that His wisdom will be with us." ir-— t ceremony the Chief puts a handful of red AJnUumk (red wUlow), or a local substitute mbced with white cedar wood m the little fire bowl, so that the smoke and its fia- 50) 36 Woodcraft Manual for Girls grance are diffused and says; " As the Great Central Fire of all reaches out to the Four Corners of the earth and kindles bkudng lights, so at our sacred symbol fire light we our lamps, one each for Fortitude, Beauty, Truth, and Love. And while these lights are blazing bright, we know that we shall grow." Four candies are there on the Shrine of this our symbol Fires, And from them reach twelve rays — twelve golden strands of this the Law we hold: From the Lamp of Fortitude are These Be Brave; for fear b in the foundation of all ill; iinffinrhingnfas is strength. Be SiUfU. It is harder to keep silence than to speak in the hour of trial, but in the end it is stronger. Obey; for obedience means self-control, which is the sum of the law. And These are the Rays from Beauty's Lamp y Be Clean; for there is no perf.ct beauty without cleanliness of body, soul, and estate. The body is the sacred temple of the !^irit, therefore reverence your body. Cleanliness helps first yourself, then those around, and those who keep this law are truly in their country's loving service. Understand and respect your body. It is the temple of the spirit, for without health can neither strength nor beauty be. Protect all harmless wild life for the joy its beauty gives. And These are the Kays froan 0x9 iMop of Ttulk Hold your word of honor sacred. This is the law of truth, and any one not bound by this cannot be bound; and truth is wisdom. Play Fair; for fair play is truth and foul play is treachery. Reverence tite Great Spirit, and all Worship of Him f<Mr none have all the truth, and all who reverently worship have daims on our respect And Iliese are in the Blaxinf Lamp of Love Be Kind. Do at least one act of unbargaining sennet every day, even as ye would enlarge the crevice whence a qwing runs forth to make its blessings more. 51) OfgBiiizfttioii Be Helpful. Do your share of the work for the glory that the service brings, for the strength one gets in serving. Be Joyful. Seek the joy of being alive — for every reasonable gladness you can get or give is treasure that can necr be de- stroyed, and like the springtime gladness doubles, every time with others it is shared. Then use the regular ceremony of the Council cutting short the business unless it is very interesting. After closing by singing the Omaha Tribal Prayer, the Chief announces: "Our Council is ended, but our Council Fire bums; now, therefore, lest this blessing become a danger, it is the duty of our Fire Keeper to utLerly quench our Council Fire or hedge it about with an impassable barrier lest it become a source of danger." Closing Sometimes the Council is closed with another song such as the Zuni Sunset, or Bark Canoe, in which case the "Onmha" is sung after the lighting of the candles. The Council Robe A number of the members of the Woodcraft League have found the Council Robe at Grand Council both comfortable and picturesque. It is usually a blanket of light yveight material, decorated with badges for degree or coups when they have been won, also totems of the band, the tribe, etc. CONSTITUTION OR THE LAWS FOR THE RUUNG OF THE TRIBB I. Naint This Tribe shall be called "The Tribe of the Big Lodge of the Woodcraft League." n. Ptirpose Our purpose is to learn the outdoor life for its worth in the buildmg up of our bodies and the helping and strengthening of our souls; that we may go forth with the seeing eye, and the thmking hand to learn the pleasant ways of the woods and of 52) 28 Woodcraft Manual for Girls life that we be made in all wise masters of ourselves: facing Ufe without flmchmg, read> to take our part among our fellows in aU the prob ems which arise, rejoicing when some trial comes that tabernad J^""^' ^ *° worthy m. Who May Enter Those who are twelve years of age, who know the law, who are acceptable to the Band and who can show themselves worthy according to an estabUshed initiation. M begin at the lowwt r3.nK«  Those who would enter must be admitted to a Band which is already part of a Tribe, or is afterward made such. IV. Councils A Council of the Tribe should be held in the first part of each moon or oftener. *^ Each Band should hold a weekly meeting. The yearly CouncU for the elecUon of officers shaU be held on the first sun of the Leaf Falling Moon (October) or as soon after as possible. • • ^'^^V ^J^"-^' H^^ger (Feb.), Crow or Waken- ing (March), Grass (April), Planting (May), Rose Hune), J^^^L (^"g-^; (Sept), Leaf-tang (Oct.), Mad (Nov.), Long-night (Dec). Special Council may be caUed by the Chief with the approval of the Guide, and must be called by her upon the written rMuest of one fourth of the Council or one third of the Tribe A quarter of the whole number shaU be a quorum of the Council or Tnbe. «  V. The Rulers of tlie Tribe (See Titles, page ao) The ZTeorf Guide, responsible to Headquarters, is chief ruler. Outdes, responsible to the Head Guide. .S'^i^'^-'f^^i^ sometimes appointed by the Guide; this officer should be strong and acceptable, for the emef is the leader, must enforce the laws, has charge of the standard which bears the totem of the Tribe, and is the represen- tative of the members. 53) OigBsixitioB 29 The Second Chief takes the Chief's place in case the latter is absent; is elected by the whole Tribe. Taily- Keeper; elected by the members,or appointed for one year by the Guide or Chid, and is charged with keeping the records. Enters nothing in the records, except as oommtuided by the Council; should be an artist. Wampum Keeper. Appointed for one year by the Guide or elected by the members to keep the records and public property of the Tribe. Shoiild have a lock-box or small trunk to keep valuables in. Sometimes one member holds more than one of these offices. The Guides appointed by Headquarters, the Tribal and Band Chiefs, and the Sachems and Sagamores by right of their Honors, together form the High Council or Governing Body of the All disputes, etc., are settled by the Guide, the Chief, and Council. The Council makes the laws and fixes the dues. The Chief enforces the laws with the support of the Guide. All rulers are elected or appointed for one year, or imtil their successors are chosen. The election to take place on, or as soon as possiUe af to:, the first Sun c$ the Leaf FalUng Ho<m (October Honorary or Life Members have been elected by some Tribes as marks of distinction or affection. (Whenever in doubt, follow the National Constitution.) Vow of the Head Chief. (To be signed with name and totem, if any, in the Tally Book.) I give my word of honor that I will mamtain the Laws, see faur play m all the doings of the Tribe, and protect the weak, and I will not ask any one to do what I am not willing to do myself. Vow of each rrfmher. (To be signed with the name and totem of each m the Tally Look.) I give my word of honor that in all matters of Woodcraft, I will obey the Chief and Council of my Tribe, and if I fail in my duty I will appear before the Council wlttn ordered, and submit withmit murmtitiiig to their decisi<«i. Changes of this code, in harmony with the National Laws may be made at any Council bv a two-thirds vote of all tlw Tribe, tf due notice of the proposed change is given to all members seven suns before. Tribe. VI. Changes of the Law 54) Woodcnft Manual for Gids Vn. DuM Dues shall be: first o j on all by the Council for TriKi^l' tSf^^ "^^^^ necessary, the CouncU shaS asS?^^^ i,-^"^' "^^"^ camp. "ose taking part in The initiation fee for newcomers shall he u- ,. shall mclude the first year's Hi.^l kT.* u ii . : ; ' ^^ch sessmcnts. ^ ^ «»cludc the as- Vm. Confidential of ««P «<»t the confidential discu^aon. n. Laws and Punishments The laws are as already given (p. lo). Renewal of initiations. Jt^ata™ » in camp. f„.„, a. ^^e extreme pe^l.y fa "death that fa, banishment fam the The Band The Band also elects iL' 11' J rl ', ^ 's elected. Chief and a TMy K^^r '^^iu^u^^ m absence of the office to keep the^^S^ Jhe W?^.";'!'* f" '°' " Two or more Bands unite to form a Tribe us^l'^T^^I^d^Un :i °^ Tribe, and Callof itsoT^ theBandhasaboaToteiii;nda The Band keeps its own TaUy, and laises what duet it pkaacs. 55) Oisankatioii 32 But it also paj^ dues to the Tribe and is represented in Tribal Council by its Chief and Nobles (if any) and such Tribal officers as It can elect. The Inbiinging of a Newcomer Those who would learn the life, and take the vows, of Wood- craft, must enter by the lowest stage of the Lodge. And before being admitted must as already set forth (p. 28) : 1. Be of right age (i. e., twelve for Big Lodge), salute^""^ ^ws of the Lodge also the hand sign and the 3. Must be proposed, seconded, and have name posted for seven suns on the bulletin board (Totem pole) or tally book and be given an Imtiation Test as set forth in the trials d fortitude on page (11), "'^» J^"st have passed the gi /en initiations and if found worthy may take the vow m this wise: The Guide, or whoever is con- mbnngmg, There is a new member to be taken in at this Council by name. . . Let the would-be member stand t£u Jfifn'^^l!"^-^'"' } ^"^y <l"»Kfi«» in the four wfna y^Tri ^^"'^ °/ ^ 'a^s of the Lodge, ^ving been duly posted for seven suns, having faced the init^- memLnnTi^fV° t"' ""l ^^^^'^ admission of this member, and to the end that there may be no hindrance to freedom o speech, the candidate is asked to leave the ComiS decided" ^ ^ mtter s^'tS^Sen In the discussion all the Tribe may take part, but only the T' ^""^ "^"^^^^^ entS?'the order by Se^ Tf^r- ^v}^^ one blackball is enough to ex^ dude. If the candidate is voted down it is wiser to defer Se Svo"n^r"' later Council and meanwhile let the un lucky one know privately of the decision. In case the favorably. anTrrn :?tM'h^'^" two backers go out L"o "^e;^^^^ ana return with the successful candidate btanding before the Guide in open Council she shall be aues tioned and mstructed. so she shaM k"--- r'snrp fnlL purpose of the League. Then the GuiiT^Tl ^y^ craff L^aguc^"°'" '° * o^ the Wood- Answer: "Itis." 56) 33 WoodczafC Manual for Girls

  1. «„r^ have already learned that you are fully qualified in the

four proofs of fitness by being over twelve years of age, by learn- ing the law of the Lodge, by (here name the initiation taken), bv ^mg found acceptable to the Band you wish to join. Is it not Answer: (by the officer who knows): "Yes, O Chief. I can vouch for the candidate." i * win .'i y^^i^^"^ our laws; we shaU take them one by one. (i; Do you promise obedience to the Coundl?" Answer: "I do." (And so, through the twelve laws, whereby the member is bound toobe^ence courage, cleariHness, health-seeking, to cher- ish the Great Spirit's gifts; and to service, kindness, fair-plav iov sUence, reverence, honor.) *^ JJ"/» "And what are the four lights on our Shrine from which these laws do emanate? " Anmer: They are Fortitude, Beauty, Truth, and Love.'* And whence did these four receive their light? " Answer: From the Light of the Central Fire which is the emblem of the Great Mystery by which we symbolize that aU uood comes from the one Great Source." The Guide then says: "Raise your 'hand and say after me: I give my word of honor that in all matters of the League, I will obey the Chief and Council and the laws of my Tribe, and if at any tune I fail m my duty I wiU appear before the Council, when ordered, and submit without murmuring to its ded- I receive you into our Order, and by this badge I formally signify the same." (Now the Guide pins the badge over 2ys)^" heart, or on her arm, shakes hands and _ "Now I declare your installation complete as a Wayseeker T J- •• Band of the . . . Tribe, which is of the Big Lodge m the Woodcraft League." ^hus one enters the Tribe and the League by joining a Installatioii of tiie Higher Ranks Whenever a member has won the right to promotion the evi- dences are first submitted to the High Council or the Committee they appoint, and if quite saUsfactory the installation is made at the next Council or Grand Council, whichever is most con- vement or desirable. 57) Wlien the r^( ?ramme has gone as for as "badges to be clainicn, " fb-; Chief of the applicant's Tribe or Band shaU an- nounc? tl) ,- i lan . The Committee who have eamined the evidence now stand up to support the claim. The Guide or Chief at the Council Rock (in the chair) asks "if any do chal- lenge the claim," and if none, briefly describes the qualifications and their value m our work, then says: "Acting for the Council therefore, I now cut from the Horned Shield the green tassel' the badge of the rank this member is leaving, and announce that her mstallaUon is complete as a .... of the Lodge. .... Then clips off the green tassel, casts it into the fire, and shakes hands with the successful one, who retires to her seat amid loud applause. The Conferring of Coups and Degrees (See Section IV) When in the Council the Guide or Chief, at the CouncU Rock, announces that now is the time to claim badges, each who i^ r^'u^J^y ^""^ ^^""^ (got from Headquar- ters) stands up till bidden to speak, then steps forward and iys: .0 Chief, m behalf of ... of the .. . Band I claim a coup (Grand Coup or Degree as it may be) for Record""^ testimony of my witnesses," handing over 'the The Chief of the Council calls out loudly: "Here Claims . . . and here is the evidence fuUy witnessed „ki ■ ' , ' • • Pt^rsons of good standing and ab e o speak with authority in this matte? The Committee ^Lr'^i^ '""K'^' endorsed the application! What IS the pleasure of the CounciP" i^pucauon. Some one ns^ and says: "O Chief, there can be no question of the justice of this claim. I move that it be allowed." ^ ^ Another says: 'I second that, O Chief." TheChief says- 'wlh ' rS^Sr'^f ' ^"u^T^ contrary iy t r J r ^'^ ^'^'"^ is allowed." ^ 1 he Chief then says: "In behalf of the Council I bestow nt, cJ^t^^' ■.""fK"^'! l-y 'tie Chief in the chair and be- 58) 34 Woodcraft Manual for Gixls Winning a Name The bestowal of the ceremonial name is a serious matter and the highest honor within the gift of the Council ' ^ In the Woodcraft League the ceremonial name is siven onlv when a member measures up as the finest type of WoSSSt wiHn °' ceimonial names would ord narilv be won during a year. Any one applyinirfor a ceremonial or Uor name is thereby proven unwo Sy^Jnt The suggestion should come from those kround her aft« tte Itfe and conduct of the member shows that she has atUined to a certam high measure of power and self-restrSft, or achievement that manifests the excellence of the spWt^S The name is almost never given for a single exploit but raXr ^rtm^r ach'ieveSint inlimet- When the Council, ever watchful, has decided that such a one by her steady and sterUng gifts is entitled to a^aiJe^e best way is to find out privately if this person wisheTfor £ honor next what particular name or idea iTappropriatl a^d ceptable to all concerned. If desired, the CoJSal i^y g^frSi ^dquartersa suitable list of names from which to muS^LS 59) SECTION n TWBB AND COUNCIL ACTlVniBS Sunattiou M TOM W«k Daaeet Games wT^* Aetiiig Songs ««7«, Rigeant. Mid Ifag^wt 60) 61) SECTION n TRIBE AND COUNCIL ACTIVITIES (This section aims to help Woodcraft Tribes in running their CouncU meeting. The sub ecU which foUow ue intimteIyZLted iriUi th«  t ouncls though much of the mterial in "TiK to kSS1Sdo^J£; will be of great value.) One day after a heavy snowstorm the children of a country school were wondering what they would do at recess time Some one suggested that they go out in a neighboring field, stand with their backs to the laree oak tree in the centre, ind then see who could wal^ the stmightest line to the fence. This they did. but they found that only one of the number had walked a straight h.^Si;?iL^5 turned aade for stumps or holes. And when they asked the giri why she had been able to walk inch a straight toward it" ' I kept «y eye « a port and walked ^ht There are so many interesting things that a Tribe can do that there is a danger of missing some of the best things unfcss the Tribe has a plan. Make sui e rhen that the meeting give proper Jtr^uV interests of the Tribe, and*^ that elch member has a chance to grow. Every meeting should be care- ^ ^""^ opportunity for tribal business, to th. H 1*™^' ^""^ ^ And, of course, the same close attention and enthusiasm will be giv^n to each a wS^n n"' .^^P*" ^ » Pathfinder, then It i,S> ; -T^^y ^° ^" * of Coups and Degrees, tip T^S 1° the length of tune it shoSd take for aU Z L"^.?.^ ^ • '•^'^ and aDot to each ^c^ hif ^11 k °^ t"^J^*' ^° ^ covered. In thiswayeachmcu.. ber will have a chance to grow with the others. ^"^"^ eame " "r^fSlP the Tribe "play the Kcemlif ^^^tep jnan ever took in his long history of iS^^tlnT" T^^'^tS^ ^^"^^ to cooperate ^ti^ others, games sin«T .hS k quittersrwhether it be ii:- MaL« 'ik^^' business, or in the learning of new things Make them see that the w:.ole value of the Tribe wiU de^^d 62) 38 WoodeiafI Iftmud for Oirb upon tht amount of loyalty and team work each member puu into it, fw ^ "TU strength of the pack is the wolf; The strength of the wolf is the pack." Here are a few suggestions for covering the tests for Pathfinder ' m three months and the Winyan in five. It can be done though your Tnbe may prefer to cover the ground more slowly. T1?e , , numbers mdicate the numbers of the tests. These suggest i- < I cover only the tests. At every Council you shouW iutro- duce songs dances, primitive history, legends, storiesand natare narraUves, handicraft, etc (Tkne montitt)

FirsI Month: 

First week: Organization council; choose name, totem and officers; explain purpose of Woodcraft Girls, ceremony, etc. becondweek: Above continued— Laws; give out initiaUons. j ^^l^ Swear in mcnben and officers: Tnn (6); f Hike and account (a); Fourth week: Knots (is). Second Month: First week: Stars (5).

Second week
Ten totems or edible wild pfants (o): EnUst

new members (4) ; Home help (is); Swim 5)7 Third week: Wild flowers (7). ^ Fourth week: Check up work done— optional wwk. I Third Month: I First week: Sign language (8). Second week: Hatchet and knife or hammer and saw (13): prepare wood for fires (11). i '^'^^ ^k: Bird box, bird restaurant, or transplant trees, I flowers or plants (10). • Fourth week: Bead work and ^wing (14). WiofaB (Flw «M^) First MotiOk: First week: Rubbing stick fire. Second week: Birds (7). 63) Third week : Hikes and accounts (6). Fourth week: Tertandktriiie (a)ieMe&tiabo<cain|]ing. Stcotid Month: First week: Ready hdri Second week : i< -ady ht ip. Third week: Ready help. Fourth week: ReMly h^paadhomelidp (la). Third Month: Fir week Bird Serond v(h k: Grass it m stick i, d (4'!. Tiiird week: Rainprool shelter (3). Fourth weel: Review, open sdoduie, eUq.. ted..). Fourth Month ^ ^ First week: Animals Second wet . ; R u . Council (1 1). Third week : Cooking (i) ; canoe or boat (c). Fourth week: Character (13 and 14). Fifth Month: ^ ^ First week: Great women (15). Second week: First aid— life-saving lew. Thi ! wt * k : Animak and birds— re . «w. Fourth week: Camper-craft review. 64) 65) COUNCIL 6AMBS Council Navajo Feather Danee Strong Hand Cock Fighting stung One-legged Chicken Fight Talk-^ett Solenmitj AIM many of fh» Ootdowr and Indoor Oamoa WatcUng by the Trail Trailing ^ache Relay Race BatBaU Chinese Tag Scouting Quick Sight Outdoor Far Sight Home Star HostUe Spy Tree the Coon Rat on the Lodge Water Boiling ConteM Medley Scouting Stm-hottting Oo Bock Water Spearing the Great Sturgeon Canoe Tag Odds and Evens Blind Man's Buff My Vacation Names by Tt^ca Fortune Shopping Guessing GaoM Kingdom IndoOT Geography Menagerie Menagerie Party Portrait Party Magic Moaic Hat IViauning ContMt Fireside Trick Lone Star Tiiek 'MtharFbotball 66) 67) COUNCIL GAMES Navajo Feather Dance ri jl? ■^^^ l^^J^""' ^ horsehair, so as to stand up- right IS worked by a hidden operator, so as to dance and caper rhe dancer has to imitate all its moUons. A marionette may be used. It is a great fun maker. t*«"i«i«:«e may Cock-Fighting Make two stout sticks, each 2 feet long (broomsUcks wiU do). Pad each of these on the end with aUU rat are the spurs. Make an 8-foot ring. Thelwo riv5s are ^ their hunkers, each mth a stick through iSLr^ '^ees ends that round, and scores i for the vJ^to^VS^th faT^S One-Ugged Chicken Fight Strong Hand The two contestants stand right toe -ah* tr^ • ^nds cksped together; left feet brace? i^/?' maeTM ft't- " "^'^ ^"^^ ^« ""baLnce^the^r Sat ts make her lift or move one of henfeet Aliftora Sel^ tte Battles are for bert out of 3. s. or 7 mund.. 68) 44 Woodcraft Manual for Girls Stong, or Step on the Rattler— Sometimet CaUeti Poiaon This is an ancient game. A circle about three feet across «- drawn on the ground. The players c/ioose sides, possibly o'.e band against another and place chemselves alternately holding hands, to make a ring around this, and try to make one of the number step into the poison circle. She can evade it by side-stepping, bv jumping over, or by dragging another into it. Each one who steps in the circle is stung and sits down. Sometimes we use a newspaper Aurith a switch lying across it. When all on one side have been stung, the other side become the Rattlers, and may sting each of the others with the switch across their hands. Talk-fest The Talk-fest, if properly handled, can be one of the moit amusing of the Council Ring games. The idea b to have two good talkers talk simultaneously for not more than two minutes. Each selects her own subject. A jury of three persons, is ap- pointed. The contest b decided on the basis of continuity, humcHr, and general value oi the speeches. Solemnity The idea is to have one member challenge another to a test of ability to keep one's "face straight." Facing each other and in the presence of the crowd, each looks into the other's eyes to see which will smile or laugh first. Speech and gesture my be in- troduced if desired. OUTDOOR GAMES Watchinc by the TraU This i« 1 game we <rften play in the train, to pass the time pleasantly. Sometimes one party takes the right side of the road with the windows there, and the other the left. S<Hnetimes ali players sit on the same side. The game is, whoever is first to see certdn things agreed on scores so many pcHnts. Thus: 69) Tribe Activities 45 A crow or a cow counts i A horse 2 A sheep j A goat [ ^ A cat ^ A hawk 5 An owl J The winner is the one who first gets 25 or 50 points, as agreed. When afoot, <me naturally takes other things for points, as certain trees, flowers, etc. Tniling A good trailing stunt to develop alertness and observatiwi •<= managed thus: One girl wearing the tracking irons is deer. She is given 100 beans, 30 slices of potato, and 10 minutes start. She has to lay a track, as crooked as she pleases, dropping a bean every 3 or 4 yards and a slice of potato every ao. Aftw ten minutes' run the deer has to hide. The t ailers follow her, picking up the beans and potato shces. Each bean counts i point, each slice of potato 2. The one who finds the deer scores 10 for it. Apache Relay Race One band is pitted against another, to see who can carry a message and bring a reply in shortest time, by means of relays of runners. One-quarter of a mile is far enough for an ordinary race This divides up even 55 yards to each of eight runners. Ihe band is taken out by the Chief, who drops scouts at con- venient distances, where they await the arrival of the other runner, and at once take the letter on to the next, and there await the return letter. A good band of 8 can carry a letter a quartar of a mile and ormg the answer in about 3 minutes. Chinese Tag Is like the regular game of tag with this difference: the one •'^P t^' ^'^"^ part whichwashitwhen i&e was tagged thus making only one free arm. 70) 46 Woodcraft ManiMi for Girls Bat BaU A regular baseball diampnd is used, two teams are chosen of equal nuqibei". A YoUpy baU or indoor baseball is used, pref- erably the formn-. One team is scattered anywhere inside the bas«, the other team is up to bat. The girl bats the ball with her hand. The opposing team catching the ball she has batted tries to put the runner out by throwing the ball at the runner or by tpuchmg her with it. If the runner stands still she may not be put out, but the team trying to put her out must keep the Imll passmg contmually; one of the players holding the ball is unfair The girl runnmg must reach the home plate brfore another batter come» up to bat. Scouting Scouts are sent out in pairs or singly. A number of points are marked on the map at equal distances from camp, and the scouts draw straws to see where each goes. If one place is obvfously hard, the scout is allowed a fair number of points as handicap. All set out at same time, go direct, and return as soon as possible. Points are thus allowed: Last back, zero for traveling. The others c«Mmt cme for each minute they are ahead of the last. Points up to loo are allowed for their story on return. Sometimes we allow lo points for each Turtle they have seen; lo for each Owl seen and properly named; 5 for each Hawk, and i each for other wild birds; also 2 for a Cat: i for a Dog. No information is given the scout; she is told to go to such a point and do so and so, but is fined points if she hesitates or asks how or why, etc. Tha Game of Quickaight Take two board.i about a foot square, di de each into twenty- five squares; get ten nuts and ten pebbles. C.ivc lo one p)ia>cr one board, five nuts, and five pebbles, bhc places these on the squares in any pattern she fancies, and when ready, the other player is allowed to see it for five wcoixb. Tben it is oovcied 71) Tribe Activities 47 up, and from the memory of what she saw the second player must reproduce the pattern on her own board. She counts one for each that was right, and takes off one for each that was wrong. They take turn and turn about. «  o • • o

• ceunttrs This game is a wonderful developer of the power to see and memorize quickly. Far-sight, or Spot-the-lUbUt Take two six-inch squares of stiff white pasteboard or whitened wood. On each of these draw an ouUine Rabbit, one an exact duphcate of the other. Make twenty round black wafers or nvcse on one Rabbit-board and set it up in full light. The other Ix^inmng at ,oo feet, dmws near tiU Ae can s^ Uie spS^^ 72) 48 Woodcnft Ifmial lor Olds enough to reproduce the pattern on the other which she carries. If she can do it at 75 feet she has wonderful eyes. Down even to 70 (done 3 tunes out of 5) she counts high honor: from 70 to 60 counts honor. Bdow that does not count at all. Honw Star or Pole Star Each competitor is given a long, straight stick, in daytime, and told to lay it due north and south. In doing this she may guide herself by sun, moss, or anything she can find in nature— anyth'>..g, indeed, except a compass. The direction is checked by a good compass corrected for the locality. The one who comes nearest wins. It is optional with the judges whether the use of a time- Diece is to be allowed. Hoatile Spy Hanging from the jtem-Tx>le is a red or yellow handkerchief. TJus IS the Grand iv.edicme Trophy of the band. The Hos- tilc Spy has to capture it. The leader goes around on the mormng of the day and whispers to the various members, " Look out— there s a spy in camp." At length she goes secretly near the one she has selected for spy and whispers, "Look out. there s a spy m camp, and you are it." She gives her at the same tune some bright-colored badge, that she must wear as soon as she has secured the Medicine Trophy. She must not hide the Trophy on her person, but keep it in view. She has aO day tm sunset to get away with it. If she gets across the river or otner lunit, she wins and they must pay an agreed ransom for the If she 18 caught, she loses and has to pay a ransom for Tree the Coon -rJ'^'u.'^,^" founded on the familiar "Hunt the Ihimble. We use a littJe dummy coon; either make it or turn a ready- made toy rabbit into one, by adding taU and Uack mask, and cropping the ears. Sometimes even a littie tag ball with a faa painted on it. All Uie players but one go out of the room. That one places the coon anywhere in sight, high or low, but in plain view: aU come m and seek. The first to find it sits down silently, and 73) Tribe ActiTities 49 scores i. Each sits down, od seeing it, giving no clue to the others. The first to score 3 coons is winner, usuaUy. Sometimes we play till every one but one has a cocm; that one is the booby. The others are first, second, etc. Sometimes each is given her number in order of finding it. Then, after 7 or 8 coons, these numbers are added up, and the lawesf is winner. Rat-<m-the-Lodg«  Each player has a good-sized bean bag. This is the rat and is kept by the player permanently. The lodge is any solid object su indies ox more above the ground or floor. A deed line is drawn thrcwigh the lodge tad another p>arallel, 1 5 feet away, for a firing-line. The girl who is "it," or "keeper," perches her bean bag or rat on the lodge. The others stand at the firing-line and throw their bean bags at hers. They must not pick them up or touch them with their hands when they are beymd the dead-line. If one does, then the keeper can tag her (unless she reaches the firing-line) and send her to do duty as keeper at the rock. But they can coax their rats with thdr feet, up to the dead- line not beyond, then watch for a chance to dodge back to the firing-line, where they are safe at all times. If the rat is knocked off by any one in fair firing, the keeper is powerless till she has replaced it. Meantime, most of the play- «8 have secured their rats and got back safe to the firing-line. Water-Boiling Cwtett Given a hatchet and knife, i match, a 2-quart pail, 7 inches or Iws m diameter, one quart of water and a block of K^t wood about 2 feet long and 5 or 6 inches through. 'The record for water-boiling is said to be 7.59. First cut plenty (,f wood. Spend three minutes on it. Sup- port >-our pail on four pegs driven in the ground or by a long stick driven diagoiiuiiy into the ground. If water is handy dip thepegs in it before placing. ™ water must be jumping and bubbUng aU over the surface or It IS not boilmg. If the first match goes out, contestants are usually allowed a second, but are penaliaed by having a minutes added to their 74) 50 Woodcraft Mastial for Oirig Medley Scouting The following competition in Medley Scouting took place at OM of my camps. A prize was offered for the highest points m the following: At the word, "Go." Bring a leaf of sugar- maple; and tell how it differs from other maples. Tell a short story or give a recitation. Bring a leaf of poison ivy (wrapped in a thick paper, to avoid tottchmg it), and describe the poison, and mode of counteracting Mark off on a stick your idea of a yard. Bring a leaf of witch hazel, and tell what it is good for. Bring a leaf of beech, and tell how it differs frtmi those most like it. Dance a step; any— English, Irish, Scotch, or Indian. Strike a match and light a lamp; both of them imaginary. Make a map of North America from memory in ten minutes. Give an imitation of some animal, actions or sounds. Play the part of an Indian woman finding her warrior dead. For each of the first 20 competitow, points were given: the prize adjudged by the total. Some of these stunts may seem trivial, but there was a pur- pose in each, and that purpose was served. In the Indian wi^, for examole, we wished to select the best actor for play. Most of the girls failed. Two were good, but one, nearly the smallest in camp, was so fine that she brought tears mto the eyes of many. The selection of the various leaves impressed these kiiufa on all, especially those who failed to bring the right ones. The animal imitation and dance was introduced to cultivate the spirit of going fearlessly in and' doing one's best, however poor It mi^t be. The imitations of monkey, lynx, cat, panther, raoose, etc., developed a keen observation, and a lot <rf good natural history that was intensely interesting as well as amusing. The water-boihng was particularly instructive and was tried twice. The first time the winner took 14 minutes, and the sec- ond best 20. The last time, the winner's time was 8 minutes, and the second erne's 10. Still-Hunting the Buck, or the DMr-Huat The deer is a dummy, best made with a wire frame, on which soft hay is wrapped till it is of proper size and shape, then all » 75) Tribe Activities 5X covered with open burlap. A few touches ol white and black make it very realistic. If time does not admit of a well-finished deer, one can be made of a sack stuffed with hay, decorated at one end with a smaller sack tot head and neck, ud set on four thin sticks. 1 he side of the deer is marked with a laige oval, and over the heart is a smaller one. Bows and arrows only are used to shoot this deer. A pocketful of corn, peas, or other laree grain is now needed ior scent. The girl who is the deer for the first hunt takes the dummy under her arm and runs off, getting ten minutes' start, or uiun she comes back and shouts 'ready!'* She leaves a trail of com, dropping two or three grains for every yard and making the tiail as crooked as she likes, playing such tricks as a < OCT would do to baffle his pursuers, fhm she hides the deer in any place she fancies, but not among rocks or on the top of a ridge, because in one case many arrows would be broken, and in the other, lost. The hunters now hunt for this deer just as for a real deer, either following the tnul or watching the woods ahead; the best hunters com- bine the two. If at any time the trail IS quite lost the one m charge Jouts "Lost TraUr After that the one who finds the trail scores two. ^.'"^ ^ shouting "Deer" U fined five Thustheygotiiltomeooefia5bthede^ 5heiho«tt"SiIr n 76) Woodcraft Manual for Girls and scores len for finding it. The others shout Secottd," " Third," etc., in order of seeing it, but they do not score. The finder must shoot at the deer with her bow and arrow from the very spot whence she saw it. If she misses, the sea>nd hunter may step up five paces, and have her Aot. If 5^0 misses, the third one goes five, and so on till some < ic hits the deer, or until the ten-yutd limit is reacli 1. If the finder is within ten yards on sighting the deer, and misses her ahot, the other hunters go back to the ten-ya n! limit. Once the deer is hit, all the shooting must Ix; from the exact spot whence the successful shot was fired. A diot in the big oval is a body woutid; that scores five. A shot outside that is a scratch; that scores two. A shot in the small oval or heart is a heart wound; it scores ten, and ends the hunt. Arrows which do not stick do not count, unless it can be provMl that they passed right through, in which case they take tht higfacat sowe that they pierced. If all the arrows are used, and none in the heart, the deer escapes, and the girl who was deer scores twenty-jive, The one who found the dummy is deer for the next hunt. A clever deer can add greatly to the exdtonent of the game. Originally we used paper for scent, but found it bad. It littered the woods, yesterday's trail was confused with that of to- day, etc. Corn proved better, because the birds and the iquirrds kq;>t it cleaned up from day to day, and thus the 77) Tribe Activitiei 59 ground wu always ready for a fresh start. But the best of all is the hoof Ruurk for the shoe. These iron hoof marks are fast to a pair of shoes, and leave a trail muc h like a real deer. This haa several advantages. It gives the hunter a chance to tell where the trail doubled, and which way the deer was going. It is more realistic, and a girl who can follow this skilfully can follow a ttv* ing deer. In actual practice it is found well to use a little com with this on the hard jdaces, a plan quite consistent with realism, as every hiinter will recall. It is strictly forbidden to any hunter to stand in front of tl v firing-line; all must be back of the line on which the shooter •stands. There is no limit to the situations and curious combinations in this hunt. The deet may be Irft standing or lying. There to no law why it should not be hidden behind a solid tree trimk. The game develops as one follows it. After it has been played fw some time with the iron hoot nmA as above, th'.^ girls grow so skilful on the trail that we can dispense with even the corn. The iron mark like a deer hoof leaves a very realistic "slot" or track, which the more skilful girls readily fdlow through the woods. A hunt is usually for three, five, or more deer, according to agree- ment, and the result is reckoned by points on the whole chase WATER OAMBS Spearing the Great Sturgeon This water fpme is exceedingly popular and is entedally good for public exhibition, being spectacular and lufl 01 amusement and excitement. The outfit needed is: (x) A sturgeon roughly formed of soft wood; it should b^ WjAf for /^iiUft. about three feet long and nearly a foot thick at the head. It may be made realistic, or a small log pointed at both ends wifl sorve. * 78) S4 Woodcnilt Majmal for GIrit (3) Two spears with six-inch steel heads and wooden handles (about three feet long). The points should be sharp, but not the barbs. Sometimes the barbs are omitted altogether. Each head should have an eyt to which is attached twenty feet of one-quarter-inch rope. On each rope, six feet from the spear- head, is a fathom mark made by tying on a rag or cord. (3) Two boats with crews. Each crew consists of a spear- man, who is captain, and one or two oarsmen or paddlers, of whlJi the after one is the pilot. All should be expert swhnmers or else wear life belts during the game. The game. Each boat has a base or harbor; this is usually part of the shore opposite that of the enemy; or it obviates ail danger of collision if the boat starts from the same side. The sturgeon is left by the referee's canoe at a point midway be- tween the bases. At the word "Go!" each boat leaves its base and, making f( r the sturgeon, tries to spear it, then drag it by the line to the base. When both get their spears into it the contest becomes a tug of war until one of the spears pulls out. The sturgeon is landed when the prow of the boat that has it in tow touches its proper base, even though the spear of the en- emy is then in the fish: or it is landed when the fish itself touches basie if it is also in tow at the time. The boats change bases after each heat. Matches are usually for one, three, or five sturgeon. Points are counted only for the landing of the fish, but the referee may give the decision on a foul or a succession of fouls, or the de- lii.quent may be set back one or more boat-lengths. Sometimes the game is played in canoes or boats, with one player as spearman and crew. Rules: It is not allowed to push the sturgeon into a new po*i- tion with the spear or paddle before striking. It is aUmoeu to pull the sturgeon tmcm* the boat or pass it around by using the line after spearing. It is allowed to lay hands on the other boat to prevent a col- lisimi, but otherwise it is fort>idden to touch the other boat or crew or paddle or spear or line, or to lay hands on the fish or to touch it with the paddle or oar, or touch your own spear while 79) Tribe Activities 5S it is in the fish, or to tie the line around the fish excq>t so far as this may be accidentally done in spearing. It is alhwed to dislodge the enemy's spear by throwing your own over it. The purpose of the barbs is to assist in this. It is allowed to run on to the sturgeon with the boat. It is absolutely forbidden to tkfom the spw em At eOur hoot or am the heads of your crew. In towing the sturgeon the fathom-maik must be over the gunwale — at least six feet of line should be out when the fish is in tow. It is not a foul to have less, but the a)earman must at once let it out if the umput: or the other crew cnes " Fathom ! " The spearman is allowed to drop the spear and use the paddle ur oar at will, but not to resign her spear to another of the crew. The spearman must be in her boat when the q)ear is thrown. If the boat is upset the judge's canoe helps them to rif^t. Each crew must accept the backset of its accidents. Canoe Tag Any number of canoes or boats may engage in this. A rut)l)cr cushion, ? hot-water bag full of air, any rubber foot- l>all, or a cotton bag with a lot of corks in it is needed. The game is to tag the other canoe by throwing this mfo it The niles are as in (uduuuy crossrtag. INDOOR GAMBS Odd! and Bvene Ciirls form in a single Une across the room. One girl is "it** She says she will call odds; *hen calls numbers both odd and even, but those in the line must run only on odd numbers. If any run on even they are out, also those are out w1k>, when the line runs (» an odd nunri}er, are the last to reach the given goal Blind Man's Buff All players are numbered, one player is blindfolded. The others form a ring about her. The one m the centre calls out two numbers, the players having these numbers change places at f)rice, the one in the centre trying to catch one of them. If successful she takes the place and number tA giris cuight and that player y)wio the centre iua4 it iatttro W iB W oMte d. 80) 86 Woodcraft Bfanual for Girls My Vacation Make booklets with the pages entitled " My earliest photo- graph, "My latest picture," "Who went with me," "How we went," "Where we went," "Where we lived," "Some people we met," "An accident," "How it turned out," "Our happiest moments," "A near tragedy," "Finis," etc. Give each girl an old magazine, a pair of scissors and paste and she is to cut illustrations for the pages of her booklet from the magazine and can make some very amusing combinations, adding poetry if she is clever. NamM by Topics " What names suggest birds? " Drake, Partridge, Hawk, etc. " What names are part of a house? " Beam, (^urett, Lodte, Key, Hall, etc. " What names are part of the body? " Hand, Foote, Hart, etc. " What names are flowers, shrubs, or grains? " Lily, Rote, Cotton, Marguerite, Rice, Berry, etc. "What names suggest occupatimis? Miller, Goldsmith, Butler, Shepherd, Cook, etc. "What names suggest geographical formations?" Dale, Beach, Ifill, Brooks, Stone, etc. Fortune Requiring two sets of numbered cards, the players are given these cards of one set only until all are distributed. The other set of cards, corresponding in number to those given out, are played face down on the central table (or 6oor if desired). Each pliyer in turn goes to this set, places her hand upon the topmost cards and says, "The girl who has the card corresponding to this is generous, kind, and true, though perhaps too quick of temper. She will be a settlement woricer." Or, perhaps, she will say something humorous, or impossible. She then turns the card over, holds it up, ant: rinds the owner of the corresponding card. Mudi fun may be had if the description given was exactly opposite of the truth. The game continues by having the owner of the last card tell some one's character or fortune. Sloping The playws are seated in a circle. One of them begins by laying: "I went to the grocery this morning and boi^t mmt" 81) Tribe Activities 57 thing that begins with 's.'" The other players guest— soda, soap, etc., until the correct article (sugar) luu been guessed' The one who succeeds continues her shop{Hiig tour, going wher* ever she pleases— to butcher, baker, etc. GuMdng Gum The players sit in a circle; one of them is blindfolded and stands m the centre. Each player is given a number. Then the bhndfold«i player calls 3 or 4 numbers as i, 5, 9, 10. The players who have those numbers jump up and <^mge seats among themselves. While this changing goes on the blind- folded player attempts to catch them. If she does succeed in catchmg one she must guess who the captive is (by feeHng her dress, features, etc.). If she guesses correctly her eyes are un- covered and the capUve is "it." U not the game is continued «• before— several more members being called out Kingdom obwf ^S'tf^°"^ of hearing unt^il the groiq) chooses an object. Then the Guesser is called and may ask any quesUon that can be answered by "Yes" or "No," oily one quStion cS or fiK"' ^"'^J^^ ^"*^tions is limited, perhaps ten or fifteen, accordmg to the cleverness of the Gu^r and the abstruseness of the object chosen. The Guesser usuaUy l^jSJ tLf.'^TK TVhat. kingdom is it?" and having estJblffi n?^lT ^ ""J^V " ^'fi^^b^> or mineral kingdoS to ask such questions as will narrow the subject^ m quickly as possible to object selected. oown bs OMgrapliy Any number of players allowed for this game, which has often b^n pkyed at a dinner table or around faSpfinT ^ ftS fab^'rixt" r " ^^P^^ pla^Kas r^o^ IZ'. I 'u '^l^* °"" player gives another 82) 58 Woodcraft Manual for Girls OoM q( MenafBfit The plavers are seated in a circle. One begins thus, "As I went to the Menagerie. "Her neighbor to the right asks, "What did you see there?" She answers, "I saw a Hon. The neighbor then turns to her right-hand neighbor and says, "I went to the Menagerie." The same question is then asked, "What did vou see there?" The second player must then re- peat the answer of the first, " I saw a Hon," adding to it an ani- mal of her c .yn, "and a monkey." The game goes on m this wav, each plaver putting the same question and answer of her neighbor and adding the name of another aninial. 'Pack the Trunk" may be played in a similar manner. Any article suit- able or grotesque may be packed in the trunk. Menagerie Party Each plaver receives on a slip of paper a number and the name of an animal, e. g., i. elephant, 2. mouse. The leader <»lls on each player in turn to come forward aiul draw on a blackboard the animal named on her slip. One minute is given to exe- cute each drawing. The other players try to guess the am- mal on the board and write their guess, correctly numbered, on papers provided for the purpose. When the list has been com- pleted the leader reads the correct list aloud and the players rorrect their mistakes. If there are not many arti^ pceMOt, the results are i^t to be startling. 4 Poftoiil Party A modification of the kst game is for the players to sit in a circle and eju h draw a portrait of her left-hand neighbor. The leader ciaiecis the p*)rt raits. p«ts a number on each to idenUfy it, and places them on cxhibi^Mi. The piay«s try to guess the orif^ud of eadi portrait. Magic Mniic The player who is "it" leaves the room, while the others de- cide upon some action they want her to do, for instance-walk to the centre of the room and recite poetry. The player then re- turns and the game commences. The other players sing or hum or one plays the piano. When the player who is t nears her destiniition (in this case the centre of the w?™) the music grows louder aiidih«eant«tttl»li»lionthe right 83) Tribe Activities ^ track. If she hesitates or Boes in the wrong directions the music continues soft and low. F&ving at kst reached the proper spot he player proceeds to try out all sorts of stunts, untirgdSed n'L ^v) ""ri '^^^ *?".P°" Ihe right action r^ Hat Tiiamioc Contest Give each plaver a sheet of ordinary brown wrappinff paper twoor three shc.ts of t.ssue oaper of bright colors.^SSe?iSs a pair of scissors and tell ^er to make and trim a hat The successful hat can be selected by judge, or ^op5«  Rreaide Trick* ^Put your hands together a. in the drawing, palms also touch- The thumbs are you and your brother. You can separate eaaly— like that. The first fingers are you and your father, you lan sefiarato not quite so easily— like that. The little, fingers are you and your sister, you can separate, but that comes a little harder still —like that. The middle fingers are you and your mother, you can separate, but it is hard— see that. The ring fingers are you and your sweetheart, — . ^, yjm^camiot separate without everything else going first to The Lone Star Trick* toolc Ibr^S»^^L?K '"[^^^^^i^K ^rick on the table. He . i^tlS?^^^^ - the middle, 84) 6o Woodcraft Ifmttl for Oirte "Now," he says, "when our people got poMenkm of TaaM, it was nothing but a wildeniessoiGMtuiqMnei. Seethfinthml Then they began irrigat- ing. (Here he put a spoonful of water in the centre of the spines.) And tlien a change set in and kept on untU they turned into the Lone Star State." As we watched, the water . . ^ caused the toothpicks to stimig^ten out until th^ made the pat* tern of a star as in " B. " Ftathor FoofbaU or Fosthor-bioir This is an indoor, wet-weather game. The players hold a blanket on the knees or on the table. A soft feauier is put in the middle. As many may play as can get near. They may be in sides, 2 or 4, or each for bendf. At the signal "Go!" each tries to blow the feather oS the Uanket at the enemy's side, and so count one for herself. A game is usually best out of 7, 1 1 , orxj. Books Recommended Games fo» the Playground, Home, School and Gymnasiuii. Je«ie H. Bancroft, Published by the MacMillan Company, 450 pages. $1 .50 Camp AHoOuTiNoAcrmTiss. (Cheley-Baker.) Published by Anocu- tioaPNM. I1.S0 85) 80N08 Sur-SpaagM Btaaar OBMutifal lOOMT AlOMtte Oauiha Tribal Pnyw Aetiing Songs Wk» Seng Cloiing LolUby Caaodsf I Lot* Soag !<■ ri ■OB-de MvJtllttkMiB The Wmm«1 In tlM Wo«4 MyMuJoha When I Was a Toong OiH Roman and i^'agUah Soldlon 86) 87)


Group Singing

There may be Woodcrafters who are little interested in athletics and not moved by the charms of handicraft, but it is very doubtful whether there are any indifferent to music. All cannot produce it, but all can enjoy it in some measure.

There can be no finer expression of team play than in group singing, and no Woodcraft Tribe will have done its best work until its members have learned to sing well, and while it is desirable that the leader be a musician, any one who can carry a tune can select good singable songs and teach them to the group.

In addition to the general songs, which may be found in all of the good collections of songs, are the songs that are particularly native to America. These are considered by many of our best composers to be of high value. Because of the fact that these native American folk-songs have not been greatly used we are including several of them in this chapter.

It is the spirit of the American folk-song that commends it. It is spontaneous, interpreting the world about us as well as the world within, offering a song and a dance for every mood and every large event in life.


My country, 'tis of thee,
Sweet land of liberty.
  Of thee I sing:
Land where my fathers died,
Land of the Pilgrim's pride,
Fran every mountain side
  Let freedom ring.

My native country, thee,
Land of the noble free,
  Thy name I love:
I love thy rocks and rills,
Thy woods and templed hills;
My heart with rapture thrills
  Like that above.


Let music swell the breeze
And ring from all the trees
  Sweet freedom's song;
Let Mortal tongues awake,
Let rocks their silence break.
  The sound prolong.

Our father's God, to Thee,
Author of liberty,
  To thee we sing;
Long may our land be bright
With freedom's holy light;
Protect us by Thy might.
  Great God, our King.

Samuel F. Smith, 1832

The Star-Spanned Banner

O say, can you see, by the dawn's early light,
  What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last gleaming?
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the perilous fight?
  O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming;
And the rodcet's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
  Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still there?
O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave
 O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

On the shore, dimly seen thro' the mists of the deep,
  Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
  As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam.
  In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream —
’Tis the star-spangled banner. O long may it wave
  O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

And where is that ban i who ro vauntingly swore,
  ’Mid the havoc of war and the battle's confusion
A home and a country they'd leave us no more?
  Their blood has washed out their four footsteps' pollution,

89) Tribe Activitiet No refuge could save the hireling and slave From the terror ffight, or the gloom of the g r av e And ihi- star-span j;!ed banner in triumph shall wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. hus be it fver when freemen shall stand Between their loved homes and foul war's desolation, Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the heav'n-rescued bad Pr lise the Power that hath m • le and preserved ma nation. Then conquer we must, whc^* ur cause it is just, And this be oar mot to, "In God is our trust" — And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave While the bmd of the free is the home of the brave. •—Ffmdi SktU K$y, 1814. O Beautiful for Spaciouf SUm KATBBim Ln Batm & Wabo 1. ban • ti • ful for ipa - eknu ■kiei, For am . ber 2. bMO . U - ful for ia- tfrim fw-t WhoM aUni. im . 8. bean . ti - fal for ka • roei provml Ib Kb - ar • 4 bavi . ti . f «1 for . triot dnm Tkat mm ka • wawa of grain, For paa-aionod itraaa A at - ing strife. Who moi«  fOMd Um jeara TUm al Mr < tkor- pl« BooB'taia aaj OBgh-fare for free - Uum aelf their eona a • baa • tar dt • ea-tiea A • doB boat A • trylored, Alrf 90) 66 Woodcraft Manual for Girls O Beautiful for Spacious Sides— Concluded i rrrt bove the frnit • ed plaini eroas the wil - der - ness! mer - cy more than life! dimmed by ha - man tears! A • mer • i • ca! A - A - mer - i - ca! A - A - mer - i - ca! A - A - mer • i - ca! A - 1 — r -H y Bwr - i • eal God died His graee on ihea And ennni tlj ■er - i - ca! God mend thine ev • *ry flaw, Coa - fini ■er . i-eal May God thy gold re • line, TDl all sae- mu - i - ca! God shed His grace on thee And erawa thy good with broth • or- hood From to aUa* ias Mai ionl fai aetf • eon-trol. Thy lib - er - b law! ce« be no - b!e-nen, And ot - 'ry gam di • Tine! good with broth - erohood Ftihb aea to ahiB- ing aea! 91) Tribe Activities 67 RooMT or ReveiUe Ho, sleepers, a - rise! the sun's la the skies.The summer mist flies from the lake and the lea. The Red Gods do call: Ho, r J- J high, Hi-kers all, Come drink of the Life-cup you nev-er will see. Then blow ye winds high, or blow ye winds low, Or blow, ye wet east wind o ■ ver the sea. Well face ye and fight, and langh when you * mite,For storm was the trainer that tonghened the tree. Yo hot a -rise, a • rise! A ■ rise, a- rise, yo ho ot 92) 68 93) Tribe Activities 69 Alouette is an unusually fine song for group singing. The idea is that of caressing a beautiful bird. A leader sings the verse up to end of "je te plumerai la tete" and the group repeats this, running down scale. The soloist sings "et la tete" and the chorus repeats twice. All sing chorus. In the next verse the soloist uses "cou" and just before the chorus, adds to it the word used in the previous verse as: "et le cou" response by crowd, then "et la tete" response from crowd, then on to diorus. After each verse the previous verse words are added until all the ports of the bird have been used. The Omaha Tribal Prayer HwmooiMdbjrFitov. J. C> VUAMora. Slow. Crave. SoUmn. jj'^P wm ^ /ts /»> iJfLddMj (9 >s BP' V ■ : Wa-kon-da dhe - dha Wa^ia d ^ 8- p p bin t i • ton -he. ^ 1— CoH Ped. A ^^ ^ ' ■

i Wa-kon-da dhe -dim Wa-pa-dhin a - toa«he. By penniaaioQ {nm Alkx C. Ffetdwr*! In^ Stoiy Mid SoBg.** Translation: Father a needy one stands before thee; I that sing am he. 94) 70 Woodcraft Manual ft>r Girls Hike Song Mnsic by Jos. S JoNV 1. Way down in yon-der val-Iey The mist b IOm a 2. We van-der by the wood-land That hangs tip - on the hill, 3. We gaze np - on tiie streamlet. As o'er the bridge we lean; 'u ' — "-»' » — Tho' the Bun be scarce-ly ris - en. There is light e-nongh fo: me. We hear the birds »-tun-ing. Their mom-ing elw- ion shrilL W« ira(ehUslnir>riedri{>-plei, Thai ertditiMBMrB^OMa. alt <L*- □tat For be it ear - ly mom-ing. Or be it late at night; For hnr-ried-^ a-wak-ing, From midat the dew • y spray; OhttheWoodenftBeyaanatahrarti AndtheWoodenfkGirtoaniair; It M h ^ ^ ± ^ Cheer • ly ring onr foot-steps, Bight, left, right! Cheer - i • now the black-bird. Whist-ling greets the day. And cheer - i Aji bieathea aroond ns, The bracing wood-land air. Chobus For be it ear - aum-lng, Or be it late idi^ Cheer - i - ly ring our foot-steps, Bight, left, rig^t lOd eve- nings dusk -y shad-owd. In mom-ing roe • 7 U^it, •^ it^ - .h h 1 ^ ^ ^ ^ ' — i — j- i Cheer -i - ly ring our foot-steps. Bight, left, right. FMB**VBlTCnity of XoroBto Sobs Book." V.tooUbc* 95) Tribe ActbitiM 7x Cloting LulUby (DedieaUd to E.T.S,bii Franee$ Demmon.) Qtippem Cradla Bone Bend-ing km to Mrth, We will Bour ov si-l«M kMp; Win-ter killed aU oar nirtb. And tb* Pin • fiM limf. The Canoeigt*! Love Soof WiM ardor, rather slowly OJIBWAY Ckek-ak-bay U Mk on I ThrougtMut the night I

  • In my birch CMoe I

Where canst thou be, O dait- day-akn, keep arwake, aeelc for my chtk-ak • —J . — ~ --- Through -out the night I rvon, to m bfardiak-Boe 1 i(£wt?Whcrc ctnttiMvbo, O doH-day-ahn, ah keep a-walce. Up leelL for you. Up mysweet-neartf I gah-mah st - it oh on a riv -er I on a riv-er I wake and seek thee.O daihday-ahM. keep a -wake, seek fo;' you. {Omit .) my swtel-licart By pei-nission from Frederick R. Burton's "Ameiicul Primitive Mtt«C," with adaptation by Wm. Brewster Hunq>htey. 96) 7* Woodcraft Manual for Oida Deatii Song Ofibway Vtrjf modirat$ - . r r > 1- IfoA-iiM m-imA - mak'jah, mah-noo ne-nak, I am go • iag on a jour - ney Far and lone be • i i "f ^ •{••^ • mak • joA, ^ • • (fa - iM wtii - I mtii^a- A • Tondthe wt-ting na. To the Spir- it-land now I am de • J. J J -I -Oh i J 1- -J I SB /dL lfa& - noo ne - na.^ nt.i - ga nah - jah - men, part - iag, In the trail luade by my fore - fa - thers, J W h4— > — - — ^ 3^ f- 151 • ?r il.o-tfa •na - in'n - ( %in-ga it... jtuL...... To the Spir - it - land e - ter-nal I am go - ing, 1 -« «>■ 5^ From "American Primitive Music," by Frederick R. Burtnu Aduted by Wm. Brewster Humphrey fd the American Indiu Leagoa. Uied ay f pf^-f g] pensluioD* 97) Tribe Activities Zon-zi-mon-de 73 {By ptTmitsumjTom A/tc< C. FUlchtr's "Indian Story and 5m|") Omaha Wiik ^teial SHtliikiB»rd$ V Mt in inImmIm ImmrU pud i» the Wooder^OnnM HummM bj PnC J. C. nuimui Spiriled. M. At. J = 152 I I I T 7 Yt ka ht pi $ kt dha ye ka hi ya t ka dka Ho ho ho ho ha comes Shout a-loud re Roll the dnnni Dorau Dbux Bsat Him that we now greet Giro to him an hon- or ika kadkae. Soik-ti-maiM • • ma $ka t dke. Ak ka ed seat (Urn ki$ mum.) We hail thee chief Fame thj ya e ke ihi ye ka 'he name did bring Wel-come to r ya « ka dka dha km ika. onr eotin-cU ring. ^ .AAA 98) 74 Woodcraft Manual for Girls Mttje Muketin Jtalhet fast This Moccasin Song, "Worn out Moccasins I am Wearin£^l»&om Fitd- crick R. Burton's "American PrimiUvc Music," lyog, by penniMMIl. Bi^ar Thimdtrl yon. Ay. yl ay y.^ From "The Indians' Book" by Natalie Curtis; pub. Haiper Bios., by spedal peimissimi. ACTING SONGS The Weasel in tiie Wood This is a French song game, somewhat fflce our "Button, Button." The players sit in a circle with hands on a cordwmch goes all around On the cord is a ring, which is passed secreUv from one to another as they sing the song on next page, taja t^^ ^e singing ends, the one in the midd e ha J to f^^^° Ss the ring. If she fails she pays a forfeit If she wins the k>ser takes her place. 99) Le Furet 78 U court, il court le fu • ret du boit jo • U; U a pas • par 1 • d 1« fa • r«t da bote jo • U. ENGUSH SUBSTITUTE He runs, be runs, the wea>Ml it. the wood ^ ay boy <!, ) .1 ^ 1 "j r ^^^^ 1 He runs, he runs, the wea-sel in.... the He has pass'd by here.he's pass'dijnMTd os^ Ub if yw oooU, mg lifs He hat pass'd by lwre,b«'s paM'd,]raa*d catch htm U yott coidd. 100) 76 Woodcraft Manual for Oirlf My Man John Ctmnictm: Maater My Man John Lady Fair OUy BN(.USH BALLAD L Akt ]|f aaa Jokm^aaa tka aal • tar ba (StamptfitL) ^ — 1 — ' — ■ — — ^ Tkit lakoaldlovaa U-^T Mr aad aiMaiMiIdaallaia aat rir r r fta wiO Mt l>» pjr Mda, ■/ Joj aad wf km» I I I -m m -0 SlMwUlBottaka a walkwitkaa aa.j Mr i' ' r l | m 2. Woo bar, daar- aat liaa- tar, «oo bar with • o«t faai^ u 1 ,

h# — ■ — = — 1

  • 1 1

Aad Toa ahall wia tba La- 4)r fab ia tba eaaa «f balf And aha will ba jour brida, yonr joy aad yoor daar lib ? ii K ^ win taka a walk witt jroa aa • y • 101) Trib« ActbitiM 77 Oh! Madam I will g. e to you a fine ivory ccmb To fasten up your golden focks when I am not ftt home, If you will be my bride, my joy and my dear, If you will take a walk with me anywhere. No, Sir, I can't accept your fine ivory comb To fasten up my golden locks when you are not at hoOMk I will nut be your oride, your joy and your dear, I will not take a walk with you utynhgn. Ohl My man John, what r; e ntttor be (tcpMU fint vne). Woo her, deareat Matter (repeat second vene). Oh ! ^{adam I will give to you a fine white bound And every hair upon his back will cost a thouaaad pOMMl, If you will be my brie**!, my joy and my dear, li you will take a walk with me anywhere. No, Sir, I can't accept your fine white hound With everv hair upon his back that costs a thousand I will not be your ttride, etc. Myt •j.John,whatcantiiefflattcibe(i«|Mntfintverie). Woe her, dearest Master (npeat ntcaod vuse). Madam I will give to you tlie keys of my heart To lock them up forever that we never more may part. If you will be my bride, my joy and my dear. If you will take a walk with me anywlien. S 1 ^ *ccept of you the keys of your heart wckUiem up forever that we never more may pa And I wUl be your bride, your joy and your dear And I wiu take a walk with you anywhere. (Master takes her hand and leads her to John) ^or m will be my txide, joy and my dear ■■♦/. 102) 78 Woodcxaft Manual for Girls Whan I was a Yonaf (Hri OLD ENGLISH BALLAD -J 1 1 4- ' — — H 1. Whoi I WW . a jtnaf gtA, • jmig girt, * jtmg gH When I was a jonng girl, oh, this way went I: ( Pretend$ holding an imaginary book open and swayingfrom tide to tide) i ^~rr ^ J N J .' ' I ' . ' 1 1 Twas this way and that way and this way and that wqr; if. J I J I -I J J M ' I II When I WM » yonag giri, tA, this way went L When I was a schoolteacher, schoolteacher, schodteadier, When I was a schoolteacher, this way went I : (Shakes finger fint on rif^t side, then on left aide, swaybig to music.) Twas this way and that way, etc. When I had a lover, a lover, a lover. When I had a lover, oh , this way went I : (Throws kisses, first right ude, then left ucte, swaying to nuisic.) Twas thb way and that way, etc. When I had a husband, a husband, a husband. When I had a hud>and, oh, this way went I : (Anns akimbo, head , swaying ftom side to side to music) Twas this way and that way, etc. When I had a baby, a baby, a baby. When I had a baby, oh, tins way went I : (Mi^es cradle arms, rocking fn8B ^ to ^ to ^^.} TwM tUs way and that way, rtc 103) Tribe Activities 79 When my huiband died, died, died, When my hiubMid died, oh, thb way went I: (ImiUte ciying, swaying to right side, then to left tide.) Twas this way and that way, etc. When I took in washing, in washing, in wadiing, When I took in washing, oh, this my wmtl: (Imitates rubbing on washboard to t^t and left) Twas this way and that way, etc. When I was a beggar, a beggar, a beggar. When I was a beggar, oh, tUs way went I : (Holds out right hand at for alas, 6nt to ri^t, then to left, swa^^ing to music.) Twas this way and that way, etc. When I was dead, was dead, was dead, When I was dead, oh, this way went I: (Lies down and sings) Twas this way and that way, etc Ronuui and EaifiA SoUiera Line up on two rides fadng each oth». Altonat^ advance and leticat while singing, 1 -K—^ —J 1 # m Win JOB 1^ «  ef vtM? • For we are the Ro - man (AU English) -(S»- Sol Wa iraat gh«  -Oh • dien. 'or we art tka ffish iel 104) 8o Woodcraft Manual for Girls We wffl set our dogs upon you, for we are ^« ^o™*" We (km't care for your dogs <w you, for we are the En^kh bolcHers. We wiU teU the Pope of you, for we are the Soldier^^^ We d<m't care f<w the Pope or you, for we are the Entfish bofcHHi. Are you ready ior a fight? for we are the Roman Soldiers. We are ready for a fight, for we are the English Soldieit. Each pool finger at other and say " Bang I ) (Go around in a circle, limping, singing together.) Now we have only one leg, for we are the Roman Soldiers. Now we have only one leg, for we are the English Soldiers. (Each point finger at the other and say "Bang I ) (Hold one hand over one eye, continue to Hmp around in circle on right leg and sing together.) Now we have only one eye, for we are the Roman boldiers. Now we have only one eye, for we are the English Soldiers. (Each point finder at the other and say "Bonf /") (Hold up other arm as in a sling, continue to hold eye and limp, sing- ing together.) Now we have raaly one arm, for we are the Ronun »>^'*. Now we have <»e arm, for we are the Ei^nn SMdieis. (Say "Ban*/") (AO bU.) Now we drop to rise no more, for we are the Itomtt Sjddieit. Now we drop to rise no more, for we are the En^lsh ScMieii. Most Popuiar Hohe Songs, G. C. Noble. Most Popular Coluece Songs, Hinds, Noble jk Eldndge. Sowoa y<» SaKXH.8, Charles H. Famswrnrth, MacMil la n Co. 105) DANCING Storm Cloud Lone Hunter Hopi Com Dances Fire-Fly Dance a. ^rinc CaitiMm Dane* 6. Paa Asiaul Dance ef NaaaFfee-joa 106) 107) DANCmO John Ruskin surprised the world some fifty years ago by his eloquent plea for dancing as a mental training. Our Mutators have slowly accepted tb iea and, some twenty years ago, began to seek in Europe for foU-dances that would furnish amusement combined with rhythmic exercise and the chance for dramatic expression. Many good dances were brought from England, Russia, and Hungary, etc., before we awakened to the fact that in this de- |)artment the richest of all lands to-day is our own country, I here are more and better folk-dances in America than in any other country that we know of. There are scores of charming Indian folk-dances vrhich the Woodcraft Girl would like to loiow, a few of which are given here, f hey have been tried out many times and approved by leading educators. More than any oUiers at present available, they contain the possibL'ity of graceful movement, exercise, and dramatic expressiou It is unfortimate that the crouch of one certain dance h^s Ixen accepted by many of the pubUc as the only position in the Indiar dances, for it has blinded us to the real beauties of their t; pica! performances. , It is difficult for us to realize how much dancing means to the Red Men. It figured in all their social and athletic life. The (laiKC was a great pubUc opportunity to tell in pantomime either historical facts or interpret ideas. The vital things of their e eryday life, as well as the'*^ dramatic adventures, were pre- sented at the Council Ring L' jh the dnn^ e. The chase, the thiiifTs connected with their r. ^ion; love and hate, peace and war, were all set forth to music and movement at the council li re. The time most used for these dances is two-time; a heavy and light beat on the tom-tom, with or without the chant that especially belongs to each particular dance. The fundamental step is the two-step, which consists of a very short step ind a short hop on each foot, with a shaip upward V linn of uc knee. This was meant originally to jingie a string of bells or rattles that were worn oa eadi knee. U 108) The one-time and three-time are less frequently used and are more difficult to do. The arms and body are swayed and freely used to express the dramatic story; always, of course, rhythmically. The Storm Ctoud One of the ^est-known ritive dances is the Storm Cloud, the story of the Rising Wind ana the Cloud done into a dance. The first time I saw it was at an Indian village on Lake Huron, when a taU, sturdy Indian did it with a buffalo robe. Btit it is used widely m the west, and the weight of the robe, ^diich is the doud, is proportional to the strength of the dancer. It is danced by one girl (or boy) using a white drape for the doud. For a child this should be of canton flannel or muslin about two yards long and a yard wide. For a stronger person a heav- ier drape, even a white blanket is sometimes used. This dance needs a huge circle and should not be attempted m a small room. . « 1 . • u 1 J It portrays the strong and rismg wmd playmg with a cloud, beginning slowly but ending in a cyclone when the dancer spins and shrieking falls flat, while the cloud settles on her face. , , The music is chiefly drum, sometimes only drum. Trailer means the hands raised high and wide apart holding the cloud so that it floats behind. The Dip consists in bending low to one side so that one hand points straight up, and one straight down, it is given first on one side then the other, the doud floating behind. The Eagle Swoop is given every six -beats and it takes three beats to do it beginning with the hands raised m the trailer, lower the left hand to near the chest, raise the right straight up but forward, swing both down to left, then by swmging the right hand round the head and both hands m^o traihng position the doud swmgs dear. After six more beats repeat at ^^The^Flying Scud or Driving Cloud thus, hold one end of the drape in left hand tight against the right shoulder, the other end in the right hand with arm fuUy extended and level tbe drape tight between the two hands, then runmng very fast once around wave the right hand up and down so that the doud undulates. , , The Double Swoop is much like the Eagle Swoop, but the dancer turns face to the rig it when the left hand swings over, thrt 109) Tribe Activities 85 turns and faces the left as the hands change so that the right is up. Jn ihSpin the cloud is held tight to the shoulder, as in Ffying Scud once around is enough for each spin except the final. In the final, thief; or four spins will do with grand crescendo, time, etc, then with a scream the dancer drops, jerks the cloud toward her feet, back over her head, then slightly back so it settles over her face and body. While the drum is sufficient for the dance the effect is better if a low humming chant in correct time is kept up by the drum- mer. This should increase in volume, and in the climax all should gi e a high-pitched, prolonged shout while the drum boLts a heavy tattoo. Then all is still. Sometimes when necessar> to shorten it the 5th and 7th figures are left out, but it always begins with the Walking Trailer and ends with the Spin. The exact and full scenario is as foUows: (Each figure goes once around) ist. Walking Trailer brisk march time 2nd. " " with side dip. . " " " 3rd. Running Trailer double quick " 4th. " " with side dip. . " " " 5th. Eagle Swoop, 6 beats to the trailer pause and 3 beats tu the c'ip. 6th. FlymgScud. 7th. Trailer and Double Eagle Swoop, 6 b«ats trailer and 3 beats for each swoop. 8th. Flying Scud, with a spin for each of the four Winds. 9th. Double Eagle Swoop without trailer, loth. Spin m centre, wind screams as the dancer drops flat then dies. Dead Calm. The Uopl Com I^ ces A. SPRING — B. FALL The first of these attractive da.ices symbolizes the planting of jrn and the second its gathering, husking, and shelling. Each lane is complete in itself, but they are often givei in sequ nee. i he (kiicers should be in ceremonial costume, or all in white, and any number from four to twelve <x mme can take part, 110) 86 Woodcraft Manual for Girls according to the rize of the CouncU Ring. Eight is perhaps The " grain of corn " and the " ear of corn" are imaginary. ^ The "Sun aU shimmer sign" indicates the sunshme pouring down bv holding up high the outside hand, usurily the ri^t, J?rfore-finger and thumb forming an "O," at the same time moving the other hand with the f^K"^, ^^1^^^^^^ spread to and fro in a direct hne from the O to the earth SnUe waving or quivering the fingers of the second hand to symbolize the shimmering beam of sunhpht. ^The "ram sign" is made by holding up both hands high in front, palms do^. and allowing the fingers to slightly spread out^ hang ng down, and in time with the music the fingers are ms^ and quickly and sharply dropped again, as if sprinkling water ^Thf^^sL^ is the principal step in these Indian dances, it is a step and a hop on each foot, that is two beats. The hop 's very sUght. Sometimes only the heel is raised and the knee Sn ismphatic to jingle the bells or rattles that are often used attached to the knee, much as Morris Dances. The side-step is done very slowly the right ^o^t ^^^^^^^ sidewise step on the heavy beat of the drum, and then the Mt foot sUdes slowly up to the right foot on the light beat of the drum; then repeat. Note the ankles are never crossed. In the Corn Dance when the dancers sit down they must all sit at the same moment and in the same fashion, the ^me foot must be in front and the same hand used to support ^ch m rismg. A good plan is to have the right foot over the left and use the Irft Km support in gettini up. The dancers go the opposi e ^v of the^n, or to the right. They form a complete arde wiOi equal distance between each. The o«e7h°?>?^^*J^,^* is the leader. This one always goes out first, and, Jact cu- rects the dance, although it is done m umson The kadter should be the best dancer and should also be tall and weU cos- ^"rhf usual accompaniment needed is the regular beat in double- ^^^he"-Mmurmur" is a continuous soft sound made by pro- longing the "oo" of "whoo" in unison and softly, rising and falling a Uttle in mtensity. f«rku»>„„^ The Indian whoop is made by singmg the sound of Oh and at the same time rapidly tapping the hps with flat right-hand finger tips. The "fire" means the centre. 111) Tribe Activities 97 The Spring Dance, or the Planting of the Com Rain Song Tigua. Trantcribed and harmo&ixed hf Vwor. John Comvokt Fiummb. HU - chi Rain Rain -i d i — ..ain • nin, Peo-ple, ila - chi Rain Rain dai • nin. Rain Peo-ple

J I— i-behmakunwhi niweh, da'wingu ba hinah. Rain upon our plain peofde. Rain Rain Rain Rain ' By pemdsskm fitmi "Indian Story and S(mg," by Alice C. Fletdier. 1. Enter marching to drum, holding up grain of com in one hand. 2. Hop-step (as above) once aroimd, stop equal distances apart, forming complete circle around fire. Kneel on left knee. Plant corn (make hole, drop in grain, and cover with two motions as though scraping the soil with the hands from four points of compass, i. e., right and left hands approach each other from east and west and then from north and south in covering hole). 3. Rise, from circle facing the fire, and sing Rain Song, making the rain sign (as noted). 4. Hop-step to the right, making sun sign with outer or right hand, and the slmnmer sign with the left. Go around once. 5. Rain song, making rain sign. Then all kneel on left knee, facing fire, put back of right hand on ihe ground with fingers closed except index, which points up, raise it in four jerks at four b^ts of the drum, to make the com grow knee- high. 6. Rise, take four steps in, spin in four steps, then take four steps backward. 7. Rain song, making rain sign. Kneel, make com grow from knee to waist in four beats. 8. Rise, take four steps in, take four steps around self, i. e., spill in four steps then take four steps. 112) 88 Woodcraft Mamial for Oirli 9. Pnin song, rain sign. Grow com from waist to head high In four beats. 10. The hands high weaving com, sway forward, backward, left and right, twice each four beats, uttering Wind Mur- mur. 11. All face in, step sidewise in circle with side-step, and every four steps give the Indian yell or whoop. Repeat four times and hop-step out, with head bent downward on folded arms In sign of Night. The Fall Dance, or fh» HnaUng of tiie Com (Note: For this use the Com Grinding Song, page i, "Soms of Ancient America," by Natalie Curtis, published by G. Schirmer, New York, or the Zuni Sunrise Call, Carlos Troyer, at the same place, price 50 cents.) 1. Enter marching holding up corn-cob In <me hano. Farm complete circle facing fire. 2. Stop, raise both hands, and sing the Invocation.* 3. Hop-step around twice, corn in hand. 4. Face fire — ^four steps in, four steps around self to right, and four steps back. (Indiui whoop.) 5. Backs to fire repeat No. 4. After Indian whoop face fire. 6. Odd numbers dance four steps to fire, holding up com. Bend, offering com to fire in four beats — four steps back. 7. Even numbers repeat No. 6. 8. Sit, huskinz com to singing of Chek ah bay tebik (Bark Canoe) then shemng com to same song. They throw husks into fire and rise. 9. Hold up com in hands and sing "*Wah! Taho!" Go once around in march step and march out. The Lone Hunter The Lone Hunter is a favorite for a single dancer. The dancer should be in white for the best effect and carry a light fifteen-inch wooden shield on the left arm and a light six-foot spear of wood in the left hand. The making of these is suffi- ciently shown in the cut. It tells the story of a scout who went forth alone to himt, but carrying the shield as he may venture into the hunting grounds of another tribe.

  • The Invocation mentioned is from Alice C. Fletchers' "Indian Games

and Dances," 1915. 113) 89 First the drum gives a long roll to notify the audience the scout is coming in, then three thumps for the scout to appear. She steps into the Ring, holding the spear high in one hand, and the shield in the other. She gives a loud shout then changes the spear to the left hand with the shield (she pats her moath with the flat right hand to make the rolling call); then dances to the two-time (Zonzi-mondi or Mujji Miikesin will , » to accompany the drum) around the ring twice, ihowing r ^ is supposed to be in the village, swinging the spear ai Jer high in the air or clashing them together; making play aes at the spectators, tossing back her long hair or feathers < ing behind— doing all in graceful gesture to the music '^^ tht show off in the vOlage. Next the dancer goes on the real hunt. Crouching lat now, shading her eyes with her hand on the shield, li ag for every sound, peering here and there, and sometimes st mg tls spear into thmgs to pick them up for wAminyti^ iau ^ goes once around to two-time music Now, at the bc^nning of the fourth round, shf ops am! starts, she has found a trail and by her action must w th;! she has. The music now changes to slow march out. TV two-step dance is ended. The dancer follows an imaginary track all around, picking up leaves and trying the wind or looking for helpful signs. When at length back to the starting point, the next act begins.

uJdcnly she descries a deer quietly feeding, unconscious

of enemies, and is all tense excitement. Now she crawls up, keeping step to the march time, putting in all possible expres- sions to tell the story, until nearly within throwing distance, she s, makes a "stodf^" or feint with the spear, then another, 114) 90 Woodcraft Mantud for Girls and at the third or last (rising higher each time) finally is just about to let go when a noise out to one side suddenly attracts her attention. She turns quickly to realize that close at hand is a band of her tribal enemies and that s^ is in a trap. Her ex- pression of triumfA chances to fear. She shrinks to the ground and swiftly runs away tillat the exit there she turns, and, fling- ing back a defiant yell, shakes her spear at the foes and it loat to view. A kmg drum roll doaes the scene. The Fire-Fly Dance (Music by Frances Densmore) This should be played in an open space at night or late enough in the evening to insure a dhn hght. The fire-flies are ten to thirty in any costume, each bearing a stick that is afire, but not blazing. If played indoors, dim little candle-lamps on sticks could be used, and in any case out of doors it would be well to have prepared torches of fire-holding punk which can be bought of fireworks dealers, or made by soaking rotten wood hi saltpetre sdution. This can be carried in a split stick. In some cases electric lamps might serve. The fire-flies come in, making many dazzhng and beautiful figures of fire. They dance and evolute, waving their tordies. A good figure is made by all standing in a circle and each re- volving his torch overhead in an upright circle; another, by every other one zigzagging it up and down like lightmng. TTie best singer stands in the centre and sings, using either me tune of Jingle Bells," the music given below, or the tune of "The Spider and the Fly," given at the end <rf the dance. Fire-Flies' Song FRANon DBNaMon L W« intlMBter.iy Ilia-ffies, A.|^t-% thie' tbt tms. ^l=s:== ^-& N I . j'^ I _ ^ h iL I I i 115) Trib* AgHMam OaoBtn -I— 1- Twiakpk, twtak-la, twink-l^ glM-dag, Bieap-j all Um dtjr; ^AUJoin in Chorus) Ckoms, Twinkle, twinkle, twinkle, glancing, Sleepy all the day. But wiu ihade of night advancing CamtM our time to play. We haven't got a single cars, We twinkle all the night, And eadi one does his Uttle best To fiU hU world with Uc^t. {Chorus) We never heard of enemies, From every fear we're free, And the blacker that the night is The better pleased are we. iCkmu) (Now an Owl ap^ ^s. A - . uket draped across the arms will do for wings, and, mask, is sufficient make-up. He comes swo(^ing and ^uog into the ring. The Fire-flies open, but close abbttt him dancing and singing 116) 9* Woodcraft Manual for Girls Owl*i Song By Fkamcbs Dxini«»s TIm BttriMt tiiM of dof ta n^H- And iMRiait kind of f onri, If miytUag «■ Mrtk ^ Tight Wodd ta, of ooMiO, tt» OmL..... (The Owl hoots and hisses angrily. They laugh and shout b (CW) Oh hear him try to frighten us That never knew a fear, And if he'll neither dance nor smg We'll chase him out of here. (They flash thdr torches in his face and he flies away, hooting and shrieking.) (Chorus) (A very big Bear now comes blundering in. around him singing:) Ho, shaggy, surly, burly Bear! So pleased yoi* cume to-night. Come, dance among the trees with us, Twill make a pretty sight (The Bear starts bade and growls.) {Chorus) What! No! You will not join with us? Go, seek your wand'ring wits. This is no place for such as you, We'd scare you into fits. The Fireflies flash I 117) Tribe ActiTitiefl 98 (The Bear rears up and runs this way and that way as they ci^jer around and flash their torches in his face. He grumbles and growls in comical fear, louder and louder. Then, when a chance occurs, he rushes away and disappears.) (Chorus) (Now distant thunder is heard. It can be made by rolling a big bowling-ball in a barrel, or by use of a dnun. It comes nearer and louder. Flashes of lightning (gunpowder) are seen. The Fire-flies dance away and sing:) Oh, hear that funny Thunder Storm, A-bumbling in the sky; He thinks he'll stop otir dancing n ow Just wait and see him try. (The storm grows fearful; a gun fired with heavy blank charges of powder would help the effect. The Fire-flies think it all up- roariously funny, and simply dance more and moxt merrily laughing and singing the Chwus:) Twinkle, twinkle, etc (The thunder dies aw?y, defeated.) Ami thus, you know, we dance away The merry summer long. For we're the Wild-wood Fairies that You learn about in song. (Ckorus) (Now a tall, white-blanketed form (^ter) comes slowly into view. The Fire-flies stop dancine and march slowly around, hdding the tordies up tremblingly as they sing to different music— preferably a lullaby, pos^bfy an ad^»tatkm of " JuaBtta" or using music given:) 118) 94 Woodcraft Manual for Giris Winter Song By Frances Densuoke (Stotwr th an prtetding) • J - L Tet thart ]■<»•«• f»«>.V Win • ter M chill.

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r-^ H — ^ — n ^— J-^ -H - ' • . — d [_... J 1 J — When • ev • er he draws near Wild woods are stilL (Winter approaches and throws into air a handful of snow (paper). The Fire-flies continue:) Long ere the snowflakes fly Done is our summer chase. We should be gone Now we retire, Back to our Mother Earth, Dancing hghts yielding place Ere the chill dawn. To the campfire. (They pile their torches— that is, the punks slipped out of the sticks— in the middle at a place prepared with shavings, etc , t« r a blaze, and they lie down in a ring and sing by the light of the campfire:) Closing Lullaby (ZMioated to Praneei Denmore.) Chippewa Cndk Stag BmA-ieg low to earth, We wUl bow our d • bDoa koq^; tlower 1 WlB.ter killed all ear mirth, And the Kre - iieo dMp. (Repeat last two lines, then again the last, fainter eadi time till It dies away,) 119) Tribe Activities 95 Winter stands over and gently sprinkles them with snow. Curtain now, if indoors. If outdoors, Winter might also sprinkle water on the fire till it is out. As he retires from view the Medicine Man, by clap- ping, marks the end of the Play, and all rise and run to their seats. The Spider and the Fly The music of which may be used for the song and chorus of the dance. (Fram 300 "(Xd Time Songs.") 1. "Wfllyoainft fai-to bj pw.krfMid a q^-te to • tr» N ^ ^ N S N

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. 0- 'Tb ttapnMiMtlH-tb ptf • lor that • «r yoB 4kl qir, — 0- ^H V — ^ — V — — V ^ V V-^ i- Too haT« on • ly got to pais your head with-in side of the door. T««n aaa ao na-aj eB>iiewtkiagayoaB«f>iWaav ba-f«n. WiU 700. will yon, viU yoB, vm 70B walk ja. liia-tar Flyt Will you, will yon, will yon, will yon walk in, W» < XKD 120) 96 Woodcraft Manual for Girls TlM CaiflKMi Dance The easiest of our campfire dances to learn, and the best lor quick presentation, is the Caribou Dance. It has been put on for public performance after twenty minutes' rehearsing, with those who never saw it before; and it does equally wdl for indoor gymnasium or for campfire in the woods. In the way of fixings for this, you need four pairs of horns and four tails. Real deer horns may be used, but they are scarce and heavy. It is better to go out where you can get a few crooked limbs of oak, cedar, hickory, or apple tree; and cut eight pair, as near like a, b, c, in the cut as possible, each .'bout two feet long and one inch thick at the butt. Peel these; point the square ends of the branches, then lash them in pairs, thus (</). A pair, of course, is needed for each caribou. These are held in the hand and above the head, or in the hand resting on the head. The ta' <-t rnde each out one-third of a flat barrel hoop of 1. At uue end of the hoop make four holes in pairs, an a. apart; thus (see / in cut). These are for cords that pass over the wearer's belt and through the hoop. The hoop is then wraf^ied with white musUn and finid^ with a 121) Tribe Actlyltloi 97 tuft of white muslin strips on the end. The tail finished, looks like (g), and is stuck inside the wearer's belt, which goes through the two cord loops (A), shows a way ci fastening on the tail with cord only. The four caribou are best in white. Three or four hunters are needed. They should have bows but no arrows. The Medicine Man should have a drum and be able to sing che Mujje Mukesin, as given, or other Indian dance time. One or two per- sons who can howl like wolves should be sent off to one side, and another that can yell like a lynx or a panther on the other side, well away from the ring. Otherwise the Medicine Man or leader can do the imitations. Now we are ready for 1BE DASCE OF IKE WHITE CAXIBOU The Medicine Man begins by giving three thim^ips on his drum to call attention; then says in a loud, singing voice: "The Caribou have not come on our hunting grounds for three snows. We need meat. Thus only can we bring them back, by the big medicine of the Duribou Dance, by the power of the White Caribou." He rolls his dnun, then in turn faces each of the ^ds, beckoning, remonstrating, and calling them by name: Kitchi- nodin (West); Keeway-din, (North); Wabaninodin (East); Shawani-nodin (South). Calling last to the quarter whence the caribou are to come, finishing the call with a long Ko — Kee — No. Then as he thumps a slow single beat the white caribou come in at a stately pace timed to the drum. Their heads are high, and they hold the horns on their heads, with one hand, as they proudly march around. After going round once in a sun drde (same way as the sun), they go each to a coma*. The drum stops; all four approach to salute the great mystery in the middle, the fire. They bow to it together, heads low, tails high, uttering a long bellow. Then they circle once, close to the fire; stop on opposite sides of it, facing outward; march each to a corner or compass point; and then bow or honor that wind, bellowing long. Now the Medicine Man begins any good dance song and beats double time. The i aribou dance around once in a circle. The music stops. The first and second, and third and fourth, close in combat. They lower their heads, lock horns held safely away from the head, lash tails, snort, kick up the dust, and dance around each other two or three times. The muac begins again, and thty drde cmce. 122)

The music stops. Now the first and fourth and second and third lock horns and fight.

After a round or so the music begins again and they circle, dancing as before.

Now the howling of wolves is heard in the distance, from the fellows already posted.

The caribou rush toward that side and face it in a row, threatening, with horns low, as they snort, stamp, and kick up the dust.

The wolf-howling ceases. The caribou are victorious. They turn away and circle once to the music, holding their heads high.

The wolf-howling, panther-yelling (or other menacing sound) is now heard in the other direction.

Again the caribou line up and defy it. When it ceases, they dance proudly around, heads up, chests out as they step, for they have conquered every foe.

But a band of hunters appears, crawling flat on their breasts and carrying bows. They crawl half around the ring, each telling those behind by signs, “Here they are; we have found them.” “Four big fellows.” “Come on,” etc. When they come opposite the caribou, the first hunter lets off a short “yelp.” The caribou spring to the opposite side of the ring, and then line up to defy this new noise; but do not understand it, so gaze in fear. The hunters draw their bows together, and make as though each let fly an arrow, then slap their hands to make a loud “crack.” The first caribou drops, the others turn in fear and run around about half of the ring, heads low, and not dancing; then they dash for the timber. The hunters run forward with yells. The leader holds up the horns. All dance and yell around the fallen caribou and then drag it off the scene.

The Medicine Man says: “Behold, it never fails; the Caribou dance brings the Caribou. It is great medicine. Now there is meat in the lodge.”

The Animal Dance of Nana-bo-jou

For this we need a Nana-bo-jou; that is, a grown-up who can drum and sing. He has a drum and drumstick, and a straw or paper club; also two goblins, these are good-sized boys or girls wearing ugly naasks, or at least black hoods with two eye holes, made as hideous as possible; and any number of children, from three or four up, for animals. If each has the attributes of some bird or beast, so much the better.

First, Nana-bo-jou is seen chasing the children around the outside 123) of the circle, trying to catch one to eat; but failing, thinks he'll try a trick and he says, “Stop, stop, my brothers. Why should we quarrel? Come, let's baid a council together and I will teach you a new dance.”

The animals whisper together and the coyote comes forward, barks, then says:

“Nana-bo-jou, I am the Coyote. The animals say that they will cmne to council if you will really make peace and play no tricks.

“Tricks!” says Nana-bo-jou, “I only want to teach you the new songs from the South.”

Then all the animals troop in and sit in a circle. Nana-bo-jou takes his drum and begins to sing,

“New songs from the South, my brothers,
Dance to the new songs.”

Turning to one, he says: “Who are you and what can you dance?”

The answer is, “I am the Beaver (or whatever it is) and I can dance the Beaver dance.”

“Good! Come and show me how.”

So the Beaver dances to the music, slapping the back of his flat right hand, up and under his left hand for a tail, holding up a stick in both paws to gnaw it, and lumbering along in time to the music at the same time imitating the beaver's waddle.

Nana-bo-jou shouts: “Fine! That is the best Beaver Dance I ever saw. You are wonderful; all you need to be perfect is wings. Wouldn't you like to have wings so you could fly over the tree-tops like the eagle?”

“Yes,” says the Beaver.

“I can make strong medicine and give you wings, if all the animals will help me,” says Nana-bo-jou. “Will you?”

“Yes,” they all cry.

“Then all close your eyes tight and cover them with your paws. Don't look until I tell you. Beaver, close your eyes and dance very fast and I will make magic to give you wings.”

All close and cover their eyes. Nana-bo-jou sings very loudly and, rushing on the Beaver, hits him on the head with the straw club. The Beaver falls dead. The two goblins run in from one side and drag off the body.

Then Nana-bo-jou shouts: “Look, look, now. See how he flies away! See, there goes the Beaver over the tree-tops.”

All look as he points and seem to see the Beaver going. 124)

Different animals and birds are brought out to dance their dances and are killed as before. Then the Crow comes out, hopping, flopping, cawing. Nana-bo-jou locks at him and says: “You are too thin. You are no good. You don't need any more wings,” and so sends him to sit down.

Then the Coyote comes out to do the Coyote dance, imitating Coyote, etc.; but he is very suspicious and, in answer to the questions, says, “No; I don't want wings. The Great Spirit gave me good legs, so I am satisfied”; then goes back to his seat.

Next the Deer, the Sheep, etc., come out and are killed; while all the rest are persuaded that the victims flew away. But the Coyote and the Loon have their doubts. They danced in their turns, but said they didn't want any change. They are satisfied as the Great Spirit made them. They are very slow about hiding their eyes. At last, they peek and realize that it is all a trap and the Loon shouts “Nana-bo-jou is killing us! It is all a trick! Fly for your lives!”

As they all run away, Nana-bo-jou pursues the Loon, hitting him behind with the club, which is the reason that the Loon has no tail and has been lame behind ever since.

The Loon shouts the Loon battle-cry, a high-pitched quavering lul-l-l-l-o-o-o and faces Nana-bo-jou; the animals rally around the Loon and the Coyote to attack the magician. All point their fingers at him shouting “Wakankan Seecha” (or Black Magic). He falls dead in the circle and all the animals do their dances around him.

Before beginning the story of the dance should be told to the audience.

Books Reecommended

Folk Dances and Singing Games, by Elizabeth Burchenal. Published by G. Schirmer. $1.50
Indian Games and Dances, by Alice Fletcher. Published by C. C. Birchard & Co., Boston. $1.00

Plays, Pageants, and Masques

The following books will be found of great value in the putting on of Plays, Pageants, and Masques.

Song of Hiawatha, words by Longfellow, dramatisation by Florence Holbrook. Published by Houghton, Mifflin Co. $.15
Hiawatha's Wedding Feast (Cantata), words by Longfellow, music

by S. Coleridge-Taylor. Published by Novello & Co. $.75

Holiday Plays, Marguerite Merington, Duffield, $1.25.
Plays of the Pioneers, Constance D'Arcy Mackay, Harpers, $1.

125) CAMPilRS STORIES AND POEMS Bead to ntflaad Oiteh-e O-kok-^-ltoo The Fairy Lamps The Corn-Smut Giri Oriciii of the Bluebird The Fint Gang Twin Sttn The Serea Swua How Mm Fooad ttw Gnat BtMt 126) 127) CAMPFIRE STORIES AND POEMS The Roftd to Fairyland* Do you seek the road to Fairy- land? I'll tell it's easy, quite. Wait till a yellow moon gets up O'er puiple seas by nig^t, And gilds a shining pathway That is sparkling diiunond bright. Then, if nor il power be nigh To thwart you, out of spite, And if you know the very wwds To cast a spell of might. You get upon a thistledown, And, if the breeze is right, You sail away to Fairyland Along this track of light. The Faiiy Lamps* There was once a little bare-legged brown-limbed boy who spent all his time in the woods. He loved the woods and all that was in them. He. used to look, not at the flowers, but deep dowTi into them, and not at the singing bird, but into its eyes, to its little heart; and so he got an insight better than most others, and he quite gave up collecting birds' eggs. But the woods were full of mysteries. He used to hear little bursts of song, and when he came to the place he could find no

  • See Footnote p. io6.

.109 128) Z04 Woodcraft Manual for Girls bird there. Noises and movements would just escape him. In the woods he saw strange tracks, and, one day, at length, he saw a wonderful bird making these very tracks. He had never seen the bird before, and would have thought it a great rarity had he not seen its tracks everywhere. So he learned that the woods were full of beautiful creatures that were skilftil and quick to avoid him. One day. is he passed by a spot for the hundredth time, he found a bird's nest It must have been there for long, and yet he had not seen it; and so he learned how blind he was, and he exclaimed: "Oh, if only I could see, then I might understand these things! If only every bird w(Hild wear over its nest this evening a Uttle lamp to show me! " The sun "was down now; but all at once there was a soft light on the path, and in the middle of it the brown boy saw a Little Brown Lady in a long robe, and in her hand a rod. She smiled pleasantly and said: " Little boy, I am the Fairy <rf the Woods. I have been watching you for long. I like you. You seem to be different from other boys. Your request shall be granted." Then she faded away. But at once the whole landscape twinkled over with wonderful little lamp> — long lamps, short lamps, red, blue, and groups; wherever he looked were lamps — twinkle, twinkle, twinkle, here and everywhere, ur. il the forest shone like the starry sky. He ran to the nearest, and there, surely, was a bird's nest. He ran to tb« next; yes, another nest. And here and there each different kind of lamp stood for an- other kind of nest. A beautiful purple blaze in a low tangle caught his eye. He ran there, and found a nest he had never seen before. It was full of purple eggs, and there was the rare bird he had seen but once. It was chanting the weird song he had often heard but never traced. But the eggs were the marvelous things. His old egg-collecting instinct broke out. He reached forth to clutch the wonderful prize, and — in an instant all the lights went out. There was nothing but the black woods about him. Then on the pathway shone again the soft light. It grew brighter, till in the middle of it he saw the Little Brown Lady — the Fairy of the Woods. But she was not smil- ing now. Her face was stem and sad as she said: "I fear I set you over-high. I thought you better than the rest. Keep this in mind: "Who reverence not the lamp of life can never see its light." Then she faded from his view. 129) Tribe Activities Z05 The Oricin of the Bluebird* Ninna-bo-jou, the Sun-god, was sleeping his winter's sleep on the b z island just above the thunder-dam that men call Niagara. Fotur moons had waned, but stiU he slept. The frost draperies of his couch were gone; hi:; white blanket was burned into holes; he turned over a little. Then the ice on the river cracked like near thunder. When he turned again it began to slip over the big beaver-dam of Niagara, but still he did not awake. The great Er-Beaver in his pond flapped his tail, and the waves rolled away to the shore and set the ice heaving, cracking, and groaning, but Ninna-bo-jou slept. Then the Ice-demons pounded the shore of the island with their clubs. They pushed back the whole river-flood till the cha. -^1 was dry, then let it rush down like the end of all tUngs, and t ' - shouted together: Nmna-bo-jou! Ninna-bo-jou! Ninna-bo-jou I But still he slept cahnl^ on. Then came a soft, sweet voice, more gentle than the naatmg turtle of Miami. It was in the air, but it was nowhere, and yet it was in the trees, in the water, ^d it was in Ninna-bo-jou, too. He felt it, and it awoke him. He sat up and looked about. His v/hite blanket was gone; only a few tatters of it were to be seen in the shady places. In the snowy spots the shreds of the fringe with its beads had taken root and were growing into little flowers with beady eyes. The small voice kept crying: "Awake; the Spring is commg! " Nmna-bo-jou said: "Little voice, where are you? Come here." But the little voice, being eversrwhere, was noiriiere, and could not come at the hero's call. So he said: "Little voice, you are nowhere because you have no place to live in; I will make you a house." So Ninna-bo-jou took a curi of Birch bark and made a little wigwam and because the voice came from the skies he painted the wigwam with blue mud, and to show that it came from the Sunland he painted a red sun on it. On the floor he spread a scrap of his own white blanket, then for a fire he breathed into it a spark of life, and said: "Here, Rttle voice, is your wigwam." The little voice entered and took possession, but Ninna-bo-jou had breathed the spark of life into it. The smoke-vent wings began to move and to flap, and the little wigwam turned into a beautiful Bluebird with a red sun on its breast and shirt of white Away it flew, but every Spring it comes, the Bluebird of the

  • See FootB^ p. 106.

130) io6 Woodcraft Manual for Girls Spring. The voice still dwells in we feel that it 1ms lc«t nothing of its earUest power wh. i ve hear M crv: "Awake, the Spring is coming!" The Twiu iiitrc* Two-Bright-Eyes went wandering out To chase the Whippoorwill; Two-Bright-Eyes got lost and left Our teepee — oh, so still! Two-Bright-Eyes was lifted up To sparkle in the skies And look like stars— but we know weU That that's our lost Bright-Eyes. She is looking for the camp ; She would come back if she could; She is peeping thro' the tree-tops For the teepee in the wood. The Gitch-e 0-kok-o-hoo* After the Great Spirit had made the world and the creatures in it he made the CMtch-e 0-kok-o-hoo. This was like an Owl. bu t biggrfhan anything else alive, and his voice was like a rlter plunging over a rocky ledge. He was so big that he thought he did it all himself, and was puffed up. j « • The Blue Jay is Ihe mischief-maker of the woods. He is ve^^ smart and impudent; so one day when the G'tch-e akol^o-hoo was making thunder in his throat, the Blue Jay said. Pooh, Such-e 0-kok-o-hoo, you don't caU that a big nmse! You should hear Niagara ; then you would never twitter again. Now Niagara wa^ the last thing the Mamtou had made; it never ceases to utter the last word of the Great Spirit in creating if "Forever! Forever! Forever!" But Gitch-e 0-kok-o-hoo was nettled at hearing his song called a "twitter." and he said: "Niagara Niagara! I m sick S hearine about Niagara. I will go and silence Niagara for always"' So he ttew to Niagara and the Blue Jay smckered and followed to see the fun.

  • This and the preceding four stories and poems we from "Woo<hnyth

«nd?i EmertmSp>on Seton. Acknowiedgiiieixt to Century Co. 131) Tribe Activities Z07 When they came to Niagara where it thundered down, the Gitch-e 0-kok-o-hoo began bawling to drown the noises of it, but could not make himself heard. "Wa-wa-wa," said the Gitch-e 0-kok-o-hoo, with great effort and only for a minute. " WA-WA-WA-WA," said the river, steadily, easUy, and for- ever. "Wa-wa-wa!" shrieked Gitch-e 0-kok-o-hoo; but it was so utterly lost that he could not hear it himself, and he began to feel small; and he felt smaller and smaller, until he was no bigger than a sparrow, and his voice, instead of being like a great cata- ract, became like the dropping of water, just a little Tink-tank-tink, Tink-tank-tink. And this is why the Indians give to this smallest of the Owls the name of " the water-dropping bird." When the top is wider than the root, the tree goes down. The Story of Corn-Smut Girl By permission from "Indian Tales of Long Ago," by Edward S. Curtis. Pub. World Book Co., Yonkers, N. Y, f 1.00 In one of the Hopi villages was a handsome young man named Rainbow Youth. Every day before sunrise he practised running, and made offerings to the Sun and to the other gods, that he might become strong and swift. During the day and the night he remained in the house. One day he announced that he would marry the girl ix^ose com meal was ground so fine that it would stick to a large shell hanging on his wall. Then all the girls began to grind meal, and to make it just as fine as they could. For all me maidens wished greatly to marry this handsome young man. "One after another they came to the home of Rainbow Youth and threw their meal against the shell. But it alwasrs fell to the floor, and the maidens, one by one, would go away ashamed. "Now in this village lived Corn-smut Girl, and she was dark- skinned and dirty. Her brothers teased her, asking why ^e did not marry Rainbow Youth, and she said she would try. But they laughed and said they did not think Rainbow Youth would keep his promise if her meal should stick to the shell. When Corn-smut Girl had her meal ready, she took it in a basket to the young man's house. He spoke kindly, and asked her to enter and sit d6wn. "Then he said, 'What is it you wish?' 132) io8 Woodcraft Manual for Girls "'I have come for you,' she answered. " ' Very weU,' said Rainbow You th. " He took a handful of her meal a. id threw it against the large shell, and it stuck fast. "'Good!' said he. 'It is my own word. I have agreed to marry the girl whose meal stuck to my shell. Your meal has done so. Therefore I go with you.' "So the two stirted to the home of Corn-smut Girl. For when a Hopi man takes a wife, he lives with her family. "The brothers and the mother of Corn-smut Girl were sur- prised that the handsome youth had married such an ugly girl, but they were glad to welcome him into the family. When the evening mealtime drew near, Corn-smut Girl went into another room. Soon a beautiful young woman came out and sat with the others to eat. Rainbow Youth wondered why his wife did not join them, but he asked no questions. "As bedtime came on, his brothers-in-law explained to him that this beautiful young woman was his bride. Corn-smut Girl. Her dark, smutty skin was really only a mask which she wore during the day. Every day she wore this mask, but at night she removed it and showed Iier true self to her family. For in truth she was not an ordinary person, but a goddess! "Now the girls who had wished to marry Rambow Youth were angry and jealous, and they made fun of the yoimg man and his dirty bride. But he did not care, for he knew that his wife was really more beautiful than any of them. "After several years had passed, Corn-smut Girl said that since she was a goddess, it was not right for her to live among mortal people. So with all her family she one day disappeared into the ground. And in the place where she went into the earth the Hopi now pray to Corn-smut Girl as a goddess, b^^ing her to send them good crops of com." The First Gang From "Around the Fire," by H. M. Burr, Association Press. The years went by and Om and Sut were almost men. They had trapped the smaller animals, now and then shooting a deer with the& arrows or driving one mto a pitfall. But now they aspired to bigger game. They wanted to sit with the men about the campfire, to be treated by the women, and especially by the girls of their own age, as if they were grown up. And there was just one way to denmstrate to the satisfaction of 133) Tribe AetMties 109 all that they had arrived at man's estate, and that was to prove themselves hunters strong enough and cunning enough to match their wits and weapons against the strength and fury of the bear and the wild buffalo. TTiey spent long days in the woods together planning and contriving. They provided themselves with bows of the strong- est and arrows of the sharpest, with saw-edged knives, lances, and stone axes. For hours they shot at a mark, taking turns and criticismg each other's shooting and haiiJung of the bow. Sometimes the men found them and smiled at them indulgently. But the women and girls laughed and jibed at the boys and pretended to be very much alarmed at the idea of two smooth- faced boys going hunting alone in the woods. That made the bo)rs work all the harder and keep more and more by themselves. Now in a valley, some distance away, there was a herd of wild buffaloes, the most dreaded of all the wild beasts. The bear was ugly only when hungry or wounded. The leopards rarely attacked men in the daylight and in the open. Even the wolves did not like to fight men unless they could take them at a disadvantage. But the buflfalo bulls seemed to have in their breasts the concentrated fury of all the savage creatures of the wild. They feared nothing. Their thick hide and powerful muscles defended their vital parts from the arrows and spears of men. They would charge at sight, and when their keen eyes did not detect their enemies their sensitive nostrils did. The only possibility of escape was to climb the nearest tree, and sometimes the mad bull would lie in wait at Uie foot of tihe tree till the man dropped from cold or exhaustion. Many men had been already killed. Even the boldest and the hardiest rarely ventured near the buffalo valley. The boys were warned ftom it as from sure death. For that reason, perhaps, it had a peculiar fascination for Om and Sut. They talked about it and dreamed about it. They climbed hills from which they could look down into it. They never forgot the time when they first saw the herd in the dis- tance, the bulls feeding on the outside, the cows and calves on the inside. Now and then some young bull would get too bold and rouse the anger of one of the kings of the herd and there would be a terrible battle. When the dust hid the fighters from the bovs* sight, they could hear the terrible bellowings. As time went on, buffalo valley had a greater and greater attraction for the boys. They ventured nearer and nearer. They lay on the bluffs overlooking the valley and boasted to eadi othorliow they would kill a bullock and cany it back to 11 mm 134) xzo Woodcnft Manual for GIris their cave homes; and they imagined how envious the men and boys who had been afraid would be and how humble the girls. But one day they ventured a little too near, and a stray bullock caught sight of the boys and immediately charged. Each boy climbed a tree with a swiftness which did credit to his bringing up, and there they stayed hour after hour during the long day, the bull watching them from blood-red eyes. Now and then he would stroll away to browse and drink, but at the slightest tnovement would dash back to the foot of the trees where the boys roosted. As night came on the boys grew colder and colder and hungrier and hungrier. They remembered the men who had gone into the buffalo valley and never came back, and they wished they were at home, even thou^ the girls did laugh at them and they had to sit back of the men at the fire. Finally they escaped, but by good fortune, not by any prowess of their own. A great bear came out of the wood, looking for something to fill his empty ^tomach. He had missed a deer as it came to drink. He was tired of the roots and ants' nests. He wanted meat — good red meat and plenty of it. When he saw the bullock, he hesitated for a moment, for big as he was he usually {)assed bulls by; a fight with one was such uncertain business, and even if he killed the bull the appetite was likely to be killed to. But the bear was very big and the bull not very large, and he was out of sorts and he hesitated too long. The bull spied him and charged instantly. The bear stood up on his hind feet. As the bull struck him, Bruin gave him a blow with his great paw which would have broken the neck of any other animal, and buried his great fangs in his shoulder. But the bull's sharp horns pierced the chest of the bear and bore him back to the ground. Deeper and deeper the cruel horns reached, while the claws of the bear tore great strips from the bull's flanks. It was a terrible spectacle, but the boys were too near to enjoy it. Quick as a flash they slid down and ran up the cliffs above them like two monkeys. At the top they stopped, panting for breath, and looked down into the valley. The air was filled with terrible roarings and bellowings. In the dim light they could see a huge brown mass rolling back and forth below them. Now they thought the bear had won and now the bull. By and by the dark settled down, and nothing could be seen, the sounds grew fainter, and finally all was still. The boys did not dare to go through the woods in the dark, so they found a bed oi leaves and lay down where they were. But there was 135) Tribe Activities III not much sleeping that night. A leopard's shrill cry woke them from their first doze; the baying of wolves awaketied them from the next; and when a great owl gave his weird wail just above their heads, they gave it up. The crackling of twigs told them that they were being hunted bv some night prowler. In lie dark and with no weapons — for they had dropped everything but their knives — they were at the mercy of any wild beast which discovered their hiding place. Then Om remembered the fire which had saved his life when a child, the fire which no animal was bold enough to come near. Could he make a fire. The moss upon which they lay was dry. A rough flake of flint which had not been shaped was in his skin pouch and his flint knife was in his belt. He had seen his father call the Red Spirit from the moss by strik- ing flints together. Once or twice he had succeeded in doing it himself, but it was no easy task. Still there was nothing for it but to try. With trembling hands he gathered the driest of the moss into a little pile and puUed together some dry twigs. Sut got on his knees ready to blow the smallest spark into flame. Om took the flint flake in his left 1 J and struck it a glancing blow with his knife. A dull spark flew, but did not light the moss. Again and again he tried, but in vain. Meanwhile, soft but ominously heavy footfalls came nearer and nearer. It was now or never. In desperation he struck a terrific blow which shattered the knife and brought the blood to his battered hand. He saw nothing, but Sut suddenly stooped lower and blew gently, and then more strongly. A tiny glow appeared, a wisp of smoke and then a red flame. Om crouched by the fire, exhausted, speechless, and helpless; but Sut skilfully fed the growing flames till they leaped high, and the hunter in the dark leaped away with great bounds into the deep woods. All night the boys sat by the fire, hungry and exhausted, but happy and safe. In the morning they looked down on the open spot below them which had been the scene of the terrible fight of the night before; and there, still locked together by horn and claw and jaw, were the bear and the bull, both dead and both victorious. A fox came out of the brush and sniffed at the pool of blood in which they lay; a flock of red-eyed buzzards hovered in the air above and finally alighted on a dead tree near- by. The boys were looking with mingled awe and delight at the bodies of their savage foes of the day before, when a brilliant thought came to Sut. "Om! The horns and dawsl We will take them to Uie camp, and who will lavgfx at us then!" No 136) XX2 Woodcraft Manual for Girls sooner thought than done. Down the cliff they clambered, forgetful of everything but the coveted trophies. At the foot they found their weapons where they had dropped them. The fox skulked away, the buzzards screamed and flapped to a little more distant tree, while the boys hacked off with rude knife and stone bludgeon one of the bear's claws and the horns of the bull. Then they fled up the cliff again and started hot foot for home. , . , c As they approached the stream by which they lived, Sut began to hasten, but Om went slower and slower. "Hurry, you snail," said Sut, "the women and girls will be pounding the meal and making ready for the men to eat and they will see by these that we are not boys to be laughed at." "But," said Om, "we did not kill them; we ran away." "Oh! but we don't need to tell all that," said Sut; " hurry up, hurry up! " But Om would not hurry. He went more and more slowly and finally sat down to think it out. The temptation was a very strong one. Perhaps all they would need to do would be to be silent, and it would be very pleasant to be treated like mighty hunters and men. But the trouble was that deep down in thdr hearts they would know that they had not proved it. Then a thought came to Om which settled his uncertainty. If it had not been for Odin who sent the bear to fight the bull, and sent the Red One at the prayer of the flints to drive away the leopard, they would not be here and there would be no story to tell. Then he remembered that his father had said that the Great One loved, truth as he loved light. He turned to Sut with aU his indecision gone. " We will tell the truth! We will not win the man-right by telling a lie." Sut grumbled a little, but yielded, as he always did to the stronger will of Om. When the boys came to the river bank there was a great shout, and all went out to meet them, for the villagers had grown anxious at their long absence. And they were pleased that no one laughed at them, not even the girls. As the boys were being fed, they told the story of their adventures amid the eager questionings of the home group. The horns of the bull and the paws of the bear were passed about, and the older men told how large the bear must have been from the size of the paw. They then told 'stories of bears which they had seen and fights of many kinds in ihe forest till Om and Sut were forgotten. But Om was pleased Jo notice that his father looked at him with quiet approval in his' eyes, and he heard him say to Oma: "Our son will be a great himter, for his feet are swift and hb hands are stnmg, and Ids head is chief over them all, and, more 137) Trib6 Acti?itl6S 113 than that, he is beloved by the Great One." And Om was glad. For a while the boys brooded over their adventure and kept away from the buffalo valley. But the horns and the great daws kept reminding them, and again all their hunting trips seemed to lead toward the dangerous valley. Oma had tried to make Om promise that he would not go there again, but Ang had said: "Do not make him promise. He must prove his man-right as we all have done, and the Great One loves him." FinaJly Om said to Sut: "We cannot escape the call of the death valley. Something tells me that we will either leave our bones there or win our man-right. I have been thinking it over, and it seems to me that one of the reasons why so many men have lost their lives there is that they have not used their brains and they have not worked together. Why shouldn't we be the first to do it? My idea is this. We will get together ten boys of our own age and ^e will have only those who will promise under the sacred oak tree to hunt together and not each for him- self. Then we will choose one who shall be to the others as the head is to the hands and feet. All shall obey him. When we have learned to work together, we will go where the cliffs which overlook the haSaio valley draw together, and we will pile great stones where a push will send them crashing down. Then we will keep watch, and some time when the wind blows up the valley and the herd is well up to where the cliffs are too steep to climb, where they come together like two streams, we will pray to the Fire Spirit and take burning brands from the fire and light the tall dead grass at the opening of the valley. Six will start from one side and six from the other, and we must outrun the deer. The buffalo will run from the wall of fire farther and farther up into the narrow part of the valley, and when they are bunched together like fish in a trap we will hurl down great stones and shoot our arrows, and there will be meat enough for all the men of the north country, and every cave shall have its bu£blo skin at the going in." So Om and Sut got the other boys together with great secrecy, and every one was made to take the oath of loyalty to the gang under the sacred oak. And Sut was chosen Chief, because he was the best talker. Om could make the plans and carry them out. In the working of the thing Sut did most of the talking, but he always kept his eye on Gin and did what Om wanted, and when it came to doing things Om was leader. For weeks the clan soHited the valley, <rften having hair- breadth escKpa mhea they ventured too near. It seemed as if 138) IZ4 Woodcraft Manual for Girls the wind would never be in the right direction when the herd was at the small end of the runway. But the delay was a good thing. The boys learned to hang together and obey the commands of their chief. One boy nearly lost hh life by disobeying, but the lesson was learned, and the gang hung together as no boys had ever done since the man-story began. At last the day came when the lookout reported the herd well up in the narrow end of the valley and the wind blowing in. Nothing was said, but by common consent Om was leader for the day. He sent Sut and five other boys to the south, while he and five more went to the north. Each gang was to build a fire where the smoke would not blow up the valley, and dry torch sticks were made ready to light. At midday, when a spear driven into the ground cast no shadow, Om shot an arrow high into the air. Each boy seized a torch from the fire and dashed across the mouth of the valley, lighting the dry grass as he ran. It was a wild rush. Never had the boys ran as they ran that day. In the years after, they told the tale to their children and grandchildren and they set the pace faster with each telling. In less time than it takes to tell, the boys had spread their net of fire and the wind was drawing it for them. When the boys reached the cliffs, the frightened herd was al- ready crowding up into the narrow end of the wedge-shaped valley, fleeing in terror from the pursuing wall of fire. Then the boys rolled the great stones down upon the seething mass below the n; shooting their arrows till the supply was exhausted. The mac lened buffaloes trampled on and gored eadi other until scarcely more than half the herd escaped alive. The young hunters, exhausted but triumphant, danced along the ledges, filling the air with savage yells. The next thing was to send word to the scattered homes. Three boys were left to keep watch, and the rest ran as if running a race to carry the news of the feast that was waiting for all who would come. Before night every man, woman, and child within a distance of twenty miles was on the spot. Old suspicions were forgotten and old grudges ignored, for the time being, at least. A great fire was built, and the men stripped the hides from the dead buffaloes and the women rolled therr! v,p tn rarn.' .away fnr ning. One of the largest of the bulls was dragged to the fire and roasted whole. Far into the night they worked and feasted. Finally, as they stretched themselves about the fire, exhausted but satisfied, Ang spoke: "I have seen the Cold Spirits come and go many times, but 139) Tfibe Actiyities 115 I have never seen so many men together as now. Men have not been like the wolvtis, which hunt in packs, or like the buffaloes, which feed in droves, or like the ducks and geese, which come and go in flocks. Each man, with his mate, has lived apart like the bear or the lion. There have been fear and hatred between us because each man feared that some other man would spoil his hunt or rob his t raps. And we have lived far apart. To-night we sit about the same fire as some of us have sat before at the feasts of the Great One. As I look into the fire, into the cave of the Red One within it, I see that whenever men come together to hunt, to feast, and there is no hatred in their hearts, it is a feast of Odin. I have told you many times before of the will of Him whose voice I am as I watch the tongues of flame. It is His will that men learn to live together. These boys have heard the whisper in the heart which we have not heard. They have killed more buffaloes since the sun rose this morning than we have done in all our lives and our fathers before us. They have not come to their full strength; they have not learned to shoot as far or as straight as we have done, but together they have done what no one of us could do." Then Ang picked some long grasses from a tuft beside him and took out a single one. Holding it where all could see, he snapped it as if it were a spider's web; then he put two together and snapped them; afterward more and more until he bad twisted a rope of grass which the strongest nuin could not break. He passed it about the circle, and each tried m vam to break it. Then Ang took it and held it high above his head where all could see, the women and boys as well as the men. "The single grass which the child can break is man alone; this rope of twisted grass is man united." A shout of assent broke from the group: "It is the will of the Great Spirit." Then Wang, who had been restleF"^ in his place, leaped to his feet: "If we are to hunt together like the wolf, we must learn from him. Each pack has its head which all the others obey. When the geese fly to the south, a great bird who is wise always leads the flock. Let us learn from the b.jasts and the birds. Who shall be our chief? " They all looked at Ang, and some one said, "Let Ang be our chief." But Ang shook hi:", head: "I have told you for many years the will of Odin. I will do so still as I see it m the fire or hear it in the whisper to the heart, but my eyes do not see as they did, my feet are not so swift in the chase, or my hands so strong at the kill. The head of the wolf pack is the strongest and the most cunning, not the okiest The whimper within tdls me 140) 1x6 Woodcraft Manual for Girls that it is not time to choose a chief to-n^t. He must be proven first." The men looked about on each other and knew that the words of Ang were wise. There was no one that they could all follow without question. The time to choose had not come yet. It came when But that is a tale for another telling. Then Om and Sut and the boys who had followed them were brought into the men's circle by the fire, and they told the story of how they had trapped the buffaloes. It was Sut who told the story, and his eyes shone Uke stars and his voice bubbled like the brook. As he talked on, Wang would wag his head now and then, as much as to say: "See! Like father, like son." The girls listened eagerly to Sut, but the older ones looked at Om, who sat a little back where the light did not shine so bright on his face, and nodded their heads and said to ea«* other: "Some day, perhaps, if the Great One wills." From that time on men began to do things together as they had never done before. They hunted together and fished to- gether. Groups of related and friendly families lived near, as Ang and Wang had done. And they had more to eat and more to wear. Fewer lost their lives in hunting the more dangerous animals. The women and children were safer in the little vil- lages than they had been in their lonely caves and huts. And Om and Sut were remembered in the sagas of the tribe as those who taught men how to live together. The Seven Swans " The L«ends of Vancouver," by Pauline Johnson, by pennission of pub- lishers, McClellaiKl, Goodchild & Stewart, Ltd., Cuada. "Did you ever know a mother who did not love her crippled baby more than all her other children?" asked the old klootch- man,* glancing up from her basket-weaving, and for a moment idlowing her slender lumds to lie idly in her lap. "One always loves the weak ones," I commented. "We ad- mire the strong, we are proud of the deft, the agile; we applaud the skilful, the clever, but we love the weak." " II is always so," she agreed. " Always so when the one who loves is a mother-woman, and when the weak one is a baby." As she spoke the old klootchman looked away across the canjron; her eyes ymce very dttamy, and I knew her thoughts were wing-

  • Woman.'

141) Tribe ActMtieg ing their pathless way mk to the olden yean and the eariier hift> tonr of her tribe. I crouched down beside her, settling comfortably in a natural shelf of rock, and for a time watched in silence the mad tumble of the sleepless Capilano River, as it crowded through the throat of the canyon three hundred feet below us. A swirl of melodies arose from its myriad waterfalls, its count- less rapids — melodies soft and fresh as a robin's whistle, and their singing intensified the fragrance of damp mosses and pungent firs and cedars that frame this most exquisite beauty-qwt in British Columbia. "There are not many song birds here," I remarked. "I sometimes think that Nature so richly favored this wonderful province that she kept the birds for some less beautiful country. Here the forests and the rivers sing to us. Their voices are more like a heavenly orchestra, like unseen hands playing on a thou- sand strings. The winds, the firs, the whispering rivers, are like Chopin Prelude sobbed from the throat of a violin." The klootchman looked at me longingly, and I caught myself back — I had been voicing my thoughts unmindful of her dear, uncomprehending mind. I smiled. You no savvy what I talk of, eh, klootchman? " I said. "Some savvy," she answered, using the native phrase with quaint delight. " What I mean is that here we cannot hope to have every- thing," I hastened. "The less lovely country east of the Rockies must be given some things that are denied to us. We have so much beauty that Nature balanced things a Uttle by giving the East its song birds." "Yes," she agreed; "but we have many other birds. The Sagalie Tyee (God) gave us birds for food here, not for song. Hie winds sing, but cannot feed the Indian people. The waters laugh, but cannot keep us from starving by their pretty voices. So, the Sagalie Tyee gave us the fish and the birds for food — many gray geese, russet pheasants, wild ducks, whistling swans " "Oh, klootchman 1" I interrupted, "yesterday I saw a band of magnificent white swans fly directly over the city — seven of them. They were heading for the southeast." She turned abruptly and looked at me with a half-curious, half-affecti<»iate expression illuminating her rugged old hcc. " You see seven swans? " she asked with intense interest. "Yes," I assured her. "Seven wonderful white swans. Th^ were the most giaceful things I ever saw. Th^ sailed 142) zi8 Woodcraft Maniud for Girls overhead like delicate white-winged yachts drifting on the bhie sea — the far waterless sea of the skies." "Very good sign," she said emphatically. "Very good hick for you — for sure you count seven of them? " "Yes," I assured her. Then I told her how I happened to be at the door of my "wigwam" when I heard a faint whistle sky- ward, an<l looking aloft T saw then' -seven white-feathered beauties sailing southward into the lands ot sun and warmth. I could picture them idling away the winter in some far southern lagoon, while the lazy tropic weeks drifted by as they waited for the call of the North that would come with the early days of April — the sweet clear call of the North that would mean mating time — that would mean days oi i-.v.'sting along the reeds r'"^ rocks of cooler climes, and a long, joyous summer in the far • i i of the upper Pacific Coast. I watched them for many moment'^; their slender white throats were outstretched with the same keen eagerness to reach the southern suns as a finely bred horse displays near the finish of a race. Their shining pinions were like silken sails swelling to the breeze, and lofty as their flight was, I could distinguish a hint of orange from the web of their trailing feet. Their indifference to the city beneath them, their direct though deliberate course, their unblemished whiteness were like a glimpse of some far perfect thing that human hands may not defile. Farther and farther they winged their way, fainter and fainter drifted back- ward their clear whistling, until they were but a bhir against the blue; like an. echo of a whisper their voices still floated be- hind them, then a pearl-gray scarf of cloud enveloped them — they were gone. The klootchman listened like one absorbed. "Very good sign," she repeated, as I concluded my story. " In what way? " I asked. "What is it the palefaces call the one who loves you?" she questioned. Then answering her own query with: "Sweetheart — ^is that not it? Yes? Well, sign is, your sweetheart very true to you. He not got two faces, one for you, another for when he is away from you. He's very true." I laughed sceptically. "A woman's sweetheart is never true to her, but a man'? always is," I remark r 1, %vi-^ a cynicism bom of much observation and some little exf>erience. "You know the big world too well for be happy," she began. "Oh, I am the happiest-hearted woman alive," I hurried to explain. Then, teasingly, "and I'll be happier still if what you say <^ the seven swans is reaUy true." 143) Tribe ActhdtiM "9 "It's true," she replied in a tone that compelled belief. "It b stnwge thing that you see and talk of seven swans, when an hour ago I speak to you of crippled baby and how the mother- women love them, care for them, protect them. You see, tillicum (friend), there is a Squamish story— what you call it? Legend? Yes, legend about a crippled child and a band of seven swans." I edged nearer to her. Then die told me the whimsical tale, while the restless Capilano murmured and chanted, laughed and rollicked, sang and sobbed out its music far, far below us. "The little girl was bom a cripple. There was not ugliness, nothing crooked in her form, just one little foot that was weak and limp and nerveless, and when she learned to walk, this foot trailed slightly behind the other. But, oh! the love of her Squamish mother that hovered over her, protected her, petted her, nursed her, waited on her; it was the all-powerful love of a mother-woman for a weak child, and the baby grew into girl- hood, then to womanhood, wrapped around with this wonderful garment oS love, as the clinging fragrant moss wraps the foot of a tree. "Her mother called her 'Kah-lo-ka' (accent on lo), which in the Chino(& means 'The Swan* for the girl was very beautiful. Her face was as a flower, her form slender and filled with grace, only the trailing foot stood between her and the perfection of young womanhood. But her soul was yet more beautiful than her face. She was kind, joyous, laughter-loving. She never said a bitter word, never gave a sneering smile. Her heart waa light, her hands skilful, her voice gentle. Her fingers were swift to weave baskets and bla..! ets, her eyes keen and lustrous m selecting the dyes for the quills and fibres and furs, for her home-making and her garments, and she loved little duldren as her mother had done before her. "And many a brave wanted her for his wife— many a young fisherman, many a warrior, many a trapper, but her heart loved none, until a young hunter came from the North, and said, 'I will be strong for both of us: I will be fleet of foot for both.' My arrows are true and never fail; my lodge is filled with sdft warm furs, your frail little feet will rest upon than, and your heart will rest in my heart — will you come? ' "The shadows crossed her face as she looked at her trailing foot. 'But I can never run to meet you when you return from the forest with the deer across your shoulders or the b^ver across v- arm,' she regretted. 'My step is slow and halting, nots iikctntotherinaidensof my tribe. I am never dance 144) 130 Woodcraft Manual for Girls for you at the great potlatches Ici hours and hours, while the old people sing and the young people admire. I must sit with the old womm— akme with the <m ones and the u^y ones — alone! ' " 'You will never be old, never be ugly,' he assured her. 'Your face and your soul are things of beauty. They, with your laugh- ing heart, will always be young. Your mother named you Kah-Io-ka, The Swan, and you are always that — shall ever be that to me. Come, will you come with me — ^will you come from your mother's love — to mine? ' "And, womanlike, she went with him, and her father's lod^ knew her no more. "But daily her mother would come to see her, to rejoice in the happiness of the young wife — the happiness that made her forget her trailing foot, that made her ever-lovely face still more beautiful, and she would call the little bride-wife, 'Be-be, Be-be,* as though she were still her frail baby girL It is the way with mothers and a crippled child. " The years drifted on, and Kah-lo-ka bore her hunter-husband ax b^utiful children, but none of them had the trailing foot, nor yet the lovely face of their laughter-loving mother. She had not yet grown old to look upon as the Squamish women are apt to do while even yet young, and her face was like a flower as she sat among the old and ugly at the great potlatches, while the maidens and the young men danced and chanted, uid danced again. How often she longed to join them none ever knew, but no shadow ever blurred her eyes, no ache ever entered her always young heart until the day her husband's cousin came, a maiden strong, lithe, tall as the hunter himself, and who danced like the sunlight on the blue waters of the Pacific. "For hours and hours this cousin would dance tirelessly, and through all the hours he watched her, watched her sway like the branches of the Douglas ^r when storm beaten, watched her agile feet, her swift, light steps, her glorious strength, and when she ceased, Kah-lo-ka's husband and the voung braves and warriors gathered about her with gifts of shell necklaces and fair speeches. "And Kah-lo-ka looked down at her own poor trailing foot — and the laughter died in her eyes. In the lodge with her ibt little children about her she waited for him many days, many weeks, but the hunter-husband had left her for one who had no trailing foot to keep her sitting among the old and the ugly. "So Kah-b-ka waited, and waited, k»g, long yean through* 145) Tiibo Activities xax and the friends of her youth grew old a.. ^ wrinkled, her tribes- people grew infirm and feeble with age, but the face ci the woman with the trailing foot remained as beautiful, as young, as unlined as when die first met and loved the young hunter who had gone out of her life many scores of moons ago. "And far away in his distant lodge the hunter-husband grew . old and weakened in body and mind; his aim was no longer sure, hht eye no longer keen, and at his side sat his coudn, she who was once so light of foot, so joyous in the dance, so strong and straight and agile, but the years had weighted her once swift feet, nad aged her face, had stooped her shoulders, had stiffened her muscles, her ankles, her hands. Old and wrinkled she crouched in her blanket, for her blood ran slowly, her youth was gone — she danced no more. "And one day he returned to look upon her whom he had left, to hear her laugh, and to learn that a true woman's love wiU keep her young and flowerlike forever. With a great cry he bowed himself before her, and though he was old and feeble and ugly, although he was false and had failed her, and had forgotten her — ^womanlike she outstretched her arms toward him, for was he not the father of her children? "But the Sagalie Tyee (the Ahnighty) spckt out of the sky, and word is law to all races, to all people. 'You shall not have her again, O Hunter 1' spoke the voice. 'You have been untrue. She has been true. Untruth cannot mate with truth, dishonor cannot mate with honor, falsity caimot mate with fidelity. I, the Sagalie Tyee, chief of the skies and of earth and of the seas, sb^ place bar and her (Mdren where their youth and their beauty and their laughter shall forever taunt and reproach your axx^ced, misshapen heart They shall never grow or ugly, and she with her trailing foot afaaU be- come that most beautiJful and graceful thing that I have ever created. Watch the morning skies, O Hunter of the double face, theKkrable heart, and <» the first light of the rising mm you wfll see seven perfect things. Beauty, Grace, Laughter, Youth, Fidelity, Love, and Truth— seven gknious things that you have forfeited, have cast aiddet ' "In the morning the aged hunter sought Kah-lo-ka's lodge. It was empty, but against iht gokl of the rising sun there arose a group ol sevn peut-n^te swans. They poised above him for a moment, then winged their way southward. He watched in an agony of Imidiness thdr gracdul flight; he listened in an agony of heartadie to their aear, wikl pipbg laughter, HmX ditftad btdtiiud Hk« tbe note* of a dittut itate; Idt afad ^ 146) 122 Woodcraft Manual for Girls watched and watched as those seven beautiful birds sailed away on wings like silken webs, and whose feet trailed a blur of orange against the blue of the morning sky. He bowed his head then— for he knew that those trailing, graceful feet were his Kah-lo-ka's one defected— glorified." " Do they always travel in flocks of seven? " I asked. " Not always, but often so," she repUed. " So when you count seven white ones, it will be sure to be Kah-lo-ka and her children; that is why I say you have good luck, and a tyue sweetheart. It is only an old Indian story, but it means much." "I suppose, klootchman, it means that like begets like?" I half questioned. "That truth bears truth. That fidelity bears fideUty — is that it? " "Yes, did not the SagaUe Tyee say that truth could not ti-dte with untruth?" die said very reverently. How Men Found tiie Great Spirit From "Around the Hie," by H. M. Buir. Permissioii Astodatkm Press. In the olden time when woods covered all the earth txcept the deserts and the river bottoms, and men lived on the fruits and berries they foimd and the wild animals which they could shoot or snare, when they dressed in skins and lived in caves, there was httle time for thought. But as men grew stronger and more cunning and learned how to live together, they had more time to thkSs. and more mind to think with. Men had loamed many things. They had learned that cold weather followed hot, and spring, winter; and that the sun got up in the nraming and went to bed at night. They saw that the great water was kindly when the sun shone, but when the sun hid its face and the wind blew upon it, it grew black and angry and upset then* canoes. They had found that knocking fl&ts together or ribbing dry sticks would light the dry moss, and that the flames which would bring back summer in the midst of winter and day in the midst of night were hungry and must be fed, and when they escaped devoured the woods and only the water could stop them. These and many other things men learned, but no one knew why i all was or how it came to be. Men began to wonder, and that was the beginning of the path which led to the Great Spu-it. In the age9 when men began to wonder there was bom a boy 147) Tribe ActMtiet "3 whose name was Wo.* As he lay in his mother's arms, she loved him, but wondered: "His body is of my body, but whence comes the life — the spirit which is like mine and yet not like it?" And his father, seeing the wonder in the mother's eyes, said, "Whence came he?" And there was no one to answer, and so they called him Wo, to remind them that they knew not v^ence he came. As Wo grew up, he was stronger and swifter of foot than any of his tribe. He became a mighty hunter. He knew the ways of all the wild things and could read die signs of the season. As he grew older, they made him a chief and listened while he spoke at the council board, but Wo was not satisfied. His name was a question, and questioning iSlled his mind. Whence did he come? Whither was he going? Why did the sun rise and set? Why did life burst into leaf and flower with the coming of the spring? Why did the child become a man and the man grow old and die? The mystery grew upon him as he pondered. In the morning he stood on a mountaintop and, stretching out his hands, cried, " Whence? " At night he cried to the moon, " Whither? " He listened to the soughing of the wind in the trees and to the song of the brook and tri«i to learn their language. He peerad eagerly into the eyes of little children and tried to read the mystery of life. He listened at the still lips of the dead, wait- ing for tliem to tell him whither they had gone. He went about among his fellows silent and absorbed, always looking for the unseen and listening for the unspoken. He sat so long siloit at the council board that the elders questioned him. To their questioning he replied like one awakening from a dream: "Our fathers since the beginning have trailed the beasts of the wood. There is none so cunning as the fox, but we can trail him to his lair. Though we are weaker than the great bear and buffalo, yet by our wisdom we overcome them. The deer is more swift of foot, but by craft we overtaJie him. We cannot fly like a bird, but we snare the winged one with a hair. We have made ourselves many cunning inventions by which the beasts, the trees, the wind, the jmter and the fire beoHne our servants. "Then we speak great swelling words: 'How great and wise we are! There is none like us in the air, in the wood, or in the water!' But the words are false. Our pride is like that of a partridge drunmiing on his log in the wood before the fox lei^s

  • Wo meant, in the language of the tine, "wbnoe."

148) Woodcraft Manual for Girls upon him. Our sight is like that of the mole burrowing under the ground. Our wisdom is like a drop of dew upon the grass. Our ignorance is like the great water whfch no eye can measure. , , . » "Our life is like a bird coming out of the dark, flittenng for a heartbeat in the hut and then going forth into the dark again. No one can tell us whence it comes or whither it goes. I have asked the wise men, and they cannot answer; I nave listened to the voice of the trees and wind and water, but I do not know their tongue; I have questioned the sun and the moon and the stars, but they are silent. "But to-dav in te silence before the darkness gives place to Ught I seemed' to hear a still small voice within my breast saying to me: "Wo, the questioner, rise up like the stag from his lair; away, alone to the mountain ci the sun. There thou shalt find that which thou seekest. "I go, but if I fall by the trail another will take it up. If I find the answer, I will return." Waiting for none, Wo left the council of his tribe and went his way toward the mountain of the sun. For six days he made his way through the trackless woods, guided by the sun by day and the stars by night On the seventh day he came to the great mountain — ^the mountain of the sun, on whose top, according to the tradition of his tribe, the sun rested each night. All day long he cUmbed, saying to himself: "I will sleep to-night m the hut of die sun, and he will tell me whence I came and whither I go." But as he climbed, the sun seemed to climb higher and higher. As he neared the top, a cold cloud settled like a night bird on the mountain. Chilled and faint with hunger and fatigue, Wo strug- fled on. Just at sunset he reached the top of the mountam, ut it was not the mountain of the sun, for many days' journey to the west the sun was sinking in the Great Water. A bitter cry broke from Wo's parched lips. His long trail was useless. There was no answer to his questions. The sun jour- neyed farther and faster than men dreamed, and of wood and waste and water there was no end. Oveiwme with mtaay and weakness, he fell upon a bed of vaaa with his back toward the sunset and the unknown. And Wo slept, although it was unlike any sleep he had ever known before, and as he slept he dreamed. He was alone upon the mountain waiting for the answer. A cloud coveied the mountain, but all was silent. A mighty wind roit thedoud and rushed roaring throuf^ the crags, but theie was no voioe m 149) Tribe Activities "5 the wind. Thunder pealed, lightning flashed, but he whom Wo sought was not there. In the hush that followed the storm Wo heard a voice low and quiet, but in it all the sounds of earth and sky seemed to mingle — the song of the bird, the whi^jcring ci the trees, and the murmuring of the brook : "Wo, I am He whom thou seekest; I am the Great Spirit; I am the All-Father. Ever since I made man of the dust of the earth and so child of the earth and brother to all living things, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, thus making him my son, I have waited for a seeker who should find me. In the fullness of time thou hast come, Wo, the questioner, to the Answerer. "Thy body is of the earth and to earth returns; thy spirit is mine; it is given thee for a space to make according to thy will; then it returns to me better or worse for thy making. Thou hast found me because thy heart was pure and thy search for me tireless. Go back to thy tribe and be to them the Voice of the Great Spirit. From henceforth I will speak to thee and to the seekers that come after thee in a thousand voices and appear in a thousand shapes. I will speak in the voices of the wood and streams and of ^ose you love. I will appear to^ou in the sun by day and in the stars by night. When thy people and mine are in ne^ and wi^ for the will of the Great Spirit, then shall my spirit brood over thine and the words that thou shalt speak shall be my words." And Wo awoke, facing the east and the rising sun. His body was warmed by its rays. A great gladness Med his souL He had so^t and found, and prajrer came to him like acmg to the bird: "0 Great Spirit, Father of my spirit, the sun is Thy messenger, but Hiou art brighter than the sun. Drive Thou the darkness befwe me. Be Thou the light of my spirit," As Wo went down the mountain and took the journey back to the home of his people, his face shone, and the light never seemed to leave it, so that men called him He of the Shining Face." When Wo came back to his tribe, all who saw his face knew that he had found the answer^ and they gathered again about the council fire to hear. As Wo stood up and lodged into the eager faces in the circle of the fire, he remembered that the Great Spirit had given him no message and for a moment he was dumb, llxen the words ci the Great Spirit came to him again: "When thy peopk Mid m» tM peed know my will, my spirit 150) 136 Woodcraft Mamial for QM» shall brood over thine and the words that thou shalt speak shall be my words." Looking into the eager faces full of longing and questioning, his spirit moved within him and he spoke. "I went, I sought, I found the Great Spirit, who dwells in the earth as your spirits dwell in your bodies. It is from Him the spirit comes. We are His children. He cares for us more than a mother for the child at her breast, or the father for the son that is his pride. Ifis love is like the air we lM«athe; it is about us; it is within us. "The sun is the sign of His brightness, the sky of His great- ness, and mother-love and father -love and the love of man and woman are the signs of His love. We are but children; we can- not enter into the council of the Great Chief until we have been proved, but this is His will, that we love one another as He loves us; that we bury forever the hatchet of hate; that no man shall take what is not his own, and the strong shall help the weak." The chiefs did not wholly understand the words of Wo, but they took a hatchet and buried it by the fire, saying, "Thus bury we hate between man and his brother," and Uiey took an acorn and put it in the earth, saying, "Thus plant we the love of the strong for the weak." And it became the custom of the tribe that the great council in the spring should bury an axe and plant an acorn. Every morning the tribe gathered to ^eet the rising sun, and with right hands raised and kit up<m thar hearts prayed, " Great Spirit, hear us; giMt us to-day; inake our wills Thy mil, our ways Thy ways." And the tribe' grew stronger and wiser than all the other tribes <rf men. Books Roeommottdod Aboomd TBI Fiix,H.M. Burr, Associatua Press, Lts Legends or Vanooovek, E. Pauline Johoaon. McOelland, GoodchiU & Stewart. The GAtnra Gkay Wou, Dillon Wallace. Fleming Revelle, $1.25. Wild Anuaks I Have Known, Emat Thompann Setoa. Scribaers, $1.75- Wild Andial Ways, Ernest Hkm^mmi Settm. Doubkday, Psfs k Co., Inoiam Talis or Long Ago, Edwwd S. Curtb, $1^ 151) SECTION III






Chapter I

City Woodcraft
Woodcraft in Town
The Value of Doing
Bead Work
Totems in Town
Fire — Servant or Master?
A Good Body

The Life Force
Health Hints
Rough and Ready Help
Patriotism and Citizenship
Sign Language
Picture Writing
Weather Signals
Railroad Signals
Roof Camping

152) 153) CHAPTER I


Woodcraft in Town

Woodcraft in the beginning was the only science of man. It meant masterful touch with the things of his daily life, indoors and outdoors, near or far. So, also, by growth and transference we define Woodcraft in our city to-day as seeing, comprehending, and mastering the ordinary things of our daily life.

The boy or girl who looks both ways before crossing the street, who knows what all the signs on the lamp-post mean, who avoids breathing through the mouth, especially when there is dust flying, who knows the warnings of the different colored lights, who knows the number on the motor car that rushed by so recklessly, who keeps the chest expanded and the toes nearly straight in walking, who can tell a man's track from a woman's or a young man's from that of an old man on the wet pavement, who realizes that the telephone book is the key to the business life of a city, who recognizes and acts on all the hand signals given by the traffic policeman — he is practising good woodcraft and cultivating something that in the life-game spells "SUCCESS."

There are three separate fields for Woodcraft in the City.

The first is that of the incidental things of wild life that are found in our parks, suburbs, and water front. No less than one hundred forest trees, one hundred wild flowers, sixty different wild birds, twenty different furry four-foots, a dozen turtles, snakes, etc., are found in New York City, while ever the same, overhead, are the stars.

The second field is in the museums and libraries. Every one of our great cities is rich in material of priceless value, gathered here from the wilderness, stuff really relating to woodcraft. The material is composed not only of collections of birds, animals, trees, etc., but of robes, boats, songs, dances, ceremonies, legends, pictures, carvings, and a myriad of things that stir the loving imagination of the red-blooded, blue-sky boy of girl.

But the last is the largest and most important department, for 154) it offers the newest field of purely city work. These are some of its headings:

Signs and blazes on the main street (a blaze or Indian sign is understood to be a simple mark conveying information without using words or letters.) There are on Broadway at least fifty signs and blazes descended from those used in the wilderness by savages; in some cases the very same mark is used. A totem is a simple form, usually a natural form used as the symbol of a man, a group of men, or an idea. It has no reference to words, letters or language. In this light, there are 200 or 300 totems of daily use in every big city. Some trade marks and all armorial bearings are of the nature of totems. Every great railway company has a totem, though it was not so fifty years ago. The change has come because a totem is copyrightable, rememberable, advertisable, visable afar and comprehensible by all, no matter what the language or lack of learning may be.

The old sign language of the plains exists among us to the extent that over one hundred of the gesture signs are in daily use among the school children and the folk from Southern Europe. The policeman regulating the traffic uses at least fifteen of these signs daily and hardly realizes it, yet every one understands them and obeys. Here they serve the same purpose as in the wilds; they convey information when it is impossible to be heard and they do it in the universal language of ideas which all can comprehend no matter what his speech may be.

The tracks of different human beings as well as of dogs, cats, rats, mice, horses, sparrows, etc., are seen after every shower, when the gutter is wet and the pavements dry, as well as after a snowstorm; and they all have a story to tell to the eyes of woodcraft wisdom.

City craft — the knowledge of the things which are particularly a development of the city: how the streets are paved, how the garbage is disposed of, where the city water is obtained and its quality, these and many other things relating to making life in the city produce the best results, are an open field.

All of these and a thousand more are to be found in the city. And the value of city Woodcraft is not merely in the things themselves but in being able to see the things about you. Begin to-day to see, comprehend, and master the ordinary daily things of your life.

The Value of Doing

Our grandmothers gathered, dyed, and prepared material for their own clothes; made their rugs and carpets, their own candles, 155) their own soap, their own medici* cs uunc in the wilderness, they were sufficient unto themselves, for they were true Woodcrafters — they mastered the things about them. Conditions have changed and now most of these things have been taken from the home to the factory, so the old home training is no longer in reach.

The big value of all this knowledge was in that it bestowed power. For learning to (to gives more power to do, and when you let some one else do a thing for you, you eventually lose the power to do that thing. Through the ability to do have peoples prospered and nations become great.

When the Romans put in the hands of slaves the doing of everything, they thereby lost the power to do, and were defeated by themselves in their national life and then by their enemies in battle. The Vikings sailed their ships fearlessly and far, for they had proved themselves on many seas. In time of stress, each leader took the helm of his own ship; and the proud boast often heard among these world-subduing northern folk was: “I am a noble. My father owns his own forge.” Always in the world’s history, those who valued the ability to do have been strong and sturdy. The Persians’ battle flag in their strongest time was a blacksmith’s apron. Emerson recognized the value of doing things well when he said: “If a man can write a better book, preach a better sermon, or make a better mousetrap than hb neighbor, though he live in the woods, the world will nuke a beaten path to his doorway.”

So the Woodcraft Girl of to-day will learn to do, if she would be happy and healthful; for life is made worth while, not by the few great moments, but by the making of the daily life pleasant and full of meaning. The difference in homes is largely in what one knows and can do. One is of value in the office from this standpoint. And the managing of a home so that it is clean, bright, and attractive, is one of the largest jobs. It pays the largest dividends because it brings satisfaction to all, not to mention the financial gain in knowing how to can and preserve, how to make one’s own clothes, etc.

Probably nothing is sadder than to go into a home where everything is bought ready prepared; clothing ready made, food bought in small quantities at a delicatessen shop, amusement had at me movies or at some place where it can be bought. The clothing is commonplace — no brain or pnde has gone into the making; the food was bought in a hurry and haphazardly. The amusements are often flat, and mostly superficial.

Oh, Woodcraft Girl, would you really live? They begin, not 156) dreaming of some new field to enter or new worlds to conquer, but by knowing and using all the things about you. Know the pleasure of workmanship, the happiness which comes from closer touch with the fundamental things of life and the consciousness of being of value to the world.


Of all the *«)ols 1 V« f stand, the n die and ui .1, the - ssor. doubtedly prove to N' the nost Uk fiil. ' that thc^o hill!' v liah a- v can clever fingers is surprisi lcv( t may produce many i ii -^u ' an. 'rapl. clothes to a chart 'ng or fi ii- none too even, t centr e att Toeverv Woo aft ( wir t,'«?"' V»r inder- , will un- of t! ngs ^eld. from -vith still ered. '>v from ^e Mtmk 'f ' Whu. is tl >e of L it up again: She i a^Mressing h< -.ell sewing craff whm thing either ^nal d. Si ' ing is ootrd in the tim< lat tirst began ing em t(^tl^ »n cres cov t i in pre^'^' is tt A seeku^ know: -01 t IH awake t( lugii 'he Ati ibro isa mcr-sage (juite different said about embroidery, 11 . piece of cloth just to sew he wonderful possibilities of ndy little iin];^ments of the r own desire to creite some- •voh . Jdi. iome method of fasten- ■ffi rt »i prodmx warmth and the present <ky tiie highest ex- for persona! adornment perhaps 1)1 -rk ' he n i lace-maker rou ut however, is what the average girl is and ti= iotio^ itches she will surc'> want to T -s^^ Stitciws From "Schod Needleworii" by CXt v ^ C. i lapgood. PuUiihed by Ginn ft Co. X. Stitching 157) 158) / 6^ Overgeaming ot ovahanding 7. Gftttoring 159) Thingi to Know and Do lOb Edging Mid Rufikt 160) 1^6 Woodciaft Mannal lor Giris II. Darning "T" — 1 2. Herring bone 13. Feather stitch 161) Thing! to Know and Dd 137 Thisfs to RmMBbcf In woven goods the warp is the threads that go up and down and the woof is the threads that go across. A bias is a slanting cut across both warp and woof. Cotton goods can be torn after the selvedge has been cut, but linen should have a thread drawn and cut along that line to get the edge even. Ruffles should be cut crosswise of the goods, while bands or belts should be cut lengthwise, so as not to stretch. If a thread kinks, break it off and begin at the other end. In using spool cotton, thread the needle with the end that comes off first and it will not kink. Woven goods are made of spun yam, either of silk, wool, flax, cotton, hemp, or jute. Books Recommended School NEEOLEWtttx, Olive C. Hapgood, Ginn & Co., t.75. HoMK AND School Sewing, by Frances Patton. Newaon ft Company, $.50. Shelter and CunmNC, Kinne and Cooley, McMillan Co., $1.10 BMd Woffc Making bead work on a loom is a fascinating occupation and when the large beads are used the work grows quickly. How- ever, it is wiser to use the small beads as the results will be much finer work. It is easy to make one's own desi|;n on cross- stitch f>apcr and the design shown was done by a gu-l of twelve. It is the begiiming of a belt that is intended to give thep incipal "milestones" in the life of the wearer. Another girl n ade a belt of one summer's expc»iaicear-iMar fovwite canoe, the island where she stayed, etc. Tlie Woodcraft Headbands are usually made oi beads. For the Big Lodge the pattern is a row of blue tepees with a red doorway on a white background. The usual rule for the big beads is nine beads in width. The teeptta are nine beads in width at the bottom and betweoi each tttepet at the b(M,tOBi are three white beads. The Um of ^ B«i^ I<oom To Set Hp the Loom: I. Decide how many beads are to be used to make the width. Cut <^ one more thread than the number of beads (in the width) 162) Woodcraft Manual for Girls Bead Belt begun by a Woodcraft Girt The first picture represents birth. A stork carrying a basket with the baby's head show- ing flying to a house. The second rep- resents a journey to Canada. A train and car followed by an arrow pointing to a land of pine trees <xi snow. Top View of Bead Loom 163) Things to Know and Do 139 to be used. For example if there are to be nine beads cut ofiF ten threads. 2. The threads should be somewhat longer than the strip of bcadwork is intended lO be when finished. 3. Fasten all the ends neatly to the tack or pin on the roller. 4. Place each thread separately in a groove and draw smoothly to opposite groove and fasten to peg. To Begin the Bead Work: 1. Thread needle with long thread. (Barbour's Linen 100.) 2. Fasten end securely on lowest thread, with the spool of loom on the left-hand side. 3. Pick up on the needle the required number of beads (one less than the total number of strings) arranged in color so as to make the design you have sketched. 4. Slip the beads to end of thread and pass them under che threads to the top, press the beads into place, one between each two threads. S- Hold the Iseads with left hand, while passing the needle back through them from the top, making sure that the thread goes from under the top thread over it back into the top bead. Housekeeping From the time the first cave woman yielded to her desire for beauty — two elements of which are cleanliness and order — and bound some twigs together to make a broom, the broom has beer the emblem of the housekeeper. Since then women have striven from cave to mansion on the problems that present themselves to the homemaker — making and caring for the things the family needs in order that it be strong, clean, healthy, happy, and use- ful. Food, clothing, furniture and furnishings, health, happi- ness, religion; these are the concern of the housewife. The home is the foundation of society. Well kept, its members go out to the world strong and ready to fight a winning fight and when. the home life is poorly or carelessly handled the battle is frequently never fought ; they are defeated before they begin. In the home, centre the greatest joj-s and the greatest sorrows. The Woodcraft Girl will find many fascinating outlets to her desire to be of help, but the home will undoubtedly be one of her favorite mes; and in the fc^lowii^ bodts vacious subjects rdatmg to hotndceeping are well covered aad show the great 164) Woodcraft Manual for Girls value and the pleasure one may have in putting them into practice. , ^ Books Recommenaed The Makino of a Housewife, Isabel Gordon Curtis, Frfd. A. Stoket, housf.mold Science andAkts, Joscpliim- Morris, American Rook Co.j^fo. Practical Homemaking, Mabel Hyde Kiltredgc, Century Co., $.00. Foods and Household Management, Kinne and Cooley, McMillan Co.,

  • 'from Kitchen to Gauset, Virginia Terhune Vandewater, Stuigb k

Walton, $1. Totems in Town A totem is an emblem of a man, a group of men, or an idea. It has no reference to words or letters. Before men knew how to write they needed marks to indicate ownership. This mark must be simple and legible and was chosen because of something connected with the owner or his family. Later some of the trades adopted a symbol; for in- stance the barbers in the early days were "blood letters" and were closely associated with the medical profession. Their totem indicated their business and we have the red and white barber pole of to-day. It was among the Indians along the West coast of America that the science and art of totems readied its highest development, though they have a world-wide usage and go back in history to the earliest times. Out of this use of totems as owner marks and agna grew the whole science of heraldry and national flags. Thanks to the fusion of many small armies into one or two big annies, that is, of many tribes into a nation, and also to modem weapons which made it possible to kill a man farther off than you could see the totem on his shield, national flags have replaced the armorial devices, and are the principal totems used to-day. But a new possibility has been discovered in modem times. Totems will serve the ends of commerce, and a great revival of their use is now seen. The totem is visible such a long way off and is understood by all, whether or not they can read or know our language, is copyi^table and advertisable, so that most of the great railway companies, etc., now have totems. There are not less than one hundred common totems used m our streets to-day. Among the familiar ones seen are t^e Amer- ican eagle, with white head and tail, the Austrian eagle with two heads, the British lion, the Irish harp, the French fleur de lis, etc AjBoaog trades the three baUs oi the pawabrdcer, the 165) Christianity Mourning Btoctric Commercial Power Suoocsi Northern Salt Lake Santa Traffic Bcfl Pacific R.R. R.R. R. R. Squad Tdeplume Pawnshop Liberty Amy Druggist Inhnd Woodcmft Navy Sea Power Optician Union PMafic T |»lamiMTi Skating Star Union New York R.R. liaei City f Fenna. The Power Canadian Buber SooUaad R. R. of the Pacific .People R.R. Totems Often Seen 14i 166) 143 Woodcraft Manual for Girls golden fleece of the drygoods man, the mortar and pestle of the druggist, and others are well known. Examples of these and others are given in the illustration but any wideawake Woodcraft Giri will be able to find many others by careful observation. Fir«— Senrant or Matter? nUB IS A OIXAX SERVANT BUT A TEKIOBLE MASTEK FIrv FwmtiMi Condenaed horn Hn CommUam Robert Adunaon's Pamphkt Why should America suffer five times as much fire loss per lioad as any European country? Chiefly because we are so careless. Just think that every year about 2,000 lives are lost in fires, and 6,000 persons injured. The money loss to this country is about $500,000,000, which means that every family of fiveperscma is paying $12,50 a year as their share of this loss — $2.50 apiece. In Europe the people are so careful about fires that fire loss is only about fifty cents apiece. Taking no account of the suffer- ing and misery, our cash fire loss in America is $600,000 a day, $25,000 an hour, S416 a minute. In other words, we lose each year through fire more than enough to build the Panama CanaL During 1913, in New York City alone, 588 fires were caused by children playing with matches, with a loss of $32,000. It has beoi calculated that more people have been killerl in recent years on the Fourth of July celebration than were killed in the whole original Revolution that it celebrates. Nearly 40,000 wcfe killed injured m Fourth al July fires in the ten years, 1904 to 1914. This is why sensible pe(^ have riien iq;> and demanded a safe and sane Fourth. Firewtnks and bonfires should be absolutely forbidden. I never yet saw the time or place where a bonfire was not a curse. However safe it may seem, there is sure to be some risk, and it is wasting valuable wood. A true Woodcraft Boy or Girl never makes a bonfire. Let us express our patrk>tian without ruin- ingour neighbors' property or our own. Flret would be practicaUy unknown if we followed the advice al ComaaMkfaa Adamsoii of New York City, and practised the TWENTY-fOfUK DON'TS Doo't allow chOdmio play with matches. Don't block the fire eso^wt. 167) Things to Know nut Do X43 Don't fail to inspect your own home, or the place where you work, so as to know where all exits are. Don't throw away lighted matches, cigars, or cigarettes. Don't go into dark closets, bedrooms, or cellars, with lighted candles or matches. Don't use kerosene to light fires with, or use benzine ocoaphtha near open flames. Don't fill kerosene lamps when lighted. Don't use a poor quality of Kerosene Oil. Don't put ashes in wooden boxes or barrels. Keep ashes away fnun boards. Don't put hot ashes (m dumbwaiter, ox near wooden parti- tions. Don't have piles of rubbish m the house, oe cellars, or m workshops. Don't use candles on Christmas trees. Don't keep matches in anything but a closed metal box. Don't tie back the dumbwaiter shaft in the cellar. Don't store oils, pamts, grease, or fats in the house. Don't have greasy rags around, they catch fire by themselves. Don't have lace curtains near gas brackets. Don't use folding gas brackets. Don't use gasolene, naf^tha, or benzine in the house unless all windows aie open and there is no light near. Don't pour gasolene or naphtha down the drain. Don't use kitchen stoves close on taUes unless there is a metal sheet underneath the burners. Don't set gas stoves right up against the wall. They should have a metal sheet behind them. Don't look for gas leaks with a lighted match or candle. m CASK OF rax But sup e that in spite of your doing your share some one else has failed, and a fire has broken out in a house. The first thing is kee^ cool, act quickly, and send in an alarm. Haw. Fmd the nearest alarm box to your home. If it opens with a key, find out who keeps the key. The ordinary box has no key; you simply turn the handle to the right, open the door, and pull the hook down all the way and let go. Wait until the firemen arrive and direct them to the fire. If you don't know where the nearest alarm box is located, use the 'phone and ask Coitral fw Fire Headquarters, and tell the Fire Department openUx the enct address ct the building where fire is. 168) Woodcraft Manual for Girls // fire is in a crowded building, the first thing is to keep cool and help others to do the same, for PANIC is worse than Pirt. It kills far more. Keep cool and help others do the same. A cool man who can get up and address the crowd from Ihe step can often do wonders, for thourij they cannot hear him the crowd can see that he is cool. This he^ them. IN A UUKNINO 11 lUSE Remember that in a house afire there is always good air near the floor, so crawl with head low ii the room is full of smdce. If you must open a window, close the door first. Then Ret out and wave anything you can get, shout and wait. Some lirt nian will be sure to see and save you if you keep cool. Remember these men are absolutely brave, sure, and quick, they know their business; they are there to help you. The fire thai is so serious to you is an everyday thing to them. I might almost say Ihey never fail, unless the victim does not keep cool. We may make jokes about our street cleaners, and write harsh things at times about the pdice and the alderman, but we are always proud of our firemen, and whatever they tell you to do is sure to be the best thing possible at the time. , , . . If your clothing is on fire, roll in any woolen Uanket, rug, or coat you can find. If you find an insensible person in a room full of smoke, get him on the floor, tie his hands together loosely with a towel or suspenders; if you have no cord, throw the end ol his coat over his face around your neck, and he is on the door below you; then crawl out on all fours, straddling him as y s drag him. If some one is cut off, up aloft, so he must jump, let half a dozen men hold a canvas blanket or other strong cloth for tam to jump on. Hold it as high as you can with its cntrc about twelve feet from the base of the wall, and he can jurn^ safely from a great height. Of course, you can help him to hit it by moving it to fit his jump after he is started. Keep all doors and windows closed as much as possible to cut off the draft. , Bia always seetkatthe alarm has gone in. 169) i I HEALTH HMMiBOnta The Life Force Invocation of Woodcraft Girls Walking Ilear-tightedness— Remedy Dry Footgear Rough and Ready Help Revive from Drowning Saartfoke Bums and Scalds Hemorrhage Cuts and Weoads Lightning Shock— Nervous Collapse Fainting Mad Dog— Snaka Bit* Insect Stings Cindsrs in Bye 170) 171) HEALTH HMtth mate The law of the Woodcraft Girls is "understand your body — it u the temple of the spirit." Most of the joy in living comes from a healthy body, every part of idiich is in po^ect oraer and running smoothly. Health means activity. Only a body which has been used and tried will radiate vitality. There was a time wfam the body was sp(Aea of as a thing to be asliM^ of as something to hinder one from achieving the worthwhile things. In those days men spoke of spiritual things and woridly things, thinking they wore distimrt and separate— forgettuig that the things of the spirit work themselves out through the body. The most beautiful thing in the world is the human body and the most wonderful. Cherished with this idea the muscles become beautiful and strong, the skin clean and firm. Such a body is fit to meet the struggles of life and has a reserve force to meet the call of emergency. Most of us start with a good body and it is our sacred duty to keq> it ao. Hoe are a few rules for you to follow: z. Cany yourself well. Throw your shoidden bade Ei- pand your chest. Don't slouch. 2. Breathe deeply. Practise proper breathing. Have as large a chest expamwon as possibU . .3. Learn to sleep properly. Get at least eight hours aad ji possible nine. Have plenty of fresh air in your room. 4. Accustom your body to the air. Make sure yoiar muscles of the back and stomach are in the best of condition. Use the wet and dry rub down frequently — every day. Ac- custom ymir body to fimunas, avoki ary tendcsi^ tcnvaxd softness. 5. Eat simple food — avoid stimulants. Check any hauits (A drinking soit stuff, over-«iting candy. Step whsi yoa b.v/e eaten enough. 6. Above all be clean. Bathe frequently and carefuUy See that all parts of the body an ckamed thotan^liy an(* ngulariy. 172) 148 Woodcnft Manual for Oiila The Life Force By Dr. Valeria Parker The greatest force in the Universe is known as the Life Force. Although common to every living thing, it has never been understood by philosophers nor has it been created by scientists. We know, however, that in whatever form it manifests itself, the Life Force has three powers— growth, assirnilation, and con- tinuation of its own life through new lives. This last is the great jx)wer by which our world, with its many forms of plant and animal life, is renewed, throughout the ages. We call this power reproduction. In plants and animals, reproduction takes place through definite laws and at definite seasons, controlled by the force we call Nature. In human l)einps, reprwluction, or paienthood, is governed by mind and spirit, but if uncontrolled, instead of being a force of life and happiness, it becomes a means of degirad&tioD ol body, mind, and spirit, leading to destruction. Because of the great importance of the Life Force in Human Beings, reproductive power is not fully received until about the twelfth or fourteenth year. During and after this lime, sjiecial facts diould be known and understood in order that the body may receive projjcr care and that character and self-control may be developed. Therefore, now that you have fiassed the years of childhood and since you are responsible for the care of your own body and the development of your ov.n character you should know the special laws governing human life. You should also be prepared at those times when rest and freedom from boctily exercise arc necessarv, to forfeit, cheerfully, pleasure and in- clination, in order to preserve your future health. When it is understood, reverenced, and guided in the right direction, the Life Force, when not concerned in parenthood, is used in strengthening the body and the mind. As this great f<MX» becomes a part <rf your life and is given into your keeping, it becomes your privilege to know the facts concerning it for the development of Ixxlily strength and moral character. Some of this information you may get from lKK)ks concerning which your Guide will advise you. From older persons whom you resiiect you mav learn important truths. Never should you sedi facts from those who by word or action shew t!iat they would treat lightly or even degrade the Power of Life. After you lM;gin to understand the true meaning of womanhood, you are asked to memorize the following, resolving that you will hold your share in the "Life of the Ages" as a sacred trust to be used 173) Thingi to Know and Do 149 in service to others as well as the development <rf your own best self. An InTocatkm Dedicated to the Woodcraft Girb of America To Woman alcme is it givoi to nurture, bear, and rear a being vv! .h an Immortal Soul. Through the pain, self-sacrifice, and patience of Motherhood, through the undying love of Womanhood for Childhood, does she learn the infinite love and com- passion of God for Man. So may I understand my body and its uses and keep it clean and strong for its high physical calling. So may I keep my mind pure and alive to progress, that I may train other minds that may be entrusted to my care. So may I keep my spirit free from impurity and evil that I may guide other souls into full acoxd with the truths of Life and Immortality. Breathing "Shut Your Mouth and Save Your Life" was the title of an essay by George Catlin, a famous outdoor man, who lived among the Indians, and wrote about them 1825 to '40. In this he {xjinled out that it is exceedingly injurious to breathe through your mouth; that, indeed, many persons injured their lungs by taking in air that was not strained and warmed first through the nose, and in nuwy cases laid the foundation of diseases which killed them. Don't Tom Out Tour Tom Too Modi When you see a woman whose toes are excesMvdy turned out, you may knows she was Iwrn and brought up on sidewalhs. She is a poor walker and will not hold out on an all-day tramp. The mountaineer and the Indian scout always keep their feet nearly straight. It is easier on the feet, it avoids corns and bunions, and it lengthens the stride; makes, in Aott, a better traveller. A glance at her tracks wUi tell ycu ham a person walks. 174) igo Woodenft MsbmI for Oiilt The KMn Eyes of the Indian. Do You Wish to Have Them? Near-si^rtkdnrss. An eminent eye floctor, Dr. W. H. Bates of New York, has found out how you can have sight as keen and eyes as good as those of the Indians who live out of doors. After eight yean' study of the subject he has established the following: a. The defect known as near-si^t or sh(Nt-si|^ idklem exists at birth, but is acquired. b. Besides being acquirable, it is preventable and in some cases cund^. c. It conies through continual use of the eye for near objects only, during the years of growth. The Renudy. The remedy is, give the eye regular muscuhur exercise every day for far-siglU by focussing it for a few minutes <m distant objects. It is not enough to merely look at the far-off landscapes. The eye must be definitely focussed on something, like print, before the necessary muscular adjustment is perfect and the effect obtained. The simplest way to do this is — get an ordinary eye lesting card, such as is sold for a nickel at any optician's. Hang it up as far off as possible in the schoolroom and use it each day. Train your eyes to read the smallest letters from your seat. By such exercises during the years of growth almost all short-sight, or near-sight, and much blurred sight or astig- matism, may be permanently prevented . An interesting proof is found by Dr. Casey Wood in the fact that ^ile wild animals have good sight, caged animab that have lost all opportunities for watchinp ilistant objects are generally myopic or short-sighted. In other words, nature adapts tlw tool to its job. D17 Footgear A certain minister knowinR T had much platform experience said to me once: "How is it that your voice never grows husky in speaking? No matter how well I may be my vmce (rftm turns husky in the pulpit." He was a thin, nervous man, very serious about his work and anxious to impress. I repHed: "Y<mi arc nervous tx;f<»e prechinp, which makes your feel sweat. Your socks are wet when t)u are in the pulpit, anti llu' synipalliy hclwcca soles and voice is well known. Put on dry socks just Ijefoie entering the pu^t and you need not fear any hus k ines s." 175) TliiBti to Emm mud Do 151 He looked amazed and said: You certainly teve sM me up all right. I'll try next Sunday " I have not seen him since and don't know the result, bul I know that the principle b sound— ivet feet, husky throat SOUGH AND RBADT HILP To RavIvo from Diowuiii( (1) As soon as the patient is in a safe place, loosen the cloth- ing, if any. (2) Empty the lungs of water, by laying the body breast down, and lifting it by the middle, with the head hanging down. Hold thus for a few seconds, till the water is evidently out. (3) Turn the patient on her breast, face downward. (4) Give artiticial respiration thus: by pressing the lower ribs down and forward toward the head, thm rdease. Ri^eat about twelve times to the minute. (5) Apply warmth and friction to otremities, rubbing toward the heart. (6) DON'T GIVE UP! Persons have been saved after hours of steady effort, and after bring imder water over twenty minutes. (7) When natural breathing is reestablished, put the patient into warm bed, with bcA-water bottles, w«m dri^ ot i^iaair lants, in teanxxmfuls, froh air, ami quiet Let tor dtsp, md aU wiM be wdl. (1) Reduce the tempoature ol the patient and the placey- that is, move tfa« patioit at ooce to a cooler sp(H, if posubie, in the shade. (2) Loosen or remove tl» detiwig about the neck and hotly. (;0 Apply cold wattr or iee to the head and body, or even wrap the i>atjent in sheets wet from lime to time with crfd water. (4) Use Be stimulaat, but allow iraeuM of cold water to drink. Bums and Scalds Exclude the air hv co wring fh< bum with a thin paste ol bak^-soda, starch, iio>u, vaseUne, olive oil, linseed oil, castor- 176) 152 Woodcraft Manual for Girls oil, lard, cream, or cold cream. Cover the burn first with the smciir; next with a soft rag soaked in the smear. Shock always accompanies severe bums, and must be treated. Hemorrhage, or Internal Bleeding This is usually from the lungs or stomach. If from the lunj^, the blood is bright-red and frothy, and is coughed up; if from the stomach, it is dark, and is vomited. Cause the patient to lie down, with head lower than bod}'. Small pieces of ice should be swallowed, and ice-bags, or snow, cold water, tt , applie<l to the phut- whence the hemorrhage conns. Hot applications may be applied to the exlremilies, but avoid htim- ulants, unless the patient is very weak. Cuts and Wounds After making sure that no dirt or foreign substance is in the wound, the first thing is tight bandaging — to cio.>e it and stop the bleeding. The more the f>art is raised above the heart — the force-pump — the easier it is to do this. If the blood comes out in spurts, it means an artery has been cut; for this, apply a twister or tourni(<uel — that is, make a big knot in a handkerchief, tie it round the liml>, with the knot just above the wound, aad twist it round wuh a stick till the flow is Biapptd. TJ|rh<ni«|r To revive me stunned by a thunderbdt, dash cold water over him. Shock or Nervous Collapse A person suffering from shock has pale, dull face, cold skin, feeble breathing, rapid, feeble pulse, listless, half-dead manner. Place her on her back with head low. (live stimulants, such as hot tea or coffee, or perhaps one drink of spirits. Never remove the clothing, but cover the person up. Rub the limbs and place hot-water bottles around the Ixxly. Most persons recover in time, without aid, but thosie with weak hearts need help. Faiattog Fainting is caused by the arrest of the blood su[^ly to the biain, and is cured by getting the heart to ccMtect tM lack. To 177) Things to Know and Do aid in this have the person lie down with the head lower than the body. Loosen the clothing. Give fresh air. Rub the limbs. Use smellii^stks. tfo iiot let her get up until fully recovered. Mad Dog or Snake Bite Put a tight cord or bandage art)und the limb between the wound and the heart. Suck the wound niany times and wash it with hot water to make it bleed. Hum it with strong ammonia or caustic or a white-hot iron; oi i ut out the wounded parts with a fh ar p knife or razor, if you cannot get to a doctor. Insect Stings Wash with oil or weak ammonia, or very salt water, or paint with iodine. Cinden or Sand in the Bye Can be removed with the corner of a handkerchief, <» the wet end erf a tmy roll of sxAt paper. Books Recommtndod ■ I'iRST Am" by Major Charles Lynch. P. Blakiitm) Sou k Co., X017 W alnut St., Pfailadel^la, 191 1. 30 cents. Patriotiim and Citixenahip Patriotiiwn and religion are the finest expressions in the life d man. His first impulse in life is for self protection, his second to protect his family, and his third to protect his land and nation. Patriotism is a love of nation which begins in self-control and famil' love. It compels one to forget self and do the best thing for the nation. The waving of llags, the singing of hymns, the great celebraticms indicate its existence. But it appears in its finest form in citizenship, when men and women strive to see that righteousness and justice are done. It means careful study of the conditions of life existing in the nation and having t houghlful and jwsitive opinions as to how these con- ditions may Ik- Ixitcred. It means casting a vote at every op- portunity for the best naan and the best More than this. It means doing always what you conceive to be right and in- sii.lence thai the affairs of the community be conducted on this same principle. It means the greatest good to the greatest num- ber. It means libraries, night schools a nd playgrounds^and looks 178) fS4 Woodcfift MaiiiMl for Oiilf after garbage disposal, hospitals, and health laws. It means the eliiidnati(m of corruption in every form, whether in government, in society or private Ufe— -it means in public life the conscience of the individual. While patriotism and citizenship iure the same to young and old, they mean one thing to a young person and more to a grown-up. To the older person they entail the serious matter ol voting, of holding office, ol cooperating with others in achkving good government To the Woodcraft Gu-1 it means duty well done m heme, in school, on the playground and street, in her relations with her friends and acquaintances. It means taking seriously the dub, the class, the Woodcraft Tribe — any organization to whidi she belongs. These things are vital, and only one who lives wisely and well as a yoimg person will be able to do her best in maturity. Guided by these principles, a Woodcrafter, young or old, votes for the best and does not decide the issue on friendship or selfish in- terest. The Woodcrafter grown up, always votes for the best fitted, never takes office because it is an honor merely, but am- siders it a sacred duty. The Woodcrafter in school, club, Tribe, or Oiiier group recognizes her responsibility to see that right is done— she is conscious that the grottest need of her time is that of strong men and wraoen who will want the best and see that it is obtained. This is patriotism and citizenship — that you know your home- land as well as you can, that you love it so il that you give to it your best, tliat your homeland may be a place of right thinking and right living to all, rich and poor, young and dd, strcmg and weak. Books Recommended Spoochet, Poems, and ReciUdons AiBOa Dav, Robt. Haven Schauffler, Mt^at, Yard k Co., |i. CmuETMAS, Robt. Haven Schauffler, M ifTat, Yard & Co., Si. Flag Day, Robt. Haven SdMmffler, Moflat, Yard & Co. |i. Independence Day, Robt. Haven Schauffler, Moffat, Yard & Co., %x. Limoolm's BntTHDAY, Robt. Haven Schauffler, Moffat, Yard & Co., |x. MsMOUlAL Day, Robt. Havra Schaufflor, Moffat, Yaid It Co., ti. Hiking It is a good rule in hiking, to set out with the idea of keeping the party together, having a pleasant thne and seeing interesting things, rather than of showing how hardy you are. It is as bad as trying to ^ow how bmart you are. Do not try to make a 179) Thingi to Know and Do 155 record. Record breakers generally come to grief in the end. Take a few girls, not more than a dozen, and set out determined to be mcKlerate. Flan a nKxlerate trip of which noi more than half the time must be consumed in going and ct)ming. For example, if it is Saturday afternoon and you must be home by six o'clock, having thus four hours, divide the time into two hours' travel, going and coming, and two hours' exploration or sight-seeing. Three miles is a moderate walk for one hour, so that should be the limit of distance that ordinarily you tramp from your starling point. At five o'clock all hands should be ready to face homeward. In a large city it may be that the hike will be taken to a park, to a museum, or to a pkce or point of historical interest. In this connection it might l)e well for some member of the tribe to make a list of the interesting historical places, of the museums of vari- ous kinds, of interesting buildings, including any manufacturing plants; and have this list ready when it is decided to take a hike. The following are some of the rules which have been found goc*d in hiking: Do not go in new sht>cs. Make sure that your feet are comfortable. (A comfortable shoe is not too tight nor too loose.) Do not wep.r high-heeled shoes. See that your stockings are without holes and ordinarily with- out k ^ dams. (When going on a long hike it is wdl to take an extra pair of sKKkings with you.) In walking keep >our toes practically straight ahead of you. Walking with your feet turned out is tiring and results in foot trouble. Try to have the members of the group of similar age and physical ability. If going in the country it is well to take a ti^ line, knife, some string and some matches. A ccmipaM and a pocket level and a map, also ue oi value in many cases. A notebook and pencil are of great a!ue. Remember that th« value of the hike is in doing things which you cannot do ;it home and last and most im[)ortant it is wise to set out with a detmite object. Here are some of the objects for a short hike: To determine that hard maple or any otlier timber does or does not grow in such woods or such a park. To see how many kinds of trees can be ditcovered in a giv» place, or how many kinds ol wikl flowers. 180) 156 Woodcraft Manual for Girls To practise the building of fires of wildwood material. To nave a practiod demonstration in codting. To get acquainted with the birds. To learn the geological formation of a certain rock or ledge. To get ICO straight rods, 30 inches long; to make an Indian bed of willow, hazel, red willow (kinikinik) arrow-wood, etc To get wood for rubbing sticks or the fire-bow. To get honis tot a Caribou dance. If there is snow, to take, by the tracks, a census of a given woods, making full-size drawings of each track — that is four tracks, one for each foot, and also give the distance to the next set Most important of all, remember that though it is wise to start with an object, it is still wiser to change whenever axae much more alluring pursuit or opportunity turns up. Any one who sticks to a plan merely bemuse she started that wa^, when it turns out to l)e far fnun the best, is not only unwise — she is stupid anfl obstinate. Make sure that as you travel to the point you have selected; that your eyes antl ears are open to see the hundreds of interest- ing things that may be seen along the roadside. Books Rccommoadod Boys' Book of IIikino, Edward Cave. PubUtbed by Doubleday, Fm» k Co. Price so cents. Sign Language From the "Book of Woodcraft" by permission of Ernest Thonqmo Seton. Doubleday, Pife k Co. Prke, f 1 .75 . Do you know the Sign Language? If not, do you realize that the Sign Language is an established mode of communication in all parts of the world without regard to native speech? Do you know that it is so refined and complete that sermons and lectures are given in it every day, to those who cannot hear? Do you know that it is as old as the hills and is largely used in all public schools? And yet when I ask boys and girls this question, " Do you use the Sign Language?" they nearly always say "No." Why shoukl you talk the Sign Language? There are maiqr reasons: In this code you can talk to any other Waockiafter, without an outskler knowing or understanding. 181) Things to Know and Do 157 It makes conversation easy in places when you must not speak aloud, as in school, during music, or by the bedside of the sick. It is a means of far-signalling much quicker than semaphore or other spelling codes, for this gives one or more words in one sim. It wul enable you to talk when there is too mudi iwrfae to be heard, as across the noisy streets. It makes it possible to talk to a deaf person. It is a wonderful developer of observation. It is a simple means of talking to an Indian or a Woodcrafter of another nationality whose language you do not understand. This indeed is its great merit. It nuitiversal. It deals not with words but with idea? that fire ronmdn to all mankind. It is therefore a kind of Esperanto ulreu*^/ established. So much for its advantages; what are its weaknesses? Let us frankly face them : It is useless in the uark ; It win not serve on the te'ephcmc; It can scarcely he written; In its pure form it will not give new proper names. To meet the last two we have expedients, as will be seen, but the first two are insurmountable difficulties. Rem. nber then you are to learn the Sign Language because it is siletU, far-reaching, and the one universal language. Since it deals fundamentally with ideas, we avoid words and letters, but for proper names it is ^'ery necessary to know the one- hand manual ali^bet. Here are some of the better known. Each girt will probably find thai she has known anrl used them all her schooldays: 'I'oM (pointing at the person); ^Me (tapping one's c'lcst) ; 1 ^ lu My, mine, yours, -posses' i'm, ck. Hold out the closed iwt, thumb up, and swing it down a Utile thumb jwints forward. Yes (nod). When far off, make your riaht hand, with aU fingers closed exceot i ndex and t'mmb whidi are straq^t and touching at top, advnrce, l)iiui (ow.-^ rd the left side as though bowing, then returned and straight again. ^iVtf (head shake). ^Vhen toe* far for that to be seen, hold (he closed right hand in fm ; ot the bo^' , then sweep "t, out- ward and downward, at the .^me time turn the palm up as though throwing something away. Eat (throw tfie flat hami several times pa&t the mouth in a curve); ^Drmk (hold the right hand as though holdmg a cup near the mouth aiKi it up); 182) 158 Woodcrift Mantuil for Girls

  • Sleef (lay the right cheek on the right flat hsnd);

LoM (flat hand over eyes); Look there (point and l<K)k in s;imc direction); Slouch (reach out and touch with index); i Listen (flat hand behind ear); < VMHsper (silently move lips, holding flat hand at one side of mouth) ; ' Silem e or hush (forefinger across lips); i / will not listen (hoU flat hands on ears); / u>Ul not look (cover eyes with hands); Taste (lay finger on lip); Smell (hold palm to nose); " That tastes gootl (smack thi- lips); ^The food was gooil (pal the stomach); Had taste (j,'rinKue and spitting out); Bud smell (hold the hum-); Thus **WUl you eat/" would l>e a Question, you tai, but Have you eaten would he, {hiesllon, you cat, Jinishetl. Drinking dill riglH hand to niomh as though it held a glass); Smoking (make as though holding a pipe and drawing); Paint (use flat right as a brush to paint llat left); Shave (use finger or thumb on face as a razor); Wash (revolve liands on each t)lhcr as in washing); Bet$d (with right hand ix-nd left index); Break (with fists touching, make as though to bend a stick, then swing the lists apart); ^Write (make the action with index); Strike (strike down with fist); Fightinj^ (make the fists menace each other); Set it ajire (sign match, and then thrust it forward); Drive horses (work the two fists, side by side); Finished or done (hold out the flat left hand palm to the right, then with dat right hand and chop down past the ends <d the left fingers). Search ntt (hold the coat flaps open in each hand); Smm (strike out with flat hands). Dive (flat hands together moved in a curve forward and down). Will yoH conn- '^•dimming? (first and seoHid fingers raised and spread, others closed); Good (nod and clap hands); Bad ' hake head and grimace); "Very" or "very much," is made by striking the right fist down past the knuckl^ of the Idt without quite touchioK than, the left being held sUU. 183) Things to Know tsd Do iS9 ^ Hot (wet middle finger in mouth, reach h forward and jerk it back) ; Cold (fists near shoulder and shaken); Good-bye (hand high, flat, palm down, fingers wagged all to- gether); Thank you (a slipht bow, smile and hand-salutc, made by draw- ing flat hand a icw inches forward and downward palm up); Surrender (both hands raiaod hi^ and flat to show no wea- pons) ; / am thinking it over (forefinger on right brow and eyes raised); I forgot (touch forehead with all right finger tips, then draw flat nan past eyes once and shake head^, / wind him around my finger (make action with right thumb and index around left index);

/ luive him under my timmb (press firmly down with of 

right thumb); Sleepy (put a fist in each eye) ; Bellyache {wl'h hands clasi)e(l across the belly); ^ Sick (a grimace and a limp dropj)ing of hands); Go (move hand forward, palm first); Come (draw hanrl toward one's self, palm in); Hurry (same, but the hand quickly and energetically moved several times); Come for a moment (hand held out hack down, fingers closed except first, which is hooked and straightened quickly several times) ; Stop (flat hand held up; palm forward); ■ Gently or Go /vy (like "stop," but hand gently waved fiwn side to side) ; Get up (raise flat hand sharply, palm upward); Sit down (drop flat hand sharply, pahn down); Rub it out (quickly shake flat haiKl from side to side, palm forward) ; ^ Up (forefinger [)ointed and moved upward); ^Down (ditto downward); Way or road (hold both flat hands nearly side by side, palms up, but right one nearer the breast, then alternately lift than forward and draw them back to indicate track or feet travelling); Forward (swing index forward and down in a curve) ; Backward (jerk left hand over shoulder); Across (hdd left hand out flat, paUn down, run rij^t indoc across it); Over and above (hold out flat left, palm down, and above it hold ditto ri|^t); 184) i6o Woodcraft Manual for Girls Under (reverse or foregoing); It's in my pocket (slap pocket with flat hand) ; / send you a kiss (kiss finger tips and move hand in graceful sweep toward person) ; / pray (clasped hands held up) ; / am afraid, or surrender (hold up both flat hands palm for- ward) ; / forget (slowly shake head, and brush away something in air, near the nose) ; / am seeking (looking about and pointing finger in same di- rections) ; / have my doubts (slowly swing head from side to side); You surprise me (flat hand on open mouth) ; Connivance (winking one eye) ; Puzzled (scratch the head) ; Crazy (tap forehead with index then describe a circle t it); Despair (pulling the hair) ; Weeping (with index finger at each eye, trace course of tears) ; Friendship (hands clasped) ; Threatening (fist shaken at person) ; Warning (forefinger gently shaken at a slight angle toward person) ; Scorn (turning away and throwmg an unagmary handful of sand toward person) ; Insolent defiance (thumb to nose tips, fingers fully spread) ; Indijferetue (a shoulder shrug) ; Ignorance (a shrug and headshake combined); Arrogant (indicate swelled head); Pompous (indicate a big chest) ; Incredulity (expose white of eye with finger, as though prov- ing no green there) ; Shame on you (right forefinger drawn across left toward person several times); You make me ashamed (cover eyes and face with hands); Mockery (stick tongue at jierson) ; Disdain (snap fingers toward person) ; Applause (silently make as though clapping hands); Victory (one hand high above head as though waving hat); He is cross (forefinger crossed level) ; Fool or ass (a thumb in each ear, flat hands up); Cutthroat (draw index across throat) ; / am no fool (tap one side of the nose); Joke (rub side of nose with index) ; 185) Things to Know and Do z6x Upon my honor (with forefingers make a cross over heart) ; / heg of you (flat hands tight together and upright) ; Do you think me simple ? (forefinger laid on side of nose) ; Will you ? or, is it so ? (eyebrows raised and slight bow made) ; Bar up, fins, or / claim exemption (cross second finger of right hand on first finger and hold hand up) ; Poverty (both hands turned flat forward near trouser pockets) ; Bribe (hand held hollow up behind the back) ; Give me (hold out open flat hand pulling it back a little to finish) ; / give you (the same, but push forward to finish) ; Pay (hand held out half open, forefinger and Uiumb rubbed together) ; Give me my bill (same, then make motion of writing) ; Church (hands clasped, fingers in, but index fingers up and touching) ; Revolver (holdout right fist with index extended and thumb up); Gun or shooting (hold hands as in aiming a gim) ; Match (make the sign of strikmg a match on the thigh) ; Jew (flat hands waved near shoulders palm up) ; Knife (first and second fingers of right hand used as to whittle first finger of left) ; House. Hold the flat hands together like a roof. Pistol (making barrel with left hand, stock and hammer with- right, snap right index on thumb) ; Query. The sign for Ques- tion — that is, "I am asking you a question," "I want to ; know" — is much used and •' important. Hold up the right • hand toward the person, palm ; forward, fingers open, slightly curved and spread. Wave the hand gently by wrist action from side to side. It is used before, and sometimes after all questions. If you are very near, merely raise the eyebrows. The following are needed Query Sign in asking questions: Haw Many ? First the Question sign, then hold the left hand open, curved, palm up, fingers spread, then with right 186) 1 62 Woodcraft Manual for Girls digit quickly tap each finger cf left in succession, closing it back toward the left palm, beginning with the little finger. How Much f Same as How many f What ? What are you doing? What do you want? What is it? First give Question, then hold right hand palm down, fingers slightly bent and separated, and, pointing forward, 187) Things to Know and Do 163 throw it aoout a foot from right to left several times, describing an arc upward. When ? If seeking a definite answer as to length of time, make signs for Question, How much, and then specify time by sign for hours, days, etc. When asking in general "When" for a date, hold the lef«^ index extended and vertical, others and thumb closed, make a ciicle round left index tip with tip of extended right index, others and thumb closed; and when the index reaches the starting point, stop it, and point at tip of left index (what point of shadow?). Where ? (What direction) Question, then with forefinger sweep the horizon in a succession of bounds, a slight pause at the bottom of each. Which ? Question, then hold left hand in front of you with palm toward you, fingers to right and held apart; place the end of the right forefinger on that of left forefinger, and then draw it down across the other fingers. Why ? Make the sign for Qwstion, but do it very slowly. Who ? Question, and then describe with the right forefinger a small circle six inches in front of the mouth. It takes a good-sized dictionary to give all the signs in use, and a dictionary you must have, if you would become an expert. A very pretty Woodcraft sign is given as follows: First, give the Question sign, then make an incomplete ring of your right forefinger and thumb, raise them in a sweep until above your head, then bring the ring straight down to your heart. This is the Indian way of asking, "Is the sun your heart?" — that is, "Are you happy?" — ^your answer will be made by the right hand and arm standing up straight, then bowing toward the left, followed by a sharp stroke of the right fist knuckles past those of the left fist without their touching, which means: "Yes, the sun shines in my heart heap strong." Picture-writing The written form of Sign Language is the picture-writing also called Pictography and Ideography, because it represents ideas and not words or letters. It is widely believed that Sign Language is the oldest of all languages; that indeed it existed among animals before man appeared on earth. It is universally accepted that the ideography is the oldest of all writing. The Chinese writing for instance is merely picture-writing done with as few lines as possible. Thus, their curious character for "Hearing" was once a com- 188) i64 Woodcraft Manual for Girls plete picture of a person listening behind a screen, but in time it was reduced by hasty hands to a few scratches; and "War" now fi ' jw spider marks, was originally a sketdh of " two women in one house." To come a little nearer home, our alphabet is said to be descended from hieroglyphic ideographs. "A" or "Ah," for example, was the sound of an ox repre- sented first by an outline of an ox, then of the head, which in various modifications, through rapid writing, became our "A." " " was a face saying "Oh," now simplified into die round shape of the mouth. "S " was a serpent hissing. It is but little changed to-day. We may also record our Sign Language in picture-writing, Som lumnSmi Pictography Sunrhe tn« f i/T) or city Ji»n-T7et noon (Tiktiift as was the custom of many Indian tribes, and we shall find it worth while for several reasons: It is the Indian special writing; it is picturesque and useful for decoration; and it can be read by any Indian no matter what language he speaks. Indeed, I think it probable that a pictograph inscription dup up 10,000 years from now would be read, whether our language was IktHnM »•» niiion I / we wi/h m»<(« I to hit I SeW- understood or not. When the French Government set up the Obelisk of Luxor in Paris and wished to inscribe it for all time, they made the record, not in French or Latin, but in pictographs. 189) Things to Know and Do It is, moreover, part of my method to take the child through the stages of our race development, just as the young bird must run for a send-ofT, before it flies, so pictography being its earliest form is the natural first step to writing. In general, picture-writmg aims to give on paper the idea of the Sign Language without first turning it into sounds. In the dictionaiy of Sign Language is given the written form after each of the signs that has a well-established or possible symbol. Many of these are drawn from the Indians who were among the best scouts and above noted for their use of the picture-writing. A few of them will serve to illustrate. o I II Ml nil V V» V" y" Oam'-T, Numbers were originally fingers held up, and five was the whole hand, while ten was a double hand. We can see traces of this origin in the Roman style of numeration. A one-night camp, a more permanent camp, a village and a town are shown in legible symbols. jJAn enemy, sometimes expressed as a "snake," recalls our own "snake in the grass." A " friend, ' was a man with a branch of a tree; because this was commonly used as a flag of truce and had indeed the same meaning as our olive branch. The tree is easily read; it was a pair of figures like this done in Wampum that recorded Penn's Treaty. "Good" is sometimes given as a circle full of lines all straight and level, and for "bad" they are crooked and contrary. The wavy lines stood for water, so good water is clearly indicated. The three arrows added mean that at three arrows flights in that direction, that is a quarter mile, there is good water. If there was but one arrow and it pointed straight down that meant "good water here," if it pointed down and outward it meant 190) i66 Woodcraft Manual for Girls "good water at a little distance." If the arrow was raised to carry far, it meant "good water a long way oflf there." This sign was of the greatest value in the dry country of the South- west. Most Indian lodges were decorated with pictographs depicting in some cases the owner's adventures, at other times his prayers for good luck or happy dreams. t o «< OT Man Woman Baby Scout Scouting Question Yes No Doubtful Peace I J^War Surrender Prisoner Enemy Friend Good Bad Water Good water Good water in 3 arrow ffigbts One-night camp More permanent camp Village <3S> Town Heap or many I have found Bear Grizzly bear Chipmunk Dead bear Treaty of peace The old Indian sign for peace, three angles all pointing one way that is "agreed," contrasts naturally with the "war" or " trouble ' ' sign, in which they are going different ways or against each other. All animal was represented by a crude sketch in which its chief character was shown, thus chipmunk was a small animal with long tail and stripes. Bear was an outline bear, but grizzly bear had the claws greatly exaggerated. 191) Things to Know and Do 167 Sunrise Sunset Noon Level Direction forward Direction badkward Sun or day Snow Mom or Jaauaiy Hunger Moon or Febru- ary March the Wakening or Crow Moon When the animal was killed, it was represented on its back with legs up. ^^■1;^ Grass Moon or April Planting Moon or May Rose Moon or June Thunder McK)n or July K^l^ Red, M'jon or Green V_y Com, August Day back one, or yes- terday Ni^t •f .1^1 Day forw^ a r - to-morrov Moon, w DhMitit Rain ////fy' Snow ^jjisw Year (or snow round to snow) Each chief, warrior, and scout had a totem, a drawing of which stood for his name or for himself. Hunting Moon, Septem- ber Leaf - Falling Moon, ^"-^ nrfnher Mad Mood, November Long Night Moon, De> cember. I* A man's name is expressed by his totem; thus, the above means, To-day, 20th Sun Thunder Moon. After three dasrs "Deerfoot," Chidf of the Flying Eagles, comes to our Standing Rock Camp. 192) i68 Woodcraft Manual for Girls When a man was dead officially or actually, his totem was turned bottom up. Here is a copy of the inscription found by Schoolcraft on the grave post of Wa- bojeeg, or White Fisher, a famous Ojlbway chief. He was of the Caribou clan. On " y V/ J ^1 ^ ^^^'^ totem reversed, and on the bottom the White Fisher; the seven '•^ ■ marks on the left were war parties he led. The three marks in the middle are for wounds. The moose head is to record a desperate fight he had with a bull moose, wiiile his success in war and in peace are also stated. This inscription could be read only by those knowing the story, and is rather as a memory help than an exact record. Weather Siguals (Adopted for general use by the United States Signal Service on and after March i, 1887.) No. t White Fkc Clear or Fair No. a Blue Flag No. 3 Black Triangular Flag No. 4 White Flag Black Centre No. 5 White udBliM P Pi 111 fa Rain or Snow Temperature Cold Wave Local Rain or Snow No. I, white flag, clear or fair weather, no rain. No. 2, blue flag, rain or snow. No. 3, black triangular flag, refers to temperature, and above Nos. I or 2, indicates warmer weather; below No. i or 2, colder weather, and when not displayed, station- ary weather. No. 4, white flag with black centre (cold wave flag), suddc fall in temperature; this signal is usually ordered at least twenty-four hours in advance of the cold wave. It is not displayed imless a temperature of forty-five de- grees or less is expected, nor is flag No. 3 ever dis- played with it. 193) Things to Know and Do 169 No. S, means local rain or snow; with 3 above it means with higher temperature; and with 3 below it means lower temperature. A red flag with a black centre indicates that a storm of marked violence is expected. Colder. Fair RmlBorSliMr. Warmer Fair CoM Wave. We&thei Wumer Weather, (ollowid by Weatner " lUinorSnow Stom and Hurricane Warnings Storm Warnings— A red flag with a black centre indicates a itom of marked violence. The pennants displayed with flags indicate direction of wind — red, easterly; white, westerly; pennant above flag indicates wind from northerly quadrants; below, from souta- eriy quadrants. , . j By night a red light indicates easterly winds, white light below red, westerly wioda. Two red flags wiih black centres indicate approach oi tropical ouriicail*. No night hurricane signals are displayed. ^gnals on the Railway Most of us are familiar with some of the rignals given by brakemen, conductors, or engineers, but not so many of us have sat right down to inspect the code, as officially fixed. A con- ductor on the Canadian Pacific Railway allowed me to copy it out from his "Trainman's Book," 1909, and since then I have been told that this is the code in universal use, so I give it in full. It consists of color signals, hand and lantern signals, toots and cord-pulls. It will add a new interest to the journey, at least 194) 170 Woodcraft Manual for Girls when you can read the "Signs of the Iron Trail," and the '"nUk of the Iron Horse." The Code (From C. P. R. "Trainman's Book," 1909, No. 7563; but in feneral um.) Colors: Red = stop. Green = Go ahead. Yellow = Go cautiously. Green and White = Hag station. Stop at night. Blue — Workmen busy under car. Hand, Flag and Lamp Signals: Swung across track Stop. Raised and lowered vertically ... Go ahead. Swung at half-arms' length, in small circle across track, train standing . Backup. Swung vertically in a big circle at arms' lergth across the track, when train is running Train broken in two. Swung horizontally above head, when train is standing Put on air-brakes. Held at arms' length above the head, when train is standing Release air-brakes. Other Hand Signals, modifications of the above: Hr".nd (or hands) held out horizontally and waved up and down .... Go ahead. Hand (or hands) suddenly drawn flat and horizontal Stop. Sometimes hands raised and held palms forward All right. Arm thrust forward and swept back opposite shoulders, as in beckoning . Come back. Signals by Engine Whistle: (o a short toot. — a long one) o s= Stop; put on brakes. = Take off brakes; get ready to start. 195) Thingi to Know and Do 171 — 000 Flagman go out to protect rear of train. Flagman returned from west or south. Flagman returned from east or north. (When returning) Train Ijrokcn in two. To be repeated till answered by the same from the t.ainman, i. e., No. 4 in hand, flag ai ' lamp signals. Sim- ilarly, this is the answer to No. 4 of hand, flag, and lamp signals. 00 — (All right) the answer to any signal not otherwise provided 'or 000 (^en the train is standing) back up; also is reply to signals to "back up." 0000 = Call for signals. — 00 - Calls attention of other trains to signals. 00 = The acknowledgment by other trains. 00 = Approaching grade-crossings, and at whistle posts. » Approaching stations. o — - (Whtn dotible-heading) Air-brakes have failed a leading engine, and second engine is to take control of th:m. Second engine repeats same as soon as it has control. 0000000000, etc. = Cattle (or persons) on the track. Air- whistle or Cord-pull: When the train is standing: Two blasts = Start. Three " - Back. Four " = Put on or take off brakes. Five " = Call in flagman. (All but the 2d are answered by a blasts) Two blasts = Stop at once. Three " = Stop at next station. Four " = Reduce speed. Five " = Increase speed. Six " = Increase steam-heat. Seven " Rdease air-brakes, or stick* The engineer responds to these with two short toots, meaning "All right," except in the second, witen the engineo* answers in three short toots. When the train is running; ihg brake. 196) 173 Woodcraft Manual for Girls Roof Camping and Gardening In our big cities where land is so valuable that an acre com- rionly brings millions of dollars, we have lonr^ been pinched for playgrounds, and Woodcraft pursuits seem out of the question. All the cry of overstocked cities is for light and space. And with all this need, we have long shut our eyes to a most obvious and abundant supply. In New York, congested New York, for example, there are thousands of acres of open sunlight, well- ventilated unused space, which a very slight acquaintance v ith Oriental or Occidental nations would have taught us to use. We refer to tlie flat roofs of the houses. In Greater New York, these must amount to nearly ten thousand acres; half at least of this oflFers good chances for roof camps or raof gardens. A roof camp is now being considered under the guidance of the Woodcraft League. It has first a parapet all about, then a higher wall of strong mesh wire. Along one side is a row of small " dog " tents. In a brazier, secure in the middle of a stone hearth, is a fire. An elevator nearby, affords a quick trip to the swimming tank in the basement. Some semblance of verdure is offered by vines and trailers in boxes; and thus, a hundred feet above the street, the boys or girls are in another world, and can dress and live much as in camp. Many Uttle experiments are now being made to utiUze these waste spaces ; roof gardens are very possible to-day ; flowers, fruit, and vegetables can be grown successfully, and even bird sanctu- aries are being attempted. These are not yet a success; but it seems likely that, with food, drink, shelter, protection, and nesting boxes supplied, we could in time induce some acceptable birds to found their little colonies in such places. English sparrows and starlings would doubtless be the first to respond, but there are some reasons for expecting success also with swallows, martins, nighthawks, sjmrrowhawks, screech-owls, pigeons, etc. ; while some v, 'stern species like the crimson house-finch might be brought in on trial. The whole field is open at present and almost unexplored, but it seems to be one of unusual promise. Individual Tally Book Every Woodcraft Girl should have an Individual Tally Book and notebook. Nothing adds so much to future enjoyment as such a record of achievements, exploits, and knowledge; to say 197) Things to Know and Do X73 nothing of the souvenirs in forms of photos, sketches, rhymes,and songs. It adds greatly to the interest and value if the book is bound in a leather cover which may be decorated in various ways. Indian Names for the lifonths Most all primitive people called the months "Moons." The North American Indians particularly were noted for nammg the 198) Z74 Woodcraft Manual for Girls months quaintly and well. The following is a list which may be used: (January) Snow, (February) Hunger, (March) Crow or Wak- ening, (April) Wild Goose or Green Grass, (May) Planting, (June) Rose, (July) Thunder, (August) Green Com or Red, (September) Hunting, (October) Falling Leaf, (November) Mad, (December) Long Night. frri 199) CHAPTER n Campercraft Camping Oat Outfitting Outfit for Six Tents Tepees Running Camp Camp Oronndi Arriving Sanitation Leadership Team Work Camp Officers Camp Program CAMPERCRAFT Group Work Rules Inspections Horn of High EQkers Woodcraft Council Ring Councils Making Council Fire Totem P(de Beds Mosquitoes Water Lighting a Fire Camp Cookery Cooldng Witfumt Utmils 200) 201) CHAPTER II


Camping Out

Every boy looks forward to it and every girl would if she knew the fun and help she would get from camping out. Not so long ago, camping out meant roughing it in the extreme — sleeping in an uncomfortable bed without proper clothing and food. Some of these things may be necessary at times, but the wise camper aims to live comfortably.

Camping out offers a number of priceless benefits and is also beset by one or two dangers. Those who are wise campers get the good and avoid the dangers.

The good things are the pure air, the bracing and lung-healing power of the woods, the sun bath, the tonic exercise, the nerve rest, and the joy that comes from control of mind and body.

The bad things are the danger of rheumatism from sleeping on the ground in damp clothes, the exhaustion from bad nights through insufficient bed clothes or an uncomfortable bed, and the discomfort and ill health arising from irregular meals and badly cooked food.

By wisely selecting the equipment, the place, and being informed regarding the simple rules of camping, every Woodcraft Girl will find a camping out experience the biggest thing in her life and one she will look back on with great pleasure and forward to with the keenest anticipation. It can and should mean a return to the home with the body strong and healthy, the mind bright and happy, and the soul strengthened and fortified because of the experience of coming close to the earth in company with other girls of similar tastes.

If any judgment is used in promptly changing wet clothes when not in action, in never sleeping directly on the ground, and in placing the bed in a dry place and that there is plenty of warm bedding, there will be no danger of either colds or rheumatism. It is always wise to have some warm clothing especially for cold or damp weather.

It is also good to go on the trip with a definite object. If the 202) camp is to be at the same place during the stay, it is well to decide before going to learn something about the trees, birds, flowers, camp cookery, etc., also to have a fairly definite idea as to how the days will be spent. Do not make the mistake of "lazing around" too much.

The woods is a much safer place than home, though this is contrary to the average impression.

If your eyes and earsare kept open, more interesting things than can be counted will be found within a short distance.

It may be that the change from the city to camp will be a sudden one and that readjustment will be necessary. If the camper is a little homesick, it is well to fight it off and it will not be long before all will have the feeling old campers have. There will be something in the rippling lake, the green of the trees, the whispering of the breeze, the sunlight, the blue sky, twilight in the woods, the smell of food cooking over the campfire, and the mystery of the campfire itself that will grip and call the camper back again. And through it all will come that control of muscle and mind that only the outdoor folk have.


Outfit for a Party of Six (Camping One Week in Fixed Camp)

1 12-foot teepee (if for cold weather), accommodating five or six, not forgetting a storm-cap,
Or, in summer, a 10 x 12 wall tent.
18 x 10 awning for kitchen and dining-room, in hot or wet weather.
5 yards mosquito-bar and some dope for stinging insects.
3 or 4 one-gallon bags of cotton for supplies.
A few medicines and pill-kit or "first aid," including cold cream, vaseline, or talcum powder for sunburn.
1 strong clothes line; ball of cord; ball of twine; ball of strong linen pack-thread.
A sharp hatchet.
Small crosscut saw.
Packing needles and sewing-kit for repairing clothes.

203) Thing! to Know and Do 179 Nails One lb. of two lbs. of 2|, two lbs. of 3I, and one lb. of s-inch. Soap. Mirror. Toilet-paper. Waterproof match-box. Cooking outnt: Either a ready-made, ^If-nesting "Buzza- cot," or 3 cover-kettles, lo-qt., 4-qt., and 2-qt. (riveted, not soldered). 1 frying-pan, with handle and cover. 2 big spoons. 2 wire grills. I butcher knife. I bucket. Salt and pepper casters. Dishpan. Coffee-pot (riveted). Dishcloths and towels, folding lantern and supply of candles. And for each girl, plate, cup, saucer, also knife, fork, and spoon. And such other things as are dictated by previous e:q>erience or for use in the games to be played. Besides which each member has ordinary clothes, with a change, and toilet-bag, also: A rubber blanket. i wool blankets. I cotton or burlap bed-tick, 2 x 6i ft. Bathing suit A pair of "sneaks" or sport shoes. Woodcraft suit. Fishing tackle, according to choice. Pocket knife. Food to last six girls one week : Assorted cereals (oatmeal, wheatena, etc 6 lbs. Rice 2 lbs. Crackers .10 lbs. Cocoa 3 lbs. Tea * lb. Coffee 3 lbs. Lard 5 lbs. Sugar 6 ibs. Condensed milk 12 cans 204) z8o Woodcraft Manual for Girls Butter 7 Eggs 3 Bacon ^5 Preserves (better still, fresh fruit if it can be obtained) 5 Prunes 3 Maple syrup 3 Cheese ^ Raisins 3 Potatoes 2 White beans 3 Canned com 3 Flo- 25 Ba'ang-powder i Concentrated soups ? Salt 2 Pepper i Sardines 4 Dried beef * Macaroni ,2 Fresh fish and game are pleasant variations make httle difference in the grocery bill. lbs. dozen lbs. lbs. lbs. quarts lb. lbs. bushel quarts cans lbs. lb. lb. lbs. ounce packages lb. lbs. , but seem to Tents There are many styles of small tents on the market; almost any of them answer very well. For those who wish to equip themselves with the latest and best, a 10 x 12-foot wall tent ot ID-ounce double-filled army duck, stained or dyed yellow, brown, or dull green, is best. It will accommodate a party of five or siXa For tramping trips, light tents of waterproof silk are made. One large enough for a man weighs only two or three pounds. Any of the established makers can supply what is needed if they know the size of the party and nature of the outmg. Teepees The Indian teepee has the great advantage of ventilation and an open fire inside. It has the disadvantage of needing a lot of poles and of admitting some rain by the smoke-holo. A new style of teepee, invented by myself some years ago, / has been quite successful, since it combines the advant?3c 205) Things to Know and Do z8i of teepee and tent and needs only four poles besides the snu^ke- poles. It is, however, less picturesque than the old style. This gives the great advantage of an open fire inside, and good ventilation, while it is quite rainproof. It can be put up with four long poles outside the canvas, the holes crossing at the top as in the Indian teepee. Of course the point of the cover is attached before the poles are raised. It may be got from D. T. Abercrombie & Co., 311 Broad- way, New York. In selecting a good camp ground the first thing to look for is a dry, level place, near good wood and good water. It is desir- able to have the camp face the east and to have some storm break or shelter on the west and north; then it gets the morning sun and the afternoon shade in summer. Sometimes local conditions make a different exposure desirable. For obvious reasons it is well to be near one's boat landing. As soon as all are on the ground with their baggage, locate the places for the tents (ordinarily this should be done in ad- vance). If the camp is a large one let the leaders allot the locations. Try to have each tent about twenty-five feet from the next, in a place dry and easy to drain in case of rain and so placed as to have sun in the morning and shade in the afternoon. Trench each tent carefully. Pitch at a reasonable distance from the water supply and from the latrine. RUNinNO CAMP Camp Grotmds Arriving at Can^ 206) i83 Wocdcnft Manuftl for Girls Sanitttioti As soon as convenient appoint members to dig and prepare a latrine, or toilet, with screen. It should be located some distance from the camp and from the water, so that there will be no possibility of contaminating the water. All utter and refuse should be handled m such a way that the camp grounds are clean, that the garbage is kept covered till dispos^ of by burning or burying. Woodcraft camps are known for their cleanliness and for the fact that when the camp is over the grounds are as clear of filth, scraps, papers, cans, bottles, etc., as though no human being had ever been there. Anytluiig which draws f&ea should be carefully avoided. Leadership Of course no group would go camping without having some one to act as the Guide or leader. The Guide should be in charge of the camp, supervise the swimming, games, the routine and daily life of the camp. She should decide matters of dispute and with the Tally Chief and Chief of the band, and any others they may care to add, decide matters which require 'decision. In large camps she will be assisted by assistant guidco each in charge of a group of girls, along with the Chief of each group. Team Work There is no place where team work is more needed than in camp. Here girls really " live together," and only as each and every member of the camp does her part will the camp be a con.; lete success. This will mean tuat the work should be Assigned daily to individuals or to groups, depending on the size 01 the camp. Even the first day rough assignments should be made ; nd just as soon as everybody is settled dovvn, methodic work should be begim. For small groups the following duties should be assigned: First, Health Chief. Gather up and destroy all garbage each day at a given hour and inspect the latrine hourly and see that all keep the- rules. Second, Mail Chief. Take all letters to the post and bring back all the mail. Third, Cook. Is responsible for the preparation of the meals for the day. 207) Thlngt to ISaaw and Do xflts Fourth, Cook's Assistant. When there is sufficient work the assistant may get ice, or do other s;5milar duties. , , Fifth, Cook's Wood. Cut sufficjit supply of wood for the cook's use Sixth, Council-fire Wood. Have the wood cut and laid for the Council Fire with sufficient supply for the evenmg. Must keep the Council Fire bright, not big, but never duU. These appointments in the case of larger camps will be given to a band or tent group. The main thing is to see that each girl or each tent group is definitely assigned to a duty and that the worit is well «)ne. Camp Officers If the band has not ah-eady elected a Tally Keeper it may do so with the approval of the Guide, making sure that the TaUy Keeper is representative of the camp and one who will keep a record every day, all being written in the Tally Book. Camp Program There should be a regular routine so that everybody may know when things happen. The foUowing is given as a good one; it may be changed to meet the needs of the camp: 6:30 A. H. Turn out, bathe, etc. 7:00 Breakfast. 8:00 Air bedding in sun, if possible. 10:00 Woodcraft games and practice. 11:00 Swimming. 12:00 M. Dumer. I »o P. M. Talk by leader. 2:00 Games, etc. 5:00 Swimmbg. 6:00 Supper. 7:00 Evening Council. 0:1s Lights out. Sometimes High Council for a few mmutes m- stead of in the morning. Whether the camp is large or small, the girls should learn to respond promptly. Those who fail to do so should be made to realize the consequence of their carelessness. Group Work When the camp has several bands it is wise to work out the rules of the camp and its activities, so as to lay emphasis on the 208) i84 Woodcraft Manual for Girls band or tent group. The group should gain or suffer according to the good work or bad work of its mcml)ers. Some camps give points for good and bad work and the band or tent group is credited with the work of their members. This same idea should be carried out in cDmjKMitions for the whole camp, so that the band which does the best work during the season would be given recognition of some sort. RuIm I'.ach camp will make rules when necessary, but the folloivw ing will be found good in every camp: No firearms. No swimming, except at regularly appomted times and places. No campers should leave camp without permission. Loose straw, cans, papers, bottles, glass, or filth, of any kind lying around am criminal disorder. ' Each group is responsible for order as far as the half line be- tween them and the next group. Inspections The Guides of the various bands or the one appointed in the smaller group should inspect at least once a day. The officer appointed to inspect goes from tent to tent. Each Band is allowed fifty points for normal, then docked one to ten points for each scrap of paper, cans, or rubbish left lying about; also for each disorderly feature or neglect of the rules of common sense, decency, or hygiene, on their territory; that is, up to half- way between them and the next group. They may get addi- tional points for unusually fine work ; but it is always as a Band that they receive the points, though it was the individual that worked for them. The Horns of the High Hikers After the inspection, the Chief announces the winning Band saying: "The Horns of the High Hikers were won today by . . . Band." And the hor .s are accordingly hung on their standard, pole, or other place, for the day. At the end of the camp, the Band that won them of tenest carries them home for ttieir own; and ever afterward are allowed 209) Thinci to Knon^ and Do 185 to put in one comer of their banner a smaU pair of black '*°miat are they? Usually a pair of polished buffalo horns with a frinRcd buckskin hanger, on which is an inscription saying that they were won by . . . Band at such a camp. Wlwn buffalo horns cannot be got, common cow horns or even horns of wood are used. Woodcraft Council Ring In every large permanent camp a Woodcraft Coundl-fire Circle should be estabUshed at once. The uses and benefiU of this will be stc.i more and more, as camp goes on. For the Woodcraft Council Ring, select a sheltered, levd place that admits of a perfectly level circle 30 feet across On the outer rim of this have a permanently fixed circle of very low seats; 6 inches is high enough, but they should have a back, and ultunktely a rain shed to protect those seated. Each Band should make its own seat, and always sit there during council. On the back of the seat should be two loops of wire or string in which to put their standard. Back of the first row should be a slighUy higher row. If the ground slopes up, aU the belter but in any case there should he fixed seats enough for all the camp. The place should be carefully leveled and pre- nared. and kept always in order, for it will be used several tunes kch day, either for councils or for games, dances, and per- ^°Tt^onrside of the ring in a conspicuous place should be the throne of the Chief; close by this a desk and seat for the Tally Keeper an(! ot. the desk should be a lantern holder; m the exact middle of the ring is the Council-fire, never a bonfire. Councils Three kinds of Councils are held in the Woodcraft CouncU ^T.^The High Council of the Chiefs and Guides daily, and at other times when called, arranges programs - The Gemral or Common CouncU of all the campers every night from seven to nine o'clock. At tha we have some busmess (in the awarding of honors), some campfire stunts or chaUenges, and a Uttle entertainment. „ ^ ,j . X. Grand CouncU, This is usually heW once a week. Every one comes in full Woodcraft costume. Visitors are mvited. 210) x86 Woodcraft Maonal for Girli Business except when very interesting is disi^nsed with, and a pr^m of sforts and amusements, chiefly for the visitors, is SXl^ prepared. This b " Strangers' Night " and they should be entertained, not bored. Making Council-fire The Council-fire is a very different thing from the cooking- fire or the so-called bonfire. And there are just as many ways of making it wrong. These are the essen als: It must be easily started. It must give a steady, bright light. „c^^ It must have as little heat as possible, for it is mostly used in the summer. Therefore, it must be small. , It b best built as in (c), ^bout two and one-half feet high; the bottom stick about three feet long; the rest shorter and ^""-Srsmall wood and chips to Kght it can be put either under or on top of the second layer. * u — It should oe drawn in toward the top, so as to bum without ^irmusf^ontain a large proportion of dry, winter-sea^^ wood, if it is to blaze brightly. The readiest seasoned wood is usually old lumber. , , For an aU-evenmg Council-fire, at least three times as much should be in stock as on the fire when started. Here are some wrong methods: The hich pyramid or bonfire, (a) goes off like a flash, roasts every one, then goes dead. The shapeless pile (b), is hard to light and never ght. The bonfire is always bad. It wastes good wood; is daugetous to the forest and the camp, is 211) Things to "Know and Do x87 absolutely unsociable. A bonfire will spoil the best camp-drde ever got together. It should be forbidden everywhere. Totem Pole Directly opposite the Chief's throne, on the outer edge of the circle, should be the Totem pole. This is always set up as soon as possible in all permanent camps. Its purpose is, ist, to typify the movement; 2d, to display the Totems of the Tribe, 3rd, to serve as a place of notice. Any document posted on the Totem pole is considered published. a. Totem pole of the FIn-Uid Trfte (15 teet h^) b. of Flying Eagles . _ c»add. f lomNiblack't Wett Cout ImUuM, Ei«les and Bmn Beds Of all things, the camper's bed is the thing most often made wrong, and most easily made right, when one knows how; and of all things comfort at night b most essential Every dealer in camp outfits can produce an array of different camp beds, cots, and sleeping bags, that shows how important it is to be dry and warm when you sleep. The simptest plan is the oldest one— two pair of Uankets and 212) i88 Woo<;cnift Manual for Giris waterproof undersheet on a neatly laid bed of evergreen boughs, dry leaves, or dry grass. The ideal way of laying the boughs is shown in the figure below. When I can't get grub of the Broadway sort, I'll fatten on camper's fare, I'll tramp all day and at night resort ToaM toughed down with care. But there are few places now in eastern America where you are allowed to cut bougJis freely. In any case you cannot take the bough bed with you when you move, and it takes too much time to make at each camp. Sleeping bags I gave up long ago. They are too difficult to air, or to adjust to different temperatures. Rubber beds are luxurious, but heavy for a pack outfit, and in cold weatiier they need thick blankets over them, other- wise they are too cooi. So the one iaeal bed for the camper, light, comfortable, ^nd of wildwood stuff, k the Jnrlian or willow bed, described on p. 225. Water, or the Indian WeU If there is a swamp or pond, but no pure water at hand, you can dig an Indian well in half an hour. This is simply a hole about 18 inches across and down about 6 inches below water- level, a few paces from the pond. Bail it out quickly; let it fill again, bail it a second time, and the third time it fills, it will be full of filtered water, clear of everythii^ except matter actnallv dissolved. ^ It is now well known that ordinary vegetable matter does not cause disease. All contamination is from animal refuse or excreta, therefore a well of this kind in a truly wiW reidon is as safe as a spring. ^ 213) Tilings to Know and Do Z89 MosqnitoM, Black FUes, etc. If you are camping in mosquito or fly season, the tr^ may be ruined if you are not fully prepared. For extreme cases, use the ready-made head-nets. They are hot, but effectual. You can easily get used to the net; no one can stand the flies. In my Arctic trip f 1907, we could not have endured life without the nets. Indians and all wore them. Of the various dopes that are used, one of the simplest and best is Colonel N. Fletcher's, given in Kephart's "Book of Camping and Woodcraft ' ' ; "Pure pine tar i oz. Oil pennyrojral i oz. Vaseline 3 ozs. "Mix cold in a mortar. If you wish, you can add 3 per cent, carbolic acid to above. Some make it 1 1 ozs. tar." Most drug shops keep ready-made dopes under such names as Citronella, Repellene, Lollakapop, etc. lighting a Fire ^ The day Columbus landed (probably) the natives remarked: White man fool, make big fire, can't go near; Indian make httle fire and sit happy." We all know that a camp without a campfire would be no camp at all; its chief est charm would be absent. Your first care, then, is to provide for a small fire and pre- vent Its spreading. In the autumn this may mean very elabo- rate clearing, or burning, or wettmg of a space around the fire. In the winter it means nothing. Cracked Jimmy, in "Two Little Savages," gives very practical direcUons for lighting a fire anywhere in the timbered northern part of America, thus:

  • ' o curl of burch bark as dry as it can be,

Then some twigs of soft wood, dead, but on the tree, Last of all some pine-knots to make the kittle foam. And there's ajireto make you think you're setHn' ri^ at ham." 214) 1 90 WoOdctaft Manual for Giris If you have no birch bark, it is a good plan to shave a dry soft- wood stick. leaving all the shavings sticking on the end in a fuzz, like a Hopi prayer stick. Several of these make a sure fire kindler. Fine splinters may be made quickly by hammering a small stick with the back of die axe. La the case of a small party and hasty camp, you need nothing but a pot hanger of green wood for a complete kitchen, and n^any hundreds of times, on prairie and in forest, I found this sufficient. A more complete camp grate is made of four green logs (aspen preferred) placed as^in the illustration. Set the top logs 3 inches apart at one end, lo inches at the other. The top logs should be flattened in the middle of their top sides — to hold the pot which sits on the open- ing between the top logs. The fire of course is built Green Log Grate jjjj jj^g ground, xmder the logs. Sometimes stones of right WBe and shi^ are used instead of the logs, but the stones do not contribute anything to the heat and are less manageable. In addition to this log grate, more elaborate camps have a kitchen equipped with a hanger as below, on which are pot hooks of green wood. In wet weather, an axeman can always get dry wood cuttmg mto a standing dead tree, or on the under side <rf down timber that is not en^rely on the ground. 215) Things to Know and Do igi On the prairies and plains, since buffaio chips are no more, we use horse and cow chips, kindled with dry grass and roots of sage-brush, etc. To keep a fire alive all night, bank the coals: i.e., bury them in ashes. Always put out the fire on leaving camp. It is a crime to leave a burning fire. Use buckets of water if need be. Can^ Cookety See Horace Kqduul's "Bode tA Qunj^ and Wood- craft." B/ In most camps the staples are: cocoa, coffee ! (or tea), baa>n, game, fi^, and hardtack, baiw , nocks or biscuit. ^ To make these take X pint flour, I teaspoonful of baking-powder, Half as much salt. Twice as much grease or lard, With water enough to make iiito p>aste, say one-half a pint. When worked i*" si oth dough, shiapc it into wafers half an inch thick three ^Jies across, ^et in a greased tin, which is tilted xiear a steady £re. Watch and turn the tin till all are brownea evenly. 216) xga Woodcnft Manual for Gifls For other and better but more elaborate methods of making bread, see Kephart's book as above. For cooking fish and game the old, simple standbys are the frying-pan and the stew-pan. As a general rule, mix all batters, mush, etc., with cold water, and always cook with a slow. fire. When going into camp not far from home some think it a good plan to take a cold roast of beef with them. Soup stock should be made the first days of every bit of bones and meat. There is an old adage: Hasty cooking is tasty cooking. Fried meat is dried meat. Boiled meat is spoiled meat. Roast meat is best meat. This reflects perhaps the castle kitchen rather than the camp, but It has Its measure of truth, and the reason why roast meat is not more popular is because it takes so much time and trouble to make it a success. Cooking Without Utensils We sometimes call it "hatchet cookery," because the cook is supposed to begin Arith nothing but a hatchet. To cook a good toot hsome meal with such a meagre outfit is good proof of a skilled Wo , -craf ter. Let us assume that you have meat, fi^, potatoes, flour, and baking-powder, in addition to your hatchet. To Boil the Fish. Make a big fire and in it put twenty stones each as big as two fists. Nearby, dig a hole a foot wide and two feet deep. Get a flat hardwood board, a foot long and sk or eight inches wide. Clean ana lash the fish onto this board, with a grass, rush, bark, or root— bmding every inch or more; or else make a little basket hd of rushes, ^ruce roots, etc., lay that on the fish and bind all to the board. This is your plank. Do not use pine or any gununy wood for this, as it gives the fish a bad taste. When the stones in the fire are red-hot, roll some into the hole tiU it is filled up eighteen inches. Then put in a layer of smaU cold stones, then a layer of grass; now lay your planked fish on this upside down, that is, with the fish under the board. Cover all with a wad of fresh grass and, lastly, with two or three inches of day. Make a littleholeiit one side and pour into that about 217) Thicgi to Know and Do 193 a bucket of water. Close up the hole, cover all tight and leave for half an hour to an hour. Open cautiously, careifully keeping the clay from the fish. Turn the plank and remove the binding. The fi^ will be found beautifully cooked. Potatoes take three times as long to do in this way. To Broil. To broil fish, game, or bacon is easy if one make a hot fire, then expose a level bed of coals, fan it once with a hat or board to remove the ashes from the top of the coals, then drop the meat to be cooked right on the coals. It will broil in a minute or two. Turn it over with a stick and the operation will be quickly completed. Toasting is easily done if we cut a forked stick of strong green wood and hold the bread over the fire. Roasting. A good meat roaster is made by hanging the meat in a green wood hook made with a broad wooden fan set in a split near the top and above that a heavy cord to hang it with. Thus, the wind, striking the fan, turns the meat and twists the cord until it is tight ; then it unwinds, but, owing to the weight of the meat, goes past the dead point and winds itself up the other way, and so on. This is an especially satisfactory roaster when there is wind. Bread. The test of all is the making of good bread without utensils. Some make a hole in the ground for a breadpan and line it with a comer of a mackintosh. But most old timers use 218) 194 Woodenft UmsouI for Girls the top of the flour in the sack itself. Simply spread the mouth wide open and securely level and proceed as though it were a pan. To make a small loaf of bread, put a teaspoonful of baking powder on about a pint of flour, add a lump of butter or grease as big as a walnut and a dash of salt. Mbc them together, then add about a cupful of cold water, work it into the flour that has been prepared. It will not strike into the flour below. Thoroughly work up the mass of dough and now it is ready for treatmoit as bread, twist, or as cakes. Bread Twist. Cut a smooth, round stick two or three inches through and three feet long, point one end, drive it in the ground leaning toward the fire at a place just a little hotter than you can hold your hand. Work the dough into a long roll and twist it like a vine around the stick. After ten minutes, turn the stick around in the hole, so as to give the full heat to the other side, and so on; in half an hour, the bread should be brown and finished. Cakes. Select a broad, fiat, thin stone; heat it at the fire until it is too hot for your hand to tourh; brush it clean, work the dough into cakes half an inch thick and three inches across, put thena on the flat stone and prop it up near the fire as steeply as possible, as long as they do not fall off, and roast tili pale brown all over. Mud Baking. This is used for fish and game. Clean the fo d thoroughly, enclose it in a coat of mud at least an inch thick, bury it in the ashes of the fire and keep a brisk fire on it for thirty to sixty minutes, according to the size of the meat or fi^ to be roasted. Potatoes can be baked in the ashes without any mud. Th^ take much longer than meat. 219) CHAPTER m WOODLORE AND HANDICRAFT Edible WUd Places White Man's Woodcraft— M euoriilg at a distance. Weather Wisdom When Lost in the Woods Indian Tweezeri Indian Clock Watch as Compass Home Made Compan Lights Hunter's Lamp Woodman's Lantern Knife and Hatchet Waterproof Shelter Camp Loom Navajo Loom Camp iake Camp Broom Rubbing Stick Fire Drum oodcraft Willow Bed odcraf t Paints ,i oodcraft Dyes Lace or Thong Woodcraft Buttons Handicraft Stunts Miscellaneous Spoons Bird Boxes Sparrow Proof Bird Bozea Krots nazes and Signs Blazes Stone Signs Grass and Twig Signs Smoke Signals Siganis by Shots How to Raise Money 220) 221)



Edible Wild Plants

No one truly knows the woods until he can find with certainty a number of wild plants that furnish good food for man in the season when food is scarce; that is, in the winter or early spring.

During summer and autumn there is always an abundance of familiar nuts and berries, so that we may rule them out, and seek only for edible plants and roots that are available when nuts and berries are not.

Rock Tripe. The most wonderful of all is probably the greenish-black rock tripe, found on the bleakest, highest rocks in the northern parts of this continent. There is a wonderful display of it on the cliffs about Mohonk Lake, in the Catskills. Richardson and Franklin, the great northern explorers, lived on it for months. It must be very carefully cooked or it produces cramps. First gather and wash it as clear as possible of sand and grit, washing it again and again, snipping off the gritty parts of the roots where it held onto the mother rock. Then roast it slowly in a pan till dry and crisp. Next boil it for one hour and serve it either hot or cold. It looks like thick gumbo soup with short thick pieces of black and green leaves in it. It tastes a little like tapioca with a slight flavoring of licorice. On some it acts as a purge.

Basswood Browse or Buds. As a child I ate these raw in quantities, as did also most of my young friends, but they will be found the better for cooking. They are particularly good and large in the early spring. The inmost bark also has food value, but one must disfigure the tree to get that, so we leave it out.

Slippery Elm. The same remarks apply to the buds and inner bark of the slippery elm. They are nutritious, acceptable food, especially when cooked with scraps of meat or fruit for flavoring. Furthermore, its flowers come out in the spring before the leaves, and produce very early in the season great quantities of seed which are like little nuts in the middle of a nearly circular wing. These ripen by the tune the leaves are half grown 222) and have always been an important article of food among the wild things.

Many Indian tribes used to feed during famine times on the inner bark of cedar and white birch, as well as on the inner bark of the slippery elm and basswood, but these cannot be got without injury to the tree, so omit them.

When the snow is off the ground the plants respond quickly, and it is safe to assume that all the earliest flowers come up from big, fat roots.

A plant can spring up quickly in summer, gathering the material of growth from the air and soil, but a plant coming up in the early spring is doing business at a time when it cannot get support from its surroundings, and cannot keep on unless it has stored up capital from the summer before. This is the logic of the storehouse in the ground for these early comers.

Wapato. One of the earliest is wapato, or duck potato, also called common Arrowleaf, or Sagittaria. It is found in low, swampy flats, especially those that are under water for past of the year. Its root is about as big as a walnut and is good food, cooked, or raw. These roots are not at the point where the leaves come out but at the ends of the long roots.

Bog Potato. On the drier banks, usualy where the sedge begins near a swamp, we find the bog potato, or Indian potato. The plant is a slender vine with three, five, or seven leaflets in a group. On its roots in spring are from one to a dozen potatoes, varying from an inch to three inches in diameter. They taste like a cross between a peanut and a raw potato, and are very good cooked or raw.

Indian Cucumber. In the dry woods one is sure to see the pretty umbrella of the Indian cucumber. Its root is white and crisp and tastes somewhat like a cucumber, is one to four inches long, and good food raw or boiled.

Calopogon. This plant looks like a kind of grass with an onion for a root, but it does not taste of onions and is much sought after by wild animals and wild people. It is found in low or marshy places.

Hog Peanuts. In the early spring this plant will be found to have a large nut or fruit, buried under the leaves or quite underground in the dry woods. As summer goes by the plant uses up this capital, but on its roots it grows a lot of little nuts. These are rich food, but very small. The big nut is about an inch long and the little ones on the roots are any size up to that of a pea.

Indian Turnip or Jack-in-the-Pulpit. This is well known to 223) Things to Know and Do 199 224) aoo Woodcraft Manual for Girls all our children in the East. The root is the most burning, acrid, horrible thing in the woods when raw, but after cooking becomes quite pleasant and is very nutritious. Prairie or Iftdian Turnip, Bread-root or Pomme-blanche of the Prairie. This is found on all the prairies of the Missouri region. Its root was and is a staple article of food with the Indians. The roots are one to three inches thick and four to twelve inches long. Solomon's Seal. The two Solomon's Seals (true and false) both produce roots that are long, bumpy storehouses of food. Crinkle-root. Every school child in the country digs out and eats the pleasant peppery crinkle-root. It abounds in the rich, dry woods. Mushrooms, Fungi, or Toadstools We have in America about two thousand different kinds of Mushrooms or Toadstools; they are the same thing. Of these, probably half are wholesome and delicious; but about a dozen of them are deadly poison. There is no way to tell them, except by knowing each kind and the recorded results of experience with each kind. The story about cooking with silver being a test has no foundation; in fact, the best way for the Woodcraft Boy or Girl is to know ' definitely u dozen dangerous kinds and a score or more of the wholesome kinds and let the rest alone. Sporeprint. The first thing in deciding the nature of a toad- stoll is the sporeprint, made thus: Cut off the stem of the toad- stool and lay the gills down on a piece of gray paper under a vessel of any kind. After a couple of hours, lift the cap, and "■adiating lines of spores will appear on the paper. If it is desired to preserve these, the paper should be first covered with thin mucilage. The color of these spores is the first step in identification. All the deadly toadstools have white spores. No black-spored toadstool is known to be poisonous. Poisonous Toadstools The only deadly poisonous kinds are the Atnonitas. Others may p^irge and nauseate or cause vomiting, but it is believed that every recorded death from toadstool poisoning was caused by an Amanita, and unfortunately they are not only wide- spread and abundant, but they are much Uke the ordinary 225) Things to Know and Do 201 table mushrooms. They have, however, one or t'vo strong marks: their stalk always grows out of a "poisr^t atf," which shows either as a cup or as a bidb; they have whi'r or yellou.' giUs, a ring around the stalk, and white spores. Deadly Toadstools All the deadly toadstools known in North America are pic- tured on the plate, or of the types shown on the plate. The Deadly Amanita may be brownish, yellowish, or white. The Yellow Amanita of a delicate lemon color. 226) 302 Woodcraft Manual for Girls The White Amanita of a pure silvery, shiny white. ^ The Fly Amanita with cap pink, brown, yellow, or red in the centre, shaded mto yellow at the edge, and patched with frag- ments of pure white veil. The Frosty Amanita with yellow cap, pale cadmium m centre, elsewhere yellowish while, with white patches on warts. All are very variable in color, etc. But all agree in these things. They have gills, which are white, or yellow, a ring on the stalk, a cup at the base, whUe spores, and are deadly poison. In Case of Poisoning If by ill chance any one has eaten a poisonous Amanita, the effects do not begin to show till sixteen or eighteen hours afterward— that is, long after the poison has passed through the stomach and begun its deadly work on the nerve centres. Symptoms. Vomiting and purging, "the discharge from the bowels being watery with small flakes suspended, and sometimes containing blood," cramps in the extremities. The pulse is very slow and strong at first, but later weak and rapid, sometimes sweat and saliva pour out. Dizziness, famtness, and blindness, the skin clammy, cold, and bluish or hvid; tem- perature low with dreadful tetanic convulsions, and fanaUy stupor. (Mcllvaine and Macadam p. 627.) , Remedy "Take an emetic at once, and send for a physician with instructions to bring hypodermic syringe and atropine sulphate. The dose is . lo a grain, and doses should be continued heroically until V(r of a gram is admmistered, or until, in the physician's opinion, a proper quantity has been injected. Where the victim is critically ill the ^qoI^ gram may be administered." (Mcllvaine and Macadam XVn.) Wholesome Toadstools It is a remarkable fact that all the queer freaks, like clubs and corals, the cranks and tomfools, in droll shapes and satanic colors the funny poisonous looking Morels, Inkcaps, and Boieti are good wholesome food, but the deadly Amanitas are like ordinary Mushrooms, except that they have grown a Uttle thm, delicate, and anaemic. , . • ^ a ♦».-* All the Puffballs are good before they begin to puff, that is as long as their flesh is white and firm. 227) Things to Know and Do 203 All the colored coral toadstools are good, but the White Clavaria is said to be rather sickening. All of the Morels are safe and delicious. So also is InKV Coprinus, usually found on manure piles. The Beefsteak Mushroom grows on stumps, ci. Jfly chestnut. It looks like raw meat and bleeds when cut. It is quite good So far as known no black-spored toadstool is unwholesome. The common Mushroom is distinguished by its general shape. 228) 304 Woodcraft Manual for Girls its smell, its pink or brown gills, its white flesh, brown spores and sohd stem. ' Mushroom Growing (See Article on "How to Raise Money") Books Recommended P kH5u'^t^°'^°.?^ °' New York, by Charles H. Peck. Published by New York State Museum, Albany, i8qs. V ^ °' C^'l^s H- Published by New York State Museum, Albany, 1900. ' v"^^!?!^?^" ^S"*"' W'"^ Marshall. Published, 1902, at xew York by Doubleday, Page & Co., $3.50. . , xn^^w J™^' ^Icllvaine & Macadam. $5. Pub- lished by the BoLbs-MemU Company of Indianapolis. 1902; add 40 cmto Mushrooms, by G. F. Atkinson. HoL & Co. 01^^ MusHEooM, by M. E. Hard. The Ohio Library Company, Columbus, White Man's Woodcraft or Meataring Weights and Distance Would you like to teU a dog's height by its track? Then take the length m inches of his forefoot track, multiply it by eight, and that will give you his height at the shoulder. A little dog has a 2i-inch foot and stands about eighteen inches- a sheepdog with a 3-inch track measures twenty-four inches, and a mastiff or any big dog with a 4-inch track gives thirty to tnirty-two inches. The dog's weight, too, can be judged by the track. Multiply his forefoot in inches by the length, and multiply that by five and you wiU have a pretty close estimate of h^ weight m pounds. This, of course, does not apply to freak dogs. The Height of Trees To get the height of a tree, cut a pole ten feet long. Choosing the smoothest ground A, prop the pole some distance from the tree. Lay down so that the eye B is level with the tree basp and in hne with the top of the pole and the tree. Mark the spot B with a peg and measure the distance from the pee to the foot of the pole, then from the peg to the foot of thVteee. Ihe height of the tree wUl be found by the formula: the distance between the peg and the pole is to the height of the pole as 229) Things to Know and Do 205 the distance between the peg and the tree is to the height of the tree or BA: AC:: BE:X. This may be proved by selecting a knot on the tree which may be easily climbed to. See inside line. To Measure the Distance Across a Stream Drive a stake at H. To measure distance from H to D cut three straight poles of exactly the same length and peg them together in a triangle. Place the triangle on the bank at A, B, C, aghting the line A B for the spot at D, and put three pegs in the ground exactly under the three pegs where the triangle is. Move the triangle to E F G and placing it so that F G should line with A C, and E G with D. Now A G D almost must be an equilateral triangle; therefore, according to arithmetic, the line D H must be seven-deaths of A G, wbidi can of course be easily messured. 230) io6 Woodcnft Manual for Girls To Measure Distance Between Two Objects at a Distance Cut three poles six, eight, and ten feet long and peg them to- gether m a triangle. A, B, C is a right angle according to the laws of mathematics if the legs of the triangle are six, eight, and ten. Place the right angle on the shore, the side A B pointing to the inner side of the first object D (say a tree), and the side B C as nearly as possible parallel with the line between the two trees. Put in a stake at B, another at C, and continue this hne toward K. Now slide the triangle along this till the side O l- points to E, and the side H G is in line with C B. The distance from D to E, of course, is equal to B G. See "Two Little Savages," 1903. Weather Wisdom When the dew is on the grass, Rain will never come to pass. When the gpiass is dry at night, Look for ram before the light. When grass is dry at morning hght, Lode for rain before the night. Three days' rain will empty any aky. A deep, clear sky of fleckless blue Breeds storms within a day or two. 231) Things to Know and Do 307 When the wind is in the east, It's good for neitlier man nor beast. When the wind is in the north, TTie old folk should not venture forth. When the wind is in the south, It blows the bait in the fishes' mouth- When the wind is in the west, It is of all the winds the best. An (^ning and a shetting Is a sure sign of a wetting. (Another version) Open and shet, Sure sign of wet. (Still another) It's lighting up to see to rain. Evening red and morning gray Sends the traveler on his way. Evening gray and morning red Ses^ the traveler home to bed. Red sky at morning, the shepherd takes warning; Red sky at night is the shepherd's delight. If the sun goes down cloudy Friday, sure of a clear Sunday. If a rooster crows standing on a fence cr high place, it will clear. If on the ground, it doesn't count Between eleven and two You can teU what the weather is gomg to do. Rain before sevoi, clear before eleven. Fog in the morning, bright sunny day. If U rains, and the sun is sbming at the same time, the devil is whipping hb wife and it will surely rain to-morrow. If it clears off during the night, it will nin agaui ihortfy. Sun drawing mXtt, stire sign (rf nun. 232) 3o8 Woodcraft Manual for Girls A circle round the moon means "storm." As many stars as are in circle, so many days before it will rain. Sudden heat brings thunder. A storm that comes against the wind is always a thunder- storm. The oak and the ash draw lightning. Under the birch, the cedar, and balsam you are safe. East wind brings rain. West wind brings clear, bright, cool weather. North wind brings cold. South wind brings heat. (On Atlantic coast.) The rain-crow or cuckoo (both species) is supposed by all hunters to foretell rain, when its "Kow, kow, kow" is lona and hard. * So, also, the tree-frog cries before rain. SwaUows flying low is a sign of rain; high, of clearing weather. The ram foUows the wind, and the heavy blast is just before the shower. Outdoor Proverbs ^. What weighs an ounce in the morning, weighs a pound at A pint is a pound the whole world round. Allah reckons not against a man's allotted time the days he spends in the chase. If there's o^'y one, it isn't a track, it's an accident. Better safe than sorry. No smoke without fire. The bluejay doesn't scream without reason. The worm don't see nuffin pretty 'bout de robin's somr.— (Darkey.) ^ Ducks flying over head in the woods are geneiaUy pointed for water. ' If the turtles on a log are dry, they have been there half an hcjr or more, which means no one has been near to alarm them. Cobwebs across a hole mean "nothing inside." Whenever you are trying to be smart, you are gomg wrong. Smart Aleck always comes to grief. You are safe and winning, when you are trying to be kind. When Lost in the Woods vJ^ you should miss your way, the first thing to remember is like the Indian, "You are not lost; it is the teepee that is lost." 233) Tilings to Know and Do 209 It isn't serious. It cannot be so, unless you do something The first and most natural thmg to do is to get on a hill, up a tree, or other high lookout, and seek for some landmark near the camp. You may be so sure of these things . You are not nearly as far from camp as you think you are. Your friends will soon find you. You can help them best by signaling. The worst thing you can do is to get frightened. The truly dangerous enemy is not the cold or the hunger, so much as the fear. It is fear that robs the wanderer of his judgment and of his limb power; it is fear that turns the passing experience into a final tragedy. Only keep cool and all will be well. If there is snow on the ground, you can follow your back track. , L cv * If you see no landmark, look for the smoke of the fire, bhout from time to time, and wait; for though you have been away for hours it is quite possible you are within earshot of your friends. If you happen to have a gun, fire it off twice in quick succession on your high lookout then wait and listen. Do this several times and wait plenty long enough, perhaps an hour. If this brings no help, send up a distress signal — that is, make two smoke fires by smothering two bright fires with green leaves and rotten wood, and keep them at least fifty feet apart, or the wind will confuse them. Two shots or two smokes are usually understood to nean "I am in trouble." Those in camp on seeing this should s nd up one smoke, which means "Camp is here." ^ In a word, "keep cool, make yourself comfortable, leave a record of your travek, and help your friends to find you." Indian Tweezers Oftentimes, a camper may need a pair of tweezers or forceps to pull out a thorn or catch some fine end. If he happens to be without the real thing, he can supply the place with those of Indian style— these are simply a small pair of clam-shells, with edges clean and hinge unbroken. The old-time Indians had occasionally a straggly beard. They had no razor, but they managed to do without one. As a part of their toilet for special occasion they pulled out each hair hy means of the clam shell nippers, 234) 3X0 Woodcraft Manual for Girls An Indian Clock, Shadow Clock, or Sundial To make an Indian shadt)w clock, or sundial, prepare a smooth board about fifteen inches across, with a circle divided by twenty- four rays into equal parts. Place it on a level, solid post or stump in the open. At night set the dial so that the twelve o'clock line points ex- actly north, as deter- mined by the Pole Star and nail it down. Then, fix a stick or pointer with its upper edge on the ;ntre and set it exa. . :/ pointing to the Pole Star (a b); that is, the same angle as the latitude of the place, and fix it there immovably; it may be necessary to cut a notch (c) in the board to permit of a sight line. The hours eig^t at ni^t to four next morning may as well be painted black. As a time- piece, this shadow clock will be found roughly correct.* The Indians of course used merely the shadow of a tree, or the sun streak that fell on the lodge floor through the smoke opening. The Watch as a Compass In case one desires to locate north and has no compass, a watch may be used. Point the hour hand to the sun. In the morning, halfway be- tween the outside end of the hour hand and noon is due south; in the afternoon, one must reckon halfway backward; for instance, at 8 A. M., point the hour hand to the sun and find the place half- way to noon. It will be at lo, which is due south. At 4 o'clock, pomt the hour hand at the sun and reckon halfway, and the south will be found at 2 o'clock. The reason "halfway" is used is that, while the sun makes a !To mak* s mow fdeatificaUy accan4« Svndid, Me CoUint, 235) Thiogi to Know tad Do an course of 24 hours, the clock makes a course every 12 houw. If our timepieces wtre rational and had a face showing 24 hours, the hour hand pointed to the sun would make 12 o'clock, noon, silw&vs south. If the sun is clouded and you cannot see it, get into a clear open space. Hold your knife point upright on the watch dial, and it wjnTunless the clouds are very heavy, cast a faint shadow, show- ing where the sun really is. A Homemade Compass If you happen to have a magnet, it is easy to make a compass. Rub a fine needle on the magnet; then on the side of your nose. Then lav it gently on the surface of a cup full of water. Ihe needle wiU float and point north. The cup must not be of metal. Lights For camp use, there is nothing better than the Stonebridge folding lantern, with a good supply of candles. A temporary torch can readily be made of a roll of birch bark, a pine knot, or some pine-root slivers, in a split stick of green wood. Hunter's Lamp A fairly steady light can be made of a piece of cotton cloth or twisted rag, stuck in a clam-shell lull of oil or melted grease. An improvement is easily made by putting the cotton wick through a hole in a thin, flat stone, which sets in the grease and holds the wick upright. .1 t u Another improvement is made by usmg a tm m place ot the shell. It makes a steadier lamp, as well as a much larger h^t. This kind of a lamp enjoys wide use and has some queer names, such as slot-lamp, grease-jet, hunter's lamp, etc. (See Cut on next page.) Woodman's Lantern When nothing better iS at hand, a woodman's lantern can be made of a tomato can. Make a big hole in the bottom for the candle, and punch the sides full of small holes, prefer- ably from the inside If you have a wire to make a hanger, well and good; if not, you can carry it by the bottom. This lets out enough light and will not go out in the wind. If you - • .■■.■spJsl-f!: 236) 212 Woodcnft ManiMl for Oiris want to set it down, you must make a hole in the ground for the candle, or if on a table, set it on two blocks. (Cut on this page.) Another style is described in a recent letter from Hamlin Garland: "Apropos of improved camp lights, I had a new one 'sprung on me,' this summer: A forest ranger and I were visiting a miner, about a mile from our camp. It came on dark, pitch dark, and when we started home, we couM not foUow the trail. JLiU for hJiflti* Mo " M rot It was windy as well as dark, and matches did very little good. So back we went to the cabin. The ranger then picked up an old tomato can, punched a hole in the side,thrt<)t a candle up through the hole, lighted it, and took the can b, ae disk which had been cut from the top. The whole thing was now a boxed light, shining ahead like a searchlight, and the wind did not affect it at all! I've been camping, as you know, for thirty years, but this little trick was new to me. Perhaps it is new to you." H. G. Still another style, giving a l)Ctter light, is made by heating an ordinary clear glass quart bottle pretty hot in the fire, then dii^ing the bottom part in cold water; this causes the bottom o crack off. The candle is placed in the neck, flamie in*^, and the bottle neck sunk in the ground, 237) Things to Know and Do Knift and Hatehtt or WUtdinc and Choppinf If I were marooned on an idand or left alone in the wilderness, and had thechoice of but one weapon to take along, I should take a good knife. If I were allowed two, the second would be a hatchet. , , ^. , , , With those two one can make most of the things needed for securing food or building shelters. The Northern Indians are probably the best whii tiers in the world. They use a curious curved knife called the crooked knife. It is made of an old file curled up at the point so it can cut a narrow groove. With such a knife a Chipcwyan Indian can make bow, arrows, traps, snowshoes, canoe , and wigwam— as well as clothing, his whole outfit complete; a jjood crodced knife, therefore, u a fair start in life fw an industrious Indian. SnlM for Uaing a Knife In whittling, (dways assume thai the knife is going to slip, there- fore, arrange so it can do no damage when it does slip. For this reason, it is usual to make a beginner whittle away from himself, but that is not always safe. Indeed, all the best whittlers in the world, including Northern Indians, Farriers, Wagonmakers, etc., whittle toward tkemsdves, with the hand held pahn up, the knife blade at the little finger side, using the pull of the arm instead of the push, thereby getting more power and better control. But this is sure, you diould never wMtfe tofward the hand that is hold' ig the wood. Always keep your knife sharp. It is a sign of a tenderfoot to have a dull kmf e, and of a tramed woodcralter to have a keen one. To keep a knife sharp, it must be a good piece of steel and you must know how to shaJTJen it. The only way to get a good blade is to go to a good maker and pay a good price. The fancy knives that are corkscrew, tciolchest, bootjack, and whistle all combined, are seldom of good sleel. Old-timers prefer a j£;/«7e-handled knife as it is more readily found if dropped on the ground or in the water. The blade cannot be kept in good condition if used for any- thing but a wood cutter. Therefore, do not cut nails, metal, or softwood knots (especially hemlock knots) with it. Never stick the blade m Uie fire. That would draw the tem- per and sp(»l the knife. 238) 2X4 Woodcraft Manual for Girls Do noi abuse your knife by usbg it for a hanuner, wedge, screwdriver, or pry. Carry a little whetstone or else a small file to keep your knife in good shape. A pocket or shut-up knife is the only style worth carrymg. The hunting knife or dagger has not enough use to-day to make it worth while. It is a proof of a good whittler if one can make half a dozen firelighters ir^ succession. A firelighter or fuzz-stick (see illus- tration) is a stick of soft wood about an inch thick or six or eight inches through, shaved into thin slivers which are still on the stick; that is, are one solid piece at one end and all thin slivers at the other. This can only be done if you have a sharp, strong knife, a well-selected piece of soft wood without knots in it, and a steady hand. Provided the wood is good, the fire- lighter is perfect if not a sliver is loose or drops off. Use of Hatchet A good camper is known by his hatchet; if it is always diarp, and kept muzzled when travelling, the owner knows his business. Most of the knife rules apply equally to the hatchet. Never try to break a stone with a hatchet or let the hatchet be drivoi into a log by striking its back with another hatchet or anything of metal; use a wooden maul if it is necessary to drive the hatchet, as in splitting a stick. If you are going to hew a piece of timber with a hatchet, always draw a line first to guide you. If you are going to point a stake, make it a four-sided point, cutting sides No. i and No. 3, No. 2 and No. 4; so that finally at any cross-section of the point it will be square. It is a sure sign of inexperience when a camper throws his hatchet at trees, etc., to see if he can make it stick. Broken blades, broken handles, and injured trees are the inevitable re- sult, with the large possibility of serious accident. Use of the Axe The hatchet has long been the emblem of George Washington, in allusion to the incident of the cherr>' tree. So also the axe has become an «nblem of Abraham Lincohi, the back woodsman, the railsplitter, the typical American, who used the axe to carve his home out of the wilderness. I think that the axe might well be the embkm of America, te 239) 240) az6 Woodcraft Manual for Girls it was composed originally of the finest metal that Europe could supply, combined with a handle of the finest, toughest stuff that America could grow ; and thus became the best weapon ever wielded by man for subduing the wilderness. Most of the instructions for use of the hatchet apply equally to the axe; but the axe chiefly is used for cutting down trees and cutting up logs. To cut down a large tree with an axe, first clear a space around so you have firm footing and no limbs are left to catch the axe as it swings. Now begin by cutting the notch A (see illustration) at a convenient height, on the side to which you would throw the tree. Then split out the big chips B A by strokes at B. Continue the operation until you reach C D. Then stop and cut in the notch E. Resume cutting at C D until the tree falls. The notch E is never made on the level with D or lower, be- cause then the butt of the tree might shoot backward as the tree falls and kill the woodsman; also, the upright part left standing between E and D prevents the tree faUing the wrong way. When it matters little which way the tree goes, the notch iS made much lower. If the tree leans much the wrong way, you can push it over by guide or spring poles. Thus the tree F is leaning to the east, but a strong brace planted at G will make it fall to the south, if you cut the tree chiefly on the south side and leave the last uncut fibres of wood to nm east and west, so they act as a hinge. This hinge is very important at times. In the section H the tree may be inclined to fall toward I, but it is easiest to bend the hinge at right angles to its main length so the angle of the hmge will throw it toward J, if there is no wind and the tree does not lean too much. Another well-known device is the spring pole. To make sure of the tree K falling toward L, put in a spring pole M, as long and as heavy as you can manage, force it in and have it bent down so that it is pushing against the tree. In some cases, sev- eral of these poles are put in. Two are, of course, twice as powerful as one, and wnen the tree is cut at the L ade, the poles push it that way. These were very familiar woodsman's tricks in my young days, but they are now largely displaced by the saw. The plan being to notch the tree at N, then saw it in at O until large iron wedges may be driven in behind the saw as it sinks into the trunk, and the tree is mevitably thrown toward N, usually in a line at rij^t angks to the cut of the saw. 241) Things to Know and Do 317 A clever woodsman can throw a tree so exactly where he wants it that he can make it drive a given stake. A good axeman can fell a six-inch tree in a minute. When one is cutting a sapling, it helps greatly if the tree be bent over, then one blow of the axe on the bulge of the bend will usually cut it off, whereas a dozen might be needed if the tree were not pulled over first. To cut a large log on the ground, the axeman stands on it and cuts between his wide-spread feet; cutting half through each side and keeping the kerfs or cuts plumb, P Q (see illustration). If it were cut through entirely from one side as at R, the labor would be double, because fully twice as much wood must then be removed. For a small log, it is easier to stand on the ground and cut more nearly on the upper side till halfway through, then roll the log half over and make the other cut. A Waterpnxrf Shdter of Wildemeu Sti^ If you have plenty of spruce, balsam, or hemlock boughs avail* able to furnish a roof thatch, it is easy to make a lean-to. This consists of a frame of poles bound with roots of spruce or tamarac, or else the inner bark of the elm, tamarac, leatherwood, or pignut hickory. (See A in illustration). Begin at the bottom and cover them with the boughs cut twenty or thirty inches long and each one attached to the poles at D in the illustration. If you chance to have an abundance of birch bark, it is yet simpler. Cut the birch bark as large as possible and insert a row of sheets at the bottom, brown side up, overlapping at the up- and-down jrints mstead of setting the bark pieces side by side as in shingling. The top rev may need extra binding jxjles to hold the bark sheets down (XX in B ) . These poles are bound at their ends to the ends of the poles below them. If grass or rushes are used, tie it in bundles and put on as with boughs. Sometimes the grass bundles are lashed separately to the upper sides of the poles with root or bark bindings. If one happens to have a supply of clay handy, a first-class clay roof can be made. Make the structure very strqng with cross poles so close side by side that they touch each other. On them lay a few inches of grass, and covor all with the day hammered smooth. In each case, the « ds may be filled up with the same material as the TO(A. 242) 3X8 Woodcraft Manual for Girls A fire in front makes of it a very comfortable dwellmg. In rough, hasty work, the lashing of the poles is dispensed with ; the poles being held in place by knots left projecUng on the two main end supports. This ajiswers for the clay or the bough roof, but will not do for birch bark or other shinghng. ?/a.T> of StmtTimts &.fttr1ht bivK IS on /"y/f/iTi'i "' Camp Loom and Gimss Mats The chief use of the camp loom is to weavf; mats for the beds of grass, straw, hay, or, best of aU, sedge. I have made it thus: A 3-foot cross-bar A is fast to a small tree, and seven feet away, even stakes are drivoi into the ground 8 mdies j^)art, each 3 feet out of the ground. , . , ^ ^ u Five stout cords are tied to each stick, and to the cross-bf r, keeping them parallel. Then, between each on the cross-bar is attached another cord (four in all) the far end of which made fast to a loose cro8»-bar,B. . ^ . , . One person raises the loose cross-bar B, while another layta 243) Things to Know and Do 219 long bundle of grass tight in the corner C. Then B is lowered to D, and another roll of grass or sedge is tucked in on the under side <rf the stake cords. Thus the bundles are laid one above and one below, until the mat is of the required length. The cords are then fastened, the cross-bars removed, and the mat, when dried, makes a fine bed. When added to the willow bed, it is pure luxury; but lawful, because made of wildwood material. Navajo Loom A profitable amusement in camp is weaving rugs or mats of inner bark, rags, etc., on a rough Navajo loom. ^ The crudest kind, one which can be made in an hour, is illus- trated on next page. I have found it quite satisfactory for weaving rough mats or rugs. A and B are two trees or posts. C is the cross piece. D is the upper yam-beam, WTai^)cd its whole length with a spiral cord. E is the lower yam-beam, similarly wrapped. F F are stout cords to carry the frame while the warp is being stretched between the yam-beams. G G is a log hung on for weight. HH is a round stick fast- ened between the yams, odds on one side, evens on the other, to hold the yams open until the rug is aU done, but about «ie- inch '"hen it is drawn out. Now, with a needle, the yams or strings for the warp are stretched from one yarn-beam to another, as a continuous strmg. The exact method is shown on a larger scale in the upper figure II. The batten or spreader J is a piece of light wood two 244) 220 Woodcraft Manual for Girls inches wide and one-half inch thick, with sauare edges, but thin, sharp point, and about as long as the yam-beani. Now, we are ready to begin. Run the batten between the yams under the sticks H H. Then drop it to the bottom and turn it flatwise, thus spreading the yams apart in two rows. Lay a line of soft bark, rags, or other woof in this q)ening on top of the batten, making sure that it projects a couple of m^es at each end. Double these long ends around the strong cords FF then back along themselves. Now draw out the spreading bat- ten and press the woof down light. .1.^*1. Run the batten through alternate threads again, but the reverse way of last, and this time it goes more slowly for the lack of a guide rod.* Lay a new line of woof as above. vVhen the •This is done much more quickly by help of a heald-rcd, that is, a hori- tontal stick as wide as the blanket, with every other strand of the warp loosely looped to It by * rumuM cord near the too. When th« rod is pdle^ forward it reverses the setdtht thmds and aUows the b»tt» to drq) in at<Hice. 245) Things to Know and Do aaz rug is all finished, except the top inch or more, draw out the rod H H and fill the warp to the top. Finally cut and draw out the spiral cords on each yarn-beam. This frees the rug, which is finished, excepting for trim and bind- ing, when such are desired. Those who want full details of the best Navajo looms and methods will find them in Dr. Washington Matthew's article on Navajo Weavers, 3d Annual Report, Bur. of Ethnology, 1881-2. Wasjiington 1884. Cuof Rtke A camp rake is made of forked branches of oak, beech, hick- ory, or other hard wood, thus: Cut a handle an inch thick B C and 4 feet long, of the shape shown. Flatten it on each side of A , and make a gimlet-hole through. Now cut ten branches of the shape D £, each about 20 inches long. Flatten them at the E end, and make a gimlet-hole through each. Fasten all together, 5 on each side of the handle, as in F, with a long nail or strong wire through all the holes; then, with a cord, lash them together, spacing them by putting the cord between. Sharpen the point* of the teeth, and your rake is ready. Camp Broom There are two ways of making a camp broom. First, the twig broom. This is easily made as follows: Cut a handle an inch thick, and shape it to a shoulder, as in A B C. Lash on birdi or other fine twigs, one layer at a time, until sufiKciently 246) 222 Woodcraft Manual for Girls thick, as D E. Now at F, put a final lashing of cord. This draws the broom together, and binds it firmly to the handle. Trim the ends even with the axe, and it is ready for use. The other style is the backwoods broom. This was usually made of blue-beech or hickory. A 4-foot piece of a 4-inch green trunkis best. Shavings xSindies long are cut down, left attached at J, and bent back over the end until there is a bunch of them thick enough; when they are bound together with a cord and appear as in K. Now thin down the rest of the handle L M, and the broom needs only a little drying out to be finished. Rubbing-stick Fire I have certainly made a thousand fires with rubbing-sticks, and have made at least five hundred different experiments. So far as I can learn, my own record of thirty-one seconds from taking the sticks to having the fire ablaze is the world's record,* and I can safely promise this: That every one who will follow the instructions I now give will certainly succeed in nuJung a rubbing-stick fire. Take a piece of dry, sound, balsam-fir wood (or else cedar, cypress, tamarac, basswood, or cottonwood, in order of choice) and make of it a drill and a block, thus: nkfe wu wriUn tea ifD; ifaoe tte the iKotd hM Imm npMttOjr Imnd 247) Things to Know and Do Jli3 Drill. Five-eighths of an inch thick, twelve to fifteen inches long; roughly rounded, sharpened at each end as in the cut (cut I a). . , . . , . 1 Block, or board, two inches wide, six or eight inches long, live- eighths of an inch thick. In this block, near one end, cut a side notch one-half an inch deep, wider on the under side; and near its end half an inch from the edge make a Utile hollow or pit in the top of the block, as in the illustration (cut i b). X. Tods For Fliemskiag Tinder. For tinder use a wad of fine, soft, very dry, d^d grass mixed with shredded cedar barit, Inrch bark, or cvw. cedar wood scraped into a soft mass. Bow. Make a bow of any heat stick two feet long, with a strong buckskin or belt-lacing thong on it (cut i c). Socket. Finally, you need a socket. This simple little thing is made in many different ways. Sometimes I use a pine or hemlock knot with a pit one-quarter inch deep, made by boring with the knife point. But it is a great help to have a good one made of a piece of smooth, hard stone or marble, set in wood; the stone or marble having in it a smooth, round pit three-eighths inch wide and three-eighths inch deep. The one I use most was made by the Eskimo. A view of the under side is shown in cut I (fig. d). Now we are ready to make the fire: Under the notch in the fire-block set a thin chip. Turn the leather thong of the bow once around the drill: the thong should now be quite tight. Put one point of the drill into the pit of the block, and on the upper end put the socket, which is held in the left hand, with the top of the drill in the hole of the stone (as in cut 2). Hold the left wrist against the left shin, and the left foot on the fire-block. Now, draw die right hand back and forth steadily on level and the 248) 224 Woodcraft Manual for Girls full length of the bow. This causes the drill to twirl in the pit. Soon it bores in, grinding out powder, which presently begins to smoke. When there is a great volume of smoke from a grow- ing pile of black powder, you know that you have the spark. Cautiously lift the block, leaving the smoking powder on the chip. Fan this with your hand till the live coal appears. Now, put a wad of the tinder gently on the spark; raise the chip to a convenient height, and blow till it bursts into flame. N. B. (i) Tfte notch must reach tJte middle oj Uie fife-pit. r .1 (J 3. Ready to make fire (2) You must hold the drill steadily uprieht, and cannot do so without bracing the left wrist against the left shin, and having the block on a firm foundation. (3) You must begin lightly and slowly, pressing heavily and sawing fast after there is smoke. (4) If the fire does not come, it is because you have not followed these instructions. Drum While an ordinary bought drum does very well for dancing, some tribes nxake their own, using a section of a hollow tree (or in some cases a small barrel) covered with untanned calf skin. It is soaked till soft, scraped clear of hair, and tightly stretched over each end of the hol- low log. As it dries, it shrinks and be- rhtintt.x^ :>>.m. 249) ThJoft to Know and Do aag comes very tense, giving a good drum wund. Usually it b tuned up ty warming at the fire before use. The Woodcraft WiUow Bed The only bed I know of which is light, portable, woodcrafty, made of wildwood stuff that can be got anywhere, and costing nothing but a little labor, is the willow or prairie bed used by all the Plains Indians. This is how it is made: On your first short hUte to the coun- try go to some stream bank or swamp, and cut about seventy straight rods of red willow (kinnikinik), gray willow, arrow-wood, or any straight shoots, each about as thick as a pencil, when peeled, except one or two that are larger, up to half an inch thick; and all thirty inches long. Tie them up in a tight bundle Cut No. I with several cords until you get time to wor' m. Peel them, cut a slight notch in the butt of each rod, thioe quarters of an inch from the end, and you are ready to make the bed. And here I may say that some folks, who could not get to the country to cut willow rods, have used the ordinary bamboo fishing-poles. These are sawed up in 30-inch lengths and split to the necessary thinness; the butt end yields four or even five ttf the splints, the top, but one. This answers well, and three poles furnish material enough for the bed. This Is allowable because, though the stuff is not of our own woods, it is American; it grows in the Southern States. One or two fellows in town have made the bed of dowels from a furniture factory. 250) 3a6 Woodcraft Manual for Oirk Now get a ball of cord, that will stand a 25-II) pull, a ball of fine l^en thread, and a piece of shoemaker's wax, to complete your materials. If outdoors, you can stretch your cords bet '•' , t' o small trees about seven feel apart, but it is much easier I y< n make a rough frame of strips or poles seven feet by three in<iid« to work on. Cut four pieces of the cord, each about l iily .e.'i long. Double each and tie a 3-inch hard loop in the middle. Twist these doubled cords and put them on a frame (Cut Nm. i), fastened to nails as at A Bj the surplus cord wrap{Hfl around the frame, and the others as at C D E F G and H. Take one of the heaviest rods, say a half one, for a starter. With a pointed stick, open the two nds of the twisted cord, and set the rod tight against the knots I J K L. Now set a second rod in place b^w the iirst seeing that 251) Thfa£g to Kx w and Do 22f two tx .ts of :h. string ire » ^ nveen tail rod .i a that the space sep)aroting them is one inch. KetTJ »!' -rn^tiBg butU and to At each point, tha; U at i pi; each rod, make ^ 'ashing of waxed thread, holo ag rod and ccwda to- g- her v-X ' 2 1 have seen beds with tmly two la^nm, that is, one at ea* i emi, hut foi • ' "^h^ igs is ili <• . d nd a^plan. When the (ul-work is si . leet I ng, it .nt to t,jper • ' p! ' in one big rod fo- a fin -h an" tie har^^ oops " ih*- coi«! ai (hit. point. T'u u, ising rou , ik= owf p, -t about eighteen i vhes higii i' a hea. i n • ti is hea'^ with a piece erf brown kha> i or can i -hoi Ik dectirated with the bai I's "> >rs nd 'oteh lU *p ur done in beadwork, or in coi' n ( ( us t' at se d . N'o8. 3 ind 4). It is tsdl to add also a wooden ho f(, nt atch (a and b, Cut " < and a pocket for nd .iney, etc., at night. jften elaborated these beds -.o a great extent 252) 228 Woodcraft Manual for Girls when in permanent camps. Each rod was selected, perfectly straight, thinned at the butt end, to be uniform, and an extra piece added at the bed, head an^l f(X)t, to curl up as end-boards. That at the head was elaborately decorated with symbols in beadwork. The illustration (No. 5) shows a beautiful beaded bed-head in my possession; not only the head, but the edges all around, are bound with red flannel. When in use the bed is laid with the ends of the rods resting on two 4-inch poles, which are set firmly twenty-si.x inches apart; and the bed is staked at the corners through the loops to hold it in place (Cut Nc. 6). Cut No. 7 shows a fine speci- men of an Arapaho bed all ready for use. WTien we can get no poles, we lay down a couple of boards or rods to carry the ends of the bed, and then (Ug the ground out in the middle. No. 7. ARAPAHO BED OF WILLOWS. 14th ANN. I^. Bur. Am. Etbn. P. 963 By means of two tall slakes the head part is held upright. When packed up the bed is rolled. It weighs about five pounds. Of course, you always need as much under you a* over you. Couched on such a natural sptiag nmttrest m Uw wiUow bed yo'j ikep in perfect comfort. 253) Things to Know and Do 339 For those who wish to complete its sumptuousness a rush or grass mat may be added. (See Camp Loom.) After long use the willows get bent, to prevent this the bed should be turned over every few days. Woodcxaft Paint! Paints for ornamenting robes are mixed with water. (Clark: " Sign Language.") „ . Paints for the body are mixed with grease or tallow from some animal. j..,„kia Paints for lodges, totem poles, etc., were made durable bv slowly melting or mixing into the grease enough rosm to make it stickv. This formed their paint oU. Red Before the Indian had the w> -te man s vermilion he used a certain stiff yeUow clay (brick clay) which, whenburnt, turned dull red— i. e., brick color. This he powdered and mixed with the grease oil. . , , In some parts of the country there are springs strongly im- pregnated with iron. A log of wood dug out of this-or fail- ing that an armful of chips long soaked in it-when takenout, dried, and burnt yielded ashes of a beautiful rosy color. These worked up into a very pretty red. . y,llmv. Yellow clav or ochres are common m clay regions and furnish a dull yellow. Clark says that the flower of 1^ prairie goWenrod yiekU a good yeUow; also the bnght yelkw ZubI Eaglesi 23 Am. Rep- B.A.E. moss one sees on the trunks of pine trees in the Rockies. Wh«i dried and powdered thb makes a sort of chrome yellow, and is also used as a dye. "The Sioux use buU-berries" for yeUow. (Clark.) 254) 330 Woodcraft Manual for Girls Blue. They had no good blue. Blue clays come nearest to the color. Sometimes black and white mixed were used. Black. Soot and charcoal, ground into the paint oil, made a good black. White. For white they used white clays, which are com- mon in some regions, or burnt shells, finely powdered. "Generally speaking. Black means joy; White, mourning; Red, beauty; and an excessive use of any of Uiese or other colors, excitement." Painting or greasing was universal among Indians. They did c b'^autify themselves and also to protect the skins from the

  • 'i r. Though we condemn them for the practice, most of

» somen and a great many of our men do the same thing for . idme reason. Woodcraft Dyes The dyes used to stain porcupine quills, spruce roots, and other strong material, of which they made ornaments and utensils, were very numerous, and some of them very beautiful. Red. Soak the roots in the juice of the Squaw-berry- BHtum or Mis-caw-wa. Many other berries give red or purple. Black. Boil the roots, etc., with the bark, branches, and berries of sunuic, or the bark and chips of oak and soft maple, with some iron in the pot. Yellow. A beautiful yellow is made by boiling the inner bark of golden or black oak. Or the root of yellowroot or hydrastis. In the Rocky Mountains the ycilow moss off frine trees serves. Orange. Orange is obtained by two dips— one in the red and one in the yellow after the first is dry. Lace or Thong If you need a lace or thong and have no leather long enough, take a square piece, round the corners, then cut it round and round, till it is all used up. Pull and roll the thong produced, until it is small and even, without kinks. Woodcraft Buttont On the Plains, when a button is lost or needed, it is easy to make one of leather. Usually a piece of an old strap is used. Cut it the right size, make two holes in it, and sew 255) Things to Know and Do 331 it on as an ordinary button. This never breaks or fails. As the old plainsman who first showed me, said, "There's a button that'll be rij^t there when the coat's all wore away from be- hind it." Handicraft Stunts Let each Woodcrafter carve a fork and spoon out of wood, with her band totem on the handle. Make a needle case out of a fowl's leg or wing bone, thus: Clean and smooth about three inches of the bone, plug up one end with a soft wood plug, and make a wooden stopper for the other end. Then with the point of a knif. decorate the bone. The lines should be scratched in deeply and then have black paint rubbed into them. If no black paint is handy make a mixture of soot and pine gum, with a little grease, butter, or oil. Make a tackle box or ditty box 2x2x6 inches carved out of solid wood. Make peach-stone baskets, of a peach-stone shaped with a file. Turkey call. An interesting curio is the turkey call. Take a small cigar box and cut ofif the end as in the figure. Get a piece of slate about 2 x ,^ inches long, or, failing slate, take a flat piece of wood and rub it °11 with rosin. Draw the two curved edges of the box lirh !. up this one way, and it will make a wonderfully good in m of a turkey (all. A Chicken squawk. This is another call easily made. Take any small round tin lx)x— a condensed milk tin is good— and make a hole through the bottom and into thu put a cord. A 256) 2^2 Woodcraft Manual for Giils knot on the inside prevents the cord from slipping through. Rosin the cord an^ draw the fingers down it with short and long jerks. This gives a goof! limitation of a cacUing hen. Picture frames as in the illustrations. T»rilt«j (all . WooU or Vvifli fl%t u»rv t»Af

0. Birth b»rK ^;rr/;-ftar* 6o.r« and baskets. These are easily made if the bark ho softened in hot water before vou shape it. The ladnff IS spruce roots, or raffia also softened with hot water. Noggin. A noggin is a wooden cup made out of a tree burl or knot polished outside and carefully scooped out so as to leave a thin shell. 257) Things to Know and Do 333 Books Recommended "How TO Make Baskets," by Mary White, Doubleday, Phge ft Co., $i plus lorcnts postaj^e. Box l i RNiri Ri:, Louise Hripham, Century Co., $i.6o. How TO Make Poitery, Mary White, Doubleday, Page & Co., $r. Forking in Metals, Charles Conrad Steffel, Doubleday, Pa«e & Co., |i. Souvenir Spoons A good indoor activity of Woodcraft is the making of souve- nir spoons. Some craftsmen are clever enough to make these out of wood or of silver. I have found that the best, easy- working material is bone, deer antler or horn. Go to any big drug shop and get one of the 2 ^cent horn spoons. It is alreadv of a good spoon shnpe. of cour^^o. The handle is hard, smooth, and ready to be ornamented with any device, cutting it with knife or file, into the owner's totem, or the band or the tribal totems which naturally suetrcst themselves. At one time the wood of the laurel was much used for spoons, hence the bush is still called "spoon wood" in some regions. Tlie design should be sketched on with pendl or mk, then 258) 334 Woodcraft Manual for Girls realized by shaping the outline with file or knife. The inner lines are merely scratched on the surface. In general, one should avoid changing the main outline of the spoon handle or cutting it enough to weaken it. Always rather, adapi the animal to fill the desired space. ' There are several purposes the spoon can answer: First, as a K Owl spoon in camp, especially when prizes are offered to the camp that makes most of Us own equipment; next, as a salable article- third, as an exhibition article when it is desired to get up a fine exhibit of handicraft products illustrating camp life. Bird Boxes or Houses A good line of winter work is making bird boxes to have them ready for the spring birds. Two styles of bird houses are in vogue; one a miniature house on a pole, the other is an artificial hollow limb in a tree. First— the miniature cabin or house on a pole This is veiy good for martins, swallows, etc.. and popular with most birds, because it is safest from cats and squirrels. But most of us consider it far from ornamental. To make one, take any wooden box about six inches square put a wooden roof on it (a in Cut), then bore a hole in the middle 259) Things to Know and Do of one end, making it one and one-half inches wide; and on the bottom nail a piece of two-inch wood with an inch auger hole in it (b). Drive in a nail or a perch below the door and all is ready for a coat of soft, olive-green paint. After this is dry, the box is finished. When you set it in place, the end of the pole is shavefl to fit tight into the auger hole in the bottom, and the pole then set up, or fastened to the end of the building. In the latter case a six or eight foot pole is hmg enough. In some neighborhoods it is necessary to put tin as a cat and rat guard, on the pole, as shown (c and d). Some elaborate these Wrd houses, making a half dozen compartments. When this is done the pole goes nght through the lowest floor and fits into a small hole in the floor above. These large apartment houses are very p(^Nifaur with the WiaWiKjiM 1=.- ..i;-c. 260) 336 Woodcraft Manual for Girls purple martin, as well as with the English sparrow if they are set up in town. Alexander Wilson tells us that the Choctaw and Chicasaw Indians used to make bird houses for the purple martins thus: "Cut off all top branches from a sapling, near their cabins, leav- ing the prongs a foot or two in length, on each of which they hang a gourd, or calabash properly hollowed out for their conveni- ence." But the wild-wood box or hollow limb is more sightly and for some birds more attractive. There are several ways of using the natural limb. One is, take a seven or eight inch stick of chestnut about twenty inches long, split four slabs off it (o),then saw off three inches of each end of the "core" and nail the whole thing together again (p and q), omitting the middle part of the core. Another way is to split the log in half and scoop out the interior of each half (1 and m). When nailed together again it makes a commodious chamber, about five inches wide and a foot or more deep. nother plan is: Take a five-inch limb of green chestnut, t.. ■ , or any other tough-barked tree. Cut a piece eighteen inches long, make a long bevel on one end (e). Now carefully spUt the bark on one side and peel it. Then saw the peeled wood into three pieces (f g h), leave out g and put the bark on again. Cut a hole in the bark on the longest side, at the place farthest from the beveled end (x in e), and your bird nest is finished. The beveled end is there to make it easily nailed up; when in place, it is as at (i). The front— that fa, the ade where the door is— should always be the vaxd&c one; and the door in each case should be near the top. But these methods presuppose a fine big stick of wood. I have more often found it convenient to work with scraps. Here is one easy way that I have long used: From a four or five inch round log saw off two sections each two inches thick, or failing a log, cut out two circles from a two-inch plank, for »op and ^ttom parts (like f and h) ; then using six or seven laths instead of bark, make a hollow cylinder (j). Cover the hollow cylinder with a large piece of bark and cut the hole (k). Cut your entry at the top, half on each of a pair of laths. Cover the whole thing with bark nailed neatly on • or failing the bark, cover it with canvas and paint a dull green mottled with black and gray. This last has the advantage of giving most room in a small log. Of course, if tme can find a hollow Umb, all this work is 261) Thingi to Know and Do 137 saved. By way of variety this one can be put up hanging fnm a nail, for which the wire loop is made. To a great extent the size of hole regulates the kuid of bird, as most birds like a tight fit. For wrens make it about one inch; for bluebirds and tree- swallows one and one-half inches; for martins two and one-half Sparrow-Proof Bird Box When I was a boy, I stumbled on a plan for keeping sparrows out of bird boxes and have recently revived it with success. It consists in making a conspicuous trap door to cover the entrance hole. Watch for a sparrow to enter, then pull the string, catch the sparrow and use him as seems best. After one or two sparrows have been captured in this way, their friends become suspicious of the device over the door and will not enter a nestmg box with such an obvious menace. Thus the sparrow's intelligence is turned against himself. Our native birds, having no evil experience with ue trap, do not fear it. The trap door is shown on the Woodcraft Bird Box, which is one made as already described by slabbing a round log, cutting out the core, then nailing it together again. The twig or wire at one dde carries the weight of tbe striiw which, otherwise, might dose the door daring a heavy wind. 262) 338 Woodcraft Manual for Girls When the string is firmiv pulled, the twig givfy and the door it pulled down over the hole. The advantages of the Woodcraft Bird Box over the other kinds are: It is cheap. It is picturesque. It is observational. It is sparrow-proof. Books Recommended Makinc; of a Hollow I'kkk, by K. T. Scton, Coiintrv Life in Atimk*. .NovetnlHT, u>o«, and seq. IVttino LP Biiu) HoxKs, by B. S. Bowdish (specuJ leaflet). Audubon Society, 1974 Braedway, New York, 15 cenU per dosen. Useful Birds and Their Pkotection, by K. H. Foibuth. Uf uwrhn- setts State Hoartl Agriculture^). 388. * '^'^'^ For Utest ideas send to The Jacobs Bird House CompMiy, 404 So. Washington Straet, Waynesburg, Pa. "™i*«y, 4«H «»• Knots The following are standard knots that an accmnpUshed camper should know. Rememher, a {jerfect knot is one that neither jambs nor slips. See pages 2.40, 241. Blazes and Signs First among the trail signs that are used by Woodcraflers, Indians, and white hunters, and most likely to be of use to the traveler, are axe blazes on tree trunks. Among these some may vary greatly with locality, but there is one that I have found everywhere in use with scarcely any variation. That is the simple white spot meaning, '*Here is the trail." The Indian in making it may nick off an infinitesimal speck of bark with his knife, ».he trapper with his hatchet may make it as big as a dollar, or the settler with his heavy axe may slab off half the tree-side; but the sign is the same in principle and m meaning, on trunk, log, or branch from Atlantic to Pacific and from Hudson Strait to Rio Grande. "This is your trail," it clearly says in the universal language of the woods. There are two ways of employing it: one when it ai^)ears on back and front of the trunk, so that the Uail can be run 263) Things to Know and Do 230 SKSiS i&NB BLAZES , ' Signs la Stones J't^nj in Titfig'.ir VV- ...,'1^ Thw u the Tfiil Turn to the Rijht Turn to thr Mt Idfortani Vaniii^ Signs in Gr&ss ThuiftiMlMil 'AmtotkcRjljIit liinitvtiMUrr ImpwiaiitVMi^ Signs in Blajej J A A 1 Code for Jlmoke Jlgnalj , C«M|»i«Htrr laMlMt.Hcirt GMiNtM AacMttoOMatil Some Jpecial Bla3e5 luecl HunHrs ^Swyfiyors MM lii HM ^^^^^ ^^^^K ^^^^^ ^^^^ .^^^^« J^MIKk, ATfwt* ATmrh> CiiMifte CWu<» JpMial A^rpniiifc Anv'* 9^ Left Uft SptM bMNM 264) 940 Woodcraft Bfanual for Girk 265) 266) 2^2 Woodcraft Manual tor Girls both ways; the other when it appears on but one side of each tree, making a blind trail, which can be run one way only, the blind trail is often used by trappers and pro^)ectors, ymo do not wish any one to follow their back track. But there are treeless regions where the trail must be marked; regions of sage brush and sand, regions of rock, stretches of stone, and level wastes of grass or sedge. Here other methods must be employed. A well-known Indian device, in the brush, is to break 8 twig and leave it hanging. {Second line.) Among stones and rocks the recognized sign is one stone set on top of another (top Hue) anr' in places where there is noth- ing but grass the custom is to twist a tussock into a knot {third line). These signs also are used in the whole country from Maine to California. In running a trail one naturally looks straight ahead fw the next sign; if the trail turned abruptly without notice one might easily l)c set wrong, but custom has provided against this. The tree blaze for turn "to the right" is shown in No, 2, fourth row; "to the left" in No. ^. The greater length of the turning blaze seems to be due to a desire for emphasis as the same mark set square on, is understood to mean "Look out, there is something of special importance here." Combined with a long side chip it means "very import- ant; here turn aside." This is often used to mean "camp is close by," and a third sign that is variously combined but always with the general meaning of "warning" or "something of great imiKirtance" is a threefold blaze. (No. 4 on fourth line.) The combination (No. i on l>ottom row) would read "Look out now for something of great importance to the right." Hiis blaze I have often seen used by trappers to mark the wl^reabouts of their trap or cache. Surveyors often use a similar mark — that is, three simple s|H)ts and a strijx; to mean, "There is a stake close at hand," while a similar blaze on another tree nearby means that the stake is on a line between. Stona Signs These signs done into stone-talk woukl be as in the top line of the cut. These arc much used in the Rockies where the trail goes over 8t(Hiy places or along stretches of slide-rock. 267) Thingg to Know and Do S43 OfiM and Twig Signs In grass or sedge the top of the tuft is made to show the direction to be followed; if it is a point of great importance three tufts are tied, their tops straight if the trail goes straight on; otherwise the tops are turned in the directkm toward «^uch the course turns. The Ojibways and other woodland tribes use twigs for a great many of these signs. (See second row.) The hanging broken twis like the simple blaze means "This is the trail." The twig Clean broken oc and laid on the ground across the line of march means, "Here break from your straight course and go in the line of the butt end," and when an especial ivarn- ing is meant, the butt is pointed toward the one followmg the trail and raised somewhat, in a forked twig. If the butt of the twig were raised and pointing to the left, it would mean "Look out, camp, or ourselves, or the enemy, or the game we have killed is out that way." With some, the elevation of the butt is made to show the distance of the object; if low the object is near, if raised very high the object is a long way off. These are the principal signs of the trail used by Wood- crafters, Indians, and hunters in most parts of America. These are thi- standards — the ones sure to be seen by those who camp in the wilderness. Smoke ^fiuls There is in addition a useful kind of sign that has l)een men- tioned already in these papers — that is, the Smoke Signal. These were used chiefly by »he Plains Indians, but the Ojibways seem to have employed them at times. A clear hot fin was made, then covered with green stuff or rotten wood so that it sent up a solid column of black sm(^e. Hy spreading and lifting a bknlcet over this smudge the column could be cut up into pieces long or short, and by a preconcerted code these could be made to convey tidings. But the simplest of all smoke codes and the one (rf chi^ use to the Western traveler is this: One steady smoke — ^"Here is camp." Two steady smokes — " I am lost, come and hdp me." I find two other smoke signab, namely: Three smokes in a row — "Good news." Four nnokes in a row— "All ue summmied to coumul." 268) 344 Woodcraft Maniial for Girls These latter I find not of general use, nor are they so likely to be of service as the first two given. Signal by Shots The old buffalo hunters had an established signal that is yet used by the mountain guides. It is as follows: Two shots in rapid succession, an interval of five seconds by the watch, then one shot; this means, "where are you>" 1 he answer given at once and exactly the same means " Here I am ; what do you want? " The reply to this may be one shot, which m^s, " All right; I only wanted to know where you were. But if the reply repeats the first it means, "I am in senous trouble; come as fast as you can." How to Raise Money A good Woodcrafter always "travels on his own steam." W hen you want to go camping, don't go round begging for tlie cash, but earn it. And a good time to do this is in the winter when you are forced to jtay indoors. P^^ ^ o"*" ^^rk, is making some bird houses. I Know a number of persons who would gladly put up bird houses, if they could get them easUy. V ou can either sell them in a lot to a man who has already a stum for garden stuff or hardware, or put them on a hand cart and sell them at much better prices yourself. It is useless to take them to a farmer, or to folks in tov.-n. but a ready sale will be found among the well-to-do in the suburbs, in a country town, or among the summer residents of the country. The simple boxes might fetch 50 cents each, the more elaborate I1.00 or 52.00 according to the labor they have cost you. Another way is the manufacture of Indian stuff such as lurniture, birch-bark boxes, baskets, rustic seats, etc These methods may be used by the individual or by the tribe. Money may also be raised through many group activities such as plays, entertainments, dances, and bazaars. Mushroom growing is another good way to make some money, providetl one has a cellar or roothouse at one's disposal. To learn how, send to the ' nifed States Department of A-riculture. for Farmers Bulletin, No. 204, "The Cultivation of Mushrooms." 269) CHAPTER IV FRIENDS IN THE OUT OF DOORS How to Know the Wild Things The Stan Sixty-four Common Wild Flowers Forty Birds Tht Woodcraft OM in tilt FoTMt SaidMt Good m4 Bad Flftj CooHMB Forost Troos 270) 271) CHAPTER IV FRIENDS IN THE OUT OF DOORS How to Know tko Wild Thiogt All Kirls want to know the ways and things of Nature. The difficulty is to know where to begin. There are so many kinds of dowers, ferns, birds, trees, grasses, bugs, insects, fish, rocks, etc., that one is coitfused and hardly knows where to begin her search for knowledge. The trail is not so hard to find as it was a few years ago, for to- day there are plenty <A blazes <»i its trees and the footway is well worn and ( ' "ared of logs — that is to say, there are plenty of good handbooks, not to speak of fellow travellers, who help by pointing to the blase that perhi^ escaped our eye, mi are wearii^ tlw pathway smooth. Bui one must make a start, and it is well to gel a few general rules in mind. First, take one thing at a time. Second, "LocA; in the Ixwk." Have a simple but comprehensive guide b(X)k (if possible one that you can own) that tells in simple, clear language the main facts. Later, you wiU want to go into nuve sdentmc study. Third, make a record in a notebook of what you see and either make drawings or preserve specimens. Fourth, if you have a friend "who knows" get infonnaticm from her as to the specimen you have seen or have in your possession. The best way to begin, supposing you are alone, is with the flowers. They are so easy " to catch " and preserve. Get a goodhandbodc of flowers. Reed's is ibe smallest , simplest, and best for beginners (Dana's, Blanchan's, or Lounsbury's are also good ) and either a big scrap alb jm or, better, a 1 2 by i8 inch portfolio with twenty or thirty loose sheets of heavy white or gray paper to fit; also a tin case, any big tin will do; but you can buy a properly made one for about a dollar. Botanical enthusiasm is always at its height just when you find the first spring flower. Suf^XKe then, in March, jrou have found the liverleaf in its blue bloom. Take up one, leaf and flower; put it in your tin case; that will keep it perfectly fresh for many hours. At hwne, take a HT 272) 348 Woodcraft Manual for Girls bundle of old newspapers as dry as possible, lay the plant flat on one of them, spreading the flower as you wish it to remain, put the other papers on top and then a board; last, a heavy weight. If the room and the papers are dry, the plant will be dried in three days. Then stick it on one of the sheets in the pcMtfolio with a few strips of i)aper across it here and there. Then write the time and place on the sheet, also the name as soon as you can find it. And it is easy to get the name when you have the speci- men. There is sure to be some botanist within reach. If you gather and preserve half a dozen wild flowers each time you go out in the season, you very soon have the fifty that are needed to win you a coup. But yovL are also getting something else — a lot of pleasant friends that you will remember and be glad to see as k)ng as you live. Of course, there are some plants that are much harder to handle than the liverleaf, such as the jewelweed, which are so juicy that they must be reset on new dry paper perhaps two or three times. Some have roots so big that they are better left off, and some are so big that one must select a small example or taJte only a sprig; but always get the flowers, if possible. The Trees are also very easy because they may be found in town as well as in country. Their flowers are usually up high and come in the spring. They may be diflScult to see, but if one studies the leaves, the bark, and the general shape of the tree, they will be readily identified, so that one can see and know an old friend at considerable distance. The leaves and flowers may be preserved in the same way as the flowers. The best tree books are by Keeler, Apgar, Hough, Sargent, Britton, etc. The Birds arc the true love of everj- young naturalist, and the only reason for giving them third place is that they are harder to study than flowers and trees. You cannot walk up to the bird, at once note its every color spot and so find who he is. You must make hasty notes through an opera glass and then turn to a handbook, unless you have a bird sharp friend with you or a specimen in your hand. Therefore, oh, bird lover, begin with a notebook, a field glass, and a copy of Reed's Bird Guide. Later when you really get acquainted with the birds you will vant Chapman's Handbook. These books give a sketch of the habit and range as as a description of the plumage, nest, and eggs. The Quadrupeda, oi A nimals, as they are commonly called, are the most interesting of all to most pe(^le; but are ttie hardest of 273) Things to Know and Do 349 alt to study because they are so seldom seen. Partly due to man's endless pursuit, the wild fourfoots art* nearly all iKxrtumal now; but they are there, and far more numerous than you would imagine. If you live in New York City, for exam|)lo, you may be sure that within five miles of the City Hall you can find twenty wild quadrupeds living their lives as they always did. Thus, there are muskrats along the Bronx and Harlem rivers in the salt marshes; there are red, gray, and Hying squirrels, as well as chip- munks, in most of the parks. There are plenty of woodchucks in Westchester County, although I do not know of any within the five-mile radius. Of course, there are deermice and short-tailed field mice, and jumping mice in most of the large parks or along the Jersey shore of the Hudson; and where there are mice there are weasels, and where there are weasels there are mink. The cottontail rabbit is common in sonic of the large parks and in most of the near woodlands, and there are at least three species of shrew and mole within the limibs. If we go a little farther into Westchester County or Jersey, we shall i iiU'i the region of the skunk, the fox, the common deer, the coon, and the possum. So that the New York naturalist has a large opiK)rt unity among tbequadruiHjds; and the resident of Chicago, Boston, or Philadel- phia is jusi as well oil ; while, of course, Uie country girl has all the world before her. But we seldom see the things, how are we to know that they are there? By the tracks chiefly. The mud, the dust, or the snow will tell next morning much alx)ut the creature that paued in the nif^t, and in time, about all that dwell nearby. "Life Histories of Northorn Animals," by Ernest Thompson Seton, is the only bo<ik that gives a full account of t'u; common animals and their tracks; but a good book on Tracks and Track- ing has been published by J. Brunner. The difficulties in the way of the student of mammals are per- haps the largest of all, but the rewards are as great; and every skull, every skin, every good track drawing, is a httte victory that will give you pleasure to see as long as 3 ou live. Jnsech are easily SiUtlied and preserved. A collection of butterflies, n.ade according to instruction in the "Butterfly Book," Doubleday, Page & Company, is easily begun; while beetles and other orders of bugs, if less interesting, are yet more easily made. In gowrai, to those who would know the wild thinfp: Keep a 274) 3S0 Woodcfalt MMmal for Oiilt journal of your notes, sketches, and photos; get a good handbook* ooUect speciinenar-and you have the three bask things. AB the rest will be in measure of your perseverance. SIXTY.FOUR COMMON WILD FL0WSR8 Of tht UnitMl StetM and Soathtm ^»^ n^ t In preparing this list, Britten and Brown's "111. Flora of the Northern U. S. and Canada" has chiefly been consultetl but free use has been made of the works of Neltje Blanchan, Alice Louns- berrv, and Chester A. Reed. ^^m- The student is advised to color each flower from nature as the ^portunity occurs, using water colors over the outline given They are gnnped here to correspond with the eight plates. 1. Blue Flowtn Liverieaf or Hepatica {Ilepatica triloba) . A lovely lilac or blue the iirst of the spring flowers in most regions. Blooms in the woods fronrj March to May, from Nova Scotia to Manitoba and southward. Blue-eyed Grass, Blue Star or Star Grass (Sisyrinckium anputifolium). A bright blue flower of the Iris family; found in nch meadows from Newfoundland to British Columbia and southward halfway to the Gulf; blooms May to August. Bluebell, Harebell, or Hairbell {Campamda rotmtdifolia). Found on rocky places and uplands nearly everywhere south of the Middle States. Blooms all summer. Common Violet, or Heart-sease {Viola cuccuOata). The heart shape of the leaf was held to be the proof of its power to set the heart at ease. In rich ground, Nova Scotia to Minnesota and southward nearly to tli'. Gulf States. Blooms in spring Bird's foot Violet ( Viola pedata). So called from the shape of Its leaves. Dry ground; Maine to MinncsoU and southward. Lupine (Lupinus percnitis) Dry sml.f ran MatnetoMinnesoU and southward. Earlv summer. Self-heal, or Heal-all (Pnmella vulgaris). Dry ground every- where ; blooming May to Ckto!)er. Vervain, illue Vervain, or Wild Hyss(^ ( Verbena hastata). In moist ground everywhere; blooms June to September. Chicory, or Succory [Chicoriutr. Intybus). Flowers bright blue or sometimes white. The roots roasted and ground make a wholeaome substitute for cofiee. Originally came here from 275) 276) 35^ Woodcraft Manual for Girli Europe. Now found generally in tht' Hastcrn U. S. Blooms July to Octol H'T. Fringed GtiUian ((fV«//<i»<.i<r/;///<i). Hri^.'Jif bliK ran ly white. Rich meadows, Quebec to Minnesota and souinward halfway to Gulf. Blomni September and October. U. White Flowart Bloodroot {Simguimria Canadensis). Noted for bleeding when cut. Its root furnished the Indians with a red paint. In rich woods, from Nova Scotia to Manitoba and southward Blooms April and May. May Apple, or WUd Mandrake {Podophyllum pdtatum). In low woods; southern Ontario to Minnesota and southward. Flowers in May; fruit rijw in July or .^u^'ust and wholesome. Starflower {Trientalis americana). In damp woods from Labrador westward and south to the Mkldle States. Blooms in May and June. Indian IMjx; {Monolrofia unijlora). In rich woods nearly all U. S. and southern Canada. Blooms Itom June to August. The whole plant white or ocrasionally pink. Saxifrage (Saxifraga Virfiinintsis}. In dry rocky woods, New Brunswick to Minnesota and southward to Geoif^. Oot <rf the early flowers of spring. Bl(K)ms March to May. 0*-cye Daisy {Chrysanthemum Lcucanthemum). In pastures throughout most of the area, as a troublesome weed from Europe. In bloom May to November. The white raya sur- round a bright yellow disk. Big White Trillium, or VVakc-rohin Trillium grandifiorum) . In woods, Quebec to Minnesota and southward. Blooming in May and Jiwe. Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum). In wet places, New Brunswick to Manitoba and southward. Blooms July to Sep- tember; flowers white, but sometimes Uue. m. Pink, or Whitt Strtalrad Willi Pink Trailing Arbutus {Efngaa repens). In sandy or rocky woods; generally distributed in east«m America. Blooms in amsuL March to xMay. Twin flower (IJnnea boreaiis). In cold woods <rf the ncNlhem half uf tlie continent and southward along the 1^ mountains. Blooms June to August. 277) Thusgf to Know and Do ^83 Sprinc Beauty (Clayhnh Virt^intV i). In moist wood through- out caslcrn America. Blooms March to May. Queen Orchid, or Showy Ladies Slipper {Cypriptdium reginae). In swamps, No a Scotia to MinnesoU and south to Georsia. !iy oms June to September. Purple Moccasin Flower {Cypripedium acauU). In sandy or 278) 354 Woodcraft Manual for Girls rocky woods; Newfoundland to Minnesota and south to the Middle States. Blooms May and June. Rooe Pink {ScAbatia angularis). In rich soil New York to Ontario and south to the Gulf States. Blooms July and August. Showy Ordiis {Orchis spectabilis). In rich woods, New Bruns- wick to Mmnesota and southward to the Middle States. Blooms 279) Thisgs to Know and Do 255 in April and June. Flowers videt ox purple streaked with white or light purple. . x , , Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia) . In sandy or rocky woods, New Brunswick and Ontario, southward. Blooms May and June. Pink Azalea {Azalea nudiflora). In dry woods, Maine to Illinois and southward. Blooms in April and May. IV. White, or Greenish White Flowers Plantain, Ribgrass, or Whiteman's Foot {Phnlago major). Everywhere in our region. Blooms all sumni er long as well as in spring. Queen Anne's Lace, or Wild Carrol {Daucus carota). Every- where; brought from Europe. "The original of the cultivated carrot," B. & B. Blooms all summer. Yarrow, or Milfoil {Achillea Mittefdium). Generally dis- tributed. Blooms June to November. Grass of Parnassus (Pamassia CaroUniana). In bw meadows, New Brunswick and Manitoba and southward to the Middle States. Blooms June to September. Solomon's Seal {Polygonaium biflorum). In woods, New Brunswick to Ontario and southward. Blooms April to July. Its roots show seal-like impression, whence the name. False Solomon's Setl, Wild Spikenard, or Zigzag (Vagnera racemosa) . United States and s<Hith Canada generally. Bkxxms May to July. Stickweed, Cleavers, or Bedstraw {Galium moUugo). Gen- erally distributed in fields in the Northeastern States. It flowers all summer long. There is a kmd with a yellow flower. Pennsylvania or Canada Anemone {Anemone Canadensis). Labrador to the Plains and southward to Kansas on low ground. Blooms all summer. Wind flower {Anemone quinquifolia). In low woods. General east of the Rockies. One of the early spring flowers. Bkwms April to June. Rue Anemone {Syndesmon thaUdroides). In woods, Atlantic to Minnesota and south to Kansas. White, but often pinkish. One of the earliest spring flowers. Blooms March to June. y. Yellow Flowws Celandine {Chdidonium majus). A straggler from Europe now common along roadsides in eastern U. S. . Blooms AfNril to Sep- tember. Its juice is a strong ydlow dye. 280) 356 Woodcraft Manual for Girls Black-eyed Susan or Cone-flower (Rudbeckea hirta). In fields Quebec to the Plains and southward. Blooms May to Septem- ber. Yellow Star-grass (Hypoxis hirsuta). In dry soil, Maine to the Plains and southward. Blooms May to October. Jewelweed, Touch-me-not, or Silverleaf (Impatiens biflora). In 281) ^ iags to Know and Do 257 moist ground, Nova Scotia to Alaska and southward. Bloomi July to October. Yellow Toadflax, or Butter and Eggs (Linaria Linana). In dry waste places, Nova Scotia to Manitoba and south to the Middle States. Blooms June to October. Evening Primrose {Onagra biennis). In dry soil, Labrador to the Rockies and south to Florida . B looms from June to October. Opens chiefly at night. Adder's Tongue or Dog-tooth Violet {JErythronium Ameri- canum) . In moist woods, Nova Scotia to Minnesota and south- 282) •si Woodcfift Ifamnl for Giris Maytojidy ^ "^^'y recogniaed. It hkxmw Blooms August to No^bi Th.l ^^"^55 °^ classify them. America, so that it « expert work to VI. Red, Puiple, or Scariet Flowers September. BriUianrX.'SriS -f^^ 'o sSSF— ^^^^^^ H« Ptok (Sifcw Xri»<a7 ?n ^^J""™^ AP--11 to July. the Gulf BWn^Sv to T.,""/ «'"*'«'»'alt<«y tc A Secret You see that flaming painted cup Ihe rich low wood beside; Remember this, where e'er it nows A painted warrior died. 283) Things to Know and Do 359 Bee Balm, or Oswego Tea {Monarda didyma). In moist soil, in the East from Ontario to Georgia. Blooms July and Sep- tember. Redcap, or Puiple Flowering Raapbeny (RiAus odorchts). On theedgeof woods, Nova Scotia to Michigan andsouth ward half way to the Gulf. Blooms from June to August. Its blooms are worth far more than its berry, which is a thin red cap cl &ie bdd tc^ther with a little fruit pulp. 284) ate Woodcraft Manual for Girlg Trumpet Creeper (Tecotna radicans). In moist woods, New Jersey to Illinois and southward to Texas. Blooms August and September. Vn. Brownish Purple Flowen Wild Ginger {A sarum Canadense) . In rich woods, New Bruns- wick to Manitoba and southward halfway to the Gulf. Blooms April and May. Its roots are flavored like ginger. Jack-in-the-pulpit, or Indian Turnip {Arisaema tnphyUium). Inmoist woods, Nova Scotia to Minnesota and southward to Gulf States. Its root is frightfully acrid and pungent when raw, but when boiled becomes wholesome food. Red TriUium, or Smelly Wake-robin {Trillium erectum). In woods, Nova Scotia to James' Bay and Manitoba, thence south- ward halfway to the Gulf. Its color varies from dark purple to pink, green, or white. It blooms from April to June. The name Wake-robin is supposed to mean tlmt it wakes when the robin comes. It has a very bad smell and in conseq ?nce country boys call it by simple, sincere, but very venuti Alar names. Skunk Cabbage (Spaihyema foetida). In swamps. Nova Scotia to Minnesota, southward to the Gulf States. Its bloom is the first of all the spring flowers, in moist localities, for it sends its big egg-shaped and purple-mottled bloom into the cold world as early as February, long before its leaves will venture forth. In March ac* ^pri' it b stm in flower. Vm. Pink Flowen Wild Geranium, or Crane's*Bill {Geranium maculatum). In woods, Newfoundland to Manitoba and southward nearly to the Gulf. Blooms ftom April to July. The name Crane's BiU is from the shape of the seed pod. Fire Weed, Epilobium, or Spiked Willowherb {Chamaenerion angustifolium). In dry sunny places, Labrador to Alaska, and southward at least halfTvay to the Gulf. So called because of its commonly springing iq> alter a forest 6k. Blooms June to September. Milkweed (Asclepias purpurascens). In dry simny places. Massachusetts to Minnesota and southward halfway to the Gulf. Blooms June to August. Spotted Pipsissiwa (Ckimaphila maculaia). In dry woods. 285) Thingi to Know and Do a6i Maine to Minnesota and southwaid neariy to the Gulf States. BkKMns June to August. Booin RM<miaiesded fiOWMi GmOE, Chester A. Reed, Doubleday, Page & Co., I1.00. Our E/lrly Wild Flowers, Harriet L. Keeler, Scnbners, How TO Know the Wild Flowers, Mrs. Wm. Starr, Dana, $2.00. How To Know the Ferns. Frances Theodora Parsons, Scnbners, * 286) 262 Woodcraft MaatMl for Oiils Thi Woodcnft Oid ia lh« FofMt I nippow thtt* never was a boy or girl who did not love trees. I remember a little prairie girl in my young days whose idea of heaven was a big tree on the prairie with an angel under it, who never said, ^' I don't know" when asked a question. A tree has always been a blessed and glorious thing to me. Often I feel the axe chopping into my own soul when I see it laid to some nriendid tree that has been selected for destruction. Let every Woodcraft Girl commit to mind that lovely little poem by Joyce Kihner originally appearing in "Publications of Poctiy," and printed in Boys' Ltfe, October, 1913. I think that I shall never see A poem lovely as a tree, A tree whose hungry mouth is pressed Against the Earth's sweet flowing breast, A tree that looks at God all day And lifts her leafy arms to pray, A tree that may in summer wear A neat oi robins to her hair, Upon whose bosom snow has lam: who totimately lives with rain. / Poems are made by fools like me. But only God can make a tree. There are only three things that can justify the destruction of a tree. These are: we need its lumber, we need its room, or it IS breeding plague. • How very seldom nowadays are we justified in destroymg little trees, and above all, what a fearful crime becomes the roaring, racing, raging hell known as a forest fire. Four-fifths of America's forests have been destroyed by wild fires, which were in most cases preventable — in all cases lamen- table. For besides destroying the trees it destroyed thousands of human beings, millions of beautiful, harmless birds and other wild creatures, and utterly ruined the soil of the country be- neath. No one with an ounce of patriotism will be responsible for a wild fire, ^d fire is the demon that we strike at in our sixth law. Oh, Woodcraft Girl, never, never forget your vow to face and fight all wild fire in the woods. It is far worse in some ways than fire in town. For there you are sure to have competent firemen ready at hand, but the forest fire may spread out over a county before its presence is fully realized, and yet a angle Woodcraft Girl on the spot when first it begins may stop 287) Tliiofs to Know and Do 263 it with A biidcet of water, the blow of a shovel, or evtt ct a stick. . . . , # . These are some of the rilee that kad to lafety: Never build a big fire, x here is a certain type of madman who thinks a camp is incomplete without a "bonfire." All such folk shouW be to jail. No Woodcrafter ever builds a bonfire. It is wasteful, uucomfortab'. isocial, dangerous, and cnmmal. Let your fire be the little m - uf the cook or the Council Ring. Do not build it on piles of logs, rotten wood, or rubWsh, nor near them, nor on bog- Try to have it on the bare ground; and so that you can go all around it on bare ^>ound. In wtody weather or dangerous places dig a hole or waU up the fire with stones, sods, green lofi, sand, or other things that do not bum. ^ . ^ ... 1.. Never leave a camp or the campfire without extmguishing cverv spark, using water and plenty of it, if you love your country or Uie good green woods. Never leave the campfire burning even for a rfiort time without some one there to guard it. Never throw down burning matches or Ughted cigars or cigarettes. I suppose half of the fires come from this cause. These are offered you as Woodcraft rules, offered that your acceptation may rest on love of the thing protected. But do not forget that any breach of this is listed as crime m the law of the land and may be visited by heavy pains and penalties. But we hope that the Woodcraft Girl will not need to think of anything but the beauty of the blessed woods ami be ready and eager at all times to do her share toward keeping these for the joy oi havmg them. 288) 289) FIFTY COMMON FOREST TREES OF £AST£RN NORTH AMERICA White Pin* R«d PfaM, Casidkai Piat or Norway Pine Long-leaved Pine, Oeorgia Pine, BoBtfMB PIb«, Tdtow PfaM . TMirack or Larck '•< Spmce jMlsamTtee Bald Cypren Arbor-rttae or White Cedar Quaking Asp, or Quiver Leaf Black Willow Balaam POflar or Bain of OOood Cottonwood Black Walnut White Wahwt Pecan Shagbark or Shellbark Mockemut Pignut Hickory Gray Birch or Aspen-leaved Birch White, Canoe or Paper Birch Yellow Birch or Gray Birch Ironwood or Hop Hornbeam Blue Beedi or American Horn- beam White Oak YeUow Oak or Chestnut Oak Rod Oak Scarlet Oak Black Oak or Golden Oak Pin Oak or Swaav Oak Beech Chestnut White Blm, Water or Bmtmf Bm Slippery Blm Osage Orange or Bow-wood Tulip Tree, Wk ft onro od or Tal- low Poplar Sass^ *ras Sweet Gum, Star4oavod Own or Liqoidambar Sycamore or Buttonwood Rod-bud or Judaa Tree Sugar Maple, Bock Mi^ or Hard Maple Silver Maple or Soft Maple Red, Scarlet, Water or Swan^ Maple Box Elder, or Ash-leaved Maple Basswood, White-wood or Lin- den Sour Gum, Black 0am, P^or- Idfo <tf Tupoto White Aak Black Ash, Hoop AA or Water Alb 290) 291) FIFTY COMMON FOREST TREES OF EASTERN KORTH AMERICA White Pine, or Weymouth Pine {Pinus Strobus) A noble evergreen tree, up to 175 feet high. The lumber- man's prize. Its leaves are in bunches of 5, and are 3 to 5 inches long; cones 4 to 8 inches long. Wood pale, soft, straight- grained, easily split. Warps and diecks less than any other of our timbers. A cubic foot weighs 24 lbs. (a cubic foot of water weighs 63 lbs.). Miimesota and Manitoba to Nova Scotia and Pennsylvania. Red Pine, Canadian Pine, or Norway Pine (JPinus resinosa) Everjgreen; somewhat less than the White Pine, with leaves 4 to 6 inches long, in bunches of 2, comes 15 to 25 inches long. Wood darker, harder, and heavier. A cubic foot weighs 31. lbs. Range as above. Long-leaved Pine, Georgia Pine, Southern Pine, Yellow Pine, or Hard Pine {Pinus palustris) A fine tree, up to 100 feet high; evergreen; found in great forests in the Southern states; it supplies much of our lumber now; and most of our turpentine, tar, and rosin. Wood strong and hard, a cubic foot weighs 44 lbs. Its leaves are 10 to x6 267 292) a68 Woodcraft Manual for Girls 293) Things to Know and Do 369 inches long, and are in bunches of 3's; cones, 6 to lo inches kmg. Range, Virginia to Louis'ana and Florida. Tamarack, Larch, or Hackmatack {Larix laricina) A tall, straight tree of the northern swamps yet often found flourishing on dry hillsides. One of the few conifers that shed all their leaves each fall. Leaves i to i inch long; cones i to finch. Wood very resinous, heavy, and hard, "a hard, soft wood" very durable as posts. In Manitoba I have seen tamarack fence posts unchanged after twenty years' wear. It is excellent for firewood , and makes good sticks for a rubbing-stick fire. A cubic foot weighs 39 lbs. Found north nearly to the limit of trees; south to nortitem New Jersey and Minnesota. White Spruce (Picea canadensis) Evergreen; 60 to 70 or even 150 feet high. Leaves § to f inch long; cones i| to 2 inches long, are at the tips of the branches and deciduous; the twigs smooth. Wood white, light, soft, weak, straight- grained, not dur- able; a cubic foot wei^ 25 lbs. Its roots afford the wat- tap or cordage for canoe-building and camp use generally. North to the limit of trees east of Rockies, soutli to Dakota, Wisconsin, and Maine. Hemlock {Tsuga canadensis) Evergreen; 60 to 70 feet high; occasionally 100; wood pale, soft, coarse, splintery, not durable. A cubic foot weighs 26 lbs. Bark full of tannin. Leaves ^ to f inch long: cones about the same. Its knots are so hard that they quickly turn the edge of an axe or gap it as a stone might; these are probably 294) vjo Woodcraft Manual for Girls the hardest vegetable growth in our woods. Wisconsin to -Nova Scotia and south on the mountains to Georgia. Hemlock Balsam Tree or Canada Balsam {Abies balsamed) Evergreen; famous for the blisters on its trunk, yieldnig Canada balsam which makes a woodman's plaster for cuts Balsam or a waterproof cement; and for the exquisite odor of its boughs, which also supply the woodman's ideal bed. Its flat leafage is distinctive. Wood pale, weak, soft, perishable. A cubic foot weighs 24 lbs. New Alberta to Newfoundland and south to Virgina. 295) Things to Know and Do 371 Ba!d Cjrpress {Taxodium distichum) A fine forest tree, up to 153 feet, with thin leaves somewhat like those of Hemlock, hall an inch to an inch long; cones rounded about an inch through. Sheds its leaves each fall so is " bald ' ' in winter. Noted for the knees or uphent roots that it develops when growing in water. Timber soft, weak, but durable and valuable; a cubic foot weighs 27 lbs. In low wet country of Mississippi Valley and Southeast coast. Arbor-vitfle, or White Cedar {Thuya occidentalis) Evergreen; 50 to 60 feet high. Wood soft, brittle, coarse- grained, extremely durable as pests; fragrant and very light (the lightest on our list). Makes good sticks for rubbing-stick fire. A cubic foot wei^ only ao lbs. Tht scale-like leaves are ahcmt 296) / 373 Woodcraft Manual for Oiris 6 td 8 to the inch, the c ^nes half an inch long or less. Man- itoba to Nova Scotia, and Penn^ivania; south on mountains to North Carolina. Qnakfaif AMf, Qiiiv«r Leaf, Atj^ Poplar, <Mr Popgh (Poptiim s muloides) A small iorest tree, but occasionally loo feet high. Readily known by its smooth bark, of a light green of whitish color. The wood is pale, soft , close-grained, weak , perishable, and light. A cubic foot weighs 25 lbs. Good only for paper pulp, but bums well, when sea- soned. When green it is so heavy and soggy that it lasts for days as a fire check or back-log. Leaves to 2 inches long. Can* ada and Northern States. Black Willow {JSdlix nigra) The common Willow of stream-banks, usually 20 to 40 feet high, sometimes ico. Bark nearly black. Its long narrow, 297) Things to Know and Do yellow-green shining leaves are sufficiently distinctive. A d'xoc- tion of Willow bark and roots is said to be the beat known sub- stitute for quinine. Noted for early leafing and late shedding; leaves 3 to 6 inches long. Wood pale, weak, soft, dose-grained ; a cubic foot we^ 28 lbs. Mnnitcba to Nova Scotia and Kmth to Gulf. Balsam Poplar, Balm of Gilead, or Tacamahac {Pofmlus balsamifera) Fifty or 60 feet ordinarily, but sometimes 100 feet high. Bark rough and furrowed. The great size of the buds and their thick shiny coat of fragrant gum are strong marks. Wood much as in the preceding, but weighs 23 lbs. a cubic foot Leaves 3 to 6 indies long. Canada and Northern States. Cottonwood {Popuhts ddioUes) Small and rare in the Northeast. Abundant and lar^ in West; even 1 50 feet high. Wood as in other poplars but weighs 2 4 lbs. a cubic foot. Leaves 3 to 5 inches long. Maine to Georgia uid west to Alborta. Black Walnut {Tuglans nigra) A magnificent forest tree up to 150 feet high; usually much smaller in the east. Wood, a dark piupUsh brown or gray; hard, dose-grained; strong; voy durable in iveather or ground 298) 374 Woodcraft Uamud for Girls Fruit ai Uadc walnut. Fruit of butternut Both life size. 299) TUngi to Kb0w and Do work, and heavy. A cubic foot weighs 38 Hm. Leaflets 13 to 23; and 3 to 5 inches long. Fruit nearly round, li to 3 inches in diameter. Massachusetts to Minnesota and south to Miss- issippi. White Walnttt, Oil Nut, or Butternut (Juglans cinerea) Much smaller than tlie last, rarely 100 feet high; with much smoother bark and larger, coarser, compound leaves, of fewer leaflets but the petioles or leaflet stalks, and the new twigs are covered with sticky down. The wood is light brown, soft, coarse, not strong but very enduring in weather and ground work; light; leaves 15 to 30 inches long; leaflets 11 to 19 in number and 3 to 5 inches long; fruit oblong, 2 to 3 inches long. Nova Scotia to Minnesota and south to Mississippi. Pecan (Hicoria Pecan) A tall slender forest tree in low moist soil along streams, up to 170 feet ill height: famous for its delicious nuts, they are smooth and thin shelled; fruit, oblong, cylindrical, li to inches long. Its leaves are smooth when mature; leaflets 11 to 15, and 4 to 7 inches long; wood hard and brittle, a cul^ foot w^hs 45 lbs. Central Mississippi Valley. 300) Woodonft MuauH lor Oiiig Ptocan Shagbark, SheUbaxk, or White Hickory {Hkoria cvaki) A tall forest tree up to 1 20 feet high. Known at once by the great angular slabs of bark hanging partly detach^ from its main trunk, forced off by the growth of wood, but too tough to fall. Its leaves are 8 to 14 inches long, with 5 to 7 broad leaflets. The wood is very light in color, close- grained, tough, and elastic. It makes an excellent bow; is the best of fuel. A cubic foot weighs 52 lbs. Dakota to Maine and south to Missis- sippi. Mockemut, White Heart, or Big-bud Hickory (Hicoria alba) A tall forest tree, up to 100 feet. Wood much like that of Shagbark, but net quite so heavy (5 1 lbs.). Its bark is smooth 301) Thiofi to Xnoir tad Do and furrowed like that of the Pignut. Its leaves are like ' hose of the Shagbark, but it has 7 to 9 leaflets, instead of s to it has a large terminal bud i to | of an inch long, and the leaver ax-c a resinous smell. Its nut in the husk is nearly a inches k>i jt; the nut shell is 4-ridged toward the point, has a very thick sh^ and small sweet kernel. Maine to Oklahoma and Florida. plates. Leaves 8 to 12 inches long. Nut slightly or not at all angular, very thick shelled; the pear shape of fruit is a strong 302) t ■ ayt Woodenft Ifaaual for OMi feature, i to a inches long. Maine to Nebraska and south to the Gulf. Of»y Birch or Aspen-leaved Birch (Beiula populi/olia) A small tree found on dry and poor soil; larely 50 feet high. Wood soft, close-grained, not syrong, splits in drying, useless fm* weather or ground work. A cubic foot weighs 36 lbs. Leaves 2 to 3 inches long. It has a black triai^ular scar at each armpit. Quebec south to Maryland. White, Canoe, or Paper Birch {Beiula papyri/era) A tall forest tree up to 80 feet high; the source of bark for ranoes, etc. One of the most important trees in the northern 303) Things to 'Jaam and Do W forest. Betides canoes, wigwams, vessels, and paper from its bark, it furnishes svrup from ito sap and the famer bark is used SLb an emergency fooa. Every novice rediscovers for himself that the outer bark is highly inflammable as well as waterproof, and ideal for fire-lighting. Though so much Uke the Gray Birch, it is larger, whiter, and with but sma'l black scars at each limb. Thfc timber is much the same, but this weighs 37 lbs. Its leaf and catkin distinguish it; the former b 3 to 3 inches loiig. All Canada and south to nUnob. Yellow Birch, or Gray Birch (Betula lutea) A forest tree, of 31 feet in height. Bark obviously birch, but shaggy and " uuli yellow. Wood as in the others, but reddish, A cubic foot weighs 4 1 lbs. Leaves 3 to 4 inches long. Mumesota to Newfoundland and south to Virginia. Iionwood, Hard-hack, Leverwood, B«etle-wood, or Hop Hornbeam (Ostyra Virginiana) A small tr • 20 to 30, rarely 50, feet high; named for its hardne ^ a U : - hopUke fruit. Bark furrowed. Wood tough, cl e "iiin ; iisplittable. One of the strongest, heaviest, a. dVrdetsL of iunbers. A cubic foot weighs over 51 lbs. T .U. : it lear to Shagbark Hickory m weight and perha^.r .'•xi beyc d i. in strength and h a r dnewa. Leaves 304) 28o Woodcraft Manual for Girls 3 to s inches long. Fruit li to 2^ inches long. Dakota to Nova Scotia and south to Gulf. but lighter. A cubic foot weighs 45 lbs. Leaves 3 to 4 inches long. United States east of Missouri River. White Oak (Querctis alba) A grand forest tree; over 100 feet up to 150 feet high. The Snest and mo»t vahiable ci our oaks. The one perfect timber 305) Things to Know and Do 381 for shipbuilders, farmers, and house furnishers. Its wood is pale, strong, tough, fine-grained, durable, and heavy. A cubic foot weighs 46 lbs. I found that when green it weighed 68 lbs. to the cubic foot and of course sank in water like a stone. Called white from pale color of bark and wood. Leaves 5 to 9 inches long. Texas to Minnesota and easterly. TeUow Oak, Chestaut Oak, or Chinquapin Scrub Oak iQuercus Muhlenbergii) A great forest tree; up to 160 feet high; wood as usual, but the heaviest of all when dry; a cubic foot weighs 54 lbs; when green, it is heavier than 306) 382 Woodcraft Manual for Girls water, and sinks at once. It is much like the chestnut oak but Its leaves are narrower, more sharply saw-edged, and its acorns much smaller, about half the size. Its acorns ripen in one sea- son. Leaves 4 to 6 inches long. Louisiana to Iowa and east- erly to Massachusetts. Red Oak (Quercus rubra) A fine forest tree, 70 to 80, or even 140, feet high. Wood reddish brown. Sapwood darker. .lard, strong, coarse-grained, heavy. A cubic foot weighs 41 lbs. It checks, warps, and does not stand for weather or ground work. The acorn takes two seasons to ripen. Apparently all those oaks whose nnts take two seasons to ripen have wood that soon rots. The flat shape of the cup is distinctive; in fact, it has no cup, it has a saucer; leaves 4 to 8 inches long. Missouri to Muinesota and east to Atlantic. Scarlet Oak (Quercus coccinea) Seventy to 80 or even 160 feet high. Scarlet from its spring and autumn foliage color. The leaves are a little like those of the Black Oak, but are frondlike with three or four deep, nearly even, cuts on each side. The acorns of this can be easily rnatched among those of the Black Oak, but the kernel of the Scarlet IS white, that of the Black is yellow; thev take two seasons to ripen. Wood much as in Red Oak but weighs 46 lbs. per cubic 307) Things to Know and Do 283 foot. Leaves 4 to 8 inches long. Massachusetts to Georgia and Iowa. Scarlet dak Black Oak, Golden Oak, or Quercitron (Quercus vdutina) Seventy to 80 or even 150 feet high. The outer bark is very rough, bumpy, and blackish; inner bark yellow. This yields yeUow dye called qu, citron. The leaf is of the Scarlet Oak yle, but has uneven cuts and usually a large solid area in le outer half. The wood is hard, coarse-grained, checks, 308) 284 Woodcraft Manual for Girls and does not stand for weather or ground work. A cubic foot weighs 44 lbs. Wisconsin to Maine and south to Gulf. Pin Oak or Swamp Oak (Quircus pdustris) Fifty to 70 or even 120 feet high, in swampy land. Wood hard, coarse-grained, very strong and tough. Will not stand exposure next to ground. A cubic foot weighs 34 lbs Its acorns take two seasons to ripen. Leaves 4 to 6 inches long. In moist woods and along swamp edges. Massachusetts to Iowa and Arkansas. Beech (Fagus grandifdia) • ^" North America there is but one species of beech. It is a noble forest tree, 70 to 80, and occasionallv 120, feet high; readily distinguished by its unfurrowed ashy gray bark wSxi hard, strong, tough, close-grained, pale, heavy. Leaves x to 4 inches long. A cubic foot weighs 43 lbs. Wisconsin to Nova Scotia and south to Gulf. 309) Tilings to Know and Do Chestnut {Castanea der.'.ata) A noble tree, 60 to 80 or even 100 feet high. A cubic foot of die wood wei{^ 28 lbs. Leaves 6 to 8 inches l(mg. Mass- achusetts to Indiana and Mississippi White Elm, Water, or Swan^ Elm (Ulmus Americana) A tal' splendid forest tree; commonly 100, occasionally icc feet. Wood reddish brown; hard, strong, tough, very hard xo split. A cubic foot weighs 41 lbs. Soon rots near the ground. Leaves 2 to 5 indies long. Manitoba to Nova Scotia and south to Gulf. Slippery Elm, Moose, or Red Elm (Ulmus fidva) Smaller than White Elm, maximum height about 70 feet. Wood dark, reddish, hard, close, tough, strongs durable next 310) 311) Things to Know and Do 387 the ground; heavy; a cubic foot weighs 43 lbs. Its leaves are larger and rougher than those of the former. Four to 8 inches long, and its buds are hairy, not smooth. Maine to Minnesota and south to Gulf. Osage Orange, (Bois D'arc) Bodarc, or Bow-Wood (Toxylon pomiferum) A small tree, rarely 60 feet high. Originally from the middle Mississippi Valley, now widely introduced as a hedge tree. Famous for supplying the best bows in America east of the Rockies. Wood is bright orange; very hard, elastic, enduring and heavy. Leaves 3 to 6 inches long. A cubic foot weigl:^ 48 lbs. Tulip Tree, White-wood, Canoe Wood, or YeHow (Liriodendron Tulipifera) One of the noblest forest trees, ordinarily 100 feet, and some- limes 150 feet high. Noted for its splendid clean, straight column; readily known by leaf, 3 to 6 inches long, and its tuUp- Uke flower. Wood soft, straight-grained, brittle, yellow, and very light; much used where a broad sheet easily worked is needed but will not stand exposure to the weather; is poor fuel; a dry cubic foot v ^hs 26 lbs. Mississif^i to Atlantic, Lake Ontario to Gulf. See page 289. 312) Woodcraft BCanual for Girls Sassafras, or Ague Tree (Sassafras sassafras) Usually a smaU tree of dry sandy soil, but reaching 12c feet high m favorable regions. Its vvoci is dull orange wft wS coarse brittle, and light. A cubic foot weighsTi lbs W dumble next the ground. Leaves 4 to 7 inches long to Iowa and Texas to Atlantic See next page Sweet Gum, Star-Leaved, or Red Gum, Bilsted, Alligator Tree, or Uquidambar {Liquidambar Styraciflua) I'^^Ku^ "? ^eet high of low, moist woods remark- able for the corky ndges on its bark, and the unspSfe ^ 3tosincheslong. MasU^Sf titetS^rt^tJ^^^! Sycamore, Plane Tree, Buttonball, or Buttonwood (Platanus ouidentalis) One of the largest of our trees- im fn u- 1. 313) 314) 390 Woodcraft Manual for Girls its strength. A cubic foot weighs 3c lbs. Little use for weather work. Famous for shedding its bark as well as its teftves. Leaves 4 to 9 iiudies long. Canada to the Gulf. Red-Bud, or Judas Tree {Cercis canadensis) Small tree of bottom lands, rarely 50 feet high; so called from its abundant spring crop of tiny rosy blossoms, coming before the leaves, the latter 2 to 6 inches broad. "Judas tree" because it blushed when Judas hanged himself on it (Keeler). Its wood is dark, coarse, and heavy. A cubic foot weighs 40 lbs. Maryland to Iowa and southward. Sugar Maple, Rock Maple, or Hard Maple {Acer saccharum) A large, spiendid forest tree, '80 to 120 feet high; red in au- tunm. Wood hard, strong, tough, and heavy but not durable. 315) Things to Know and Do 39Z A cubic foot weighs 43 lbs. It tujoys with Beech, Hickory, etc., th- sad distinction of being a perfect firewood. Thanlu to this it has been exterminated in some regions. Bird's-eye and curled Maple are freaks of the graui. Leavef 3 to s inches long. Its sap produces the famous maple sugar. Manitoba to Nova Scotia and south to Gulf. Silver Maple, White, or Soft Maple {Acer saccharimm) Usually a little smaller than the Sugar Maple and much inferior as timber. Wood hard, dose-grained. A cubic foot ^hs 33 lbs. Leaves s to 7 inches long. This tree produces a little sugar. It is noted tot its yellow foliage in autumn. 316) 2g2 Woodcraft Manual for Girls Nova Scotia to Minnesota and souta to Oklahoma and Georgia. R«d, Seartot, Water, or Swamp Mapit (Aarmbnm) A fine tree the same size as the preceding. Noted for its flaming crimson foliage in fall, as well as its red leaf-stalks, flowers, and fruit earlier. Its wood is Ught-colored, tinged reddish, close-grained, smooth with varieties of grain, as in Sugar Maple; heavy. A cubic foot weig^ 39 lbs. Leaves a to 6 inches long. Quebec to Minnesota and south to Gulf. Box Elder, or Ash-Leaved Maple (Acer Negundo) A small tree, 40 to 50 up to 70 feet high, found chiefly along streams. Wood pale, soft, dose-grained, light. A cubic fo<^ 317) i Thing! to Know and Do 293 weighs 27 lbs. Poor fuel. Makes paper-pulp. Leaflets 2 to 4 inches lonff. Massachusetts to British Columbia south to Meidco and AuuNuna. BftMwoodt White-Wood, Whistle- Wood, limo, or linden (XUia amerkana) A tall forest tree 60 to 125 feet; usually hollow when old. Wood soft, straight-grained, weak, white, very light. A cubic foot wei^ 38 um. It makes a good dugout canoe or sap trough. The hollow trunk, split in halves, was often used for roofing. Poor firewood, and soon rots, makes good rubbing-sticks for friction fire. Its inner bark supplies coarse cordage and mat- ting. Its buds are often eaten as emergency food. Leaves 2 to 5 inches wide. Manitoba to Nova Scotia and south to Texas. 318) 394 Woodcraft Manual for Girls Sour Gum, Black Gum, Pepperidge, or Tupelo {Nyssa sylvatica) A forest tree up to no feet Heh; in wet lands. Wood pale, very strong, tough, unsplitt? ble, ^ nd Iieavy. A cubic foot wei g h s 40 lbs. Used for turner work, but soon rots next the ground. Leaves 2 to 5 inches long. Massachusetts to Wisconsin and south to Gulf. White Ash {Faxinus americana) A fine forest tree on moist soil; 70 to 90 or even 130 feet high. Wood pale brown, tough, and elastic. Used for handles, springs, bows, also arrows and spears; heavy. A cubic foot weighs 4z lbs. Soon rots next the ground. Called white for 319) Things to Know and Do 395 the silvery under sides of the leaves; these are 8 to 12 inches long; each leaflet 3 to 5 inches long. Mississippi Vall^ and east to Atlantic. Black Ash, Hoop Ash, or Water Ash {Fraxinus nigra) A tall forest tree of swampy places; 70, 80, or rarely 100 feet high. Wood dark brown, tough, soft, coarse, heavy. A cubic foot weighs 39 lbs. Soon rots next to the ground. Late in the spring to leaf, and early to shed in the fall. The leaves are 12 to 16 inches long; its leaflets, except the last, have no stalk. they number 7 to 1 1 , are 2 to 6 inches long. Nova Scotia to Manitoba and south to Virginia. Book! RMommeoded TsEES OF THE NoKTHBXN Unred STATES, Austio C. Apgar. Price, $1.00, American Book Co. The Forester's Manual, or Forest trees of Eastern North AinerKS;ja fully illustrated Manual with map showing range of each sptck*. By Ernest Thompson Seton, published hy Doubleday, Page & Our Native Trees, by Harriet L. Keeler, 1900. Charles ScrQ»ers Sons, New York City. Pnce, fa. 320) 396 Woodcraft Manual for Girls THE STARS AS THE CAMPER SEES THEM (See Hate of Stare and Principal Constellations) So far as there is a central point in our heavens, that point IS the Pole-star, Polaris. Around this star all the stars in the sky seem to turn once in twenty-four hours. It is easily discovered by ti. i help of the Big Dipper, or Great Bear, known to every country boy and girl in the northern half of the world. This is, perhaps, the most important star group m our sky, because of its size, peculiar form, the fact that it never sets in our latitude, and that of its stars, two, sometimes called the Pointers, always pomt out the Pole-star.' It is called the Dipper because it is shaped Uke a dipper with a long, bent handle. Why it is called the Great Bear is not so easy to explain The classical legend has it that the nymph, Calisto, having violated her vow, was changed by Diana into a bear, which after death, was immortalized in the sky by Zeus. Another suggestion is that the earliest astronomers, the Chaldeans called these stars "the shining ones," and their word happened to be very like the Greek arktos (a bear). Another explanation IS that vessels in olden days were named for animals, etc. They bore at the prow the carved effigy of the namesake, and if the Great Bear, for example, made several very happy voyages by setting out when a ctn^m constellation was in the ascendant, that constellation might become known as the Great Bear's constellation. Certainly, there is nothmg in its shape to justify the name. Very few of the constellations, mdeed, are like the thing they are called after. Their names were usually given for some fanciful association with the namesake, rather than for resemblance to it. The Pole-star is really the most important of the stars in our sky; It marks the north at all times; all the other stars seem to swing around it once in twenty-four hours. It is in the end <rf the Little Bear's tail; this constellation is sometimes called the Little Dipper. But the Pole-star, or Polaris, is not a very bright one, and it would be hard to identify but for the help of the Pomters of the Big Dipper. The outside stars (Alpha and Beta) of the Dipper point nearly to Polaris, at a distance equal to about five times the space that separates these two stars of the Dipper's outer side. Indian names for the Pole-§tar are the " Home Star," and " The Star That Never Moves," and the Big Dipper thev call the "Broken Back." / wui uw 321) 322) apS Woodcraft Maaual for Girls The Great Bear is also to be remembered as the hour-hand of the woodman's clock. It goes once around the North Star in about twenty-four hours, the same way as the sun, and for the same reason — that it is the earth that is going and leaving them behind. The time in going around is not exactly twenty-four hours, so that the position of the Pointers varies with the seasons, but, as a rule, this for woodcraft purposes is near enough. The bowl of the Dipper swings four-fifths of the width of its own opening in one hour. If it went a quarter of the curcle, that would mean you had slept a quarter of a day, or six hours. Every fifteen days the stars seem to be an hour earUer; in three months they gain one-fourth of the circle, and in a year gain the whole circle. According to Flammarion, there are about seven thousand stars visible to the naked eye, and of these twenty are stars of the first magnitude. Fourteen of them are visible in the latitude of New York, the others (those starred) belong to the South Polar region of the sky. The following table of the brightest stars is taken from the Revised Harvard Photometry of 1908, the best authority on the subject. The First Twenty Stars in Order of Brightness 1. Sirius, the Dog Star. 2. *Canopus, of the Ship. 3. *Alpha, of the Centaur. 4. Vega, of the Lyre. 5. Capella, of the Charioteer. 6. Arcturus, of the Herdsman. 7. Rigel, of Orion. 8. Procyon, the Little Dog-star. 9. *Achemar, of Eridanus. 10. *Beta, of the Centaur. 1 1 . Ahair, of the Eagle. 12. Betelgeuze, of Orion's right shoulder. 13. *Alpha, of the Southern Cross. 14. Aldebaran, of the Bull's right eye. 15. Pollux, of the Twins. 16. Spica, of the Virgin. 17. Antares, of the Scorpion. 18. Fomalhaut, of the Southern Fish. 19. Deneb, of the Swan. ao, Regulus, of the 323) Things to Know and Do 399 Other ConsteUations Orion Orion (0-ri-on), with its striking array of brillLint stars, Betelgeuze, Rigel, the Three Kings, etc., is generally admitted to be the finest conitellation in the heavens. Orion was the hunter gLnt who went to Heaven when he died, and now marches arcund the great dome, but is seen only in the winter, because, during .he summer, he passes over during daytime. Thus he is still the hunter's constellation. The three stars of his belt are called the "Three Kings." Sirius, the Great Dog-star, is in the head of Orion's Hound, the constellation Canis Major, and following farther back is the Little Dog-star, Frocyon, the chief star of the constellation Cams Minor In old charts of the stars, Orion is shown with his hounds, hunting the bull, Taurus. This constellation is recognizable by this diagram; the red star, Aldebaran, being the angry right eye of the Bull. His face is covered with a cluster of little stars called the Hyades, and on his shoulder are the seven stars, called Pleiades. Pldades Pleiades (Ply-a-des) can be seen i.. winter as a cluster of small stars between Aldebaran and Algol, or, a line drawn from the back bottom, through the front rim of the Big Dipper, about two Dipper lengths, touches this little group. They are not far from Aldebaran, being in the right shoulder of the Bull. They may be considered the seven arrow wounds made by Orion. Serviss tells us that the Pleiades have a supposed connection with the Great Pyramid, because "about 2170 b. c, when the begirming of spring coincided with the culmination of the Plei- ades at midnight, that wonderful group of stars was visible just at midnight, through the mysterious southward-pointing passage of the Pyramid. Cassiopeia On the opposite side of the Pole-star from the Big Dipper, and nearly as far from it, is a W of five bright stars. This is called Cassiopeia's Chair. It is easily foui^ and visible the year round on clear nights. Thus we have dOcribed ten consteIlati<His from which the Woodcraf ter may select tlu numba needed to.qoalif y, nam^) 324) 3»o Woodeaft llumal for Girls The Moon any known atmosphereS^^^^^^^^ therefore i rises twenty-four hours; average; but tTere^re w,?. H^ successive night on the for PTan^r^l^ u , , ^ deviations from this averaee as PaSlSct " » ""^ » ^-PPoeed to be the North The Stan as Tests of Byesiglit fo/"ot S^^l;? rr;ts^:^r'fc"?>r Mizar and Alcor M^; >L h ^^'J'^' "le old test of the handle o "he Kn^r' fuS Tit; " " bend of that a.^o„„mers'JS'K, 0^2 " " ' Can you see the papoose on the old squaw? Wk? " AnH The Pleiades One of the oldest of all eve tests w thi- PUUa^ n a mere haze, fairly good Ja^^.'^t'Sr^^r^l^^ 325) Things to Know and Do 301 The rarest eyesight, under the best conditions, see^ up to ten; and, according to Flammarion, the record with unaided eyes is thirteeen. Vega, of the Ljrre If one draw a line from through tlie back wall of the Dipper, that is, from the back bottom star, through the one next the handle, and continue it upward for twice the total length of the Dipper, it will reach Vega, the brightest star in the northern part of the sky, and believed to have been at one time the Pole-star — and likely to be again. Vega, with the two stars near it, form a small triangle. The one on the sidenexttheNorthStar iscalled Epsilon. If you have remarkably good eyes, you will see that it is a double star. The Nebula in Orion's Sword Just about the middle of Orion's Sword is a fuzzy Ught spot. This might do for blood, only it is the wrong color. It is the nebula of Orion. If you can see it with the naked eye, you are to be congratulated. On fbB Moon When the moon is full, there is a large, dark, oval spot on it to the left, as you face it, and close to the east rim, almost half- way up; this is the Plain of Grimaldi; it is about twice the size of the whole State of New Jersey; but it is proof of a pair of ex- cellent eyes if you can see it at all. Books Hecommonded The Book of Stars, by R. F. Collins. D. Appleton & Co. Pilce, li.oo. Around the Year With the Stars, by Garrett P. Serviss. Harpers. Price, $1.00. 326) 327) BIRDS Forty Birds That Every Woodcrafter Should Know The Bald Eagle or White-headed Eagle Golden or War Eagle Rc uuled Hawk or Henhawk The.Barred or Hoot Owl Great Homed Owl <tf Cat Owl Screech Owl Turkey Voltnre or Btuxtrd Loon Common Seagull Pelican Wild Duck or Mallard Wood Duck or Summer Duck Wild GooM, Canada Ooom» or Honker Swan Bittern Great Blue Heron Quail or Bobwhite Ruffed Gronso or Partridge Dove Downy Woodpecker Flicker or Highhole Ruby-throated Hominiiigbird Kingbird Blue jay Coflunon Crow Bobolink or Reedbird Baltimore Oriole Purple Crackle or Crow Black- bird Snowbird Song-Sparrow Scarlet Tanager Purple Martin Bam Swallow Mockingbird Catbird Common House Wren Chickadee WoodThroah Robin Bhtebird 328) 329) BIRDS ' Forty Birdi That Brtiy Woodcttfter Should Know The Bald i^agle, or White-headed Eagle {Hdiaetos leucocep- iuilus) is the emblem of America. It is three to four feet from l>cak to taU, and six or seven feet across the wmgs. When fully adult it is known by its white head, neck, and t? il, and the brown body; but when young it is brownish black, uplashed and marked with dull white. . , „ • xl ;j The only other eagle found in the United States is the Golden or War Eagle {AquUa chrysaetos). This is a Uttle larger. When full grown it is dark brown, with the basal half of tail more or less white. The plumage of the young birds U somewhat like that of die young Bald Eagle; but the two species may always be distinguished by the legs. The War Eagle wears leggings-- his legs are feathered to the toes. He is ready for the warpath. The Bald Eagle has the legs bald, or bare on the lower ^^edtailed Hawk or Benhawk {Buteo borealis). The common hawks of America are very numerous and not easy todistinguish. The best known of the large kinds is the RedtaU. This is about two feet long and four feet across the wings. In general it is dark brown above and white beneath, with dark brown marks; the tail is clear reddish with one black bar across near the Up. In young birds the tail is gray with many small bars. It has four primaries notched on the mner web. The legs are bare of feathers for a space above the toes. It is common m North America east of the Rockies up to mid-Canada. It does much good, killing mice and insects. It is noted for its archng flight and far-reaching whistle or scream. The Barred or Hoot Owl {Strix varia). This Owl is known at once bv the absence of horns, the black eyes, and the plumage barred across the chest and striped below that. It is about twenty inches long, in general gray-brown marked with white. It is noted for its loud hooting; it is the noisiest owl in our woods. Found m the wooded parts of America up to about latitude 50 d^rees, east of the Plains. SOS 330) So6 Woodcraft Manual for Girls Great Horned Owl or Cat Owl {Bubo virginianus). This k the largest of our Owls. About twenty-four inches lone and four feet across the wmgs. It is known at once by its great ear tufts Its yellow eyes, its generally barred plumage of white, black and buff, and its white shirt front, this is the wingS tiger of the woocls. Noted for its destruction of game and poul- try. It IS found throughout the timbered parts of North America iicreech Owl (Otus asio). This is not unlike the Homed Owi in Shape and color but is much smaller— only ten in. hes lone bometunes its plumage is red instead of gray. It feeds on mice and insects and has a sweet mournful song in the autumn— iu Bald Ei^ lament for the falling leaves. It is found in the timbered parts of North America. Turkey Vulture or Buzzard (Cathartes aura). The Turkey Vulture IS about two and a half feet long and about she feet across its wmgs. It is black everywhere except on ♦v^" ""-i"- side ot the wing which is gray, and the head which is naked and red. It IS known at once by the naked head and neck, and is femous for its splendid flight. It is found from Atlantic to Pacific and north to the Saskatchewan. It preys on carrion. in the Southern States is another spedes—the Black Vokuie 331) 332) 3o8 Woodcraft Manual for Girls or Carrion Crow — ^which is somewhat smaller and wears its coat collar up to its ears instead of low on the neck; also its com- plexion is dusky, not red. Loon {Gavia itntner). The common Loon is known by its size — thirty-two inches long and about four feet across the wings — and its brilliant black and white plumage. It is noted for its skill as a fisher and diver. Its weird rolling call is heard on every big lake in the country. Common Seagull {Larus argentatus). The common Seagull is twenty-four inches long and four feet across. The plumage is Common Seagull white with blue-gray back, when adult; but splashed brown when young, and with black tips to the wings. Its beak is yellow with icd spot <XL the lower mandible. It is found throughout North Ajnerica. Pdican (Pelecanus erythmrhynchos). The white Pelican is known at once by its great size — about five feet Ion:, and eight feet across the wings — by its long beak, its pouch, and its feet fully webbed. Its plumage is white, but the wing tips are black. It b found in the interim <tf America 19 to Qreat Sbive Lake. 333) Things to Kaow and Do 309 Pelican Wild Duck or Mallard {Anas flatyrhynchos). Of all our num- erous wild ducks this is the best known. It is about twenty-three inches k>ng. Its bottle- green head, white col- kr, chestnut breast,^ penciled sides, and curled up tail feathers identify it. The female is str«iky brown and gray. It is found in all parts of the continent, up to the edge of the forest. This is the wild duck from which tame ducks are descended. Wood Duck or Summer Duck {Aix sponsa). This beautiful duck is about eighteen inches long. Its head b beautifully vanegated, bottle-green and iHiite. Its eye is nd, its bceast 334) 310 Woodcraft Manual for Girls Wood Duck or Sununer Duck >r purplish chestnut, checkered with white spots, while its sides are buflf with black pencilings. This is one of the wildest and most beautiful of ducks. It nests in hol- low trees and is found in North America up to about latitude 50 degrees. Wild Goose {Branta canadensis). This fine bird is about three feet long. Its head and neck are hlexk; its cheek patch white; its body gray; its tail black widi yrinte coverts above and below. It is found up to the Arctic reg' ">ns, and breeds north ot about latitude 45 degrees. It is easily tamed and reared in captivity. Swan. There are two kinds of Swan found in America: The Trum- peter (Olor bttccinator), which is almost extinct, is very large and has a black bill, and the Whis- tling Swan {Olor columbi- anus), which is smaller — about five feet long and seven feet across. Its plumage is pure white; its bill black, with a yeUmv spot near the eye. It is found generally throughout North America but is rare now. Bittern {Botaurus lengtiginosus). This bird of marshes is about twenty-eight inches long and can stand nearly three feet high. Its general color is warm yellowish brown splasl»ed with dark brown. The black mark on the side of the neck is a strong feature, and its bright green legs and beak are very distinctive. It is famous for its guttural call notes in the marshes, and is found throughout North America up to about latitude 60 degrees II Jhe interior. Wild Goose, Canada Goose, or Honker 335) Things to Know and Do 3x1 Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias). This bird is commonly called Blue Crane. Its great size will distinguish it. It is about 4 feet from tip of beak to tip of tail. In general it is blue-gray above, white below; head, white, with black hind head, crest, and marks on neck and shoulders. Its thighs are chest- Bittern Great Bltie Bttoa nut. It is found throughout North America to the limit of heavy timber. Quail or Bohwhite {Colinus virginianus). This famous and delicate game bird is about ten inches long. Its plumage is beautifuUy varied with reddish brown, lilac, and black mark- ings, on a white ground. Its whistle sounds like "Bob White." It is found in eastern North America up to Massachusetts and South Ontario. Ruffed Crome or Partridge (Bonasa umbellus). It is known by its mottled and brown plumage, its broad and beautiful fan tail, and the black ruffs on each side of the neck. It is noted for its drumming, which is usually a love song — a call to its mate. Found in the heavy woods of North America, north of the Gulf States. 336) 3X3 Woodcraft Manual for Girls Dove (Zenaidura macroura). This is an abundant inhabi- tant of the farming country as far north as wheat is now grown. It is about twelve inches long, and known by its pigeon-like look, and its long, wedge-shaped tail, with black and white marks on the feathers. Its breast is soft purplish gray. Its extinct relation, the once plentiful Passenger Pigeon, was eighteen inches long and had a reddish breast. Downy Woodpecker (Dryobates ptibesuns). About six and a half inches long, blade and white. In the male the nape is QuaO or Bobwhitp Ruffed Gimae at Futridfp red, the outer tail feathers white with black spots. Carefully distinguish this from its large relation the Hairy Woodpecker, nv lich is nine and a half inches long and has no blaidc spots on the white outer tail feathers. A familiar inhabitant of orchards the year round, it is found in woods throughout eastern North America. Flicker or Highhule (Colapks auratus). This large and beauti- ful woodpecker is twelve inches long. Its head is ashy gray behind, with a red nape in the neck, and brown-gray in front. On its breast is a black crescent. The spots below and the Httle bars above are black, and the under side of wings and tail arc bright yellow. The rump is white. Its beautiful plumage and loud splendid "clucker" cry make it a joy in every woodland. It is found throughout North Aincrica, cast of the Rockies up to the limit of trees. Ruby-throated Hummingbird {Trochilus colubris). Every one knows the Hununingbird. The male only has the throat of ruby cotor. It is about four inches l^g fn»n tip <A beak to 337) Things to Know and Do 313 tip of tail. This is the only Hummingbird found in the Northern States or Canada east of the Prairies. Kingbird {Tyrannus tyr annus). This bird is nearly black in its upper parts, white underneath, and has a black tail with white tip. its concealed crest is orange and red. It is eight and a half inches long. Famous for its intrepid attacks on all birds, large and small, that approach its nest, it is found in North America east of the Rockies, into southern Canada. Bluejay (Cyanocitta cristata). This bird is soft purplish blue above, and white underneath. The wings and tail are bright 338) 314 Woodcraft Manual for Girls blue with black marks. It is found in the woods of America east of the Plains to about latitude 55 degrees. The Bluejay is a wonderful songster and mimic, but it is mischievous— nearly as bad as the crow indeed. Common Craw {Corvus brachyrhynchos). The Crow is black from head to foot, body and soul. It is about eighteen inches long and thirty wide. It makes itself a nuisance in all the heavily wooded parts of eastern North America. Bobolink or Reedbird {Dolkhonyx oryzivorus). This bird is about seven and a half inches long. The plumage is black and white, with brown or creamy patch on nape; and the tail feath- ers all sharply pointed. The female, and the male in autunm, are ail yellow buff with dark streaks. Though famous for its wonderful song as it £ies over the meadows in June, it is killed by the thousands to su{^ly the restaurants in autumn and served up under the name Reedbird. It is found in North America, chiefly between north latitude 40 and 52 degrees. Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula). The Oriole is about eight inches long, flaming orange in color, with black head and back and partly black tail and wings. Tlie female is dvHOet in plum- age. Famous for its beautiful nest, as well as its gorgeous plum- age and ringing song, it is abundant in eastern North America in opqi wocSs up to northern Ontario and L A t Winnyeg. 339) Things to Know and Do 315 Purple Crackle or Crow Blackbird {Quiscalus quiscala). This northern bird of paradise looks black at a distance but its head is shiny blue and its body iridescent. It is twelve inches long. When flying it holds its long tail with the edge raised like a boat, hence "boat tail." In various forms it is found throuj^out the Eastern States, and in Canada up to Hudson Bay. Baltimore Ork^ Puipte Gradde or Crow Bkckbitd Snowbird {Plectrophenax nivalis). About six and a half inches long, this bird is pure white, overlaid with brown on the crown, back, and sides. The wings, back, and tail are partly black. The Snowbird nests in the Arctic regions and is common in most of temperate agricultural America during winter, wher- ever there is snow. SBcnvfaiid 340) 3x6 Woodcimft BfamuU for Girls Song-Sparrow Scarlet Tanager Song-Sparrmv (.Uchspiza r.iclodia). The Song-sparrow is about six and a l.alf inches long — brown above — white under- neath. It is thickly streaked with blackish marks on flanks, breast, and all upper parts. All the tail feathers are plain brown. There is a black blotch on the jaw and another on the middle of the breast. Always near a brook. It is noted for its sweet Purjde Martin Bam Swalknr 341) Things to Know and Do 3x7 and constant song, and is found in all well wooded and watered parts <^ Nwdi America. Scarlet Tanager {Piranga erythromelas). This gorgeous bird is about seven inches long. The plumage of the male is of a flaming scarlet, with black wings and tail; but the female is dull green in color. The Scarlet Tanager is found in the woods of eastern America, up to Ottawa and Lake Winnipeg. Put fie Martin O^^ogne subis). About eight inches in length, with long wings and forked tail, the Purple Martin is everywhere oi a shiny bluish or purplish black. Like the Kingbird it attacks any intruder on its lower range. Hie swallow is found in the wooded regions of east temperate America, north to Newfound- land and the Saskatchewan. Barn Swallow (Hirundro erythrogaster). About seven inches long, this bird is steel-blue above, chestnut on throat and breast, buffy white on belly. It is known by the long forked tail which is dark with white spots. Famous for its mud nest, it is found in open country about bams m America generally. Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos). About ten inches long, soft gray above, dull white beneath, wings and tail black and white, with m black on head— the MocHngbird is famous for its song, and is found in United States north to New Jersey. Catbird {Dumetdla caroHtmw). This northern Mocking- 342) 3i8 Woodcrtft Mtanal for Oiite bird IS about nine inches long, darlt slate in color, with a black- brown cap, black tail and a red patch "on the seat of its pants." It abounds in the Eastern States and Canada, north to Ottomu Saskatchewan, and British Columbia. «vr*»w«, Common House Wren (Troglodytes aidon). This litUe faiiy IS about f ve inches lone; soft brown above and brovmish gray below, It is barred with dusky brown on wings and tail. It nests in a hole, and is found in wooded America east of the Plains, north to Saskatchewan, Ottawa and Maine. Chickadee (Penthesies airkapittus). This cheerful UtUe bird IS five and a half inches knig. Its cap and throat are bbck. ConuxKm Home Wren Wood Thrush Chickadee Its upper parts are gray, its un^Ier parts brownish, its chedcs white, no streaks anywhere. It does not migrate, so it is weU known m the winter woods of eastern America up to the Cana- dian region where the Brnwn-capDcd or Hudson Chickadee takes Its place. Its f a mili ar song chickadee dee dee has given it itsiiame. Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelinus). About eight inches long, annamon-brown above, brightest on head, white hdaw, 343) Thingf to Know »' 3^9 with black spots on breast and sM. j i» diiOngu^ed from the manv thrushes in Amer. . ' . • ^ t,by _themi^ ;ii from the many thrushes in Amer 'r' • t head and round black spots on . n ' - ^. It is tot n the woods of eastern North Ameiiu' . _ -Kmt and e- Robin {Planesticus migratorius). The Robin is about ten inches kmg, mosUy dark gray in color, but with black on head Robin Bluebird and tail; its breast is brownish red. The spots about the eye, also the throat, the beUy, and the marks m outer tail feathers are white. Its mud nest is known in nearly every orchard. Found throughout the timbered parts <rf America north to the limit of trees. . , i u -iKn^f Bluebird {Sialia sialis). About seven mches long, briUiant blue abox e, dull red-brown on breast, white below. Found m eastern North America, north to about laUtude 50 degrees m the interior, not so far on the coast. Books Recommended Water B«ds, Laxd Birds East of Roocies and L^dBirdsJ^ OF RociuKS, Chesler A. Reed. Doabfcday, Page & Co. PHce, ♦i.oottCli volume. (P(x>uiar.) l i? w Handbook or the Birds of Eastern North America, by F. M. ui^»- man. Appleton, N. Y. Price $3.00. (Technical.) pt«„„^ Handmok o; Bikdb of the Western United States by Florence MeniamBiiky. Hottghtoa. MiffiiB ft Co. Fnce,t3-50- (Techmcal.) 344) Sao Woodmft Ifaaott tot OMi Bird Fluim, by . R. Dtt^ien. UoMtduj, FlfB ft Co. Price, ts-so. (Popul r.) BiKUb That If kk HfTNTCD, by Ndtjc Bhnrhw. Doi^tt Ay, i'ace & Co Prk. , $3.50. (Pu^^ular.) SNAXBS Gr>OD AHD BAD Sittkes are to the ammal woti i Nfetabl(' world- won(lcr*'ul buiiie thing , ijocaii'^ somt ^ed intc Coc. what toadstoob are to the autiful ih ags, but fear- . son. -ity, we leam PS found m They are found athwefit. MoccaainSi an d ill s hei ea(! itmars* as our es Of n tnt X '0 Taking Mr. Ra ond I that out of u: ^ed . It the UB=ted Siat veniet; ir in ever>- state, -m^i a most a um These naay oe Rattlers. The Cora] S?ar- . foi are very n sch 'i- . ' mle. distinguish by th' rema rinp of rt rid tfe* rings .f yel. " The "^attlesnukt . an re But Moct.isins are the Wa r Ml asm, or C Gewgia Flor . Alab^in htad, hi h i; ae Hi^ Snake, found from — ^ Illinois and Texas. Hert are distingu m .he Rattlers, lave t^a -tcu ar, ii- ts.rii. a H n ptt he M il o- -u eye .> an i, right line, as in a cat; the haim- inai- r ha', i rovmd pupil. The M raans mve " single row of platr rnder the tail, ^ iie ' ■• 1 nles k. aave a double row. Th^ vai- r M'j'- ^ lull olive with wide black transverse band- The Coj pt rheac. fia^el .rown, marked acroM the back yrifh dumb-bells of ic^ai:xa bruwn; the top of the head more or lesfc coppery. Both Moccasins and Rattlers hive a flat triangular head, whi h is much wider than the thui neck; while most harmless s ^es have a narrow kcad that shades off into the neck. «E m Sta Tlwsy shape, but easily rs, "broad ai crnating 'ter bonkrnd with very namw old at once by the rattle. )t t>u easy. There are two kincb: >n-mouth, fciunH in South Carolina and Louisiana, and the Copper- , or North* rn Moccasin or Pilot auf" s &» Florida and west to 'k- The Moccasins, as well as Ac ot the head, between the eye

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aitad SUMi," wd it nwde wiU> c- swiion 1 4 his pamphlet on permiuton ana af^iroval. 345) 346) 322 Woodcirft Manual for Girls Rattlesnakes are found generally distributed over the United States, south»n Ontario, southern Alberta, and Saskatchewan. How Does a Snake Bite? Remember, the tongue is a feeler, not a sting. The "sting- ing" is done by two long hollow teeth, or fangs, through which the poison is squirted into the wound. The striking distance of a snake is about one-third the crea- ture's length, and the stroke is so swift that no creature can dodge it. The snake can strike farthest and surest when it is ready coiled, but can strike a little way when travelling. You cannot disarm a poisonous snake without killing it. If the fangs are removed others come quickly to take their place. In fact, a number of small, half-grown fangs are always waiting ready to be devetopcd. In Ctki e of Snake Bite First, keep cool, and remember that the bite of American snakes is seldom fata! if the propt r measures are followed. You must act at once. Try to keep the poison from getting into the system by a tight bandage on the arm or leg (it is sure to be one or the other) just above the wound. Next, get it out of the wound by slashing the wound two or more ways with a sharp knife or razor at least as deep as the puncture. Squeeie it — wash it out with permanganate of pota^ dissolved in water to the color of wine. Suck it out with the lips (if you have no wounds in the mouth it will do you no harm there). Work, massage, suck, and wash to get all the poison out After thorough tfeatment to ranove the vemnn the iigatore may be removed. "Pack small bits of gauze into the wounds to keep them open and draining, then dress over them with gauze saturated with any good antiseptic solution. Keep the dressing saturated and the wounds open for at least a week, no matter how favw- able may be the symptoms." Some people consider whiskey or brandy a cure for snake bite. Then is plenty of evidence that many have been killed by such remedies, and little that they have ever saved any one. except perhaps when the victim was iosmg courage or b«:ominff sleq>y. In any case, send as iast as you can for a doctor. He ahouU 347) Things to Know and Do 333 come equipped with hypodermic fringe, tubes of anti-venomous serum and strychnine tablets. Harmless Snakes Far the greatest number of our snakes are harmless, beautiful, and beneficent. They are friendly to the farmer, because, although some destroy a few birds, chickens, ducklings, and game, the largest part of their food is mice and insects. The Blacksnake, the Milk Snake, and one or two others, will bite in self-defence, but they have no poism fangs, and the bite is much like the prick d a bramble. Books Recommended Thf. Reptile Book, Raymond L. Ditmars. Doubleday, Page & Co., 1907 ; 465 pages, many ills. Price, $3.50. , . c • /-. Poisonous Snakes of North America, Leonhatd Stejneger. uov- emment Printing Office. j The Crocodiuans, Lizards, and Snakes of North America, Edward Drinker C<H)e. U. S. National Museum, June, 1898. ..... ^ RErmu <» THE WoRU> (with mulaUe histories of theu habits) about 300 ilhutratbw. Ibe Stuipt Ik Walton Co. Prioe,f5M. 348) 349) SECTION IV



The Woodcraft League is organized on the idea that boys and girls who are interested in outdoor life and in active Uving will continue along these lines as they grow older. Many of the Coups are such as to be within the reach of Woodcraft Boys and Girls but the Degrees will in many cases be available only for the older members of the League. Woodcraft Exploits and Degree are standard. They include work for both sexes, though each sex will find it dearable to select the ones most fitted to it. In many cases, however, both boys and girls may select the same Exploit or Degree. In fact, we believe that a ahanng of many experiences would help greatly in solving tome of the problems which we are facing at the present *ime. n a Exploits are indicated by the wearing of the Coup or Grand Coup Badge each for a single exploit as listed. Achievement is indicated by the wearing of the DewwBad^e for general proficiency in any one ol the varknia Degrees m Woodcraft.


The Exploits are intended to distinguish those who are first class in any department, and those who are so good that thw may be considered in the record-making class. The French word "coup" has been used by the Woodcraft Movement for i6 years. No one can count both Coup and Grand Coup, or get a second similar badge in the same department except for heroism, motwitain climbing, and others that are ^)ecified as " rqiefttas, in which each badge is added to that previously worn. No badges are conferred unless the exploit has been properly witnessed or proven, and approved by a careful conmuttee. When it is a question of time under one minute, <Muy st^ watches are allowed. Badges, once fairly won, can never for subsequent failure to readi the standard. Except otherwise stiued, the eiplfliti we BMtpit lor «& ages. 352) 338 Woodcraft Manual for Girls Any one counting coup, according to the class above him may count it a grand coup^in his own class, unless otherwise provided. This list is made by the Council of Guidance. The exploits are founded on world-wide standards, and with the help of the best experts. The Council will gladly consider any suggestion, but it mustlje understood that no local group has any power to add to or vaiy the exploits in any way whatsoever. Badges for Coups (For form of conferring coup badRCs see pape 33) Coup (above) and Gnwd Coup The badge for the coup is an embroidered eagle feather. The badge for the Grand Couo has a red tuft embroidered on the end of the Coup badge. In the case of the Sagamore who has won twoity-four coups he or she is entitled to wear the twenty-four conventional eagle feathers on a Council Robe. Also the Woodcraft Boy is en- titled to wear a war b<mnet of twenty-four eagle feathers on spt- cial occasions such as grand councils. CLASS I-BXPLOITS Athletic Coups and Grand Coups Badges are allowed for saving a human life at risk of one's own; it is a coup or a grand coup, at the di8creti<m <A the CoundL A soldier's war medals count for a grand coup each. Courage. (The measure of courage has not yet been dis- oovned.) 353) Coups and Degrees 3^ Riding To ride a hors i one mile in three minutes, clearing a fow- foot hurdle and an eight-foot water jump, counts coup; to do it in two minutes, clearing a five-foot hurdle and a twelve-foot water jump, grand coup. . , , . j u-i- Trick-riding. To pick up one's hat from the ground while It full gallop on a horse of not less than thirteen hands, counts To do it three times without failure, from each side, with horse of at least fifteen hands counts grand coup. General Athletics Those under ten pre children; those over ten and under sixteen are boys or young girls; those over sixteen and under -ighteen are lads or girls; those over eighteen are men or women. , . . , ^ Girls take the standards accordmg to their ages up to eighteen, but for athletics are never over that. No matter what their age, henceforth they continue in the "lad class," and in fihng the claim need only mention their class. Men over seventy return to the lad class. The records are given according to Spaldmg's Ahnanac, where will be found the names ol those who made them, mtn date and place. A dash (— ) means "not open." No test requiring violent exercise should be taken unless the member has passed a general physical examination. The Guide of each group should see that this precaution is observed, and especially so in the case of the girl members. Failure to observe the condition of the body may result m hfe- long harm. Don't try for any Coup in athletics without getting your Guide's approval. 354) Woodcraft Manual for Girls I "-eaai a ^*aaa — " * * «0 ■null Mt^""" M «  •O w »• M 0> « ♦ M * M OVER 1 8 'MM irll? lltttiT^^ W M ^ 1 1 1 1 i-IIS. |trr.«i?, , -5 ^1 i 1 1 1 ©."^l^^ 1 ««M.. 1 1 H ^ ^ SIMM o^g,| 1 SSf^" II S'S ♦ ♦ UNDER l6 1 II II 1 o -50 1 ?«oTl| ooa ♦ •? L M M M : ^.S 1 ' ^ * t s a g 4 ■f*** a 8 a e> Ma ^28I?M*S*8>J8 II 1 1 S-^ ^ ♦ j. BBS r:" r- SrONOM^niO*'>Q ^^lllll ««0 <•> ««» Ommm h nO> mIIIII mm ( 4 1^ M J?"6>'^ "^2^^^ ^Mllll "JS^ s w '^'"'^111 '^IIMII "5 o M f 4 i« o> i/v'Jjvo t^MI r«IIIMI "it* "S?"!!! S^fta^:?^! II ^1 II 1 II ?!? T «  Walking 50 yards I :» yards aao yards 440 yards 8lio yards c mile in one hour 12 hours 5 miles Running so yards 100 yards 2 :!o yards 440 yards SSo yards I mile 5 miles Running backward i;o yards 100 yards Shrnding high jump ivitkout weights Running high jump without weights 355) Coapt and DograM 356) ♦ Woodcifft Manual for Girla [ J Oiml> "".as •» 8 tlt^t U ii 00 ■ i to o ^ 8 i« $ :s o s I & >0 O * " M • ik ^ 3 s; ft « ^ *5 * n fl 5 is <s ^ ft ^" ^'

i ^ ^ & ^ ftvO TArou' baseball (reii;ulation) BaUing baseball Thrmnng lacrosse ball wiUi stick FootbiM kick a drciD coal Football Place; kick counted to w here ball first striki;s ground Running high kick rope i8 ft; hands only Ckmthebar 357) 358) 359) 33S Athletie . (Opm to ««• orijr "-^ Hub 10 nam, cou^- «<> «• T^' " i« " "a ,. M II •I

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30 40 SO 75 100 Walk 10 milM, €mP 1$ " 30 40 50 75 100 Skateso " 75 " too Swim S 10 IS i> II II 11 •I It i< II «i M II M II II II II II II II •I l< l< II •I II II II II M M M M M M <l It II II II tl 9 16

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i " 5 - It II it II 70 ifi-«  J ■■ 8 14 ai I 3 3 4 6i ftKOld II 9 " i6| " I so Si It ^ tl 11 " in any tioie. frond coup in any OBI MB «n »4 hra., aoo *4 f*"* ••^ (Aoc 10 L. A. W. niki) circle: c<mp. aa ft.; r^"^ coup, hand Z>u«ft-W/. Push up one S<>;»b. dum^beUmm^^ to fuU arm length above the shoulder: 15 time* lor couf, 3 times, grand R«Cj94 tunj. Ditto with 100-Ib. dmnlHJei: 5 timet, «Mf * 10 »' coup; Rec. 20 times. Ditto with two lOO-lb duiub-bells once, «^ same time, proud coup. To turn a wheel, coup. , WfukrwiM' CBll#; Bandspring. Throw a tumbler or 4-legged tendipnng, €mp» throw a clean hMd^|^tteg.^«^cou^^^ Btuh kandsprkn. A dam back handsprmg, r«» Witw Sporta and iiayel (For SBiBHBiiig, lOwiBg. €tc, MB clB«lfi«d athletics on a previous page.) Balking. A c^/> for lu^ving ba^ of^^f; ^ of natural temperature anywhere north of N. Lat. 30, or louu. 360) 336 Woodcraft Manual lor Giils of S. Lat. 30, for 300 days in the year; a grand coup for 365 ^?addle. Row or pole five miles a day for five successive days, each day make a note and sketch (or photograph) of some m- teresting scene, ftw^ . . , ^, , • Sail a boat without expert help for fifty miles m one season, coup. . . ^ . . Run a motw boat 100 miks on <»e occaaion, that u, m one txip, coup. , . . . Log-riding. Tread a sawlog 100 yards m any tune, witM)Ut going overboard, for coup; do it 100 yards and back in thirty minutes, for gran</co«^. ... « -n Canoeman. Single paddle a canoe on dead water, bpui the canoe and get into her again, and bak her alone coimis coup. . A grand coup, spiU, right, and bale the canoe alone, three times in succession, and have run a rapid that falls sa feet in 200 yards. , . . < Canoe-crjnper. Have made a ccmtmuous canoe tnp of 500 miles, sleeping out every night, cmp; ifioo miles of the same, grand coup. . jj, * • r Saddle-camper. Have made a omtmuous saddle tr^ <» 500 miles, sleeping out every ni^t, coup; 1,000 miles, pram coup. Lone-tramper. Travel alone, on foot, 100 miles, carry outfit, deep out every ni^^t, coup; a grand couPf for aoo miles. Gang4ramper. Travel 150 miles on foot with a party, rarry own outfit, sleep out every night, coup; a grand coup, for 250 miles. . . , ., • Ski-man. Travel six miles m an hour, forty miles m one day, cover forty feet in a jump, and travel 500 miles all told, coup; travel seven miles in an hour, fifty miles in one day, make a fifty-foot jump, and travel 1,000 miles all txM, a grand coup. Arctic Traveler. A coup, for entering the Arctic Circle by sea ; a grand coup, by land. Tropic Traveler. CrOM the Equator by sea or rail, coup; a gtatd coup, on iixti. Motoring. Have covered 1,000 miler, within thirty day», acting as your own chauffeur and mechanic, coup; have covered ifioo miles in four days, 100 miles in two hours, acting as your ownchauftur and mechanic, grand coup. (In both cases garage privileges allowed.) 361) Coups and Degrees 337 Mountain Climbing (aU Afoot) (Not open to those under 14-) By Sir Martin Conway, ex-president of the Alpine Chlb. The exploits in this class are repeaters. one The first one to climb a stanSard peak gets two badges: one for dimb, one tatjirst ditnb. For time over 14 end under 18. Coup In Great Britain-^ Macdhuie, Ben Nevis, Ben Lomond, Ben Cruachan, Snowdon, Scarf ell.

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Wyo. Grand Coup In Europe-m. Blanc, Monte Viso, Etna, Monte Rosa. In NoJAmerica-me's Peak, Shasta, Adams. , In ylsia— Fujiyama; Tabor. Add to this all the list of next group. For sD time over z8. Coup In Europe^m. Blanc. Monte Rosa, JJon^* J^f'^j^' Gmnd ParJdis. Tungfrau, Finst«aarhorn Wrtt«horn, Bermna, Ortler, Gross, Glockner, Matterhorn from Zerrratt. In North Anurica-St. Helen's Adams, Slmsta^iood, Rainier, Mt. Shaughnessy, Mt. Stephen, Popocatapetf;On«ba. Grand Coup In Europe-Ue]e, Aig. du Gr^pon, Aig. du G^J. A^^du Dru, Mattwhom (by Italian or Stockjerida^^^ Mischabdhamer from Seas, Schieckkom, Monte di Sarscen, FllnfiingerSp.,KleineZinne. t«— « Mt. An- /,. North Ammca-m. Sir DonaM. Mt. Logan. 1^ ^ siniboine, Mt. Fairweather, Mt. St. Elias, Grand Teton, Mt. McKinley. Any peak in Alaslui over 13,000 feet luph. In Simth Amerka-Cbimhonzo, Cotopaxi, IHunani, Aam- cagua. 362) 33$ WoodciBft Maaaal for Giiii In /Ij/a— Any peak 19,000 feet high. In Africa— Any peak ov«r feet high. Utrfit Sbootfat (Open to men or women only.) Everything that can be said in fa'or of fireaimi for uw in general sport api^ to the rifle only (and its understudy the revolver). The icatter-gun has BO ollicial existence for us. It is ruination to the marksman's power and sboyd be abolished. A riie range is • deafaibie adjunct to all grown-up caniM. Badges awarded acooidiag to tlwunystudiinis. Revolver-shot. Target 4x4 feet. Bull's-eye eight inches (counts four points). Inner ring two feet (three points). Outer, the rest of target (two points). Distance, thirty yards. Ninety-six shots divided in any number up to six days, one hand, standing: 250 points count coup; 7,00, grand loup. Half with left hand only; half with right only: 230 points, coup; 260, grand coup. Rifleman. To be a marksman of the highest rank but one, according to militia standards, a coup; to be an expert rifleman of the highest rank, a grand amp. Spot the Rabbit three times out of five at sixty yards, also distinguish and map out correctly sue Pleiades and see ckarly the "Pappoose (Alcor) on the Squaw's (Mizar) back" counts a coup; spot the Rabbit three times out of five at seventy yards and seven Pleiades and the Piq^MXise, counts a far-i^t grmd amp. (Those who habitually wear glasses may use tkm in this test.) (See "Far-sight," among the games.) Make a seventy-five score in ten tries in the game <rf Quick- sight, with ten counters, counts coup; a ninety-five sc<wc counts a grat$d coup. (See "Quick-sight," among the games.) CLASS n— CAMPERCRAFT Bee-kne. Come to camp through strange woods from a point one mile off and return in thirty minutes, coup; in twenty, for ffrarui coup. Match-fire. Light fifteen campfires in succession with fifteen matches, all in different places, all with stuff found in the woods by one's self, one at least to )x on a wet aay , ca»p; VL a& Mteea MB done on wet days, w if one does thirty, of lAigk two are as wet 6Ay%,pratidcoup. 363) Coups and Decrees 339 i Vnt and SUd Fire. Light fifteen campfires in succession with wildwood timber, one at least on a wet dfX. J*"^ "O"* ***f over a minute from striking the flint to hfvmg the blazes ,ouP: if all fifteen are done on one day, or if one does thuty ur^in unbroken succe^ion. fwo atl^t on wetdays^ in no case more than half a minute from ftnke to biaae, irwtf ""tubbing-stick t ire. Light a fire with a fireKfrfil or rubbing- icks! S material of oii?'s own gathering, cmp; to do it in one "^rj^^Si^r BoU one quart of water in a twojj^uart in twSve minutes; in nine mmutes, ?rand coup. Allowed one L Tnc match, one axe or hatchet. The water >s boihng when iumoinz and bubbling all over t he surface. ^ Chop down three six-inch trees m succ^ion in sixt V seconds each, throwing them to drive f»th a given stake; in forty-five seconds each, granJ ct)!*/'. Knots Mefce twenty-five different standard knots moHatcd and t agged for exhibition for amp; fifty for grand coup. JVlakt- an exhibition card of braiding and splicing ropes ma fancy knots— twenty, mtp; Airty, grand coup. l asw. Catch ten horses or cattle in corral with ten throws of the lasso, coup; catch ten on the range m ten throws, gramdcoM. W Ck^ a horse or beef by e«di ol hi* fowr foct m four successive throws, grawJ rtwA- . Lasso. To catch, throw, and 'hog-tie" » beef « hjm m two and one-half minutes, amP; in one and one-half mmutea, grand coup. The record is sakl to be forty seconds. Diamond Hitch. Pack a horse with not IwOiMioy^^ of stuff, with diamond hitch, to hold durmg dgkt tomt ol a*vei, amp; ten days in succession, grand coup. iiu Guessing. Guess one inch, one foot, one yard, one rod, one acre. lOO yard*, 30e ywds, one-ttuarter mile, one-half mile, an.! a mile, within 20 per «nt. of average error, for coup; 10 per cent, for erafid coup. . , • , c . . , Height and Weigkt Gmsting. Guess the h, ight of ten tree5 or other high things, and the weight o< ten^jnes or oth«thmg ranging horn one ounce to 100 poumk, wkmi 10 OKK- «■ average error, for comp: 5 per cent for grand roup Gating Farness Measure the hei#»t of Um trees without climbing, or ten distances aemt S rfwr wHhoot crossing. within lopercent. of average error, «ii^SP«C«t,|Feei «iiff tools . an axe and a pocket rule aaly. Star Gating. Know sod IMM fit«n itsr groups for fipn^. 364) 940 Woodcnft Mtmal lor Giili know twenty star groups and tell the names and somethfag about at least one star in each, for grand coup. LaHtude. Take the latitude from the stars at ni^ht with a cart wheel, or some home-made instrument, ten tunes from different points, within one degree of average error, for cmp; one-half degree for grand coup. Traveler. Take correct latitude, longitude, and local time, coup. Having passed the Royal Geographical Society's exam- ination of "expert traveler," grand coup. Boat-builder. Build a boat that will carry two men and that can be paddled, rowed, or sailed by them five miles an hour, coup; six miles an hour, grand coup. Birch Canoe. Make a birch canoe that has traveletl, with at least one man aboard, loo miles or more in safety, grawJ coup. Sign Talking. Know and lUK correctly 200 signs, coup; 400 signs, grand coup. Wi^'ag or Myer Signaling. Know this code and signal, as well as receive a message a quarter mile off, at the rate <rf ten words a minute, coup; & same, at a mile, twwty-foitf wovii a minute, grand coup. Morse Code. The same. TraiHng. Know and clearly discriminate the tracks of twenty- five of our common wild quadrupeds, also trail one for a mile and secure it without aid of snow, coup; similarly dis crim inate fii^ tracks, and follow three tracks a mile as before, but for thiw (Ufferent animab, grand coup. Camper. Pass thirty successive nights out of doors, never once sleeping under shingles, but in lent, teepee, or bivotMC, every night, coup; sixty nights of the same, £rand coup. Cooking. Cook twelve digestible meals lor at least three per- sons, using ordinary camp outfil, coup; or twenty-one meals and in addition make good breail each day, grand couh. WUdemess Cooking. Make and bake bread, fry fish or meat , and boil potatoes or fish without p<^ ot pans. Couf or §rand coup, according to merit. Cahin. Build a habitable k>g cabin not less than 6x8, with wind-tight walls and waterproof roof. Coup or ptni emPt ac- cording to merit. Teni or Teepee. Make a two-man t«at or an 8-foot teepee or better, single handed, and set them up; coup or itmJ coup ac- cording to merit. Lakwe, Make and run 'or three days a perfect latrine in army faahion, coup or grand coup, acrording to merit. Cify^unkr. find and ketch twenty-five blazes and totems 365) 341 in town and tefl whwe you found them. In^te the distin- gutthing marks of policemen, park |)olicemen, traffic squad.stro^ arm squad, etc. Coui or pand coup according to merit. mates and Sipts. Make the four usual Indian Signs or Blazes on tree trunk, in twigs, grass, stones, give the smoke signals, and add twenty-five other signs or pictographs used by the Indians. Coup or grand amp, according to merit. Herald. Open and lead tin- Council, light the sacred fire, per- forming the Peace Pipe ceremony and the Naming ceremony. Know three Indian dances, songs, and the Omaha Invocatkm. Coup or graml coup, according to merit. Peace Messenger. Know loo signs of the Sign Language and transkte faito English from any other language sentences amounting to 300 words, coup; know 200 signs and translate from two lansuages, grand coup. Have plumed, made, and established a Council Rmg, amp or i?ra»J coM^ according to merit. Map. Make a < orrect map of a region one mile long, one- quarter mile wide, such as a mile of highway, taking in one- eighth of a mile on each side, marking every house, fence, hm, and prominent tree, etc. When there is a stream, indicate the size, speed, ^llons it runs per hour, and bridges. Coup or ffMi ftfui, according to merit. ,0 t j *u Sweat Lodge. Make and use properly a Sweat Lodge tluree times in one week, in two of the timet it may be given to another person for fo«p. 1. * Run a Sweat Lodge successfully for tme month, treatmg at least a dozen patients, grand coup. Bm and A rrmi's. Make a bow and six arrows that will carry 100 yards, roup; 1 50 yards, grand coup. Tomtom. Make and decorate a tomtom; cmp or p^m coup, ftccording to morit. Archery (Revised by Will H. Thompwn, of Se»ttk» Wash.) Make a total score of 300 with sixty shots (in or two omHs) four-foot target at forty yards (or three4oot target at thirty yards) , for coup; make 400 for grand coup. Shoot so fast and far as to have six arrows in the air at 000^ for coup; seven, for frafMf cmp. (Accotdiag to Catlin, the record is eight.) For children (under ten), to send an arrow ninety yards, eomp; 115 yards, ^and coup. For those ten to fourteen, to send an arrow 125 yaidi, coup; 150, pattd coup. For thwe fourteen to 366) 343 Woodenft IfamMl for Giili dl^teen, to send an arrow 175 yards, coup; 200, srand amp. Vot those over eighteen, to wnd an •mm 350 yaidi, cottp; 275, grand coup. To hit the Burlap Deer in the heart, first shot: 10-14 at 45 yards, coup; 55 yards, grand coup 14-18 " 60 " " 70 " " " Over 18 "75 " " 85 " " '* (The heart is nine indies acrois.) To cover a mile: Giildren in 10 shots fat coup; 15 shots for grand coup 10-14 " 14 " " " II " " " " 14-18 "10 " " " 9 " " " " Over 18 " 8 " " " 7 " " " " Long Range, Clout, or Flight Shootiiif 14-18 Three-foot target at 130 yards, if possibk on a steep hillside. In the target is a bull's eye, and counts ... 9 Within X feet of outside of target " 6 II j2 " " " " " 7 5 3 Coup is for 300 at sixty consecutive shots. Grand coup is for 400 at sixty consecutive shots. (In one or two meets.) Over 18 Four-foot target at x8o yards, if possible on a steep hillside. In the target is a bull's eye, and counts ... 9 Within 6 feet of outside of target " ... 7 5 3 1 Coup for 300 at sixty consecutive shots. Grand coup for 400 at sixty ccmsecutive shots. (In one two meets.) Fishing (By Dr. Haaiy vui Dj^, Author of "littk RKvfs,** •TUflnasa'S Luck," etc.) (B<^ an thoM under 14; kds 14 to t8; mm iS sad ovor.) (Yoai« girit an thoae uader 14; giilt, 14 to it; wobwb iS aad ow.) Tackle-making. Boys and young girls r To make a six-foot leader of clean gut, with smooth knoU to stand a strain of <( j2 K <( « « « «  II II If 11 II M tt II II II II II II II 24 367) Cmf tad DegiMt 343 five pounds, coup. To tie six different flies, of regular patterns on number eight-twelve hooks, and take trout with each of them, by daylight casting in clear water, pamd ceup. ilads and G^b: Make a bait rod of three points, straight and .c.und, fourteen ounces or less in weight, ten feet or less m length, to stand a strain of one and one-half pounds, at the tip, thirteen pounds at the grip, «m*. Make a pmted fly-rod eight-ten fll^^^o^g four-six omce8 In weight, capable of castmg a fly sixty ^^f/Sf«»r'Ws and lads and young girls and Rirls: Take with the fly. unassisted, a three-pound trout or black bass.ona rod not more than five ounces in weight, Take a five-pound trout or black bass or a four-pound landk)cked salmon under the same conditions, grand coup, .... - . »^ .Jtu Men and women: Hook and land with the fly. unassisted, with- out net or gaff, a trout or landlocked salmon over four pounds, or a salmon over twelve pounds, coub. To Uke, under the same conditions, a salmon over twenty-five pounds, grand coup. General Fishing. Boys, lads, men, young girls, girls, and women Take on a rod, without assistando m hooking, playing, or landing, a trout, black bass, pike, Kraylmg. sa^ n^on, bluefish, weakfish, striped bass, kmgfish, sheepshead or other game fish, whose weight in pounds equals or exceeds that of the rod in ounces. , . , Take under the same conditions a game fish that is double in pounds the ounces of the rod, grand i»Mp. n„^.u htdoor Fly-casting. Boys and young girls: To cast a fly with a roil of five ounces or less, not over ten feet long, forty Ject, coup; fifty-five feet, grattd coup. . . , . j Lads and girb: Sixty-five feet, coup; eighty feet, grand coup. Men and women: Eighty feet, coup; mnety-five feet, proud '^'^'^Every fish caught and kept, but not used, is a rotten spot in the angler's recod" (H. v. D.). Bait CMtlng (ReviMd by Lou S. Dwlliig, of New York, Author of •TVwiWMBt Casting and the Proper Equipment ) With one-fourth-ounce dummy frog, five-foot rod, indoors, overlwad casting, toumamttit i^: Child class, 40 Jeet foe cmp; 50 feet for iMwrf cmp. Boys and ^. „ „ „ younggirU" 60 " « " 7^ " V *' 368) 344 Woodcraft Mamial for Girls T^dsandgirbcIa88,8ofeetfor«»M/; 90 tttt tot pmd coup. Men and Women " 100 " " " lao " " '* " If out of doors add 10 per cent, to each of the distances if cast is made with the wind. If a wooden plug is used instead of the dummy frog add 30 per cent to each distance. CXASS m— NATURB STUDY Vertebrates (Reviled by Fnuk M. Chapman, of the American Museum «rf Natunl History, New York City.) Know and name correctly twenty-five native wild quadrupeds, for coup; know and name correctly fifty, and tell something about each, for grand coup. Know and draw u nmi stakable pictures of twenty-five tracks of wxT four-foot animals, for coup; of fifty, for grand coup. Know and name correctly 100 of our native birds as seen mounted in a museum, the female and young to count separately when they are wholly different from the male. Two hundred birds, grand coup. Know and name correctly fifty wild birds in the field: xoo, grand cou^. Recognize fifty wild Kirds by note; 100 for grand coup. Know and name ten turtles; twenty for p'ond coup, with something interesting about each. Know and name ten different snakes, tdl idiich are poisonous, for coup; twenty snakes for grand coup. Know and name correctly ten Batracfaians; twenty for grand coup. Know and name twenty-five fish; fifty fish for pand coup. Lower Forms of Life (Revised by John Borroughs.) Know and name twenty-five native land and fresh-water shells, fifty for grand coup. Know and name twenty-five moths, fifty for grand coup. Know and name twenty-five butterflies, fifty for grand amp. Know and name fifty other insects, 100 for grand coup. Know and name correctly. e., with the accepted En^Ui names, according to any standard authority, twenty-five trees, Mod teU something interesting about whem, fifty for grand coup. 369) Cmqw ad Degnet 345 Know and name correctly fifty of our wild flowers, 100 for grand coup. Know and name correctly twenty-five of our wild ferns, fifty for grand amp. Know and name correctly twenty-five of our native mwifi, fifty for grand coup. Know and name fifty common toadstools or mushrooms, 100 for grand coup. Make and maintain a vivarium (aquarium with part land for turtles, frogs, etc.) successfully for six months and keep record of life of inmates. Dimensions two by four, iratul coup for one year success or unusual beauty or size. Kt«p ten records oi different l»rdls when first seen, nesting broods hatched, flying, etc., in one year. Grmtd amp for fifteen records. Dry and mount twenty-five ferus, properly identified. Fifty for prand amp. Geology, ttc. (Revised by Prof. Chaiies D. Wdcott, Sacntaiy, SoiitlitoBkui TnttftBtfen ) Paleontology. Know and name, referring to thdr proper strata if ty native fossib, 100 for grand coup. M ineratogy. Know and name fifty minerals, for coup; or zoo for grand coup. Geology. Know and name and describe the fourteen great di- visions of the earth's crust, according to Geikie, idso define watershed, delta, drift, fault, glacier, terrace, stratum, dip, and identify ten different kinds of rock, for coup. In addition to the first, define sediment metamorphic, antklinal, syndinal, mo- raine, coal, metal, mineral, petromim, and klntify in all two^ kinds of rock, for grand coup. nioto^apby (Revised by A. Radclyffe Dugmora, of Couv i j Life in Anurica, New YoA.) (Photographs accepted and used at Hea^fquarters count each a coup or grand coup according to merits.) Make a good rec<^i2able photmrauh of any wild bird larger than a robin while 00 iu nest With image three indies k»g grand coup. 370) 34^ Woodcfift BfaaMU for Oirit Make a good photograph of a Ruffed Grooae drumming, * Prairie Chicken daitdng, A Woodcock or a WIA Tuhuy ttniU> ing, grand coup. Make a recogninUe photogn4<h ci a wild animal in the air, or t^rattd conp^ according to merit. Dittofor a tish. Get a ffooA photograph of any large wild animal in its native surroundings, and not looking at ym, for comp or iramd comp, according to merit. (As these are tests of woodcraft, moMgerie animals do not count.) Photograph and negative of Council or Woodcraft activities that can ix- used ( need not be developed by self) as lantom dMe and accepted by National Headquarters. Coup or ffond eomp. according to merit. Photo and negative of descript've dances as above (folk ot Indian dances)— accepted and u&ed by ikadquarters coup or grand coup. Photo Hiid negative of insects and butterllics, moths, etc., in natural surroundingsr— as above — coup or g^atid coup accord- ing to merit. Blueprints direct from flowers (in collection named and iden- tified as to locality and season) coup for twenty-five; ff^and coM^ for fifty. CLASS IV— CRAFTS Handicraft Coup or frond coup according to merit Make a carved wood future frame at least 8 x lo Inches rc idy for Dicture with glass aiMi back — ^Indian carving suggested. Make model teepee, model log cabin, or good mmiature model (rf Council Ring with removable furnishings. Make a model of camp— tents, teepees, fireplace. Make a four-poster for wiUow bed. Make and use a Navajo loom— for blanks weaving. Make a decorated noggin. Faint and deomte Doards for Four Fires. Coup w giraiid CM^ according to merit. Make, decorate, and fire foiu: bowls (Zimi, Acoma, San Do- mingo, and Moquin style). Make a set ol four candtartlcks and fire bowl lor Good^ick Fire. 371) Cot^a tntf Degrees 347 Make a set of tracking ircms. Make a bracelet ai hammered lOver or piece of bran or copper work or silvcrwork. Make a set of three metal hubs, dies, or punches for stamping on metalwork. Indian Bed. Make an Indian bed of at least sixty rods, all lied tight for coup. Make one of eighty or more rods with four cords all straight, and bound at ♦he edges, for grand coup. Basket. Make a serviceable basket of wikhrood materiab, not less than five inches across. Weaving. Weave a good grass or nuh rug, square and even, not less than 2x5 feet. Indian Clock. Make an Indian clock, that is, a sun-dial, that works. Make a par of tilting stools and spears according to rules i.e., stM.)l< circular on top, fifteen inches across, about twenty inches high on four widespread kgi. Spears as per "Wood- craft Manual for Boys." Make a set of six plain cooking dishes of cia}% dry and prepare by self. Agriculture Take honorable mention or second or third prize for exhibit of vegetables or fruits or cereal grains grown, at Covmty, State, or National Fair. Grand coup for first prize. Take honorable mention or second or third prize for domestic animals exhibited at County, State, or National Fair. (Cats or dogs not included.) Grand coup for first prize. Take prize at an}' County, State, or National Faur lor chickens, geese, ducks, guineas, bees, silk-worms, or aninuds. Grand coup for first prize. Milk a cow twice a day for a month. Know how to treat a caked bag. Identify six different kinds of cattle and tell their good and bad points. Ilave four window boxes of growing plants planted and cared for by self for four mmths <x year. Boxes must be at least 24 X 8 inches. Have successful perennial vegetable garden for two years. Garden must contam eig^t <^ the following: asparagus, Swiss chard, sorrel (rumex), parsley, leeks, onions, spinach, sage, thyme, mint, Iwrseradish, cornsalad, hardy chiv, and rhubexfo. Grand coup tor twdve. Have grown for one year a cdd-irame ol pansies or vkkCa. 372) 348 Woodcmft Manual for Girls . Grand coup for having also started a friend with plants and helped make and fix cold-frame. Clear $25 on a half-acre garden, after paying for labor, etc., in one summer. Make a successful mushroom cellar. Home Craft Coup or grand coup according to merit Train a class in cooking — showing the members and niaking them do it correctly, for six persons and give demonstration of success. Spin enough cotton, flax, wool, or hemp to make five yards of stuff or six pairs of socks. Weave ten yards of doth or rag-carpet rug or bedspread. Prepare, cook, and serve daintily, four ten-course diimers for a party of not less than four people. Everything must be hwne cooked. e • r Serve practical and attractive meals to a family of six for one month at the rate of ten cents per meal per person, a total ol $54- , . , . I.- 1 Prepare twelve meals on a tray for sick persons, usmg chicken broth, eggnog, milk toast, and show the value of bright and cheerful serving. Know and be able to buy and cook all of the best cuts of lamp, mutton, beef, and pork, making sure meat is fresh and cooked correctly. Know value of cereals and proper preparation of com, wheat, rice, barley, and rye for bread and porridges. Also know about the care and feeding of infants from birth to three ye^rs. Have been a "little mother," being a real daily guardian for three months— dressing, undressing, and caring for on time. Act as hostess at a formal limcheon, dinner, or party of some band to at least six people for which the invitations were self- made and menu supervised. Also plan and carry out three outdoor picnics or entertainments for a dozen or more girb, at which refreshments are served. Keep an eight-room house — used by not less than four people — clean and in order, caring for clothes, etc., arranging flowers, and assisting at meals for one month. Do a family washing and ironing for not less than four persons for one month and do idl cleaning and pressing of suits, skirts, trousers, etc. 373) Coups and Degrees 349 Drying, Preserving, and Canning Coups Dry three pounds (weight when dried) of apples, peaches, or other fruit, coup. Grand coup, five pounds. Glace three pounds of any kind of fruit (candied fruit) coup. Grand coup five pounds (cherries, cranberries, pineapple, orange, etc.). Make three dozen glasses of jelly (without addition of any artificial jelly maker). Grand coup, five dozen glasses. Preserve or can three dozen quarts of any fruit, coup. Five dozen quarts, grand coup. Make one pound gumbo file' (sassafras, buds and tender leaves dried and powdered), coup. Grand coup, two pounds. Can two dozen quarts any vegetable except tomatoes, coup. Grand coup, three dozen. Make two quarts (four Vays) of tomato preserve and pickle. Canned ripe and unripe, coup. Six ways for gra$§d coup. Preserve uncooked in cold water alone six quarts each of rhubarb and green gooseberries, coup. Take honorable mention or second or third prize for exhibit of Canned Goods or Preserves at County, State, or National Fair. Grand coup for first prize. Take honorable mention or second or third prize for exhibit of cooked foods at County, State, or National Fair. Grand coup for first prize. Take honorable mention or second or third prize for exhibit of preserves at County, State, or National Fair. Grand amp for first prize. Candy one pound each of grape-fruit, orange, and lemon-peel, coup. Candy one-half pound each of mint leaves, rose kaves, videts, and calamus root, coup. Make one pint elder-flower water, cucumber juice toilet water, or witch-hazel extract. Materiak must be gathered by self, cou p. Make one pint mullein, camomile, ginger, and boneset tea. Materials gathered by self, coup. Make salve from brunella (self-heal), witch haael, or marigdd (calradula); materials gathered by self, coup. Curing Meat luid Fish Catch and prepare for cooking 100 pounds, dressed we^^ salt water fish. Fish must be used and not wasted. 374) 350 Woodenft Manual for GMs Needle Craft Unless oOerwise staled coup or grand coup according to merU .Jf^h ^ «^en«g. graduation, or party dress Mu<it «  tSf °' '""k»'ic design „d Ka' J?Sf ?T r "I ^'S" <» » ceremonial rob. CLASS V— ENTERTAINER Cw^ or ^afw; coup according to merit fS^S"-— ^^^^^^^^ sUtuUon and Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.^^ to toe COn- 375) Coups and Degrees 351 Teach a class of children successfully for six months in school, church, or recreation centre. Entertain younger pf l.e on five different occasionf-intro- ducing song, story, dancc, and manual training. Dance su good folk dances that are solo dances. Give a superlaUve perfomumce of any of the standard dances on three pubhc occasions. Give lustory of woman's movement in tliis country, telling what btates have woman suffrage. Name the ten Americans whom you consider greatest in our history and say why. Do not include Kving people. Teil briefly of their hves and work. o r- t- Dancer. Know three Indian dancing songs and be able to dance and teach three standard Indian incS CLASS VI— UFE CRAFT Red Cross. A grand ojup for having passed the Red Cross examination of first aid to the injured. Life Saving For passing the U. S. Vol. Life Saving Corns diploma test for hfe sa^/mg m the water, a coup. For the same and an actual rescue, f;rand coup. Tf^^ffing Life Buoy. For those under eighteen: To threw it forty feet within ten feet of the mark is coup; the same but forty-five feet withm five feet of the mark is grand coup. In each case It must be thrown three out of five For th<Me over dghteen: To throw it fifty-five feet within ten feet of the mark is cou^; sixty feet withm five feet of the mark IS grand coup. In each case three times out of five. DEGREES IN WOODCRAFT The Degrees in Woodcraft are given because of general aU- around proficiency. They cover aU phases of life and enable Woodcraf ters to work along lines which arouse the most interest and give the greatest pleasure. Some subjects are of interest to only one sex, but all are open to both sexes. fn,SL * ^yj^^ of Guidance. The degrees are founded on world-wide standards, and with the help r.f the best experts. The CouncU will gladly consider any suggestion, but it r'L^^^^ "*» ^ ?^°"P ^ I^wer to add to or vary the degrees m any way whatsoever. 376) 353 Woodcraft Mantud for Girls DtgTMf ai OifMi in Woodcrtft leagot Art Craftsman Art Metal Worker Athlete Backwoods Handicraft Bird Sharp BFOther-Sister Craft Business Camper Camp Cook Camp Craftsman Camp Doctor Canner Canoeman Carpenter Citizen Colonial Housekeeper Conservator Cradle Craft Dancer Entertainer F' inner Fisherman Foodcraft Forester Frontiersman Gardener Gleeman Handihelp Herald Home Cook Horseman Hostess Housekeeper Hunter Hunter in Town Indian Ciaf tsman Indian Lore Laundry Expert Life Craft Lightning Wheeler Market Woman or Buyer Metalworker Mountaineer Needle Woman Nurse Patriotism Potter Scout Scout-Runner Seamanship Sharpshooter Small Stock Farmer Star Wiseman Stock Farmer Swimmer Teacher Three Years' Service Thunder Handler Thunder Roller Traveler Village Scout White Man's Woodcraft Wise Woodman Woman's Power in History Degree I>egree Badges The Degree Badge is an embroidered square with a horn on each side. The Blanket Degree badge is the Zuni Coil. 377)

Moninieio Art Craftsman (Moninieio) Dasswabek Art Metal Worker (Dasswabek) Song-adis Athlete (Song-adis) Shaginapi Backwoods Handicraft (Shaginapi)
Bineshi Bird Sharp (Bineshi) Awema Brother-Sister Craft (Awema) Anokiwin Business (Anokiwin) Gabeshiked Camper (Gabeshiked)
Chabakwed Camp Cook (Chabakwed) Enokid Camp Craftsman (Enokid) Mashkiki Camp Doctor (Mashkiki) Atassowin Canner (Atassowin)
Chemaunigan Canoeman (Chemaunigan) Mokodasso-Winini Carpenter (Mokodasso-Winini) Kitchi-odena-winini Citizen (Kitchi-odena-winini) Gaiat Colonial Housekeeper (Gaiat)
Ganawenima Conservator (Ganawenima) Oshki-Abinodji Cradle Craft (Oshki-Abinodji) Namid Dancer (Namid) Tchessakid Entertainer (Tchessakid)
Kitigewin Farmer (Kitigewin) Gagoiked Fisherman (Gagoiked) Midjim Foodcraft (Midjim) Mitigwakid Forester (Mitigwakid)
Gimab Frontiersman (Gimab) Kitigan Gardener (Kitigan) Nagamed Gleeman (Nagamed) Wadokaged Handihelp (Wadokaged)
Bibaged Herald (Bibaged) Tchibakwe-wigamag Home Cook (Tchibakwe-wigamag) Bebamomigod Horseman (Bebamomigod) Ashangekwe-tahtiopa Hostess (Ashangekwe-tahtiopa)
Ostiwin Housekeeper (Ostiwin) Gaossed Hunter (Gaossed) Odena-gaossed Hunter in Town (Odena-gaossed) Anishinabe Indian Lore (Anishinabe)
Inanokiwin Indian Craftsman (Inanokiwin) Kisibigaige-winini Laundry Expert (Kisibigaige-winini) Image midjim-binadisiwin 1917.gif not uploaded! Life Craft (Midjim-binadisiwin) Odakewinini Lightning Wheeler (Odakewinini)
Gishpinage Market Woman or Buyer (Gishpinage) Nawabik Metal Worker (Nawabik) Wadjiwed Mountaineer (Wadjiwed) Jabonigan-ikwe Needle Woman (Jabonigan-ikwe)
Gatini-wekwe Nurse (Gatini-wekwe) Nind-aki Patriotism (Nind-aki) Nampeyo Potter (Nampeyo) Kee-mo-sah'-bee Runner (Kee-mo-sah'-bee)
Mikan Pathfinder (Mikan) Nabikwa-Ninini Seamanship (Nabikwa-ninini) Godaakwed Sharpshooter (Godaakwed) manitoweish Small Stock Farmer (Manitoweish)
Gijiged Star Wiseman (Gijiged) Kitigewin Stock Farmer (Kitigewin) Shingebis Swimmer (Shingebis) Kikinowina Teacher (Kikinowina)
Nisso-bibon Three Years’ Service (Nisso-bibon) Wassamowin Thunder Handler (Wassamowin) Animiki-okakewinini Thunder Roller (Animiki-okakewinini) Bebamadisid Traveler (Bebamadisid)
Odena-winini Village Scout (Odena-winini) Dibaakid White Woodcraft (Dibaakid) Nibwaka-winini Wise Woodman (Nibwaka-winini) Gashkiewikwe' Woman’s Power in History (Gashkiewikwe')

Claiming Degrees A Degree may be claimed at Council after application has been made on a properly filled form which sets forth the claim with suflBcient witnesses to prove legally that the test was fairly taken. (See page 33) The Degree Claim is certified by the Chief and Tally Keeper of the Council conferring it, and returned to the applicant, but record is kept in the Tribal Tally. None but Chartered Tribes in good standing have power to award either Coup ot Degree Badges. 380) Moninieio

Art Craftsman


The Degree of Art Craftsman may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests; '™ ^ I. Make a ceremonial suit for one's self. .17u ^^^^^^^'■^"'^"'aiWiofbeadworktellineastorv Make a ceremonial suit for younger Woodcraft «  w«i i ^7/' ^ "^^^ ten inches high) accurately in Woodcraf ceremonial suit, or some other distinct outfit ^ I" p»k ^ or artist's smock with smocking, sign ^"^^'"'^^ * ceremonial dress, symbolic or Indian de- in quill^worl^ ^"^^ ^"^ ^P °^ ^^"'^*l««t work ^' JJ^J^ y*^^ °^ handmade lace, sins!^' ^^"""^^^ ^pakof Indian leggings or mocca- An!°;f ^ "^"^^'^^ *=<>^er with beadwork, or apoUou^ one of Imen or a woven cover. »ppuque "* S^^^ ^ ^^sign preferred. ^12. Make a box for coup feathers of leather or of birch- dei^* attractive box or bag for rubbing sUcks and tin- 14. Decorate a blanket, similiar to Sagamore's, tions "^^"^ '^^'^^ ^ '^o* decora- eigh^t iX^S/rLJL^'^^"^^ ^ ^^"^^^ Jo S ^^'^'f '"'"P'^^^ ^^^t^ gJass mounting. J: ^ u S'^^ P'"""' ^'OfJ' «f go<^ design. ^ 20. Make three piece, of brass work of good desSn plaque^'-'"' d-o-t*^ a brass or co^^r t^'vase, or 22 Maketvv-o hanging basket vases of willow or raffia suit- able for porch decoration, fitted with holder of glass o?Un crSVw* ' '^'^P^'*' ^^'^ b^^ Wood- ualdbvAmiL«T^^ "and name of ten beadwork designs uaea by American Indians such as ram, star, etc. 381) Song-adis


(Song-adis) 382) Dasswabek

Art Metal Worker


The Degree of Art Metal Worker may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests: I. Make set of six buttons and a pair of cufflinks to^match m copper, brass. German iS. «p,2SS befiXSlntrbSS'"^^^ ^i^' u '"■^f ^'■^y- P'^t"""e frame, etc. 4- Make bracelet, band, link, or chain. filigree^* metal-may be engraved plates or links or in se'uing,'oreSel'^ ^ semi-predon. tone ""^ ^"'^ and plates. 9- JJake bowl ten inches in diameter f^^y '"'^^^^ diameter. 12. Make four small knockers for study, bedroom nhvnvim and music room, with appropriate dcsigr playroom. 13- Make set of andirons, stand. ^^^ ton,rs,pokr. , and hearthbniahand IS- Make desk set. 16. Make electric la stand i, r able, Indian desi^ 17. Make metal vas. iitable for lam^'Sm3^?'a^^^ tinguisS.' ""'^'^^ matchhold^or sn'ifaitd «- 19. MakccandlesticksandfirebowlfortheFour Fires. Shaginapi

Backwoods Handicraftsman


.Jt S*'^'^ Backwoods Handicraftsman may be conferred on any one who takes seven of these tSte- 1. Make a birch or hickory broom 2. Make a hunter's lamp. 3. Make an Indian or willow be-' t iitt^ * four-poster to carry the willow bed. 5. Make a wooden kneading trou^ 383)

•5. Make a noggin or wooden drinkin) up of a tree burl. 7. Make a basket to hold at least a quart using nffia. soruce roots, rattan, or other strong material. Build a cabin. 9 10. Make a iaoti8e>prool cup- board. 11. Build a boat. 12. Make a Navajo Loom. 13. Build a stone or brick bake oven 14. Tanapcltwiththeiuron. 15. Remove the hair from a calfskin without using a knife or injuring the skin. 16. Repair a boot with a patch. 17. Make a pair of sins. 18. Build an oven out of doois. 19. Weave a rug or mat. Bineshi

Bird Sharp


«J^fh?!*f* Sharp may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests: LU .xik ^^l^'^^^y % native birds in a collection. —J I When thesexesdiffergreatly.theycounteachasabird.) a. Identify twenty-five natives bjinis in the field. 3. Identify twenty-five native birds by note urrit}^^ ^ local list of twenty-fivc birds idth remarks on amval, departure, abundance, etc «n say wh^*"'*°° ^'^ty Wrtb of great value to agriculture and 6. Name ten birds that work in the orchard destroying the bark bee and other such posts. ""/"ig uie 7. Keep a ionrnal with daily notes on the nesting of a pair of birds from .set f ing to fledging. "«t«HS "i » pair "P * "° successful bird boxes. 9. Mako.and set up a accessful lunch counter. 10. Make and set up a successful biitl bath esibli^^id.^' sanctuaries are, and why they are being 12. Write an original essay of 500 words giving the life his- • ^ >'°" belling when it wnves m the sprrng, how the male differs from the female. L nLf '"i'^ liKe what are its haunts, where it nests, what ^T/^f like, when the young are raised and fl;, what r!" fi^t plumage, how many broods are raised each season, what are Its foods, its enemies, and its peculiars^ 384) Awema

Brother or Sister Craft


f Jif °^ Brother or Sister Craft may be con- ferred on any one who takes seven of these tests: I. Regularly take younger members of the family for walks or hikes into fields or woods. 4i °i y°""ger members of thefamUy for two Z^^f^nTJ^T'^^^- ^°"^^<="tive) in the year, supe^W^ Sleep, food, and recreation successfully * chilLw^hfc'i'^ three parties for the younger children (this mcTudp supervising games and behavior). ^ 4. Kead regularly one hour a week for three months to younger child any two coUections of children's storL ,0 tLf t? vu^^'^-^^ "^^"t to sister or brother so that the child can in turn tell them. 6. Successfully tutor brother or sister in any study m*.mK. f?r^c spending many hours with the youneer members of the family in a helpful and kind way. ^ ^ .hiiriJ'^T ^ n'-^l"" ^i^ter in Woodcraft work so that the child, stands well in the Band or Tribe. 9. Be little niother, that is, the reai daily guardian of one or 11. Teach one or more children the alphabet. 12. Teach one or more children the notes in music. for fhree'months""' '^""^ ^^ren 14. Teach any child the rudiments of another language. 15. Teach any child to make a basket, a bird box a clav not a grass rug, or other useful article * ^ ^ » 16. Teach a child to sew, knit, embroider, crochet, or weave. Anokiwin



The Degree of Business may be conferred on anv one who takes fifteen of these tests : ^ 1mI:.^'a^-^ application for a position; a 2 Wrt ^ T^ ^7? '"^ " !^"^ °^ ackno^edgment. sym^y ^^"^ acceptance, regret, and 385)

3. Know simple bookkeeping, explaining interest, percentage, and discount. 4. Take dictation at the rate of fifty words a minute. 5. Transcribe letters on the typewriter at the rate of twenty- five words a minute. 6. Write a good clear hand. 7. Keep exact and full account of personal receipts and ex- penses for six months. 8. Have a clear record for punctuality for four months. 9. Be successful at a position for four months. 10. Be self-supporting. 11. Save 10 per cent, of allowance or income for six months. 12. Plan detailed cost of living for a family of six, four being children. 13. Earn money enough to go on a vacation or to send some one else on a vacation for two weeks or more. 14- Act as treasurer of your Woodcraft Tribe, or Sunday- school class, etc., for six months, keeping correct accounts. 15. Keep a bank account, either for yourself or some other person, for six months; draw checks, endorse checks, make deposits, and balance check book with bank book each month. 16. Write an article of z,ooo words on Business Pensi(»is and Insurance Systems. 17. Describe the work of three organizations interested in labor conditions of men or women, such as Trades Unions, National Consumers' League, National Civic Federation, etc. 18. Write a paper of not less than 1,000 words describing your State Laws affecting the property rights of women, and also inheritance laws, including right t( sue for damages in case of accident to child. 19. Earn $25 by some industry— flowers, bees, tutoring, craf twork, etc. 20. Have earned Tribal and National dues by a Woodcraft exhibition of craf twork, etc. Gabeshiked



The Degree of Camper may be ccmferred on any one who takes ten of these tests: (the first three being required) I. Know how to choose a camp site and how to prepare for rain. 2. Know how to build a latrine (toilet). 386)

3. Know how to dispose of the camp garbage and refuse. 4- Light fifteen fires in succession with fifteen matdws, at different places, one, at least, on a wet day. 5. Put up a two-man tent alone, ten tunes, for actual ser- vice, ready for storms. 6. Make the fire with rubbing-sticks of own preparation. 7. Bofl water m fifteen minutes with one matdi, one log, one axe; one quart of water in a two-quart pail. 8. Make a willow bed, or a rush mat, or an equally good one of wild material. 9. Make a waterproof roof of wildwood materials. 10. Cook twenty-one digestible meals with ordhiary camp outfits, for at least three persons. 11. Know how to make a raft. 12. Sleep out 100 nights (no roof but canvas); not neces- sarily consecutive nights. 13. Travel 500 miles, all told, in canoe, on foot, or in saddk, while sleeping out. 14. Have charge of a camp of five or mwe foe seven suns (one week) and keep all going in good shape. Chabakwed

Camp Cook


The Degree of Camp Cook may be conferred on any one who takes si;c of these tests: I. Make a good fireplace of wood, of stone, or earth. a. Light fifteen fires with fifteoi successive matches, aBe on a wet day. 3. Bake five batches of good bread in a Dutch oven. 4. Bake five batches of good bread in a frying pan bef<»e the open fire. 5. Cook twenty-OM digestive meab over campfire for a parUr of two or mere. 0. Boil a quart of water in a two-quart pail in ten min- utes. 7. Cook a meal consisting of baked bread, fried meat or fish, roast meat or boiled potatoes without any utensils or tools but a hatchet 8. Tram a class in cooking, showing and making them do it properly. ' 387) Enokid

Camp Craftsman


The Degree of Camp Craftsman may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen out of these tests: I. Have a knowledge of tanning and curing. M J , 2. Sole and heel a pair of boots, or shoes, sewed or nailed, and generally repair footwear. 3. Dress a saddle, repair traces, stirrup leathers, etc., and know the various parts of harness. 4. Patch a garment. 5. Make a lace or a button of a leather patch. 6. Make set of six camp chah^ and a camp table. 7 . Make a waterproof vessel of birch bark. 8. Repair a broken boat or canoe. 9. Repair a tent cover so it will not leak. 10. M2ike an axe helve or a hoe lumdie. 11. Repair a leaky kettle <» pot. 12. Solder a tin. 13. Make a basket of wildwood materials. 14. Make an Indian bed 15. Make a grass mat. 16. Fell a six-inch tree in sixty seconds and drive with it a given stake. 17- Cut down a six-inch tree, and chop and split it into stove wood, using axe only. 18. Cut and flat with two true surfaces a log like a railway tie, eight feet long,mne-inch face,and sue inches thick, using axe only. 19. Distinguish between rip saw, crosscut, keyhole saw, two- handed crosscut, and show how they are used. 20. Show the right and wrong way of putting nails into two Doards, one of which is to be fastened across the other. 21. Make a boat or a birch canoe. 22. Build a log cabin. Mashkiki

Camp Doctor


The Degree of Camp Doctor may be conferred on any one who takes twentyoutof these tests: (the first four being required) }• Demonstiftte the Schufer method of renud- tation. 388)

2. Pass first-aid tests of Red Cross Society. 3. Know how to trer ^ for bad sunburn. rr^J: f ^^1'°" '""y.' ««<i thc Draper treat- ment for cases of poisoning by these. 5. Carry a person down a ladd-^r. 6. Bandage head and ankle. art/rk?h?n^or^C'"""' °' °' «^ orrl^g?^^ ^^"^ ^ '^^O"' ^ 9. Demonstrate treatment for rupture of varicose veins of the leg with severe hemorrhage. v-uac veins oi 10. Show treatment for bite of finger bv mad do^ 11. Demonstrate rescue of person in contact with electric 12. Apply tourniquet to a principal artery. toSat^in!' '^^^ P°^°^ »»d ^^ 14. Write a statement on the care of the teeth 15. State a principle to govern in eating, and state in the o^er^of then: miportance five rules to g<^^n the S ^16. Be able to teU the difiFeience in eflfect of a cold and hot ^17. Describe the eflfect of a'oohol and tobacco on the growing 18. Tell hew to care for the feet Oii a march. 19. Describe the eflFect of walking as an exercise. 20. Know how to treat sprams. 2 1 . Tell how athletics m y be overdone. 22. State what the chief causes of ^ch of the followinir diseases are: tuberculosis, typhoid, malaria. 'ouowmg 23 TeU what should be done to a house which has been c . pied by a person who has had a contagious disease pr:^enTbg dS^ale'^ ""^ "^^^^ with the bc«d of health m ofgirb^:^^d^lIl^^^^^^^^^^ ex^o JfSc^r" P"^"^' and 27. TeU how to plan the sanitar>^ care of a camp. 28. State the reason why school chilcren should undergo a medical examination. uuuwuu » 29. Must know what wood herbs, etc, or camp staples wiU 389) produce sweat, purge, vomit, or warmth; what will make a quick poultice, which wiU check diarrhoea, etc. ^a^Make, use, and teach others to use, the Indian Sweat 31. Teach a class in first aid. Atassowin



The Degree of Canner may be ccafened on anyone who takes eight of these tests : I. Gather or personally select and can twelve pints of strawberries or other smaU fruit so that six nmiths later they have lost neither color nor flavor. 2. Ditto for other fruit such as peaches and quinces. 3. Ditto for vegetables, such as com, green peppers, onions, 4. Preserve, jam, or marmalade twelve pmtsol fruit. jeUy mSS) ^ °* (without any artificial 6. Can or preserve successfully three kmds of fish. 7. Can or preserve successfully a chicken. 8. Cap or pi-eserve successfully three pounds of beef. 9- Wm a prize for cannmg, jeUy making, or preserving at any important fair. 07 10. Make three pojmds of (any kind) glace or candied fruit. Cherries, cranberries, pmeapple, orange, nuts. 11. Spice three Quarts of fruit, peaches, pears, cherries, etc. 12. Make four kmds of tomato preserve (two ripeandtwo green) and pickle watermelon rinds. Chemaunigan



The Degree of Canoeman may be confmed <m any one who takes fifteen of these tests: 1. Tie rapidly six d^oent useful knots. 2. Splice ropes. rnnt 7^"^' P^pare, and use "wattap," that is spruce roots, for canoe bmding, etc. 1 it^: "^y^*' ^'■^P*S^ and use gum for canoe gumming. S- Use a palm and needle. ^ 6. Fling a rope coiL 390)

8. Bufld a boat or canoe. 9. Ma . e a paddle and paint it Indian fashion, lo. Kepalr a boat or canoe. 12. Swim IOC yards. 13. Swim fifty feet with shoes, pants or skirt, and shirt on 14 Sail any two-man craft for 200 miles in a sMs^ltl- other man not a professional saUor season— the minute^*'**^ ^"^^ » canoe on dead water one mile in tweK^ 16. Spill a canoe, get in again and bale it out without help 18. I^ye a knowledge of weather-wisdom and Udes. 19. State direction by the stars and sun. 20. Steer by compass. ai. Teach a class to handle a canoe. Mokodasso-Winini



The Degree of Caipenter may be conferred on anv one who takes ten of these tests : ^ I. Know how to drive a nail so as not to solit a board, also how to sink, clinch, or draw 1^ sa^e ^ Know the use of square, level. i>lu^U^S, and 3. Uy out a right angle by the 3. 4, 5 plan. ^4. Shmgle a square-that is, a portion of , of-ten feet each man'sh^— "^"^ - «^ -rk- t' T^ZS^ ? '^^^ P^^^^ °f f^'ture in good style, child. P«»' * set of wooden toys for Jme ordf;. '^^ important piece o* furniture seriously out of ^^^^Pj^BmW^a smaU shed or cabin so as to make U sufe and 391)

10. Make a box of dovetailed corners. 11. Make a pair of tilting stools according to the rules; i.e., circular on top, fifteen inches across, about twenty inches high on four legs, so widespread at the bottom that they cannot upset. 12. Make a pair of tilting spears as f^er "Birch Bark Rdl. 13. Make a rustic four-poster for a willow-bed. 14. Make boards for Four Fires so that the sides fold up around candle-sticks. (See drawing, page 9, Girl's Manual. ) Kitchi-odena-winini



' I The Degree of Citizen may be conferred on anyone who takes eleven of these tests: I. Have a record in your tribe as being an intel- ' J ligent, thoughtful member who has at all times been public spirited. 2. Hold an Z .e in your tribe, club, Sunday-school class, etc., aud have a record of being efficient and of working for the best interests of the group. 3. Know the principal offices of your city or town, whether elected or appointed, and the term of office. 4. Describe the duties of these <^cers, also of the city or town departments such as police, fire, etc. Do you have any relationship with these departments? Describe how a young person would have relationships without assuming the duties of manhood or womanhood. 6. How are the laws under which you live made? What bodies make kws for you? Describe the process. 7. How is crime punished in your city or town? Describe process, civil and criminal. In each case show steps till the case has reached the highest court. 8. Tell what effect the fear of " snitching " or tale bearing has on running of schools and of the government in general. 9. Name the princij)al offices of the State government Describe their duties, term of office, also the duties of the various depar ments. 10. Name the principal officers of the National Government. Describe their duties, term of <^ce, also the duties <rf the various departments. 11. Show yourself familiar with the history and provisions of the Declaration of Independence, also the Constitution of the Umted States. 392)

12. What are the qualifications of voter in your state or territory?

13. Name the states and territories m which women have equal rights with men.

14. Name those in which they have partial rights.

15. Tell how a foreigner may become a citizen of this nation. Gaiat

Colonial Housekeeper


The Degree of Colonial Housekeeper may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests:

1. Gather bayberries and make four candles dipped or moulded, each six inches long, for the Four Fires.

2. Leach the ashes and make a pint of soft soap.

3. Dye evenly four pieces of dreess goods not less than half a yard each of four different colors or four skeins of yarn. Dyes may be bought.

4. Dye twelve squares of felt or white flannel each about 4 x 4 inches, each a different color with stuff found in the woods such as butternut bark, golden oak, sassafras, goldenrod tops, pokeberries etc. (Tea and coffee allowed.)

5. Make a lavander box, i.e., grow, gather, dry and use the lavander in a clothes chest. Same for lemon vebrena (tripolium).

6. Potpourri — make one quart when dried and spiced.

7. Make one pint of elder-flower water or one pint cucumber juice toilet wash, or one pint of hazel extract.

8. Gather and make marigold salve (calendula) and prunella salve (self-heal) or witchhazel salve.

9. Make cherry balm of black cherry bark.

10. Gather sassafras leaves and make a gumbo soup.

11. Gather the sap and make of it a pound of sugar, either from maple or ash-leaved maple.

12. Make two pounds of lemon or orange sugar.

13. Make two quarts od lemon, citronm or orange-peel or glace fruit.

14. Make four quarts of mincemeat.

15. Make four quarts of preserves, pickles, or jellies.

16. Brew sage tea, mullein tea, boneset tea, camomile tea, and ginger tea.

17. Gather and make half a pound candied sweet flag (calamus), mint leaves, rose leaves, or violets. 393)

18. Make one-half gallon of tutti frutti.

19. Dry corn, spice, salt, or otherwise preserve three kinds of meat or fish for household larder.

20. Dry five quarts of fruit, or vegetables, for winter use.

21. State what fruits can be preserved in dear, cold water alone uncooked, and why.

22. Knit or crochet any usable article of wearing apparel.

23. Spin enough cotton, flax, wool, or hemp to make five yards of stuff or half a dozen pairs of socks.

24. Weave ten yards of cloth or rag carpet, or rug or bedspread.

25. Cut, select, sew, ball, and arrange for the making of a good rag carpet.

26. Make single-handed a rag rug, braided or hooked.

27. Make appliqué quilt or patchwork quilt.

28. Make a grandmother's sampler.

29. Make, decorate, and stuff a pincushion.

30. Ditto, hop pillow. Ganawenima



The Degree of Conservator may be conferred on any one who takes twelve of these tests:

1. Make and distinguish the most important lumber trees of your State.

2. Name and distinguish the three or four next in rank.

3. Name three trees that have neither lumber nor firewood value but are useful as shade trees, bird food, or bank binders.

4. Know the twenty-five principal song birds of your State.

5. Know the twelve principal game birds of your State.

6. Know the twelve principal four-foots of your State.

7. Mention three animals that serve no commercial purpose but which ought to be preserved because they are harmless and give pleasure to all who see them.

8. Be a member of the Audubon Society, or Agassiz Association.

9. Be a member of the local bird club.

10. Support such local societies as aim to preserve or re-introduce wild birds or desirable plants.

11. Make and put up ten bird boxes at least one of which must be nested in.

12. Make and run a bird’s lunch counter all winter, feeding at least four kinds of birds not counting the English sparrow. 394)

13. Make and run a bird bath BUccettfuHy 14- Make and run a bird restaurant Oshki-Abinodji

Cradle Craft


The Degree of Cradle Craftsman mav be conferral on any one who takes fifteen onS^^ltV: ^ week Sr7hTT ""'"^ ^ h^^' « weight each baby for thTL'Xf ttr"™^"^' Keep record'of some time? """'^ "^^"^^ * ^•^y ^'^^ in height during this in ek^Ss^^P'^"' ^ «>»vulsion8. State what to do 4. Give symptoms of croup. How treated. taklaM5:J:T"™*"'«"»--"«k«>the™oU..rca„ M V"' Mother's Helper for one month. 1 1. Make a baby's outfit complete babL " *" '«althi.r«ui why, breast or «tifidaay fed fouVh^ra^,Sro?th'?t7ea'?^*""''««'™'- '-»'>•- ^l^rj^te what is the best kind of milt. How ored for ,£ ter 395)

^ bottles md nifties, and a good Coups and Oegreei 371 15. State how milk is pasteurizt 1. 16. Stole at what age a baby should be given meat juices and how much daily. Prepare a meat j lice. j *«««u I7-, Tell the value of fruit juice orange, prunes, etc.) to a J^w much daifv?^ "'^ " ^"'^^^ 18. State how carrots, spinach, and potatoes should be pre- pared for a baby and at wha^ ageababv >hou Id eat vegetables: 19. Give the care (ii - ... o . solution to keep nipple 20. State what is the food, and how much ^ 21. State why nitra' new-bom baby's eyes 22. Describe propt it should be bathed, i test the water without 23. State what shou 24. Know value of clothing ; of bouncing 25. State at what methods of training f , Hiret ay ' ' ran m. ver iould r artificially prepared timr




■ dropped into eveiy bathMf a mvinth-old baby— when ratur? erf water, room, etc. How to hermc meter. • thf of a bah cs, mouth, etc. baby flaiiycr of too much king jw 'fiers hilfl , be^ 10 form habits. And be conferred on any one toL* ances such as beansettpr, e, Maypole, . ,bbon dance, Cc^. '»= OCX V lid)

The' rcc'L whctaK :xoftii. I. Da >e fou. ox-dance, Morris df

2. Dance a good cakewalk. 3. Dance two gypsy dances. (Spanish or Hungarian gypsy.) 4- Dance four standard ballroom round dances, such as waltz, polka, Boston, three-step etc. 5. Dance five modern dances. 6. Dance one standard Scottish dance, such as Highland fling Scottish reel, sword dance, and fire dance, or dance two IriSi dances, as jig, reel hornpipe, double shuffle, clog, etc. 7- Dance two standard Indian dances— as Lone Hunter Storm Cloud, Caribou dance, Zuni spring dance, etc. 8. Dance two Greek dances. 9. Dance the minuet. 10. Dance the quadrille, lancers, and Virginia reel 396)

II. Lead in two children's dances such as SaQy Wftten, chdr dance, Mulberry Bush, A Hunting We Will Go. 13. Teftch a class at least four dances representing fopr different departments as above. 13. Dance two Japanese dances. (One posture dance and one spear dance.) 14. Dance the dance of the Golden Sari, and a fire dance. Note: Music of folk dances and Indian dances can be had on Cdumbia records, Education Department list. Tchessakid



. , I The Degree of Entertainer may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests: yYi^ I. Tell entertainingly a good story to a groap ' • •• - J of young peoi)le five different times. 2. Tell standard children's stories to a group of not less than five one hour a week for two months. 3. Recite well five poems, orations, or stories which are in keepuig with the occasions and entertaining. 4. Sing alone from memory the "ive American folk songs you like best. Tell why you like them. S- Ditto for five English folk songs. 6. Ditto for five Scotch folk songs. 7. Ditto for five Irish folk songs. 8. Ditto for five folk songs of any other nation. 9. Act as accompanist at least sbc times for some public event in school, church, etc. 10. Take part on three or more occasions as a member of a quartet, glee club, chorus, or as a member of an orchestra, band, etc. 11. Play an instrumental solo at three public occasions. 12. Give a party, arranging program of entertainment and refreshment*?, the latter not to cost more than fifteen cents per person. 13. Entertain younger people on five different occasicms— in- troducing song, story, dance or manual training. 14. Write a play which is used for public performance. 15. Do successfully six parlor tricks in sleight of hand. 16. Do successfullv six parlor tricks of impersonation. 17. Do successfully six moving pictures of given subjects 397) such as Sleeping Beauty, Red Riding Hood, Old Mother Hub- bard, etc. (actuig the story or rhyme out in pantomime). 18. Put on shadow charades in camp or ^dow moving pic- tures with sheet and lantern. * ^ 19. Take part in folk dancing at three public events. Kitigewin



The Degree of Farmer may be conferred on any one who takes nineteen of these tests: z. Explain the nature of soil, its texture and need of water and air. 2. Describe four different kinds of soil; explain what these lack, and how it should be added to make agriculture successful. 3. State how to dedde what fertilizer is needed in a given soil. 4. Mention ten leading standard fertilizers, and indicate thei* peculiar qualities and value. 5. Mention all the leading crops of your neifl^bboriiood. Tell how you would rotate them and why. 6. State when to sow wheat, oats, rye, barley, buckw'ieat and when to reap each. 7. State when to sow peas, com, millet, kaffir corn and when to reap each. 8. State when to plant turnips, potatoes, and carrots; tell how you would rotate them and why? 9- State when to sow clover alfalto, timothy, tobacco and tell how you would rotate each and why. 10. Plow ten acres of land. 11. Harrow ten acres of land. 1 2. Seed down ten acres of land. 13- Weed down ten acres of land. 14- Harvest ten acres of land. 15- Cut, make, and harvest ten acres of hay. 16. Describe the methods and value of drainage. ^ '7. Explain the value and best use of stable manure, la, Make a seed tester and test the germination of three fiTi&r of crop seeds, one hundred seeds of each kind, "Rae- tiaby' tester for corn. State why a fanner 'should watch the United States ' ■ tier reports. . State why a hxma shouki watch the maricet 398)

21. State how chickens can be made to pay on a farm. 22. State how cows can be made to pay on a farm. 23. State how pigs can be made to pay on a farm. 24. Identify ten common weeds and tell how to get rid of them. 25. Identify ten bad bugs and tell what thev do and how to get rid of them. 26. Plan a bam and tell why bank barns have lost favor. 27. Plan and construct successfully a silo. Explsdn its ad- vantages. 28. State what is the advantage of fall plowing. 29. State when and why one should summer-fallow. 30. State what is the advantage of pedigreed over rough stock. 31. State how you would decide whether a given field was fitted for profitable agriculture, grazing, or forestry. 32. Explam the reason clovers and certain legumes restore nitrogen to the soil. 33. Have inoculated seeds of clovers, cowpeas, etc., and grown demonstration strips and compared the increase of nodules on roots of inoculated plants. 34. Explain the value of lime on poor land. Gagoiked



The Degree of Fisherman may be conferred on any one who takes nine of these tests: I. Catch and name ten different species of fish: salmon or trout to be taken with flies; bass, pickerel, or pike to be caught with rod or reel, muskallonge to be caught by trolling. 2. Make a bait rod of three joints, straight and sound, four- teen ounces or less in weight, ten feet or less in length, to stand a strain of one and a half pounds at the tip, 13 pounds at the grip; or «lse make a jointed fly-rod 8 to 10 feet long, 4 to 8 ounces in weight, capable of casting a lly sixty feet. 3. Xame and describe twenty-five different species of fish found in North American waters, and give a complete hst of the fishes ascertained by himself to inhabit a given body of water. 4. Give the history of the young of any species of wild fish from the time of hatching until the adult stage is reached. 5. Make a net and catch a fish in it. 399)

6. Make a turtle trap and catch a turtle in it.

7. Make a six-foot leader of clean gut, with smooth knots to stand a strain of five pounds.

8. Take with the fly, unassisted, a three-pound trout, land-locked salmon, or bass, or a twelve-pound salmon, on a rod not more than five ounces in weight.

9. Or else take on a rod, without assistance in hooking playing, or landing a trout, black bass, pike (muscallonge), grayling, salmon, bluefish, weakfish, stripped bass, kingfish, sheepshead, or other game fish, whose weight in pounds equals or exceeds that of the rod in ounces.

10. Cast a fly with a rod of five ounces, or less, not over ten feet long, sixty-five feet. Or, with one-quarter of an ounce dummy frog, five-foot rod, outdoors overhead casting, tournament style, send it eighty feet if under eighteen, one hundred and ten if over.

11. Swim a hundred yards.

12. Paddle (single) a canoe one mile in twelve minutes.

13. Row without help one mile in ten minutes.


Food Craft


The Degree of Foodcrafter may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests:

1. Know a balanced diet for daily living that will meet requirements of the body.

2. Lnow the value of cereals and the proper preparation of corn, wheat, rice, barley and rye for bread and porridges, etc.

3. Cook in camp or at home for a week for four people.

4. Understand the terms proteids, carbohydrates, and tell which foods contain them, in what proportion, and whether available for the human body and whether easily assimilated.

5. Know a balanced vegetarian diet and prepare menus for same for a week.

6. Know the local, wild plants available for salads amd prepare a salad of same.

7. Dry sweet green corn for winter use, either in sun or in oven. Other vegetable may be substituted, if dried in same way.

8. Dry any fruits for winter use – apples, peaches, cherries, etc. 400)

9. Know how to prepare kumyss and whey. ID. Know how to prepare "cottage cheese." 11. Bake five batches of good bread, one to be raisin bread. 12. Tram a class in cooking, showing and making them do it properly. 13. Tell how a city should protect its foods, milk, meat, and exposed foods. 14. WiI.e a statement on the various digestive processes — in the mouth, in the stomach, in the intestines. 15. Know what fruits and vegetables can be put up for winter use by the "cold water process" seaUng without cooking. Ex- plain why these fruits will not spoil. 16. Put up for family use fifty quarts of fruits or vegetables in one year. 17. Put up fifty glasses of jelly, usmg no commercial article to make the fruit "jell, " but if necessary usmg a second fruit in combination for that purpose. Ij^lain the process <d jellying. Mitigwakid



A The Degree of Forester nay be conferred on any one who takes eighteen of the.-ti ists: ' I. Identify twenty-five kinds of trees when in leaf , ~ CTt f or fifteen kinds of deciduous (broad leaf) trees in winter, and tell some of the uses of each. 2. Identify twelve kinds of shrubs. 3. Collect and identifjr samples of thirty kinds of wood and be able to tell some of their uses and peculiar properties. 4. Determine the height, and estimate the amount of tim- ber, approximately, in five trees of different sizes. 5. State the laws for transplanting, grafting, spraying, and protecting trees. 6. Make a collection of sixty species of wild flowers, ferns, or grasses dried and mounted in a book and correctly named. 7. Recognize in the forest all important commercial trees in one's neighborhood. 8. Distinguish the lumber from each and tell lot what purpose each is best suited. 9. Tell the age of old blazes on trees which mark a boundary or trail. 10. Recognize the difference in the forest between good and 401) bad logging, giving reasons why one is good and another 11. TeU whether a tree is dying from injury by fire, by insects by disease, or by a combination of these causi. ^ ' 12. Know what tools to use in lumbering 13. Know how to fight fires in hilly or in flat country IS. Know what are the four great uses of water in streams, ca^ bes^^^p^r it 11 "? general, water-power is developed. i». leU, for a given piece of farm land, whether it is best suited for use as a farm or forest, and why. 19. Point out examples of erosion, and teU how to stop it. 2a Estimate closely how much timber and how much c?rd wood IS m a given acre of woods. wiU not*"^ ^""^^ S'^^"' ^'^d six that to foreS^trees'^^^ '"^'^^'^ ^^ quadrupeds given sSke.^ "^"^"^ ^ '^'^ '^th it a 24. Make 100 trees grow where none grew heretofore. 25. Lamp in the woods for thirty nights. 26. Teach a class the rudiments in forestry. Gimab



iZ^n The Degree of Frontiersman may be conferred on I^^T ^"^ ^^^^^ ^'g^t these tests: I ■ • I 1 I. Milk a cow. — ~-J 2. Interpret from any one language into English. 3- i* ell a tree in a given place. 4- Weld an iron. 5- Temper a knife, 6. Solder a tin. 7. Shoot to win honors with a rifle. 8. Tie six kinds of knots. 9. Make a thread lashing 10. Use an aze correctly. 402) Kitigan



SI The Degree of Gardener may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests: I. Do all the work in a successful flower garden ■ J not less than twenty feet by twenty feet. 2. Do the same for a fruit and vegetable garden. 3. State what are the ten most common weeds. Describe and tell how to overcome them. 4. State what are the ten most harmful usect pests. De- scribe and tell how to combat them. 5. Raise a crop of flowers or berries for market and show by a balance sheet that it has paid. 6. Make a successful window box. 7. Raise a crop of potatoes on a patch of one-twentieth of an acre. 8. Raise half a dozen each of two of the following: cucmnber, tomatoes, egg plant, pumpkins. 9. Distinguish twenty different kinds of garden flowers and tell where they grow best and when. 10. Distinguish twenty different kinds of snudl garden fruits and tell how to manage them. 11. Distinguish six different kinds of apples and tell of their qualities. 12. Describe a cold frame and its use. 13. Describe a hothouse and its use. 14. State what is layering. 15. State what is budding. 16. State what is grafting. 1 7. State what is root pruning. 18. Which do you prefer to have in the garden — ducks or hens? — and why? 19. Plant a plot with pedigreed seed (furnished by the De- partment of Agriculture) and report fully on the results. 20. Make a garden calendar, stating the order of bloom, so that from April to September there is a flower for each week. 21. Have a successful perennial vegetable garden — ^rhubarb, asparagus, mint, horseradish, etc. 22. Take a prize at National, State, or county fair for flowers or vegetable' grown by self. 23. Send a uouquet a week to hospital or "shut-in" or Flower Guild from own flower-beds for six months. 403)

84. Keep the front garden in good shape, clean and trim all summer. 25. Keep the back garden in shape. 26. Build a summer house in it. 27. Plant and grow vines or trailers enoudi to cover the sum- mer house. Nagamed

Gleeman or Camp Conjurer


The Degree of Gleeman may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests: 1. C^n and lead the Council 2. Light the Sacred Fire with rubbing-sticks. 3. Know the Indoor and Outdoor Coundl Ceremony. 4. Know the ceremony of giving names. 5. Sing many songs, including the Mujji-mukesin, Omaha, Zonzimondi, Bark Canoe, alone or as a leader. 6. Dance the three standard Indian dances. 7. Tell many stories. 8. Know the art of "making medicme," which is the making of goodfellowship by seeking out talent, selecting and leading It and stoppmg without offending those who are not helpful. 9. Know how to conduct in initiations and have the wisdom to stop them in decent season. 10. Know when to sing the Good-night Song when good-night time has come. 11. Camp out thuty nights. 12. Teach some one else to run the Council. 13. Teach a dance to a sufkient number to give it. Wadokaged



The Degree of Handihelp may be conferred on any one who takes eighteen <rf these tests: I. Paint or varnish a door, wall, floor, table, chair, or any large piece of furniture, 2. Whitewash or kalsomine a ceiling or wall. 3. Replace a gas mantle 4. Solder a joint and solder some broken metal toy. 5. Pack a spigot. 6. Repair electric bell. 7. Lay carpets and mattings. 404)

8. Repair furniture or diina. 9. Sharpen five knives. lo. Make flour paste for wall papering and for photo-pasting that keeps. n . Fix fly-screens in windows or doors and repair two or more screens. 12. Adjust a lock so the latch works. 13. Put a new pane in the window, puttying neatly.^ ^ 14. Know how to putty up nail holes and fill cracks in floors. 15. Build a henhouse for six or more fowls. 16. Make a successful bird house. 17. Make a cement bird bath. 18. Lay a straight stone and canent walk with a comer. 19. Make mortar. 20. Build a dry stone wall. 21. Make whitewash that will not rub off (Government recipe). 22. Wall paper a room. Bibaged

Herald, or Crier


The Degree of Herald may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests: 1 . Walk one mile in eleven minutes. 2. Walk thirty miles in twelve hours. Run xoo yards in thirteen seconds. 4. Run one mile in five and one-third minutes. 5. Swim 100 yards. 6. Sleep out thirty nights. , , , „ . 7. Send and receive a message in one of the following sys- tems of signaling: Semaphore, Morse, or Myer, not fewer than twenty-four letters per minute. , 8. Make correct smoke signals meaning "Camp is here, "I am Lost," "All well," "All's come to CouncU." 9. Talk Sign Talk, knowing at least 200 signs. 10. Know the twenty-five signs and blazes of the Indian code. 11. Read and trandate into one's own language a page or conversation from some other language. 12. Conduct a Council. 13. Know the ordinary rules of courtesy, precedence, mtrc- duction, salutation, etc. 405)

X4. Know the history of the National Flag and the proDer way of saluting, etc. f IS' Teach haif a dozen persons to qualify in No. 14. Tchibakwe-Wigamag

Home Cook


The Degree of Home Cook may be conferred on any one who takes fourteen of these tests: I. Make up an appetizing and satisfactory vege- tarian diet for one week for a familv of four persons. 2. Do all cooking at home, three meals'a day for one week for a family of not less than fom persons. 3. Make up satisfactory menus and superintend cooking for family of three or four persons for one month, preparimr at least one meal a day. ^ 4. Prepare and pack a dainty satisfying picnic lunch for four persons. 5. Demonstrate fireless cooker successfully on meats, veee- tables, cereals, and fruits. ** 6. Demonstrate paper-bag cookery and explain its value on not less than four foods. 7 . Prepare and serve from chafing dish four appetizing dishes. «. Wash all dishes and utensils for the household using especial methods for sUver, brass, glass, china, aluminum, copper, ^ 9- Arrange flowers and foliage for the dining table, also for sick rooms, trays, etc. 10. Understand proper hydration of cereals, that is, what proportion of water to use in cooking rice, oats, etc. ^ II. Bake three batches of hght yeast-raised bread and tell unportance of thoroughly baking same. 12. Bake three batches of biscuits, soda raised. 13- Bake two batches of pan cakes, one using fresh sweet milk and the other sour or butter milk. 14. Make plain and French pastry that wiU digest readily. IS- Make bread or biscuits using methods of four diflferent nationahties. 16. Bake four good sweet cakes; layer, loaf , ginger, and cookies, or Jin ineat m four ways— roast, broU, fricassee, and stew or oou. Know which cut is most suitable for each way. X8. Cook fish three different ways— broil, fry, and bake. 406)

19. Cook up in four accq>table ways left-over meats such as croquettes or en casserole. 29. Make veal loaf or beef loaf, chicken jelly, or other meats known as delicatessen specialties. 21. Make two meat soups; one must be clear. 22. Make two vegetable soups; one puree. 23. Make two milk soups; one tomato bisque. 24. Make a Welsh rarebit; must be short and digestible. 25. Make eight salads; three fruit, two vegetable, two meat or fish and one plain lettuce. Prepare two different dressings. 26. Cook eggs for family of four in sue different ways. Must mdude poached, two-minute boiled, and two different omelets. 27. Prepare eight desserts; one gelatine, twobdled, twobaked, two frozen, and one mixed fruit dessert. 28. Prepare four cold drinks—lemon or orange ade, gingerpop, oatmeal water; four different salads; six different sandwiches; two kinds of candy or nuts; tea, coffee, and demi tasse. 29. Make fudge, peanut brittle, butto: scotch, pulled molasses candy, and one candied fruit. Bebamomigod



nThe Degree of Horseman may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests: I. Show that you are at home in a saddle and ■ ' can ride at a walk, trot, and gallop. 2. Know how to saddle and bridle a horse correctly. I. Catch six horses in corral or on range with twelve throws of the lasso. 4. Show how to water and feed and to what amount, and how to groom a horse properly. 5. Show how to harness a horse correctly in single or double harness and to drive. 6. Pack 100 lbs. of stuff with diamond hitch, to stay during four hours of travel or two miles of trotting. 7. Have a knowledge of the power of endurance of horses at work and know the local regulations concerning driving. 8. Identify unsoundness and blemishes. 9. Know the evib of bearing or duodi reL and oi ill-fitting harness or saddlery. xo. Know two comnuHi causes oi, and i»oper remedies for, 407) lameness, and know to wiuun such cases <rf cnielty and abuse should be referred. 11. Be able to judge as to the weight, height, and age of horses. 12. Know three breeds and their general characteristics. 13. Be able to treat a horse for colic. 14. Describe symptoms and give treatment of horses for the following: wounds, fractures and sprains, exhaustion, choking, lameness. 15. Understand horseshoeing. 16. Clear a four-foot hurdle and an eight-foot water jump. 17. Pick up hat from the ground going at full gallop on a hone not less than thirteen hands high. Ashangekwe-Tahtiopa



A I The Degree of Hostess may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests : I. Know the ordinary rules of courtesy, prece-

  • dence, introduction, salutations, toasting,

a. Have written correct notes of invitation, acceptance, declination, sympathy, congratulations. 3. Act as host at a formal luncheon, dinner, or party of some kind to at least six people for which the invitati(»is were self- written and menus supervised. 4. Plan and carry out an outdoor picnic or entertainment for a dozen or more guests at which refreshments are served. 5. State the reciprocal duties of host and guest during a visit of a week — ^meeting trains pimctually, consideration of servants, etc. 6. Cook a chafing-dish supper for four people which is digestible and sufficient in quantity. 7. Tell storip" and keep the guests interested, can sug- gest congenial ^ments, seeing to it that no one person is left out of things, can also listen appreciatively and stimulate the entertaining powers of others. 8. Rise to emergencies and take charge of party or enter- tauunoit during absence d master of c««m(mies, and carry same to successful finish. 9. Preside at a Council of Woodcraft Boys or Girls, open- ing and leading the Council. 10. Conduct initiaticHis wWi discr^km and kindness. 408)

vaHousM'nT"n;^ * dependable helper in entertainments of Inrr^f amusement making, but in the work of preparation and cleaning up and general qukt wiS! fJr»n^?°'^.^°"' P^P*" drinks, ten salads ten candies, ten sandwiches, tea. coffee, and cocoa. tinni f^'^ff^* «rtistically, also table and house decora- tions for differen seasons and occasions, making use^mtoSl available out of door and not from florists. ouiteml 14 . Arrange special home entertainments for hoHdavs etc kBowmg the history, games, foods, and drinks p^'^to ^di occasion"" ^""^ ^""^ "^^^ * * P^^'" an 16. Know the rules of visiting and card leavine P P r cards, and bread-and-butter lettere. ^' Ostiwin



V. The Degree of Housekeeper may be conferred on anv X one who takes fifteen of these tests- ^ l/*N carite^-7n-^w^n'° ^S*" ^^^P-hardwood and K«ic* J carpeted— for walls, rugs, draper es. furniture— un- bolstered and varnished-for pictures and book^. ^"™'"^^"P- 2. Know how to prepare a room for general cleaninfr in ST^uST^ alo mithS of' he ^ also use of vacuum and'ma^r "^^'^^^ glass, 4- Properly dispose of waste and garbaee for the homp fnr .r.A ^^^u ^ ^^"^ "^"^ ^'"aw sheet for very sick oatient of springs, and sunning of pillows niaiiress, cnangmg 8. Take entire care of one room for one month, to include 409) sweeping, dusting, washing of windows, care of flowers or plants, and what may be desirable for attractiveness of the room, and its proper ventilation. 9. Put away clothing, rugs, furs, blankeU for the summer in proper manner so they will not be moth eaten or wrin- kled. 10. Take care of a cat, dog, bird, or a tame animal for one month. 11. Know what harm they may do, what diseases each may carry, and how these should be treated. I a. Know how to get rid of moths, stating seasons at which the larvae eat. 13. Know how to get rid of rats, including the modern germ moculation method. 14. Know how to get rid of mice, roaches, blackbeetles or cockroaches and bedbugs. 15. Scrub a wooden floor once a week for one month, or linoleum for two months. 16. Take entire charge of a pantry for one month, seeing that all shelves are absolutely clean and dishes spotless. 17. Clean ice-chest thoroughly twice a week for two months dunng the summer, and state how meats and foods should be arranged in the ice-chest. 18. Keep bureau drawers »n order and dust shelves of book- case, wiping off books for one month. 19. Care for at least two kerosene lamps every day for a month, leaving no oil to smell, and trinuning wicks so lamps do not smoke. 20. Know how to take care of the milk and cream from at least one cow, and see that the pails and pans, or bottlw, are properly cleaned; state method. 21. Take care of a linen closet for a month, that is take care of four laundry bundles; return and check up with hst, putting things away in order, and making out lists for following week's wash. 22. Have growing plants in house in winter, planted and taken care of by self. 23. Plan work for household of five (three children) so that two servants may do the work. What should be eliminated, and what msisted upon in such a household? 24. Make fire m coal range, and cook with it, at least ten times per year. 25. Make a supply for a family, of fruits and vegetables, canned, preserved, dried, or jellied. 410)





The Degree of Hunter may be conferred on anv one who takes fourteen of these testa: ^ I. Walk one mile in eleven minutes. —J a. Walk thu-ty miles in twelve houn. 3. Run 100 yards in thirteen seconds. 4. Run one mUe in five and one-third minutes. 5. i>mm 100 yards. rixty yl^^s.'^ times out of five at 7- See and map out six Pleiades. ^O^Km accorumg to the Campfire Uw, nny<^^ naUve^ulro^u^^Ti^g^'"' ^^I* * «ame animal wild in its ru^!^** twenty-five native wild quad- and'ihdrTsts""^ """^^ '"""^^ birds in the field of'^r^Z::'^^:^^^^^ ^"^^ ^ty.five with'ouTSd IfsZr' " P^»^« ^ a -ile iiJt r^r"^^- '^^^t is, be a marksman accord- standaJdti^j: * '""^ ^'^^ of 300 pdnU at sixty yards. one wiS^i?./'^ ^"^ uninjured with own make of trao one wiW quadruped and one wild bird ^ T^'il fifteen star groups. ^Teach any one of these but the first%iinS to some other 411) Odena-Gaossed

Hunter in Town


The Degree of Hunter in Town may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these terts: I. Find and sketch twenty-five blazes in town and say where you found them. A blaze is a mark that conveys information without using words or letters. 2. Find twenty-five totems in town. A totem is the emblem of a man, group of men, company, or idea. It is not formed cf words or letters and letters are not an essential part, even if they are associated. Some trademarks are of this class. 3. Indicate the distinguishing marks of policemen, park policemen, traffic squad, strong arm squ",d, etc. 4. Rid a house of flies for one . nth. 5. Rid a house cS rats for one 1 ath. 6. Rid a house of mice for one month. 7 . Trap or otherwise secure thirty English sparrows in a month. 8. In cities where they are ouUawed trap or otherwise secure fifteen English starlings in a month. 9. Draw life-size, recognizable tracks of a man, woman, child, dog, cat, and mouse. 10. Draw life-size, recognizable tracks of a rat, rabbit, gray squirrel, sjMirrow, crow, chicken. All of these can be secured in and about the city, especially in the large parks, and are easiest when the snow is on the ground, but poraible in mud w with even wet tracks on dry pavements. 11. Make and set up at some bultable place and operate for at least a week a flytrap. (On the sjreen-cone principle.) 12. Know gypsy moth and report finding of any to state entomologist. 13. WhenmuzzlinglawsarepassedreportalHnfractionstopolice. 14. Provide satisfactory records of the tracks of three animals, according to the following method: cover a stiff sheet of paper with printers' ink and so place it that the animal runs over it and on to a fresh sheet of paper, which receives the tracks. Inanokiwin

Indian Craftsman


The Degree of Indian Craftsman may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests: I. Follow a track one mile without help. Snow or tracking inms allowed. 412)

2. Know fifty signs of the sign language. 3 . IC :« i <;ix standard blazes. V Know t he fc I'livalent stone signs. Demonstrate in Coaa- ciJ. . Know the ( quivalent twig signs. Demonstrate in Coun- cU." 6. Know the equivalent grass signs. Demonstrate in Coun- cil. 7. Know two standard tests of eyesight used by Indians. 8. Make a bead band at least eight inches long and one inch wide. 9. Make a piece of porcupine quillwork at least one inch by eight. 10. Make and paint an Indian four-post bed. 11. Carve and paint a totem pole, Chief's seat, or Tally Keeper's table. 12. Make and decorate a bench for Council Ring. 13. Make and decorate an Indian teepee. 14. Make and use a willow bed. 15. Make a pair of decorated leggings of good design. 16. Make a shield and spear for the Lone Hunter dance. 17. Make an Indian drum with decorations and stick com- plete. 18. Make a Navajo loom and weave a rug on it (Grass woof with thirty warp strings is allowed.) 19. Be responsible for locating, planning, and completing a Council Ring. 20. Make a dry painting for "Four Fires." Demonstrate at Council. 21. Construct a burlap deer according to "Book of Wood- craft." 22. Construct a burlap bear according to "Book of Wood- craft." Anishinabe

Indian Lore


The Degree of Indian Lore may be conferred on any one who takes sixteen of these tests: I. Outline the religion of the high-class Indian. (See "Book of Woodcraft" page 21.) 2. State what were the Indian's special virtues. 3. State what were his special vices. 4. State what was the great mistake of his creed. 413)

5. State why William Penn was peculiar in having no trouble with Indians. 6. Be the possessor of three genuine articles of old style Indian make, such as basket, beadwork, quillwork, silver work, pottery, stone work, blankets, war club, bow, quiver, arrows, peace pipe, etc.; and know to what tribe the makers belong, what materials were used in their construction, and how they were made. These may be got from the Mohonk Lodge Colony, Oklahoma, and so help the Indians. 7. Know the original hunting grounds, and give an outline of the history and present condition of the tribe where your Indian article was made. 8. Know the uses and meaning of the design or symbols on your Indian article, or something of the ceremony in which it is used. 9. Sing six genuine Indian songs in Council. 10. Tell six Indian legends at the Council. 11. Draw ten genuine Indian symbols and explain them. 12. Name the Indian tribes that originally inhabited your State. Give their present numbers and location, also their economic and religious condition. 13. Give brief sketch of the lives, aims, and achievements of four great or well-known Indian chiefs. 14. Give brief sketch of the Uves, aims, and achievements of four great or well-known Indian women. 15. Be able to distinguish from each other four types of baskets characteristic of four different tribes. 16. Distinguish in general the pottery of four different tribes. 1 7. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Navajo blankets. 18. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Balleta. 19. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Chimayo. 20. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Hopi. 21. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Chilkat. 22. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine German town. 23. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Serape. 24. Tell approximately the age of a blanket. 25. Distinguish the three or four general styles of beadwork and the regions of which they were characteristic. 26. Visit in person and stay at least a week with some tribe that is not scattered. 27. Name the Six Nations, the Plains Indians, the different tribes of Pueblo Indians, the coast (California) tribes, the Alaskan Tribes, or the Central American Tribw. 28. Know fifty signs of the sign language. 414) Kisibigaige-Winini

Laundry Expert


The Degree of Laundry Expert may be conferred on any one who takes fourteen of these tests: I. Do a family washing of mixed white and colored clothes ; know how sorted, soaked, boiled etc. (Modern washing machinery allowed.) 2. Do family ironing for total time of eight hours in two months. 3. Cover two ironing boards or one ironing table ready for use. 4. Use yellow and white soap explaining different qualities of each. Use two other means besides soap for softening water. 5. Prepare and use, satisfactorily, hot and cold starch. 6. Use two methods of blueing, tell which is more successful and find out why. 7. Use one method for bleaching, also use Javelle Water and explain results. 8. Remove successfully such stains as coff^, tea, rust, and c'i from the family washing. 9. Explain iron mould; what is the cure for it? 10. Explain blue mould; what is the cure for it? 11. Wash and launder a dozen dress ties. 1 2. Wash and launder six soft collars for men. 13. Wash and launder six sport shirts. 14. Wash and launder three negligee shirts with collans and cuffs attached. 15. Wash and launder a waist and skirt using starch suitable to material. 16. Wash and launder a fancy or lingerie dress. 17. Why do we hang white goods in the sim and colored goods in the shade? 18. Know how blankets should be washed and dried and also other woolens. 19. State how silk should be laundered and know why it ^ould not be thoroughly dried. 20. State the advantage of dry cleaning and how is it done? 21. Remove four different kinds of spots from woolen and silk. 33. Press a skirt and coat and teach some one else to do so. 33. Press a man's suit four times, thoroughly cleaning before pressing. 415) Midjin Binadisiwin


(Midjim Binadisiwin)

Xj The Degree of Life-Craft may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests: I. Know something practical of eugenics and how I 1 to combat a bad heredity. 2. Know about the care and feeding of infants from birth to three years. 3. Can detect the presence of enlarged tonsils and adenoids and be able to advise curative methods other than surgical. 4. Know the balanced diet for daily living that will result in good health. 5. Know the value of cereals and the proper preparation of corn, wheat, rice, barley, and rye for breads and porridges. 6. Be competent to take charge of child's recreation hours in all four seasons. 7. Know the local Board of Health and the State laws in re- gard to health and sanitation and how to cooperate. 8. Have made out a set of practical menus for three consec- utive months in winter for a family of six; these menus must provide meals averaging not over ten cents per meal per person. This is at the rate of $54 per month for all meats, dry groceries, milk and butter, fiuits and vegetables. Service and overhead charges are not to be included. Menus must be accompanied with the daily order and approximate prices. 9. Know the salient points of tuberculosis as well as causes; also preventive measures for typhoid and nuUaria. 10. Know how to produce sweat, purge, vomiting, warmth; what will make a quick poultke to dieck diairiioea, and also internal medicine for same. 11. State chief causes of each of the followmg diseases, tuber- culosis, typhoid, malaria. 12. State how to plan the sanitary care of a camp. 13. State the reason why school t^dren ^ould undergo a medical examination. 14. Know how to care for sickroom, making patient comfort- able and contqited. Odakewinini

Lightning Wheeler


  • The Degree of Lightning Wheeler may be conferred

J^j on any one who lakes nine of these tests : > 1- Ride a wheel fifty miles in ten hours. ' a. iUde 100 miles in tiroity-four hours. 416)

3. Repair a puncture. 4. T^e apart and clean a bicycle, and put it together again properly. 5. If sent scouting on a road know how to .nake reports on road conditions, hills, character of country, location and charac- ter of waters and settlements. 6. Read a map and report correctly verbal messages. 7. Write a full report of a 200-mile bicycle trip. 8. Ride a motorcycle. 9. Clean a motorcycle. 10. Repair any important part of a motorcycle. 11. Make a run of 100 miles in a day on motorcycle. 12. Make a run of twenty miles in one hour on motorcycle. Gishpinage

Market Woman or Buyer


The Degree of Market Woman may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests: I. Explain the saying that Paris could live on the waste of New York City. 2. Know the seasons when lamb, mutton, and pork are best. 3. Know and buy the six choice cuts of beef, such as tender- loin, sirloin, porterhouse, round, rump, brisket, rib, etc. What parts of the animals are so called? Tell why certain cuts are best. 4. Know and buy the best mutton cuts, such as shoulder, leg, rack, chops, etc. K,now which cuts are cheapest and best in the long run. 5. Know and buy the best pork cuts, such as shoulder, chops, loin, and rib roasts. 6. Know fresh brains, hearts, livers, kidneys, and sweet- breads. 7. Has the United States Pure Food Law given us better and safer meat? If so, why and how? 8. Know something definite about diseases of animals from which consumers are likely to suffer. 9. State why the knowledge of tj'phoid, tuberculosis, pto- maine, etc., is within the province of the market woman. 10. State whether the middleman is friend or foeof the market woman. 11. Explain cold storage; give hst of foods that are safe. 12. Explain how parcels post, telephone, and cheap motor cars have been a help to the market woman. 417)

13. Explain the revival of the farmers' markets; how does 't affect the market woman? 14. Know the various fish, what kinds are best for frying, baking, broiling, etc. 15. Know the seasons for the various fish. 16. Know several salt or dried fish for winter use. I" State what is the season for oysters? lo. Buy and use carmed oysters; state if they are a success. 19. State what is the season for clams. State the various kinds. 20. Know and buy fresh crabs, soft and hard shelled, scallops, etc. 21. Know the seasons for the various fruits and vegetables in your locality and give reasonable price for each. 22. Make a list of the fruits and vegetables one would pre- serve, proving the economy of so doing. 23. Explain the truckman and push-cart business, its advan- tages and disadvantages. 24. State what fruits and vegetables can be bought in quan- tity and and kept for future use. 25. Kd'^"' tdible mushrooms, when and how to buy them. 26. Knc* how to buy all staple goods at reasonable prices. 27. Know the lawful marks that guarantee pure food and full weight. 28. Do you know of and approve of the so-called " Economy" stores? If so, why? 29. Know if it is cheaper to buy or make brea.d, cakes, etc. 30. Cater for one week on $2 per person, keeping exact ac- counts and records of expenses and menus. Nawabik

Metal Worker


The Degree of Metal Worker may be conferre . n any one who takes seven of these tests: 1. Make a set of tracking irons. 2. Make four spears for Uie bear-spearing game. 3. Forge three hnks of a chain of three-eig}im inches stock. 4. Make a bolt of same stock. 5. Make a straight lap weld of same stock. 6. Make and temper a cold chisel. 7. Make and tempr a rock drill. 8. Make a metal box by sddering the comars. 418)

9. Make a box with riveted corners, zo. Make a ring, or fob, or other article of coin silver, zz. Make a key for a lock. Wadjiwed



The Degree of Mountaineer may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests: I. Take two honors at least in the list of imyun- tain-climbing. 2. Camp out at least thirty nights in the mountains. 3. Know, name, and describe the fourteen great divisions of the earth's crust (according to Geikie). 4. Know and name twenty-five different kinds of rock. 5. Define watershed, delta, drift, fault, glacier, terrace, stratum, dip. 6. Know at least twenty mammals that live in the mountains. 7. Know at least fifty mountain birds. 8. Know at least twenty-five mountain trees. 9. Make a journey alone on foot throu^ the mountains of at least 100 miles, sleeping out every ni^t. 10. Swim 100 yards. Jabonigan-Ikwe



The Degree of Needlewoman may be conferred on on any one who takes fifteen of these tests: I. Make three different articles of plain white underwear. 2. Be able to run a sewing machine and keep it in condition for two months, using various parts for shirring, hemming, etc 3. MEike a plain waist or shirt waist for outing purposes. 4. Make a man's shirt. 5. Make a set of baby clothes, not less than six pieces, Gertrude patterns preferred. 6. Dress a doll in Woodcraft suit or some distinctive outfit, such as Colonial, Dutch, etc. Must be not less than Usa. inches high. ^. Darn stockings for three people for one month or its equivalent. 8. Make a satisfactory dam in tabledoth and u^ikin. 419)

9. Mend a three-cornered tear in cottoa or wodkn goods. ID. Put in a neat patch. 11. Make twelve buttonholes of various sizes. 12. Make a sleeping bag for outdoor winter sleeping or a baby's traveling "cozy" bag. 13. Make a Council dress, worn or shown in Council. 14. Make a child's suit or dress. 15. Make a fancy dress, such as graduation, evening, or party drew. 16. Make artist's smock, garden smock, or child's smock dress m linen or silk. 17. Make a ceremonial cape with decorations for child or self. Must be shown in Council. 18. Make a suit of pajamas or bathrobe, either by machine or hand. 19. Decorate with appliqu^ design a ceremonial blanket, must be shown in Council. 20. Make a bedspread: applique or woven by hand. 21. Embroider or applique two pillowcases. 22. Embroider monogram on one dozen towels, or embroider a cross-stitch on the ends. 23. Make and insert su Irish crochet inserts m six towels 24. Hem a tablecloth and a dozen napkins by hand. 25. Make six hemstitched handkerchiefs with monogram or crochet or tatting edge. 26. Design and work a monogram on six articles of household Imen. 27. Embroider a shirtwaist, corset-cover, etc., with an original design. 28. Make a cloth, velvet, woolen or fur tam-o'-shanter or cap, with other article to match, such as muffler, muff, collar, or belt. ' 29. Trim and line a hat, facing it or binding edge or putfwff on fold. 30. Make a hat of straw braid or a wire frame covered with lace, net, silk, etc. 31. Show samples of various kinds of stitches, such as hem- ming, running, over-casting, feather-stitching, slip stitching, whippmg, gathering, tucking, etc. 32- Know six kmds of lace, hand or machine, and give an idea of the price. 33- Describe and give price of six kinds of cotton goods, aistujgtush by weave, ditto of silk, woollen or linen. Choice of two. 420)

34. Describe satin and be able to tell how it b woven to give it its sheen. Gatini-Wekwe



The Degree of Nurse may be conferred on any out who takes ten of these tests: I. Take the American Red Cross examination for First Aid. 2. Describe the daily routine for twenty-four hours in a sick- room. 3. Give the symptomsof grippe, whooping cough,indige8tion, and pneumonia. 4. Give the symptoms of measles, scarlet fever, chicken-pox, and prickly heat. 5. Give the symptoms of tuberculosis; describe its action and the best means of combating. 6. Describe the action of bathing hot or cold with the good possibilities and the risks. 7. Discuss massage as beneficial or harmful. 8. Discuss sunbath as beneficial or harmful. 9. Discuss fresh air as beneficial or harmful. 10. Discuss purges, showing the need and the safest kind. 11. What would you do if your patient had headache? 1 2. What medical outfit would you take for a month's sojourn in the wilderness? 13. State how to use a thermometer, and what should be the temperature and pulse of a normal child or a grown up. 14. Prepare three meals on a tray for an invalid, using chicken broth, eggnog, milk toast, and show tltt value of brij^t and cheerful serving. Any doctor or trained nurse recdves this degree upon proper evidence. Nind-aki



The Degree of Patriotism may be conferred on any one who takes nine of these tests: 1. Sing or recite "The Star-Spangled Banner." 2. Recite the first two paragraphs of the "Dec- laration of Independence." 421)

3. Recite the Preamble to the Constitution. 4. Recite Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. J. Name the ten^American men whom you consider the great- est in our history and say why. 6. Name the ten American women whom you consider the greatest in our history and say why. In this and in the pre- ceding living persons are not to be included, and remember that all must be measured by what they accomplished. 7. Name the ten great turning points in our history and say why you consider them to be so. 8. Organize and take part in some pageant or other function celebrating some important local or national event or epoch. 9. Tell 'he history of the flag and the proper method to show respect to it. 10. Tell why we should conserve the forests and wild life. 11. Know the names, home places, and occupations of your grandparents, and great-grandparents, including the maiden names of the mothers in question. 12. Name the ten greatest heroes that your own race has given the world. 13. Have been responsible for a folk dance class of children 14. Have helped by public meetings and agitation to secure the passage of law as to people's use of school buildings. New York, New Jersey, Washington, Wisconsin, Massachusetts, Kansas, In- diana, and the District of Columbia are in possession of a law that permits the people to use school buildings aside from school hours, for the purpose of meeting and discussing "any and all subjects and questions which in their judgment may appertain to the educational, political, economic, artistic, and mon^ interest of the citizens." 15. Have been responsible for marking (in artistic and ap- propriate way) some historic spot. 16. Have helped to establish a bird sanctuary. Nampeyo


(Nampeyo, Famous Pueblo Indian Potter)

OThe Degree of Potter may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests: I. Make bird's drinking fountain or basin, twelve ' or more inches across. 2. Make set of four bowls: decoration in Zuni style, Moqui style, Ao»x>a, and San Dcuningo styln. 422)

3. Make jardiniere at least ten inches across. 4. Make L. nging vase to hold pint or more of water, Jap- MaS'set of six plain cooking dishes of day dug and prepared by self. . , , t 6 Make rectangular shaUow dish for holding Japanese miniature garden 10 X 6 X 2 inches. Must be glazed to prevent 7. Make, dry, and bake eight little plain bowls all the same or of various shapes, hard enough to hold water, and without flaw that would prevent their being of practical use. 8. Make with coU process, dry and bake, four pots of Zum shape with Zuni decorations, each large enough to hold two quarts, and close enough to hold water, without flaw that would prevent its practical use. ... «  o Make a potters' wheel and turn out eight pieces of pottery on the same. (See " Chamber's Encyclopedia.") 10. Make a potter's kiln and demonstrate it. (See Cliam- ber's" or "American Encyclopedia.") , 11. Paint a set of eight china dishes using native American ^^'f^Paint a set of eight china dishes using any standard design. 13. Describe and fully distinguish six great types of Old World pottery. , . 14. Describe and fully distinguish four types of naUve Amer- ican pottery. , , . _ 15. Tell how the ancient and preaistonc pottery at America may be distin>;uished from that made to-day. 16. Make a set of candlesticks and firebowl for Four Fires. 17. Describe the principle varieties of native clays and teU what colors they bake; describe the Zuni method of firmg. Mikan



The Degree of Scout may be conferred on any one — J who takes twelve of these tests: ■*-4 I Know ever> land b>-path and short cut for a „, J distance of at least two mUes in every direction around your local headquarters in the country. 2 Have a general knowledge of the district withm a five-mile radius of local headquarters, so as to be able to guide people at any time, by day or ni^t. 423)

3-. Know the genenl directkm and population of the five principal neighboring towns and be abk to |dve stniuen comet directions how to reach them. 4- Know the country in two-mife radiuf, or in a town must know in a half-mile radius wliat Uvery 8tabks,sanuR«.and black, smiths there are. © i — 5. Know the location of the nearest meat markets, bal ries groceries, and drug stores. ' 6. Know where the nearest police station, hospital, doctor, fire alarm, fire hydrant, telegraph, and telephone offices, and raihroad stations are. J: °^ ^^^°'"y the place, its principal public buildings, such as town or city haU, post-office, schoob, and churches. ' 8. As much as possible of the above information should be entered on a large scale map.

  • t^'n u"? * s«-inch tree or pole in a prescribed direction so as

to faU between two stakes two feet apart, within sixty seconds. 10. Tie six kinds of knots quicklv. 11. Lash spars properly together for scaffolding. 12. Build a bridge or derrick. 13. Make a camp kitchen. 14. Build a shack or cabin of one kind or another suitable for three occupants. »«u»uie 15. Walk one mile in eleven minutes. 16. Run 100 yards in thirteen seconcls. 17. Run fifty yards in seven and four-fifth seconds. 18. Swun 100 yards. Kee-mo-sah'-bee

Scout Runner


The Degree of Scout Runner may be conferred on any one who takes nine of these tesU: X. Walk one mile in eleven minutes. 2. Walk thirty miles in twelve hours. 3- Run 100 yards in thirteen seconds. 4. R'Jn fifty yards in seven and four-fifth seconds. 5- Run one mJIe in five and <Hie-thizd minutes. 0. Swim 100 yards. 7- paddle a canoe one mile m twelve minutes, takf oc n Semaphore or Wigwag or Myer code and fettSfa^^Sr* a message at tie rate of at'leaat twenty- 424)

9. Know 300 signs of thc^Sign Language. 10. Know the twenty-five secret tifos and blazes of the Indian code. 11. Have slept out thirty nights. 12. Know and can clearly discriminate the track of twenty- five of our common wild quadrupeds; also trail for a mile with- out snow, till near enough to photograph or bag it. 13. Must have carried a letter three times over a mile of enemy's country with at least twenty hostiles out against him, of his own class. Nabikwa-Ninini



The Degree of 9 > ' n may be conferred on any one who takes ten of li. sts: I. Tie ten diflerent standard knots. 2.. Make a finish knot at the end of a rope. 3. Make long and short splices and demonstrate covering an eye splice. 4. Use palm and needle. 5. Fling a rope coil. 6. Fling a life buoy.* 7. Row and steer a boat. 8. Pole and scull a boat and demonstrate bringing it along- side safely, then make fast. 9. Bo. the compass. 10. Read a chart. 1 1 . Show a knowled^ of weather wisdom and tides. 1 2. Show how sun and stars are of service as guides. 13. Swim fifty yards with clothes on. 14. Sail a two-man boat for 100 miles without a professional sailor for companion, but yourself holding the tiller and direct- ing its sail adjustment, etc. This need not be in one trip. 15. Demonstrate by description and sketch or actually dem- onstrate correct method of reefing a fore and aft sail including sequence of passing the tack lasfalng, earing and knotting reef points and turning out the reef. 16. Describe the nror>er method of coming to anchor so as not to foul anchor; state proper amount of rope to be paid out in proportion to deplh of water. Also show method of stopping anchor line down to flukes and ring to anchor n rocky bottom. 17. Rules of the road; proper action to be taken on approach <^ other vessel of any chamctor.