The Birch Bark Roll of Woodcraft – Activities section, 1931 (book)

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1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

The Child Spirit of Woodcraft

7)

The Birch Bark Roll of Woodcraft

The Twenty-ninth Edition of the Manual

For Boys and Girls from 4 to 94

BY ERNEST THOMPSON SETON

CHIEF OF WOODCRAFT LEAGUE OF AMERICA, INC.

Honorary Chief of British Woodcraft Chivalry
Honorary Chief of Woodcraft League of Ireland
Honorary Chief of Woodcraft League of Czechoslovakia
etc., etc.

REVISED BY JULIA M. BUTTREE

AUTHOR OF “THE RHYTHM OF THE REDMAN”

Activities Section

NEW YORK

A. 8. BARNES AND COMPANY

INCORPORATED

1931 8) CopyRIGHT 1931 BY A. S. BARNES AND COMPANY INCORPORATED This book is fully protected by copyright and noth- ing that appears in it may be reprinted or reproduced in any manner, either wholly or in part, for any use whatever, without special written permission of the copyright owner. | Copyright 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, IQII, I9%2, 1914, I915, 1916, 1917, 1918, I919, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1930, by ERNEST THOMPSON SETON. All rights reserved including that of translation into foreign languages, including the Scandinavian. PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 9)

INTRODUCTION

There was a time when the term physical education meant gymnastics, in an indoor space, clothed in a hideous costume which denied the existence of some parts of our bodies, to the monotonous count of an instructor without psychology, without imagination, without joy in his work.

But times have changed; and the whole world is realizing “the falsity of such methods of teaching.

Woodcraft has always taught that the best kind of physical education embraces elements of all the four ways to perfect manhood, — the physical, the mental, the spiritual, and the social.

Chopping wood, or digging a hole, is a physical act, — yes. Strengthening muscles by means of dumbbells and Indian clubs, is physical education. They accomplish a certain amount of good. But, just as relish is essential to digestion, so is enjoyment essential to physical exercise in its highest and most beneficial form.

A child learns to walk without much mental training. But when it comes to dancing, the successful performer soon realizes that every step is done, first by the head, then with the feet. It is a mental process before it is a physical one.

The best kind of dancing is the kind which interprets an emotion or a set of emotions, the kind which appeals to the imagination. Here we enter the spiritual field with our physical training.

The social side of dancing is, of course, self-evident, whether it be done by the dancers as a form of amusement to themselves, or as a performance before an audience.

All of this is equally true of handicrafts — provided we select our handicrafts. And here is where Woodcraft has always stood firm — and for a long time alone: Woodcraft is recreation; we are teaching the world, not to work, but to play. Therefore, our handicraft activities are those which are — yes — physical in part; but also, they involve a mental side to attain; they appeal to the imagination by harking back 10) wherever possible to the primitive; and they are of service to the world at large as well as to the doer.

Most important of all in this connection, they are all not only possibly but preferably done out of doors — most of them in camps, — and in a spirit of joy in the doing.

We therefore hold that our handicraft activities are the highest form of physical education.

Julia M. Buttree

March 14, 1931. 11)

CONTENTS

GAMES

Outdoors

Camp

Shadow Tag. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Wheelbarrow Race. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Plow Race . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Travois Race . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Bear in the Pit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Bang the Bear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Bait the Bear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Obstinate Mule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Crow Hop Chain Race . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Weather Cock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Catch the Salmon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Catch of Fish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Crossing the Brook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Rabbit in a Hollow Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Bird Catcher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Bear and Hunter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Old Plug. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Elephant Walk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Centipede . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Fox and Rabbit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Bull Fight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Eggs ina Nest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Trap Ball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Lion Hunting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Deer Stalking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Scouting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Hostile Spy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Trailing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Rabbit Hunt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Man Hunt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Bear Hunt, or Hunting ‘of Mishi-Mokwa . . . . . 16

Big Bear Hunt. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 16

Still-hunting the Buck, or Deer Hunt. . . . . . 17

Archery Golf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Far Sight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Round Post Relay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Jump Rope Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Chariot Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Wheelbarrow Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Jumping Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Arch Ball Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Stride Ball Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

All Up Relay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 12) viii Contents Leap Frog Relay . . . . 2... we ew ew ew we Apache Relay . . . . . . 1 ee ee le Crab Relay... ee te ee le ele ee HF Broad Jump ‘Relay . eo oe ee ee le le eS Running and Catching Relay eee ee ee ee 8S Council Form Tub Tilting oe ee ee ee ew le te GH Skin the Snake ... te ee ee ee le OD Animal Blind Man’s Buff wee ee ewe Bear Dance . . ne .. Ankle Grasp Walk . . se ew ew wee BB Strong Hand, or Hand Wrestling . ~ oe ew we el lel 8 One Hand Hop Fight . . . ... . hehehe) 8 Circle Hop Fight. . . . . . .. . 6 ee 289 Lunge and Hop ........... . « 2 Into the Ring . . . . . . 2... ee ee le eS OO Forward Pull . 2. . . 2. 2... wee eee Rooster Fight . . . . . . 2. . ee ee ee 0 Buzz. . eee ee we we le le Oz Witches’ Broom Ride . . . . . 1. ee ew el. 31 Cats on the Back Fence. . . ..... +. . +. = 32 One-legged Chicken F ight . ee ew we ee lee OR Battle Royal . . . ee 7 Talk-fest 2. . 2... 0.0. ee ee ew ew lw le) 3B Song-fest. we ee ewe ee ew ee) 3B Whistling Match eX Posing and Pantomimes . . . .... .. . . 33 Pass the Matchbox . ... .. . «2. «© © « « 3§ City , What’s Wrong? . ... . . . 2 «© «© «© « « 36 Shadowing ... wee ee we le le lw ee 8G Catching the Dodger ce ee we ee we ee Night Catch the Lynx . . . . . 1. ee te ew ew we) YQ Water Water Tag... .. 2. © we ew ew lel ee ee GO Water Wrestling . . . 2. . 2. 2. «© e © © «© = 40 Submarine . . . . . 1. «6 «© © ee ee ee) 40 Tug Race... . . 1. 2. «© «© «© «© «© «© «© « 40 Twin Watermen . . ee ee ew ee ele CI Medley Swimming Relay ce ee ee ee eC Medley Diving Relay . ......... +. «4! INDOORS Council Form Bear Walk . Wet Foot Cat Walk . Lame Dog Walk . Duck Waddle . Seal Crawl . Ostrich Walk Frog Hop BRERBSH 13) Contents Kangaroo Jump Crab Walk . Snake Walk . Chinese Get-Up Siamese Twins. Blind Man’s Breakfast Horse Racing . Crane Dive. . Advantage Wrestling William Tell Race Freeze. Threading the Needles Able Tailor . . Hat-Trimming . Dramatic Alphabets Solemnity . . Laughing Contest . Feeling . Spotting the ‘Spot . Guessing Birds Verbal Authors . Advertisement Contest Object Game Post General. Parlor Track Meet Informal Indian Running Can You Smell? Capitals . Telegrams . Quick Sight Peanut Carry .. Feather and Fans . Target Ball. Lock Arm Tag Broncho Tag Bird Store... Little Bird Wants a Tree Imitating Birds. . Boat Race Relay . Blackboard Relay . DANCES Schottische . Simple Gavotte . Polka Mazurka . Barn Dance Varsovienne . Virginia Reel A Few Fundamental Indian Dance Steps . Comanche Dance Coyote Dance Eagle Dance . Buttree Buttree Buttree Buttree Buttree Buttree Buttree Buttree Buttree Buttree PAGE 14) Contents Basket Dance . Corn Grinding Dance Bow and Arrow Dance Sun Dance . SONGS Sun Dance Song . Seton Rancho . . . Dust of the Red Wagon . Song of Rising to Depart Eagle Dance Song. Corn Grinding Song . Omaha Prayer . Carousal. Thlah Hewe When I Become a "Sagamore Woodcraft Hike Song Camper’s Song . . Canoe Song. Big Brown Bird . . Song of the Seven Secrets . Wood Child” . . Might of America HANDICRAFTS Cartwheel . Handspring. . . Log Riding . . . Acorn Muffins . Plaster Casts of Tracks . . Black Tracks of Animals Smoke Prints of Leaves . Ink Prints of Leaves . Blue Prints .. Spatter Prints . Tincandicraft Silver Jewelry . Paper Mash Napkin Ring Elks’ Teeth... Willow Whistle Base-Ball . . How to Make a Noggin . Chipping Arrowheads Tanning a Skin Indian Pottery . How to Make a Rop e . Loose Leaf Tally Book . Binding a Coup or Tally Book . Materials for Basket Making . Vegetable Dyes . . Colors in Basketry . Basket Making . . Buttree . Buttree . Buttree . Buttree Curtis . Tse-Pe . Densmore . La Flesche Buttree Curtis . Fletcher Burton Curtis Thomas Alexander . Deming Antz and Morlock Buttree Seton Seton Seton . Seton Seton . Welch . Stryker Buttree Seton Seton. Buttree Buttree Buttree Haring Haring Buttree Seton Seton . Seton . Seton Buttree Buttree Buttree Stevenson . Stoll Jaeger . Grabau . Buttree Buttree Buttree LaPort 95 95 96 97 10I 102 103 103 105 106 113 113 113 114 116 © 118 119 123 124 127 128 131 135 138 14I 142 15) Contents Mats : Beading . . Quill Work .. Feather Quill Work . Pendants for Indian Costuming War Shirt . Woman’s Dress Indian Leggings Dancing Bustle Bayberry Candles... Caning a Chair Seat . Lights . Hunter’s Lamp ... . Woodman’s Lantern . Knife and Hatchet... Rules for Using a Knife Use of Hatchet Use of Axe Knife Sheath Ax Sheath . Waterproof Shelter of Wilderness Stuff . Camp Loom and Grass Mats Navaho Loom . Camp Rake . Camp Broom . Rubbing Stick Fire Medicine Bag . . Tinder Bag ... Fire Stick Bag. . Altar Cloth and Prayer Rugs . Pioneer Hunting Pouch... Arapaho “Strike-a- Light” Pouch Blazes and Signs . Blazes. Stone Signs. Grass and Twig Signs Smoke Signals . . Signals by Shots Tramp Signs . Automobile Signals . oe Indian Names for the Months . Indian Village . oe Sweat Lodge . Water, or the Indian Well . White Man’s Woodcraft Height of Trees we Distance Across Stream . Distance Between Two Objects Woodcraft Indoor Council Ring Wall Hangings . Woodcraft Stool . Woodcraft Outdoor Council Ring . Woodcraft Covered Council Ring . Hoffman . Buttree Fletcher Buttree Buttree Jaeger Jaeger Jaeger Seton . Buttree Buttree Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Jaeger Jaeger Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Jaeger Jaeger Buttree Buttree Jaeger Jaeger Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . Seton . 144 146 152 154 156 157 157 157 161 210 213 16) Xi Contents Woodcraft Log Cabin . . - 2 « « Seton. . . 218 Woodcraft Rock or Stone Cabin . ~ . . Seton. . . 225 Dobies_ . woe ew ew lw lel) CSCHON Tw. 229 Woodcraft Toilet. . . . . . . . . Seton. 2. 229 Making Council Fire. . . . . . . . Seton. . . 231 Camp Horn. . ........ +. #=Seton. . . 232 ' Hunter’s Horn ....... . +. Jaeger =. =. 232 Tinder Horn . ....... . +. «Jaeger . . 234 Horn Cup . ........ =. +. «Jaeger =. . 234 Totem Pole . . oe ew ew ww) (SCHON. 2334 How to Make a Totem. . . . . . . Setom. . . 235 Indian Drums . ...... . . . Mason . . 237 Beds . oe we ew wl) (SCHON... 240 Woodcraft Willow Bed. . . . . . . Seton. . . 241 Four-Poster ae woe ew we lel SCHON. ww RAS Tepee. woe ew el le lel CSCtON ww 2 Photographic Cage oe ew ew ew ee) (SCHON. 8 249 Taxidermy . ....... . . +. Seton. . . 252 Swallow Bank. . .... . . . . =‘Seton. . . 256 Hollow Tree ....... . . . £=Seton. . . 257 BIBLIOGRAPHY ........... . . « « 261 INDEX .... . 2. ee we ew ee ee ee 263 17) GAMES 18) 19)

GAMES

There are two vital elements in the putting on of games.

The first essential in teaching a game is that the leader know the game absolutely. To have merely read over the directions before putting on the game is deadly to the success of its performance. Especially in games with scores is this sure knowledge necessary. Therefore, first and foremost, Know Your Game.

The next essential to the certain success of the game is clear, definite action on the part of the umpire. At the end of the game (or of each round if it be that kind of game), hold up the arm of the winner high in the air so all can see, and clearly announce that “So and So is the winner of this game, because he won two out of three rounds”; or “So and So is the winner of this round because he pushed the other player out of the ring”; or whatever the reason is. Make sure your audience sees and hears all that is done and said, and realizes Who Is The Winner and Why.

We have attempted to group the games into Indoors, Outdoors, Camp, Council, etc.; but many of them would fit equally well into two or three groups. The leader will have to decide on the adaptability of each to his own present needs.

We have avoided giving any games requiring apparatus other than such as can be made on the spot, or obtained without expense. We have aimed to make these games live up to the Woodcraft slogan: Where You are, With What You Have, Right Now.

Some of the games herein are original with the Woodcraft League, some are borrowed from other sources, and some are adapted. We wish to thank all our friends who have aided in the compilation of this section. We will add a bibliography of books and pamphlets which will afford additional help along these lines. 20)

OUTDOORS

CAMP

Shadow Tag

The player who is It, tries to step or jump on to the shadow of some other player; and if successful, announces the fact by calling the name of the layer. That player then becomes It. The guide will have to see that the players venture into the open spaces, where the shadows become apparent, rather than to huddle on one side of the ground, where the chaser cannot reach the shadows.


Wheelbarrow Race

Boys in two lines facing same direction; first line in prone lying position on the floor, feet apart. The second line or drivers stand between partners’ legs, grasping the wheel - barrow above the knees. Wheelbarrows walk forward on hands.


Plow Race

As in WHEELBARROW Race, but the driver takes hold of the ankles of the boy in front. The front boy must keep the body straight. This is easy for the driver, but hard for the plow, therefore the course must be short.


Travois Race

Boys in, two lines, back to back, A in prone lying position on the floor. B lifts A’s ankles to B’s shoulders, holding them with thumb inside and fingers outside; then walks forward. This makes A walk backward. Select partners of equal size and strength.


Bear in the Pit

A bear pit is formed by the players joining hands.in a circle, with one in the center as the bear. The bear tries to get out by breaking apart the bars (clasped hands), or 21)

by going over or under these barriers. Should he escape, all of the other players give chase, the one catching him becoming bear.

The bear can exercise considerable stratagem by appearing to break through the bars in one place, and suddenly turning and crawling under another, etc.

Bang the Bear

One big boy is the bear, and has three bases in which he can take refuge and be safe. He carries a small balloon tied on his back.

The other boys are armed with clubs of straw, rope, or knotted hankies, with which they try to burst the balloon while he is outside a base. The bear has a similar club with which he knocks off the hunters’ hats.

If a hunter’s hat is knocked off, he is counted killed; but the bear’s balloon must be burst before he is killed — so he will learn to turn his face to the enemy and not his back.


Bait the Bear

The bear’s den is a circle scratched on the ground, and the bear moves about it on all fours. A rope is round his waist; and the other end of this rope is held by his keeper, who makes up his mind that he will shield his poor bear from all comers. To do this, he carries in his other hand a handkerchief with one of its corners tied in a knot.

“Ready!” cries the bear, as he crawls about in his den. At the word, the hunters come and baste him with their knotted handkerchiefs. He may do what he can to save himself, but he must not crawl out of the circle. The keeper tries to drive them off; and if he succeeds in hitting one of the baiters, the bear becomes the keeper, and the boy who is hit takes his place in the den.

Obstinate Mule

Players pair off by size throughout the whole group, but avoiding as far as possible any pairs in which both players belong to the same band. Pairs extend in a line along one side of the space. The front member of each pair (the mule) takes the “On the hands — down” position, but with 22)

the legs stretched wide apart. The other member of each pair (the driver) then stoops and passes his arms around the legs of the mule above the knee, and lifts him up as in a wheelbarrow race. The legs must be held well up under the arms of the driver. 

The driver tries to push the mule forward over a line about 5 yards ahead, and the mule resists by rapid turns and twists right or left, or by a straight pressure from rigid arms.

The mule may not stick his back in the air by bending at the waist. The driver may not lift the mule from the ground, turn him and pull him, or in fact do more than apply a forward pressure in the direction of the head of the mule to make him advance, and the necessary lateral pressure to prevent attempts on the part of the mule to twist to left or right. The mule should keep his head up.

The game must not be allowed to last too long, and mule and driver should change places for the return journey.

Crow Hop Chain Race

Groups line up in files as for a relay race, but sized from front to rear, with the smallest player leading. All take the “full knee bend” position, and place the hands on the hips of the player in front, the leaders keeping their hands on their knees.

All start to “crow hop” forward, keeping the full knee bend position. Groups will at first find great difficulty in hopping together; and the leaders, to whose time all the players in their respective groups conform, may help by counting or by calling out their own time as they hop.

The length of the race should be limited to about 10 yards. The group wins which first hops completely over the finishing line. Marks might be deducted for breaks which occur in the lines; and a group must be intact as it crosses the line.

Weather Cock

The players stand all facing same direction. Having learned north, east, south, and west directions, one player who represents the Weather Bureau, stands in front of the eroup, and calls out which way the wind blows.

The players, as the directions are called, “The wind blows 23) north,” jump on both feet, turning toward the north, or facing the direction the wind is blowing.

Should the leader call “Whirlwind,” the players spin about quickly three times.

The interest will depend upon the rapidity and variety of the leader’s directions. For members of the older groups, the half-way points as northeast, southwest, may be given.

Those who face in the wrong direction, are eliminated.

Catch the Salmon

The two boys who want to catch the salmon, carry a piece of rope between them, each holding one end. The fish are on the other side of a chalk line, across which the catchers must not pass. Carrying their rope to this line, they try to throw it over any fish who comes too near; and, when they succeed, the captive must not do anything with his arms to get free, though he may jump and struggle if he likes.

Once across the line, he is on land, and must give himself up.

Catch of Fish

This is a very strenuous game, and affords opportunity for some very good exercise and sport.

A line is drawn across each end of the ground, beyond which the players stand in two equal parties, one at one end and one at the other. The players of one party clasp hands to form a fish net. The players in the other party are fish. At a given signal, both advance toward the center of the ground, which represents a stream, the object of the fish being to swim across to the opposite shore without being caught in the net. To do this, they will naturally dodge around the ends of the net.

The net should enclose or encircle any fish that it catches. The fish so caught may not try to break apart the clasped hands forming the net, but may escape only through the opening where the two ends come together. Should the net break at any point by an unclasping of hands, the fish are all allowed to escape, and the players go back to their respective goals, and begin all over again. Any fish caught in the net are thereafter out of the game until all are caught. After the net has made one catch, the sides exchange parts, those of the fish that are left forming the new net, and the 24) first net crossing to the other side and becoming fish. The two sides thus exchange places and parts, until all on one side are caught.

For a large number of players, it is better to have two small nets instead of one, the dodging being livelier and the progress of the game more rapid in every way.

Crossing the Brook

This game is a great favorite with little children. A place representing a brook is marked off by two lines on the ground. For little children, this may start with a width of two feet. The players run in groups, and try to jump across the brook. Those who succeed turn around and jump back with a standing jump instead of a running jump.

On either of these jumps, the player who does not cross the line representing the bank, gets into the water and must run home for dry stockings, being thereafter out of the game. The successful jumpers are led to wider and wider places in the brook to jump, until the widest point is reached at which any player can jump successfully. This player is considered the winner.

Rabbit in a Hollow Tree

The players stand in groups of three with their hands on each other’s shoulders, each group making a small circle which represents a hollow tree. In each “tree” is a player who takes the part of “rabbit.” There should be one more “rabbit” than the number of “trees”. One player is also chosen for “dog.”

The dog chases the odd rabbit, who may take refuge in any tree, always running in and out under the arms of the players forming the tree. The rabbit already there must run for another tree. Whenever the dog catches a rabbit they change places, the dog becoming the rabbit and the rabbit the dog. If at any time a tree is empty, the dog may become a rabbit by finding shelter in this empty tree, whereupon the odd rabbit must take the part. of the dog.

Bird Catcher

Two opposite corners are marked off at one end of the ground or room; the one to serve as a nest for the birds, and the other as a cage. A mother bird is chosen, who takes 25) her place in the nest. Two other players take the part of bird catchers, and stand midway between nest and cage. The remaining players stand beyond a line at the farther end of the ground, which is called the forest. All of these players should be named for birds, several players taking the name of each bird. But all of the robins or orioles, for instance, must not fly from the same locality.

The guide calls the name of a bird, whereupon all of the players who bear that name run from the forest to the nest, but the bird catchers try to intercept them. Should a bird be caught by the bird catcher, it is put in the cage; but a bird is safe from bird catchers if it once reaches the nest and the mother bird. The players should be taught to make the game interesting by dodging in various directions, instead of running in a simple straight line for the nest.

The distance of the bird catchers from the nest may be determined with a little experience, it being necessary to place a handicap upon them to avoid the too easy capture of the birds.

The Bear and the Hunter

Eleven or more players.

One player is chosen to be the Bear and another the Hunter. The other players represent the trees (a review of trees can be used here, each one choosing the name of a tree), arranged in files with hands joined in the ranks; the aisles representing the paths in the woods. The Bear starts running through the woods, the Hunter following in close pursuit. On a beat of the tom-tom, the trees all break clasps, face to the right and reclasp hands. The Hunter and the Bear now find that the paths in the woods have changed direction. They are not allowed to break files or pass under the clasped hands. A beat of the tom-tom at intervals signifies a change of position as above. Upon being tagged, the Bear chooses a tree to play the Hunter and the Hunter becomes the Bear. The game may be varied by having two Bears and one Hunter, depending on the size of the group.

Old Plug

A horse, “Old Plug”, is made up of five players who stand in a file, each firmly holding onto the one in front. 26) The one in front is the head, the one on the end is the tail of the horse. “Old Plug” stands within a circle formed by all other players. The players in the circle have a large ball, or bean bag, and attempt to hit Old Plug on the tail. Old Plug avoids being hit on the tail by keeping his head toward the ball. The first man in the line may knock the ball with his hands back to the players of the circle. The player who hits Old Plug’s tail becomes the head. The tail player drops off, and joins the circle. In a large circle, there may be two horses.

Elephant Walk

Two boys stand facing each other; No. 1 grasps No. 2 by the top of the trousers. No. 2 at the same time jumps, and locks his legs high up under the arms of No. 1; then lets his arms and the upper part of his body fall backward, swinging back between the legs of No. 1. After passing through the legs, he grasps No. 1 by the heels with both hands. No. 1 falls forward on his hands, and walks on all fours like an elephant.

No. 2 pushes up until his arms are straight, his head high and his back arched. When the two boys go along rapidly this way, it quite resembles the. walk of an elephant.

No. 2 may assist in the walk by lifting alternately on the ankles of No. 1, as he steps. No. 2 returns to the first position simply by swinging back through between the legs assisted by No. 1, unlocking his feet as he completes the swing and dropping to his feet.

Centipede

No. 1 jumps on the back of No. 2, and locks his legs squarely around No. 2’s body. No. 2 leans forward until both boys can place their hands flat on the floor. They walk in this position. There will be two sets of hands and one set of feet on the floor.

After trying this, have another boy climb on No. 1, and clamp his knees against his waist, with a foot along either hip, placing his hands on the floor, ahead of the other two. Then there are three sets of arms and one pair of legs. Try to walk all together. 27)

This can be extended indefinitely if some care is taken to get the extra boys clamped on in the right position.

Fox and Rabbit

A white bean bag may be used for the rabbit, and a red one for the fox. One child in the circle is given the rabbit, which he sends around the circle by passing it to the next one, and so on. A moment later, the fox is started, giving chase to the rabbit. The latter must reach the child’s hands from which it started, before the fox overtakes it. The players sometimes forget that a fox is coming after the rabbit, and do not help it along.

Bull Fight

Twelve players are needed for the game, which is interesting to watch and makes a good spectacle for a display. The players are — 1 bull, 1 matador, 4 Chulos, and 6 scarf bearers.

Part I

The bull enters the arena (which is a circle formed by non-contestants) with four or five 6-inch strips of paper pinned to his back. The Chulos try to tear off these without being touched by the bull; but if the bull touches them twice, they are dead. The scarf-bearers, who carry their scarves in their hands, run in between the bull and a Chulo if he is hard pressed, and by waving their scarves in the bull’s face, make him follow them. If a Chulo is once touched by the bull, he is dead. Only one strip may be taken at a time.

Part II

When all the strips are off, or all the Chulos killed, the arena is cleared, and the bull blindfolded, with a scarf tied round his neck so that one pull at an end brings it off.

The matador then enters, and has to remove the scarf without being touched by the bull. If he succeeds, the bull is dead.

Eggs in a Nest

The caps of the players are laid in a row on the ground at the foot of a wall; they should be tilted a little, so as to 28) make it easier to toss a ball into them. The players then stand in a row at a line about eight steps away, and one of them pitches the ball at the hats. The moment this is done, they all scatter, except the boy who owns the hat it has fallen into. He must take out the ball as quickly as possible, and throw it at one of the other players. If it hits him, this boy must, in turn, pitch the ball at the hats.

But if the thrower misses him, a small pebble is placed in his cap as a bad mark. A pebble should also be added for every time a player fails to toss the ball into a hat. When any player has missed so often that the number of pebbles in his cap equals the number of players, he is made to stand at a short distance while the rest throw the ball at him, each in turn. The game then starts afresh.

Trap Ball

The trap can be made of a flat piece of wood about nine inches long and two or three inches wide, with a small hollow scooped near one end. Place this piece of wood on the ground, with some twig or small stone under it, so that the end opposite to the scoop is tilted up. Then lay the ball in the scoop, and strike the lifted end sharply with a stick.

This will throw the ball into the air; and before it falls again, the player must hit it with his stick. If he fails to do this twice, or hits it so that the ball is caught by another player, he is out, and the next takes his place.

Lion Hunting

A lion is represented by one player, who goes out with tracking irons on his feet, and a pocketful of corn or peas, and six tennis balls or rag balls. He is allowed half an hour’s start, and then the group go after him, following his track, each armed with one ball with which to shoot him when they find him. The lion may hide or creep about or run, just as he feels inclined; but whenever the ground is hard or very greasy, he must drop a few grains of corn every few yards to show the trail.

If the hunters fail to come up to him, neither wins the game. When they come near to the lair, the lion fires at them with his tennis balls; and the moment a hunter is hit, he must fall out dead, and cannot throw his ball. If the 29) lion gets hit by a hunter’s ball, he is wounded; and if he gets wounded three times, he is killed.

Balls may be fired only once; they cannot be picked up and fired again in the same fight.

In winter, if there is snow, this game can be played without tracking irons, and using snow balls instead of tennis balls.

Deer Stalking

The guide acts as deer, not hiding but standing, and moving occasionally. The players go out to find the deer, and each tries in his own way to get up to it unseen.

Directly the guide sees a player, he directs him to stand up as having failed. After a certain time, the guide calls “Time,” and all stand up at the spot which they have reached, and the nearest wins.

The same game may be played by the deer being blind-folded. The players start to stalk the deer at 100 yards distance. When the deer hears the stalker and points directly to him, he stands where he is.

Scouting

Scouts are sent out in pairs or singly. A number of points are marked on the map at equal distances from camp, and the scouts draw straws to see where each goes. If one place is obviously hard, the scout is allowed a fair number of points as handicap. All set out at same time, go direct, and return as soon as possible.

Points are thus allowed:

Last back, zero for traveling; the others count one for each minute they are ahead of the last.

Sometimes we allow 10 points for each Turtle they have seen; 10 for each Owl seen and properly named; 5 for each Hawk, and 1 each for other wild birds; also 2 for a Cat; 1 for a Dog.

No information is given the scout; he is told to go to such a point and do so and so, but is fined points if he hesitates or asks how or why, etc.

Hostile Spy

Hanging from the Totem Pole is a red or yellow hand-kerchief. This is the Grand Medicine Trophy of the band. 30)


The Hostile Spy has to capture it. The leader goes around on the morning of the day and whispers to the various members, “Look out — there’s a spy in camp.” At length he goes secretly near the one he has selected for spy, and whispers, “Look out, there’s a spy in camp, and you are it.” He gives him at the same time some bright colored badge, that he must wear as soon as he has secured the Medicine Trophy. He must not hide the Trophy on his person, but keep it in view. He has all day till sunset to get away with it. If he gets across the river or other limit, he wins and they must pay an agreed ransom for the Trophy. If he is caught, he loses, and has to pay a ransom for himself.

Trailing

A good trailing stunt to develop alertness and observation is managed thus: One boy wearing the tracking irons is deer. He is given 100 beans, 30 slices of potato, and 10 minutes’ start. He has to lay a track, as crooked as he pleases, dropping a bean every 3 or 4 yards and a slice of potato every 20. Aften ten minutes’ run the deer has to hide.

The trailers follow him, picking up the beans and potato slices. Each bean counts I point, each slice of potato 2. The one who finds the deer scores 10 for it.

Rabbit Hunt

The game of rabbit-hunting is suited for two hunters in limited grounds.

Three little sacks of brown burlap, each about 8 inches by 12, are stuffed with hay.

At any given place in the woods, the two boys stand in a 10-foot circle with their bows and arrows. Boy No. I is blindfolded; he is the hunter. Boy No. 2 is the hider; without leaving the circle, he throws the rabbits into good hiding places on the ground. Boy No. 1 now removes the blindfold. He has to find the rabbits, and shoot them without leaving the circle.

The lowest number of points wins. If the hunter steps out of the circle, he gets one point for every step he has taken. After he sees the rabbit, he must keep to the spot 31) whence he saw it, and shoot till it is hit. One shot kills it, no matter where struck. For every shot he misses, he gets 5 points.

The hunter and hider shoot alternately, but only the hunter can score. The hider cannot score at all; he can only help his friend into trouble. But for every time the hider hits the rabbit, the hunter must add 10 points.

If the hunter fails to find all the rabbits, he scores 25 for each one he gives up.

Next time, the two boys change places.

The Man Hunt

This is played with a Scout and ten or more Hostiles, or hounds, according to the country; more when it is rough or wooded.

The Scout is given a letter addressed to the “Military Commandant”[1] of any given place a mile or two away. He is told to take the letter to any one of three given houses, and get it endorsed, with the hour when he arrived; then return to the starting point within a certain time.

The Hostiles are sent to a point half way, and let go by a starter at the same time as the Scout leaves the Camp. They are to intercept him.

If they catch him before he delivers the letter he must ransom his life by paying each two arrow-heads (or other forfeit) and his captor keeps the letter as a trophy. If he gets through, but is caught on the road back, he pays half as much for his life. If he gets through, but is over time, it is a draw. If he gets through successfully on time, he claims three arrow-heads from each Hostile, and keeps the letter as a trophy.

They may, not follow him into the house (that is, the Fort), but may surround it at one hundred yards distance, or nearer if they do not show themselves. They do not know which three houses he is free to enter, but they do know that these are within certain narrow limits.

The Scout should wear a conspicuous badge (hat, shirt, coat, or feather), and may ride a wheel or go in a wagon, etc., as long as his badge is clearly visible. 32)

The Bear Hunt or the Hunting of Mishi-Mokwa

This is played by half a dozen or more boys. Each has a club about the size and shape of a baseball club, but made of straw tied around two or three switches and tightly sewn up in burlap.

One big fellow is selected for the Bear. He has a schoolbag tightly strapped on his back, and in that a toy balloon fully blown up. This is his heart. On his neck is a bear-claw necklace of wooden beads and claws. He has three dens about one hundred yards apart in a triangle. While in his den the Bear is safe. If the den is a tree or rock, he is safe while touching it. He is obliged to come out when the chief hunter counts 100, and must go the rounds of the three till the hunt is settled.

The object of the hunters is to break the balloon or heart, that is, kill the Bear. He must drop dead when the heart bursts. The hunter who kills him claims the necklace.

But the Bear also has a club for defense. Each hunter must wear a hat, and once the Bear knocks a hunter’s hat off, that one is dead and out of this hunt. He must drop where his hat falls.

Tackling of any kind is forbidden.

The Bear wins by killing or putting to flight all the hunters. In this case, he keeps the necklace.

The savageness of these big Bears is indescribable. Many lives are lost in each hunt; and it has several times happened that the whole party of hunters has been exterminated by some monster of unusual ferocity.

This game has also been developed into a play.

The Big Bear Hunt

The Bear Hunt with spears is a game invented and developed with success by the Chief.

The spears are made with iron heads and hickory handles; altogether five feet long, with a bunch of colored wool eighteen inches from the top; this is to identify the spears, also to make them fly better. The bear is about five feet long from tail to snout, and is made of burlap and hay on a backbone of board which runs the whole length.

The bear is hung from a twenty-foot rope, clear of the ground and worked by a bear man, 33) Games 17 who pulls it with another rope so that the bear runs around in a most natural manner, rearing, plunging, and charging, at the will of the puller. A clever man at the rope can add greatly to the excitement of the game. The bear should _not jump while the spear is in him, as that is dangerous to the spectators, and at least may break the spear. The firing line is about twenty feet from the standing- still place of the grizzly ; most spearmen run up when they throw. No one may stand in front of the firing line. The bear is marked with two circles on either side, much as on the burlap deer. A: shot outside the biggest circle is called a scratch, and counts 2. Between the two circles is a body wound, and counts 5. Inside the small circle is a heart shot; it counts IO, and ends the hunt. If the spear bounces off at once, it does not count. If it sticks, or hangs for a few seconds even, it counts full score. If it goes right throug h the body so that it counts differ- ently on the two sides, the highest score is the one taken. i it strikes the line ‘of a circle, it counts the higher score. If, in the course of a match, any one scores 20 without . a shot reaching the heart, the bear escapes, and a new bear must be started. Three bears are usually a match. No. shot is fired after. the heart is pierced. The bear is then dead. The killer of the bear has first shot at the next bear. The players take alternate shots after that. ‘Two, three, or four spearmen are best. The winner is the one with most points. So that a man who kills all three grizzlies may yet lose the game. Still-hunting the Buck, or the Deer Hunt The deer is a dummy, best made with a wire frame, on which soft hay is wrapped till it is of proper size and shape, then all is covered with open burlap. A few touches of white and black make it very realistic. © If time does not admit of a well-finished deer, one can be made of a sack stuffed with hay, decorated at one end with a smaller sack for head and neck, and set on four thin sticks. 34) 18 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll The side of the deer is marked with a large oval, and over the heart is a smaller one. Bows and arrows only are used to shoot this deer. A pocketful of corn, peas, or other large grain is now needed for scent. The boy who is the deer for the first hunt takes the dummy under his arm and runs off, getting ten minutes’ start, or until he comes back and shouts “ready !” He leaves a trail of corn, dropping two or three grains for every yard and making the trail as crooked as he likes, playing such tricks as a deer would do to baffle his pursu- ol Ad ae pa )

NN ers. Then he hides the deer in any place he fancies, but not among rocks or on the top of a ridge, because in one case many arrows would be broken, and in the other, lost. The hunters now hunt for this deer just as for a real deer, either following the trail or watching the woods ahead ; the best hunters combine the two. If at any time the trail is quite lost the one in charge shouts “Lost Trail!” After that the one who finds the trail scores two. Any one giving a false alarm by shouting “Deer” is fined five. Thus they go till some one finds the deer. He shouts “Deer!” and scores ten for finding it. The others shout “Second,” “Third,” etc., in order of seeing it, but they do not score. The finder must shoot at the deer with his bow and arrow from the very spot whence he saw it. If he misses, the sec- ond hunter may step up five paces, and have his shot. If he misses, the third one goes five, and so on till some one hits the deer, or until the ten-yard limit is reached. If the 35) Games 19 finder is within ten yards on sighting the deer, and misses his shot, the other hunters go back to the ten-yard limit. Once the deer is hit, all the shooting must be from the exact spot whence the successful shot was fired. A shot in the big oval is a body wound, that scores five. A shot: outside that is a scratch; that scores two. A shot in the small oval or heart 1s a /ieart wound; it scores ten, and ends the hunt. Arrows which do not stick do not count, unless it can be proved that they passed right through, in which case they take the highest score that they pierced. | Wooden legged Deer If all the arrows are used, and none in the heart, the deer escapes, and the boy who was deer scores twenty-five. The one who found the dummy is deer for the next hunt. A clever deer can add greatly to the excitement of the game. Originally we used paper for scent, but found it bad. It littered the woods, yesterday’s trail was confused with that of to-day, etc. Corn proved better, because the birds and the squirrels kept it cleaned up from day to day, and thus the ground was always ready for a fresh start. But the best of all is the hoof mark for the shoe. These iron hoof marks are fast to a pair of shoes, and leave a trail much like that of a real deer. This has several advantages. It gives the hunter a chance to tell where the trail doubled, and which way the deer was going. It is more realistic, and a boy who can follow this skillfully can follow a living deer. In actual practice it is found well to use a little corn with this on the hard places, a plan quite consistent with realism, as every hunter will recall. It is strictly forbidden to any hunter to stand in front 36) 20 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll of the firing-line ; all must be back of the line on which the shooter stands. There is no limit to the situations and curious combina- tions in this hunt. The deer may be left standing or lying. There is no law why it should not be hidden behind a solid tree trunk. The game develops as one follows it. After it has been played for some time with the iron hoof mark as above, the boys grow so skillful on the trail that we can dispense with even the corn. The iron mark like a deer hoof leaves a very realistic “slot’’ or track, which the more skillful boys readily follow through the woods. A hunt, is usually for three, five, or more deer, according to agreement, and the result is reckoned by points on the whole chase. Archery Golf This game has been suggested by Woodcrafter Glen Perry of Los Angeles. Targets are made of either burlap or cardboard to rep- resent the animals and birds, such as rabbit, fox, wolf, bear, etc. These are placed at intervals through the woods. The boy, with a bow and quiver of arrows, starts off in the hunt. The lowest score wins the game. The first animal is in plain sight, and he is allowed two shots to hit the target. He must shoot from where his arrow lands each time, scoring I for each shot taken. From this first animal, the second can be seen; and he goes about killing that one in the same manner. As he progresses, the animals grow in ferocity, until the last is reached. This is the grizzly bear, and must be killed from a great distance. Much can be added to increase the fun in the game. To lay the course, some one should go over it with a bow to determine the distances of shots and placement of the ani- mals. To make the game more difficult, a ring may be drawn on the side of the animal to count as a death shot. The animal must be killed before going on to the next tar- get. Far Sight, or Spot the Rabbit Take two six-inch squares of stiff white pasteboard or whitened wood. On each of these draw an outline Rabbit, one an exact duplicate of the other. Make twenty round, black wafers or spots, each half an inch across. Let one 37) Games 21 player stick a few of these on one Rabbit-board and set it up in full light. The other, beginning at 100 yards, draws near till he can see the spots well enough to reproduce the pattern on the other which he carries. If he can do it at _50 yards he has wonderful eyes. Down even to 40 (done @eeeee time 3 times out of 5) he counts high honor; from 40 to 30 counts honor. Below that does not count at all. Round Post Relay The players are divided into two or more groups of equal number. Each group lines up in single file behind the start- ing line. Opposite each file at a distance of 20 yards from the starting line, an object is placed, around which each player must run. The first player of each file stands facing the starting line; and at a signal, runs forward and around the post, then runs back to his line and touches the out- stretched hand of the next player who should have moved forward to toe the starting line. The file moves up one place each time that a player starts, making room for those who have completed the run at the end of the line. The file wins whose last runner is first to dash across the starting line on his return run. If any player leaves the starting line before he has been touched off, his team be- comes disqualified. Jump Rope Relay Same as Rounp Post REtay, using single jumping rope, as player, while jumping the rope, runs around post and 38) 22 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll back to his line. As soon as he returns to his line, the rope is immediately handed to the next player. Chariot Relay The players are divided into two or more groups of four each. Three players of each group lock arms, forming the horses. The fourth player in each group stands behind the first three, driving horses by means of ribbons which are held by the outside horses. The race is run in this fashion according to the rules of Rounp Post RE tay, the distance being 30 yards each way. Wheelbarrow Relay The players are divided into two or more groups of equal numbers. Each team is divided into pairs, one player tak- ing the other by the knees, forming a wheelbarrow. The player who forms the barrow runs on his hands, being guided by the player who holds his knees. The race is run in this fashion according to the rules of Rounp Post RE tay, the distance being 10 yards each way instead of 20 yards. No touch-off is required, but the players must not leave the starting line until the preceding wheelbarrow has crossed: it. Jumping Relay Same as Rounp Post RELay, using jumping on two feet instead of running, until after the post has been reached. Then the player runs back to the starting line to touch off the next player. Arch Ball Relay The players line up in two or more single files behind the starting line. Each leader holds a basket ball. At a given signal, the leader of each file passes the ball backward over the head of the next player behind, who in turn passes it backward as rapidly as possible; and so on, until it reaches the last player in the line. He at once runs forward, carry- ing the ball over the starting line, and around a post placed 20 yards distant, taking his place at the head of the file, and immediately passing it backward again. _ The play continues until the original leader of each file reaches the head of his line once again, and stands with the ball in both hands overhead. The first file to complete the 39) Games 23 race wins. If any player drops the ball, he must recover it before the play advances. Stride Ball Relay See rules for Arcu Batt Reray. Instead of passing the ball overhead, the players stand with feet apart, and pass the ball between the feet. Should the ball stop, or go out of bounds, the player before whom this occurs, must put it in play again, starting it between his feet. When the players become expert, one long shot will send the ball to the end of the line. All Up Relay The players are divided into two or more groups of equal numbers which line up in single file behind the starting line. Directly in front of each team at a distance of 30 yards from the starting lines, two tangent circles are drawn (each 2 feet in diameter). Three Indian clubs or bottles are placed in one of the circles in front of each team. On a given signal, the first players of each file run forward and with one hand change the clubs from one circle to the other. Each club must be made to stand, and none must touch the outline of the circle. As soon as this is done, each player runs back to his file and touches off the next player, who in his turn runs and changes the clubs once again. Each file moves up one place each time a player starts, making room for those who completed the run at the end of the line. The file wins whose last runner is first to dash across the starting line on his return run. Leap Frog Relay The players are lined up in two or more single files, which stand behind the starting line. At a given signal, the first players run forward 5 yards, at which point they make a “pack” by bending forward and placing their hands on their knees with knees slightly bent. As soon as _ this position is taken by the first players, the second players run forward and stride jump over the backs of the first players, taking their back position at a point 10 yards from the starting line. Each succeeding player jumps over the backs of those preceding him until all are down (each two 40) 24 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll players 5 yards apart), at which time the first player must jump over the backs of all ahead of him. The others all fol- low until every player has jumped over the back of every other player. The last player finishes the race by running across the finish line, which should be 25 yards from the starting line. Apache Relay Race One band is pitted against another, to see who can carry a message and bring a reply in shortest time, by means of relays of runners. One quarter of a mile is far enough for an ordinary race. This divides up even 55 yards to each of eight runners. The band is taken out by the Chief, who drops scouts at convenient distances, where they await the ar- rival of the other runner, and at once take the letter on to the next, and there await the return letter. A good band of 8 can carry a letter a quarter of a mile and bring the answer in about 3 minutes. Crab Relay (A) Groups in line of files. A line is drawn parallel to the starting line, not more than 8 yards away. The race is run in an all-fours sitting posi- tion, which is taken by sitting on the floor with the knees drawn up and the hands placed on the floor just slightly be- hind the body. The body is then lifted up until supported only on the hands and feet on which the players must move forward until completely over the distance line, and back again. Succeeding runners may not move over the starting line with any part of the body till touched by the incoming runner. | The race is particularly strenuous, and should never be a long one. (B) The same floor lines are used, but the players run backward in the ordinary hands and feet position instead of sitting all-fours. In the starting position, the players stand on hands and feet with back to the direction of the run and with toes on the starting line. Hands as well as feet must be carried completely over the distance line before turn- ing for the return journey; and the weight of the body throughout must be carried evenly on hands and feet. 41) Games 25 Broad Jump Relay A starting line should be drawn at a place on the ground that will afford the greatest distance to the farther side or corner. Two even teams line up back of the line, the first players of each team toeing the starting line. The first player on each team jumps forward as far as possible. The second player on each team steps forward and toes the spot on the ground nearest to the starting point that was touched by the first jumper. This point may be the nearest heel mark, or if the player fell back or stepped back, it will be the point nearest his starting point where any part of his body touched. When the second player on each team has jumped, the third one moves forward, and toes the nearest point on the ground touched by the second jumper, and so on until all have jumped. The team wins that covers the greatest distance. Running and Catching Relay At a distance of 30 feet from the starting line, and parallel to it, stretch a cord about 8 feet from the ground. On the signal, the first runner from each team runs for- ward, tosses a baseball over the cord, catches it, and throws the ball back as a grounder to the next person in line. In case of failure to catch the ball when thrown over the cord, it must be secured, tossed over the cord (either direction) and caught before being thrown to the next runner. As soon as his turn is taken, the runner should return to the end of his line. A team wins when the first runner has received his grounder from the last thrower, and is standing on the start- ing line in original position. 42) OUTDOORS Council form Tub Tilting Tub tilting is immensely popular at night by the blazing campfire, as well as in the city at the indoor councils. It is an exciting game, tests the ability of the contestants, and can be made quite scientific. For this, we use two small tubs, about flour-barrel size, or, better still, two stools made with a heavy plank top, circular, 14 inches in diameter, and supported by four strong legs spreading widely at the bottom. The top of the stool should be about two feet off the ground. The stools are set level, exactly a spear length apart, center to center. Each fighter takes his place on a stocl, and his game is to put the other off the stool with a thrust of his spear. To prevent accidents, we have usually a catcher be- hind each man. The umpire stands alongside, near the middle. : It is a foul to use the spear as a club, or to push below the knees, to push the stool, to seize the other man’s spear in your hands, or to touch the ground with the spear. A foul gives the round to the other man. The round is over when one man is off or when he fouls. It is a draw when both go off together. They change stools and spears after each round. The battle is usually for three or five rounds. Several good parries are well known. One is to use your spear handle as in bayonet parries. The best players parry much by wriggling the body. Often, when over-balanced, one can regain by spinning completely around. The correct spears are made thus: Take six feet of the butt-end of a bamboo an inch thick. Make a ball of hard- wood, about two inches in diameter, with a central projecting peg about 3 inches long and 3% inch thick. Stick this into the top of the bamboo. Make it secure with a lashing and one or two very thin nails driven in. 26 43) Games 27 Pad the head an inch thick with the ordinary horsehair stuffing that is used in furniture, and bind all with strong burlap, sewing it at the seams and lashing it around the bamboo with string. This completes the dry land spear. If for use in the water, make a final cover out of rubber cloth. This keeps the spear dry. A completed spear weighs about 114 pounds. © Balls Pea. The same in flace: "a Ef piddendlh, YN I have seen a good many campers try tilting on the land or on the water and make an utter failure of it, by rea- son of the absurdly clumsy, heavy spears used. A green -sapling was cut for handle, and the end tied up ina bundle of rags that was 18 inches through. This was hard enough to lift, when dry, and as it usually soon fell into the water and got sopping wet, its weight became trebled, and one could not use it as a spear at all. Skin the Snake This is a feat for several performers; the more the funnier. The players stand in line, one behind the other, with a short distance between. Each player bends forward, and stretches one hand backward between his legs, while the other hand grasps that of the player in front, who has as- sumed the same position. When all are in position, the line begins backing, the player at the rear end of the line lying down on his back, and the next player walking backward astride over him until he can go no farther, when he also lies down with the first player’s head between his legs. This backing-and-lying-down move- ment continues until all the players are lying in a straight line on the floor. Then the last one to lie down gets up, raising the man next behind him to his feet, and so on until all again are standing in the original position. The grasp of hands is retained throughout. Animal Blind Man’s Buff One player is blindfolded and stands in the center of a circle, with a stick or cane in his hand. The other players 44) 28 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll dance around him in a circle until he taps on the floor with his cane, when they must stand still. The “blind man” thereupon points his cane at some player, who must take the opposite end of the cane in his hand. The “blind man” then commands him to make a noise like some animal, such as a cat, dog, cow, sheep, lion, donkey, duck, parrot. From this, the “blind man” tries to guess who the player is. If the guess is correct, they change places. If wrong, the game is repeated with the same “blind man.” The players should try to disguise their natural voices as much as possible when imitating the animals; and much sport may be had through the imitation. Players may also disguise their height to deceive the “blind man,” by bending their knees to seem shorter, or rising on their toes to seem taller. Where there are 30 or more players, two “blind men” should be placed in the center. Bear Dance Squat on one heel, with the other foot extended forward. Quickly draw the extended foot under the body and shoot the other foot out, arms extended for balance. Shift back and forth rapidly, progressing forward to a given mark. This may be done by two contestants, or a larger number, all starting at the same time; or even in the form of a relay. Ankle Grasp Walk Bend forward downward, grasp the ankles firmly with the hands, keep the knees as straight as possible, and walk for- ward. Strong Hand or Hand Wrestling The two cantestants stand right foot by right foot, right hands clasped together ; left feet braced; left hands behind. At the word “Go!” each tries to unbalance the other ; that is, make him lift or move one of his feet. A lift or a shift, or touching the ground, ends the round. Battles are for best out of 3 or 5 rounds. One Hand Hop Fight Two players stand in a large circle about 10 to 18 feet in diameter, facing each other, on one leg, each holding his 45) Games 29 own uplifted foot by the ankle with one hand. If the left foot is uplifted, they grasp each other’s right hands, and vice versa. | Each tries, by pulling or pushing in any direction, to make the other lose his balance or hop out of the circle. A player may not touch the floor with any part of the body other than the standing foot, nor may he let go the lifted leg. Occa- sionally, players loose the grasped hands by a mutual effort ; and under such circumstances, they join up again and con- tinue without pause, provided neither has lost the hopping position. Circle Hop Fight In a circle about 8 feet in diameter, stand two players facing each other. Each one folds his arms in front, and lifts up one leg with knee well bent, and foot forward. In this position, the two players try, by pushing leg to leg, either to overbalance the other, or cause him to hop out of the circle. The players may hop freely in any direction inside the | circle, feinting or attacking with the upheld leg as they wish. Parts of the body other than the free leg should not touch. The arms must remain folded. After one trial, the feet might be changed for a second round. Lunge and Hop In a circle about 6 feet in diameter, stands a player on one foot, with his hands clasped behind his back. A second player stands in the forward lunge position along a radius of the circle, with his forward foot about 12 to 18 inches inside the circle. This latter player, by reaching out and touching, or even grasping with his hands, tries to make the “hopper” lose his balance or hop out of the circle. The “hopper,” on the other hand, tries by careful dodging, to avoid the hands of the “lunger,” and make the latter move one or other foot through loss of balance caused by over- reaching. | | The “lunger” must start in a correct forward lunge posi- tion, and may not touch the floor with either hand or move his féet, once the game has started. After one decision, the players should change places. 46) 30 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Into the Ring Form a circle, facing inward, with hands joined. Scattered promiscuously about the inside of the circle are articles (standing on end so they can be knocked over) such as Indian clubs, pegs or bottles. For an 18-foot circle, up to a dozen obstacles may be used. All players commence to circle to the right or left as instructed; and, as they do so, each one tries to pull his neighbor into the obstacles and make him knock them down, while avoiding the same thing himself. A group loses one point for every obstacle knocked down by one of its own members and also a point for every break in the circle for which one of its members is responsible. If the leader instructs each player to grasp with the right hand the left wrist of the player on his right, there can be no doubt which player is responsible for a break. The grip should be changed occasionally during the game to give a pull to each of the arms. When the right hands are grasp- ing left wrists, the circling is preferably to the left, and vice versa. Forward Pull Two players stand back to back in the forward lunge posi- tion, inside two parallel lines about 10 to 12 feet apart. They should stand centrally inside the lines, and near enough to grasp each other’s wrists in a wrist grip with the elbows straight; and if the right hand is held palm uppermost, the left hand should be held palm down. Each player then tries by steady pulling—no jerking and no arm pulling—to pull the other completely over the line. Elbows should remain straight after the word 0 !’? and legs and feet should move only when “giving” or “making” ground ; and, as far as possible, the relative ositions of the legs and body should remain the same throughout the pull. (When advancing or “making” ground, a player should. ad- vance his forward foot, and then draw the rear one up to its new position ; when retiring or “giving’”’ ground, he should press his rear foot backward, and then drag the forward one up to its new position. ) Rooster Fight This is played by two contestants who stand within a 47) Games 31 ring about 6 feet in diameter. Each boy reaches down and grasps his own ankles. Holding this position, they try to use their shoulders to thrust each other out of the circle. The player wins who first succeeds in overthrowing the other, or causing him to loose his grasp on his ankles. Buzz Though easy to learn when seen, it is hard to explain this game on paper. Three boys play it. Two are wings, one the sting. They stand in a row, each with his feet about a yard apart. The sting in the middle, the right foot of the left wing touches the left foot of the sting, the left foot of the right wing touches the right foot of the sting. The sting wears a small cap. The right wing protects his left cheek with his flat right hand on it, palm out, the left wing protects his right cheek with flat left hand on it, palm out. The sting keeps up a loud buzzing, and turns menacingly from one to the other. He takes the first good chance to slap one of the wings on the open hand that protects the cheek. The one slapped has the right instantly to knock off the sting’s cap. But he must act on the immediate come- back. The sting’s only escape is by ducking. If the cap is knocked off, the wing that does it counts 5. If the wing lifts a foot from the ground, the sting counts 1. If the wing hits the sting when not actually hit by the sting, the sting counts 1. If the wing hits the sting on any but the actual immediate comeback, the sting counts 1. If the wing touches the ground with a hand, the sting counts 1. If the sting lifts a foot or touches hand to the ground, the wing on that side counts I. 10 is game. Witches’ Broom Ride Two strong chairs are set face to face and far enough apart so that an ordinary house broom reaches from one to the other, the head resting on one, and about 4 inches of the stick on the other. Four handkerchiefs are now hung, one on each top corner of the chair backs. The Witch is armed with a stout wand, exactly 30 inches long. She sits on the broom handle, not on the head, with soles of both feet sup- ported on the stick. She balances by holding one end of her wand on the ground. 48) 32 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Without falling, she must flick away in turn each of the hankies with the wand. If she sets foot or hand on a chair, or touches the ground with her foot or hand, it counts as a fall. She may use whichever hand she chooses, but must change the wand from hand to hand while balanced. Some of our Witches are so expert, that they use six hankies, the extra two being hung on the middle of each chair back. Some do this blindfolded. Cats on the Back Fence This was evolved at the Great Central Lodge out of the old game of Slaphand on a crack. A strong stick of timber 2 inches by 4, and 6 or 8 feet long, is set broadside up, with its ends resting on two chairs. The rival cats now approach on the 2x4 from opposite directions. With left hand be- hind their backs, they must slap with the right, hitting any- where on the rival’s right arm from hand to shoulder, each aiming to make the other cat fall off into the alley. Best 2 out of 3 is the winner. All head or body blows are fouls. When there is a deadlock, the referee may shout “Clinch!” The cats lock hands, right in right, and soon a decision is reached by one or both going off in the alley. Sometimes, for variety, the players knock each other off with pillows. One-Legged Chicken Fight In this, each of the two contestants stands upon one leg, holding up the other by grasping it at the ankle, with the opposite arm behind the body. The other hand, also be- hind, grasps the supporting arm at the elbow. Now they close; each aiming to upset the other, to make him drop his foot, or put him out of the ring; any of which ends that round, and scores 1 for the victor. If both fall, or drop a foot, or go out together, it is a draw. Battle is for 3, 5, or 7 rounds. We discourage this game for girls, but suggest the ONE Hanp Hop FicutT as a substitute. The Battle Royal A new variant of the old One-legged Chicken Fight has been developed. Instead of 2 Chickens, a dozen enter the 49) Games 33 ring. Each charges at whomever is next him, until only one is left standing. After 3 such battles, the 3 victors run off a final. This has the advantage of engaging a larger number of contestants than the Chicken Duel. Talk-Fest Two contestants are placed facing each other. At the word “Go!”, both start talking on any subject, regardless of the other. The object is to keep up a steady stream of talk until the referee shouts “Time!’’ at the end of one minute. Points are given for sequence of thought in the speech, success in getting the story across, action to illustrate the story, and continuity of sound. Song-Fest This is conducted in the same way as the TaLk-FEst, ex- cept that the contestants sing instead of talking, different melodies at the same time. Sometimes this is done by two groups instead of two individuals. Whistling Match This is another variation of the Sonc-FEst and the TALk- Fest. The opponents whistle different tunes simultaneously. Posing and Pantomimes There is no end to the funny possibilities of a dumb-show without accessories which is what we mean by “Posing” and “Movies.” Poses, sometimes called Statues or Tableaux vivants, are simply ideas or expressions or attitudes, given by several persons at the same time. They strike the pose and keep it without moving till the decision is made as to which has given the best expression to the thought. The following subjects are suggestive: Answer to a masher. On seeing a mouse. On seeing a ghost. On feeling a cramp. 50) 34 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Raleigh and Queen Elizabeth. Romeo and Juliet. Ireland, Egypt, Scotland, etc. Joy, sorrow, fear, pain. Movies embody the same idea, except that the story is car- ried out in action instead of by a single pose. The following have been used successfully : A musician playing his own composition. Noah watching the animals ‘entering the ark. Daniel in the lions’ den. Red Riding Hood and the wolf. On meeting a ghost. A cop moving a tramp who was asleep on a bench in the park. A judge sentencing a flapper for speeding. Eve receiving the apple from the serpent. Adam leaving Eden. Eating an orange. Eating grapes. Eating a slice of watermelon. Sewing on a button. Putting on one’s hat for a walk. Taking off one’s shoes. A cop stopping a car that took a wrong turn. A joy ride in a Ford. Barber shop. Eliza crossing the ice. Little Miss Muffet. Picking a thorn out of a dog’s foot. Beauty and the Beast. Sleeping Beauty. Releasing a cat from a rat trap. Brutus stabbing Caesar. Killing a rattler. Woman buying a ticket. Mother Carey making the flowers come. Old Mother Hubbard. Professor of hypnotism. Mary and her little lamb. Robinson Crusoe. Stepping on a tack. Long hike in new shoes. 51) Games 35 Pharaoh’s daughter finding Moses. Hamlet. On finding a corpse. Indian woman finding her husband’s body on the battle field. Jay walker. Girl going to bed. Woman who has lost her purse. Operation in a hospital. Political speech. Catching a big fish. Benjamin Franklin signing Declaration of Independence. Pass the Matchbox This game is a good fun-maker. It came to us from the trenches of Flanders, where the soldiers often played it to make a pleasant change in their lives. The outer covers of two safety matchboxes are needed, and any number of players from six up, arranged in two teams. The captain of each team puts the box cover on his nose; that is, he sticks his nose into it. At the word “Go,” he passes it, without using his hands, on to the nose of the next ; that is, the next nose is stuck into it, and so passes it to the next and on to the end, then back again up the line to the captain. If the matchbox falls to the ground, the player who dropped it must get down and root it against the foot of another, till his nose is wedged in it, so that he can lift it again. The winning team is the one whose matchbox first makes the round trip. Three rounds are usual for a match. 52) OUTDOORS CITY What's Wrong? Members should be mustered at a given place, then divided into two sections, one section proceeding along either side of the street, crossing each other at the end, and returning on the opposite sides. They may be sent either in line or irregularly, the latter for preference; each carrying pencil and notebook or paper ; and noting, during their journey, every article or thing which is out of the straight. It may be a placard fixed to a shopkeeper’s door or board, or a small swing sign, which is out of the horizontal, window-blinds crooked, goods in shop windows markedly crooked, and so on. Irregularities on vehicles in motion are not to be noted, as no opportunity would be given for the judge to verify. Upon approaching the judge, each member signs his own paper or book, and hands it over ; marks should then be given according to merit. Members must be careful to make their entries in such a guarded manner and at such times that members following them shall not notice the entry being made. Shadowing The guide picks a member to be pursued; then the rest of the group meet in a fairly quiet street in a town. The chosen member is allowed two minutes’ grace, whilst the others hide and do not watch him during that time, except two, who follow him closely. After two minutes, one of them runs back and brings the rest along, hot on the track of the pursued one. Meanwhile, the remaining shadower holds on carefully and tenaciously, pursuer and pursued being at least four or five minutes in advance of the rest. To show which way 36 53) Games 37 they have gone, the pursuing member drops confetti or makes chalk-marks until the others reach him. All must, of course, be well trained in running and using their woodcraft; and the pursued member can make use of many dodges to throw his pursuers off the track. It should be agreed beforehand that if he keeps away for a certain time, he wins the game. Catching the Dodger One member, who is well known to the rest, is chosen as the dodger. <A spot is selected some two miles away from headquarters as the starting point, preference being given to a place from which the most streets or ways lead to head- quarters. The main idea is that the dodger has to start from this spot at, say, 7 or 8 p.m., and make his way to headquarters without being caught. He will be previously introduced to the others as the quarry, and may then adopt any disguise in order to throw off suspicion. It is the duty of all members to distribute themselves well over the area “likely to be traveled, all streets, alleys and byways being carefully watched ; but, for obvious reasons, a rule must be made that no member must approach within a given radius, say, of 250 yards, of the starting or finishing point. The dodger must be instructed to start strictly at a given time, and may use the middle of the street as well as the pavement, as this will be necessary to dodge a member whom he may espy; and he must travel on foot during his journey, not taking advantage of any vehicle. Should he see a member approaching, there would be no objection to his stepping aside into a shop and asking the price of an article, until the danger has passed, as this is no more than an ordinary thief would do to evade capture. Should a member recognize the dodger, he must get quite near enough to him to say: “Good-night” without any danger of not being heard—or, better, to touch him—and the dodger then yields quietly and is taken to headquarters by his captor, no other member being allowed to join them. One hour after the arranged starting time, all members must return to headquarters; for by that time, the dodger will have either been caught or have reported himself there, as he must do the two miles in one hour. 54) 38 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Should a member notice the dodger being pursued by an- other member, he may assist in the capture; but though the marks are divided, the greater portion will be awarded to the member who commenced the actual pursuit. A member may secrete himself should he see the dodger approaching at a distance, only showing himself when his man has come within capturing distance. 55) OUTDOORS NIGHT Catch the Lynx This is played in the open air after dark. The “Lynx” carries a bull’s eye lantern or a pocket flash, the light of which he hides with his hand or a shade, until some distance away from the other players. He then suddenly shows the light, and the others dart off in its direction to capture him. But the light 1s hidden again, and the lynx slips quietly away in the dark, and shows the bright beam just where no one expected to see it. In this way, the chase is kept up for some time, for the more silent the Lynx is, the better his chance of escape, while those who would catch him should be very silent too. 39 56) OUTDOORS WATER Water Tag An ordinary game of tag, such as you play on land, may be played in the water. Any stroke may be required. Water Wrestling A wrestling competition may be held in the water. Each wrestler is mounted on the shoulders of a friend who stands in breast-deep water. Another form of the game is between two contestants without mounting. Nearly all the holds and breaks used in Greco-Roman wrestling can be used with greater safety in the water than upon the wrestling mat. It is an easy matter to decide the winner. A fall is won by the contestant who first succeeds in forcing the other’s head under water. Submarine One boy stands in breast-deep water. A second boy swims down and tries to over-turn him by pulling at his leg. The first boy may not hold the diver in any way, so as to leave him free to come to the surface when he chooses. The diver can often succeed by making a violent rush at his companion’s knees. Tug Race One swimmer floats on his back, and is pulled or pushed along by a second boy. If this second swimmer uses back- stroke, he may hold his companion’s head or feet upon his chest, and swim by the legs only, towing the other along. If the swimmer uses breast-stroke, he may push the other player, head or feet first. 40 57) Games 41 Twin Water-Men An arm-in-arm swimming race is very amusing. It can be best performed by two back swimmers. These lie side by side, with their inner arms hooked together, and their in- side legs motionless by each other. Progress is effected by the use of the outside legs and arms, which work in unison, just as if only one swimmer were concerned. Medley Swimming Relay A swims 50 yards crawl-stroke. B swims 50 yards back- stroke. C swims 50 yards breast-stroke. D swims 50 yards side-stroke. | Medley Diving Relay A makes a front-dive; B makes a back-dive; C makes a jack-knife dive. All dives should be judged on a basis of ten points for a perfect dive. 58) _ INDOORS COUNCIL FORM Bear Walk Contestants stand with feet on starting line. At signal, they drop to all fours, then proceed to line at opposite end, using right hand and left foot together, then left hand and right foot. At opposite line, they turn and return to start- ing line. The first one over this line with all fours, is winner. Wet Foot Cat Walk As for Bear WALK, but shaking right and left foot alternately, while walking on all fours. Lame Dog Walk As for Bear WALK, but on three legs, one leg carried upon the other. Duck Waddle As for BEAR WALK, but walking on only hind legs, in squat position. Seal Crawl As for BEAR WALK, but in prone fall position, walk for- ward on hands, hands turned out, knees straight; toes to- gether, pointed and dragging. Ostrich Walk | Bend trunk forward, place hands on floor. With stiff knees, walk forward on all fours. Frog Hop Jump forward on hands and feet, hands moving together, feet together, knees outside of hands in squat position. 42 59) Games 43 Kangaroo Jump Bend knees, hands on hips, jump forward, knees bent, to opposite line. Crab Walk From a standing position, bend the knees and squat down until you can reach backward, and put both hands flat on the ground without sitting down. Walk, face up, in this posi- tion, forward to opposite line; then back to starting line, walking backward. Snake Walk The contestants are placed in a straight line across one end of the ring. At the word “Go!” each one crosses the right leg back of the left, then the left back of the right, alternating at each step, but aiming to progress forward so. as to reach the line at the other end of the ring. The first one to reach the other end and arrive back at his own start- ing point, wins the game. Chinese Get-Up Two persons sit on the floor, back to back, with arms locked. Retaining such relative positions, they try to stand upright; then sit down again. The couple first succeeding, wins. | | Siamese Twins As in CuHINEsE Get-Up, but with hands cn hips—arms not locked. Blind Man’s Breakfast. Two players are blindfolded, and seated opposite to each other on the floor, just within arm’s reach. They are then given a piece of bread and butter each, or a few marsh- mallows ; and they proceed to feed each other as best they can. A score is not easily counted, but it is a fun-maker for the onlookers. Horse Racing Take five pieces of narrow tape about 34 inch wide, and tie to a stationary object. Select five players to stand, each 60) 44 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll at the end of a tape, each with a pair of sharp scissors. At the signal, each “horse” starts to cut through the center of the tape, taking care not to cut horizontally across, the one finishing first being the winner. If he cuts the tape off, he is counted out. | Knots may be tied in the tape to increase the fun and the difficulty. | Crane Dive Fold a piece of paper, a foot long, and stand it upright on the floor. Hold one foot with the opposite hand reaching across behind the back. Bend down and pick up the paper with your teeth, without losing your balance or touching the floor with any part of your body except the one support- ing foot. Advantage Wrestling A and B each attempt to get behind opponent’s back; and, in that position, grasp him firmly about the waist, which ac- complishment constitutes a fall for the one grasped. William Tell Race At signal, all start from line, each carrying an apple on his head. The first to arrive safely at goal, with apple transported without help of hands, is winner. If the apple falls, the player may pick it up, but must start again at line. Freeze This game is best played by two persons, one of whom is the Hunter and the other the Animal being stalked. Much fun can be added by telling the Animal what species he is to be, such as Rabbit, Bear, etc. They circle about the ring, each portraying his part to the best of his ability, the Hunter carefully stalking the game; and the Animal warily moving away, sniffing the wind and keeping an occasional eye on its back trail. At the word “Freeze,” both come immediately to a dead standstill, and remain in that position until one or the other sways, winks an eyelid, or otherwise stirs a mus- cle. The one with the most control wins the hunt. 61) Games 45 Threading the Needles A’s stand at one line, holding up a needle in the right hand. B’s stand at line opposite and as far apart as instructed, holding thread in right hand. At the signal, B’s advance, and when in front of A’s, using only the one hand, thread the needles held by partners. The one back at starting line first with needle threaded, is the winner. The Able Tailor Stand as many men as desired in a row. Give each a piece of cloth, a neeedle and thread, a thimble, and three buttons, all of the same size. At the signal, they start to sew on. the buttons. Points are scored for neatness, ar- rangement, lasting quality of the sewing, and speed in fin- ishing. Hat-Trimming Half a dozen persons, more or less, are placed in a circle within the ring, backs to the fire. Each is given a Io cent hat (like those used by farmers); some strips of colored crépe paper; some flowers from the fields, if convenient ; some pins and a pair of scissors. They are allowed two minutes to trim the hat with the materials provided and without suggestions from each other or the audience. If one of the contestants finishes before the time is up, he rises and puts on the hat. At the end of the two minutes, all must walk around the ring, wearing their own style crea- tions. The audience or judges decide on the winner. Points are given for originality, style, becomingness and speed in trimming. Dramatic Alphabets The challenger may choose the mode of reciting the alpha- bet; e.g., as a tragedy, as a comedy, viewing a ball game, telling a story to a child, etc. No words are used in the reciting—merely the letters of the alphabet, repeated as many times as necessary, but not to exceed'a minute,—all given with as much dramatic power as possible. The contestants recite in turn, not together as in the TALK-FEsT. 62) 46 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Solemnity The idea is to have one member challenge another to a test of ability to keep one’s “face straight.” They begin back to back. At the word “Go!” they turn, and each looks into the other’s eyes to see which will smile or laugh first. Speech and gesture may be introduced if desired. If a deadlock, they are told to slowly touch nose to nose. Laughing Contest This is exactly the opposite of the preceding. At the word “Go!” contestants laugh until time is called. In this case, the Council is the best judge of the winner. Feeling Put ten nickels, ten coppers, and ten dimes in a hat, or in one hand if you like. Then, while blindfolded, separate them into three piles, all of each kind in a separate pile, giving two minutes to it. Give one point for each one cor- rectly placed in that time, and take off one point for each one incorrectly placed. Of course, the highest score wins. Another game along the same line is as follows: Get a quart of corn or beans. Then, while blindfolded, and using but one hand, lay out the corn or beans in “threes” ; that is, three at a time laid on the table. Continue for two minutes. Count all that are exactly three in a pile; only these count. If the piles have more or less than three in them, they do not count. Spotting the Spot Show a series of photos or sketches of objects in the neighborhood, such as would be known to all the members if they kept their eyes open—for instance, cross-roads, curi- ous windows, gargoyle or weathercock, tree, reflection in the water (guess the building causing it), and so on, and see who can recognize the greatest number. Guessing Birds Each member of the group is given five white beans. The guide then makes such a statement as :—“I am thinking 63) Games 47 ‘of a bird which is blue, and lives in a hollow tree or box.’ In rotation, the members of the group have an opportunity to guess the bird. The moment a child has guessed cor- rectly, “Blue Bird,” that child gets a bean. Whenever a child guesses incorrectly, that child forfeits a bean. This routine is followed until the bird is correctly guessed, and then a new description is given. Ifthe circle is completely passed around without the bird having been correctly guessed, before proceeding to go around the second time, the guide enlarges on his description, making it a little easier for identification. Verbal Authors A judge is selected who takes his place in the center of. the group. Each player in turn has to stand up and name the title of a book. The others are to guess the author. The one first naming the author scores one point. The next individual then stands up and gives another title. The game continues. The individual naming the most authors scores the highest number of points. Another way to play the same game is to give each player a card and a pencil, and have him write thereon as many of the authors as he knows. Advertisement Contest Cut from magazines or papers, the pictures of a number of advertisements that are well known, and mount each sepa- rately on a numbered card. Hang them around the walls of the room on the eye line, and give each member a piece of paper and a pencil. The person wins who guesses the largest number of advertisements. It is surprising how difficult this game really is, for we may be familiar with the pictures but forget the names of the advertisers. This game may be varied by using pictures of famous persons, authors, actors, and artists, each mounted on a numbered card. It might also be made a bird or animal contest. Object Game This is good practice for the memory and the power of observation. Each player has a piece of paper and a pencil. 64) 48 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll When all are ready, some one enters the room carrying a © tray with about twenty small articles on it. The tray is placed in full view of everybody, and left there for one minute, during which time no one must touch paper or pen- cil, but must simply look at the contents of the tray. At a given word, it is carried away, and the players must write down the names of as many of the articles as they can remember having seen. Only a certain time is allowed for this, and those who remember the greatest number of articles win the game. The objects chosen must be of the simplest kind—a black pin, a tiny piece of coal, some bird seed, a piece of fluff, a hair, and so on. Post General All the players sit round the room in a large circle, and one, who is blindfolded, stands in the middle. Each player takes the name of a town; and the leading player makes a list of these, from which he calls out now and then: “The express is going from New York to Boston,” choosing towns on opposite sides of the circle. Boston and New York jump up and slip across to each other’s seat, the blind man doing his best to catch one of them as they pass. When several towns have changed places, and the blind man has failed to make a prisoner, the leader cries out: “All change,” when all must jump up and cross over to opposite sides. In the hurry and confusion, the blind man is sure to catch some one, who takes his place while he becomes one of the towns. Parlor Track Meet Stand as many contestants as desired facing the audience. Explain each command in turn. Then at the word “go,” contestants perform. Eliminate as you go along till only one remains as winner. 1. Stanpinc Broap Smite. Keep up a grin without changing expression for half a minute. 2. STANDING GLuM. Stand without faintest smile, while audience jests, for half a minute. 3. RunninG Broap SMILE. Keep up a changeable but continuous smile for half a minute. 65) Games 49 4. Hossy Horse Laucu. Largest variety of laughs in half a minute. 5. Lona LEAN WuistTLe. Whistle a tune for half a minute. 6. VocaL HicH Jump. Highest pitch of voice in a squeal. 7. Twenty IncH DasH. Marshmallow on a string 20 inches long; take up string with lips till candy is in mouth. &. Firty Incu DasH. With a pair of scissors, cut (or without scissors, tear), down middle of paper 1 inch wide and 50 inches long. | 9. SHot Pur. . Put peanuts into*jug 4 feet away. As many more stunts may be added as there is time to fill. 66) INDOORS INFORMAL Indian Running Four or five children go out of the room, and run in again in “Indian” (single) file. They run around the room once, and then go out again and return in a group to their ‘seats. The guide then chooses one child to replace the “Indian runners” in their original order, or to name the order in which they ran. This can also be played by arranging a group of children in a certain position. After a minute they return to their seats, and another child is ; chosen to tell how they were ar- ranged. Can You Smell? Prepare a number of paper bags, all alike, and put in each a different smelling article, such as chopped onion in one, coffee in another, rose-leaves, leather, aniseed, orange peel, etc. Put these packets in a row a couple of feet apart, and let each competitor walk down the line, and have five sec- onds’ sniff at each. At the end, he has one minute in which to write down, from memory, or state to the guide, the names of the different objects smelled, in their correct order. Capitals Half of the group will have pinned on them the outlines of different States without the names. The other half are given on slips of paper names of the capital cities of States. The latter group are supposed to locate partners by finding the State to which they hold the capital. Telegrams Each player is given a telegram blank and pencil. Upon this, he places ten letters about one and one-half inches 50 67) Games . 51 apart. He cannot use the same letter twice. All of the blanks are then passed to the right; and each player writes a telegram; using words starting with the various letters he finds upon this blank. The telegrams are then read aloud. The Game of Quick Sight Take two boards about a foot square, divide each into twenty-five squares; get ten nuts and ten pebbles. Give to one player one board, five nuts, and five pebbles. He places these on the squares in any pattern he fancies, and when Quicksight Gams eosoe 006ee ready, the other player is allowed to see it for five seconds. Then it is covered up, and from the memory of what he saw, the second player must reproduce the pattern on his own board. He counts one for each that was right, and takes off one for each that was wrong. They take turn and turn about. This game is a wonderful developer of the power to see and memorize quickly. Peanut Carry Form in pairs, each pair numbered I and 2. All 1’s stand at starting line, hands clasped behind backs, and each with the handle of a spoon in his mouth. All 2’s stand at line 20 (more or less) feet from starting line, also with hands clasped behind backs, but each with a hulled peanut on floor in front of him. At the word “Go,” all 1’s run to opposite line, kneel, or squat, or lie down, still keeping hands behind backs. 2’s do likewise, then roll the peanuts into partners’ tilted spoons with nose (or another spoon held in mouth). 68) 5? Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll The first No. 1 back at the starting line with peanut safely transported on spoon, wins. | Feather and Fans A fluffy feather out of a cushion will do for this game; and if there are not enough fans to go round, stiff pieces of paper or thin card will do quite as well. Draw a line across the floor, and let half the number of players be on one side, and half on the other. When all are ready, toss the feather into the air, and keep it up with the fans. No play- ers must leave their side of the line, but should do their best to stop the feather sailing across it. Those in whose country it falls at last, lose the game. Of course, the feather while in flight, must not be touched. Target Ball A large sized blackboard is marked like a target, with 3 or 4 concentric rings. The center ring should be about 12 inches in diameter ; and the others 2 feet, 3 feet, and 4 feet respectively. The bull should be about head-high. The throwing balls should be of the soft pattern, about the size of a tennis ball. They should be kept in a box, the bottom of which has been rubbed with a very slight powdering of chalk. Quite a tiny quantity is enough to smear the balls so that they will leave a faint mark on the target where they hit. A mark cutting one of the target lines, scores the higher point. Lock Arm Tag Players are arranged in pairs in a circle. The players in each pair lock inside arms and place the outside arm on hips. - There should be a distance of at least three feet between each pair. Two players are selected. One is “it” and chases the other. The player being chased can link arms with either man in any pair in the circle. This makes three men. The man who has an opposite arm is then subject to being tagged by “it.” Players are allowed to run through or around the any one of the players in any pair within the circle, he 1s not mediately tag back; but as soon as he has linked arms with circle in either direction. A man upon being tagged can im- subject to being tagged. 69) Games 55 Broncho Tag Players are arranged the same as in THREE DEEP. The last man in the pair grasps the man standing in front of him about the waist, and by twisting him about tries to prevent the man being chased from getting in front of him. The front man tries to catch and hold the man chased. If the man succeeds, then the third man in the group is subject to being tagged as in THREE DEEP. Bird Store The guide is the storekeeper. One of the children is sent away from the group, and that child will be the buyer. While that child is absent, the guide assigns bird names to each of the group. The buyer then comes in to buy a bird. The guide makes a statement such as this—“T have a fine stock Of birds on hand to-day; I have an especially beautiful one with red breast, red back, and black wings.’’ If the buyer guesses “Tanager,” the child who has been assigned the name of “Tanager” in order to be “Bought” must first be “Caught” ; and previously there has been assigned a certain tree to which the child, when his name is mentioned, must run; the buyer being required to catch the bird before it reaches the tree. The children of the group are always on tiptoe because they never know what moment the buyer will call their name, and that is the moment when they must run to the assigned tree; and the buyer must always be on the alert to run after them, tagging them before they reach that point. Through it all, by the dexterity of the guide in asking the questions, and en- couraging the buyer to ask questions, and by the varied as- signment of bird names to the group, a great deal can be taught. Little Bird Wants a Tree The children are each assigned the name of a different song bird, each one standing at a certain tree. They exchange places with each other when the hawk who is “it” is not looking ; and the hawk tries to catch the little birds by tag- ging them. The bird caught becomes the hawk. The chil- dren who are little birds, exchange places with each other by giving their proper call note. The “caw” of the crow, 70) 54 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll the “screech” of the jay, the “‘pheebe” call of the chick-a- dee, the “whistle” note of the Peewee, etc. They use these calls to each other instead of the phrase “Pussy Wants A Corner.” Imitating Birds The guide makes a statement such as “Robins Hop,” im- mediately hopping around, and all the children imitate her; quickly followed by ‘Crows walk,” the guide walking, all the children imitating her; or “orioles whistle,” or “wood-peck- ers peck” or “Chewinks scratch,” etc., proceeding rapidly from one bird imitation to another, all the children imitating her with enthusiasm. She then inserts a misstatement such as “crows whistle’ with which she also whistles. If any member of the group imitates her, that member pays a for- feit, or drops out. This game can have a wide variety of humorous actions, and at the same time can teach good ornithology. Boat Race Relay Groups divide their players into sizeable pairs. Members of the first pair of each group get ready by sitting down fac- ing each other, one on each side of the starting line. Each player sits on his partner’s feet, one having the knees to- gether and the other having them apart. The knees are bent until the hands can rest at arm’s length on the partner’s shoulders: The progress of a pair is made by a backward-and-for- ward-rocking movement, accompanied by a slight drawing up and stretching alternately of the knees. The race should - beashort one. A “mark buoy” not more than 4 yards ahead, around which pairs must travel and back, is quite long enough. Blackboard Relay A variety of interesting relays may be played with a _ blackboard. Groups line up in files with a board about 10 to 15 yards away. The ‘eader of each group has a piece of chalk. The games leader will decide what form the race will take, by choosing a basic subject such as, arithmetic, geography, natural history, word or seritence ‘building, etc. The first might be instrycted 71) Games | 55 to write a 5-figure number on the board. Having done so, he runs back to his group and hands the chalk to No. 2, who will write a similar number below the first, and add the two up. No. 3 may have to divide the result by 2, No. 4 multiply that result by 3, and so on, as the leader directs, 72) 73) DANCES 74) 75) DANCES Schottische Closed position. I give the boy’s part; girl does the coun- terpart. | (a) 1. Slide left to left I count. 2. Close right to left I count. 3. Slide left to left I count. 4. Close right to left, raising it a little; at same time raise and lower left heel. I count. (b) Reverse feet 4 counts. -(c) 4 step-hops 8 counts. Repeat ad lib. Simple Gavotte Open position, inside hands joined ; start with outside foot, ie., boy’s left and girl’s right. I give the boy’s part; girl does the counterpart. (a) 1. Step forward left 2. Step forward right 3. Step forward left 4. Step forward right 4 counts. (b) Face each other, join both hands extended at waist level : 5. Slide left and close right 6. As 5 7. AS 5 8. Step to left 4 counts. (c) Turn in opposite direction to (a), start with right foot, and repeat (a) and (b) 8 counts. (d) 8 slow two-steps in closed position 16 counts. Repeat ad lib. 59 76) 60 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Polka Mazurka Couples in closed position as for waltz. Boy starts with left foot, girl with right. I give the hoy’s part; girl does the counterpart, following his lead. (a) 1. Slide left to left 2. Draw right to left Raise left a little from floor to side, toe pointed, at same time raise and lower right heel Slide left to left Draw right to left Step back on left, turning (b) 1. Reverse (a) I Reverse (a) 2 Reverse (a) 3 Reverse (a) 4 Reverse (a) 5 Step forward on right, turning AnnP Ww nw & w& N Repeat ad lib. Barn Dance As many couples as desired, all facing in line of direction, girl on inside circle, boy on outside, inside hands joined and. high. Both start on outside foot. I give the girl’s part. I. (a) 1. Step forward on left 2. Close right to left but a little behind 3. Step forward on left 4. Hop on left (b) 5-6-7-8. Reverse (a) (c) 1-2-3-4. Repeat (a) (d) 5-6-7-8. Drop hands, and make complete turn with 4 steps REPEAT | II. (a) As I (a) (b) As I (b) 77) Dances 61 (c) Close into waltz position 1-2. Step on left and hop 3-4. Step on right and hop 5-6. Step on left and hop 7-8. Step on right and hop RepeEaT II III. Like I, but using 3 short running steps and hop in- stead of the step, close, step and hop. IV. (a) Take skating position, hands crossed, open posi- tion, both facing same way. Both start with left foot. 1. Glide left to left 2. Close right to left, at same time hopping on right foot and raising left in front of right ankle 3. Glide left to left 4. As 2 (b) 5-6-7-8. Pivot in 4 steps (c) and (d) Reverse (a) and (b) REPEAT IV Varsovienne Couples, facing line of direction, boy’s right hand in girl’s left. Both start with outside foot. I give the boy’s part. I. (a) 1. Slide left to left oblique 2. Close right to left 3. Step left to left oblique (b) 1. Point right to right oblique 2. Hold 3. Hold (c) Reverse (a) (d) Reverse (b) REPEAT | II. (a) 1. Slide left to left oblique 2. Close right to left 3. Raise left a little from ground, at same time raising and lowering right heel. 78) 62 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll (b) Repeat (a) (c) Repeat (a) (d) Point left to left oblique III. & IV. Repeat I and II in facing position, arms extended full length to sides. V. & VI. Girl about faces so as to stand in front of boy, hands joined right in right, and left in left. Both start with same foot. Repeat I and II. As right foot points, girl looks over her right shoulder at boy, and vice versa. ‘il. & VIII. Girl about faces, and in facing position, they repeat III and IV. Virginia Reel (Sir Roger De Coverley) Music: Turkey in the Straw. Six couples in each set is the ideal arrangement, and will fit the words below. More couples may be used where neces- sary; in which case, the eight lines are sung as given, then the rest of the melody sung with vocables to give the re- quired time to the dance. Formation: Two straight lines, facing, girls opposite boys. For convenience, I shall number them: Boys I 2 3 4 5 6 Girls I 2 3 4 § Flourish: All take places, clap hands and stamp in place while they sing: | Oh, dere was an old nigger Had a long banjo; An’ he strummed it wif his finger An’ he tapped it wif his toe. An’ he sang a little jingle, An’ he stood ’em in a row. An’ he started ’em a-dancin’ Wif his ol’ banjo. Fig. I: Girl 1 and Boy 6 skip forward to center 4 steps, bow, and skip backward to places 4 lines. Girl 6 and Boy 1 repeat 4 lines. Meanwhile all sing: 79) Dances 63 Now de cata-corner couple Top an’ bottom ob de row To de middle floor dey sachez, An’ dey bow perlite an’ low; Den de oder cata-corner Does de very same ting, An’ dey dances to deir places, To de banjo’s ring. Fig. II: Girl 1 and Boy 6 skip forward, join right hands on high, make one complete turn, and skip back 4 lines. Girl 6 and Boy I repeat 4 lines. Wiv yer razor hand high, An’ yer ringle finger low, Yer sachez ter de middle, An’ yer swing yer honey so; Den de partners at de oder end Come rompin’ on de floor, An’ dey sachez and dey swing Like de oders did before. Fig. III: Repeat Fig. II, using left hand instead of right. Now de cata-corner couple Lift de left hand in de air; An’ dey dance in toward each oder Jes as close up as dey dare. Den dey back right out To deir places and dey sing, An’ de couple at de oder end Repeat de same ting. Fig. IV: Repeat Fig. II, using both hands. Now de cata-corner couple Top an’ bottom ob de row, Come a-dancin’ an’ a-prancin’ Wif deir two hands low;; . An’ dey swing around each oder Wif deir hands a-holdin’ tight, Den dey back out to deir places To de left an’ right. Fig. V: As Fig. II, but not joining hands. Pass each other, right shoulder to right shoulder, back to back; then skip backward to places. This was called the dos a dos. 80) 64 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Now de couples come togedder From de two ends ob de row, An’ dey back around each oder What you call de dos a dos; Den dey back in ter deir places Wif deir voices singin’ sweet, An’ de oders keep de tempo Wif a trampin’ ob de feet. Fig. VI: Girl 1 and Boy 1 joins hands, chassez down the aisle, and back to their places. Now de couple at de end Ob de rank and de file Put de bofe hands in each oders An’ dey sachez down de aisle; Den dey slide right back To de places where dey were; An’ is ev’rybody happy ? I should say yes sir! Fig. VII; Girl 1 and Boy 1 link right arms, and swing 14% turns. Girl 1 then swings Boy 2 one turn, with left arms linked ; while Boy 1 swings Girl 2. Boy 1 and Girl 1 then link right arms and swing. So on down the aisle, al- ways linking right arms with each other, and left arms with those in line. At the end of the aisle, link right arms with each other, and make 4 turn, so each is on own side. Join hands, and chassez to original places. Wif yer sweetie on yer arm Now you cut de pigeon’s wing; An’ de partners in de line Lordy, hear deir voices ring! When dey get down to de bottom, Dey mus’ sachez to de top, An’ when all are in deir places, Dey is ready mos’ to drop. Fig. VIIT: Girl 1 and Boy 1 about-face. Girls march to right behind Girl 1, outside the set; boys to left behind Boy I on other side of set. When Girl 1 and Boy 1 reach foot of set, they stop, join hands on high; and the partners, re- joined, march under the arch. 81) Dances 65 Now dey divvy at de top To de left and right dey prance; Den dey meet up wif deir partners At de bottom ob de dance; While de leadin’ couple hist deir hands An’ make a kind o’ arch; An’ de oder couples romp around, An’ under it dey march. Now Boy 1 and Girl 1 are at the foot, and the dance con- tinues, led by Girl 2 and Boy 6, then Boy 2 and Girl 6, etc., until all have had the leading position. A Few Fundamental Indian Dance Steps It is impossible, in this short section, to describe fully, all the steps required in Indian Dancing,—even those dances herein given. We include a few taken from Mrs. Buttree’s Rhythm of the Redinan, by kind permission of the pub- lishers, A. S. Barnes & Company. In this book, there are fully described 39 authentic Indian dance steps, many of them illustrated. ToE-FLAT 1. Step forward on left toe &. Drop left heel in place 2. Step forward on right toe &. Drop right heel in place Repeat as often as necessary. This is a good rest step, to be interjected between two more strenuous steps. Cross-Hop 1. Cross right over left &. Hop on right 2. Cross left over right &. Hop on left This may be done in place, or with progression in any di- rection. <A good step, and easily acquired. SNEAK STEP I. Step to right with right toe, knees a little bent &. Step to right with left toe, crossing in front of right 2. Step to right with right toe, uncrossing &. Step to right with left toe, crossing in back of right. 82) 66 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll This makes for progression to the right. If movement to left is desired, start with left toe to left, Hicu Hop-Point &. Hop on left, at same time raising right knee high in front 1. Tap with right toe, feet close together &. Hop on left, at same time raising right knee high in front. 2. Tap with right toe, feet close together Progression may be in any direction, but the feet do not al- ternate; the tapping is always on the right foot. Pivot Low bent at the waistline, shading eyes with hand, pivot, one foot still, other pushing with short sharp steps. SCARE STEP Cross right in front of left, bending both knees a little Step left a little to left, but still keeping feet crossed Step right farther to left Step left a little to left, still crossed Step right farther to left Step left a little to left, still crossed Step right farther to left . Hop on right Repeat, starting on other foot When right is crossed in front, the head is turned to the right, and both hands, palms out, are to the right, as if ward- ing off something from that direction. This pose is held throughout the 4 counts, then changes with the feet. Rp Re Rb Rm WoMEn’s STEP Start with feet close together ; both toes raised, and turned slightly to the right. I. Drop the toes, and bend the knees at the same time &. Swing on the balls of the feet, so the heels turn to the right, straighten the knees and drop back on the heels. 2. Swing on the heels so the toes turn to the right, drop the toes and bend the knees. &. Swing on the balls, so the heels turn to the right, straighten the knees, and drop back on the heels. 83) Dances 67 Skim along the ground with this step, alternately sway- ing the shoulders in unison with the feet. Sioux Hop-StTep 1. Step forward with right &. Hop on right, keeping left toe turned up, and raising left foot up in front of ankle (not backward as in our hop-. ping). Progress forward, backward, or around self. Comanche Dance of Woodcraft Use as music: Carousal. I Enter with back-trot step (1 count to each step), closing into a circle (15 meas.) II With body much bent forward at hips, heel-toe step right, left (1 meas. to each foot) | (2 meas. ) Heel-toe step right, straightening body with sudden move- ment (I meas.) Repeat these two movements, alternating the feet (12 meas. ) Il (a) Body low bent, and shading eyes with right hand, look- ing about sharply; pivot in place (3 meas.) (b) Straighten body, hands on hips, two feet close together and worked simultaneously, hop forward, forward, forward (6 times in all, twice to each measure) (3 meas.) ({c) Repeat (a) (3 meas.) (d) Repeat (b), but hopping backward instead of for- ward (3 meas. ) (e) Charge forward (3 meas.) IV Exit, using back-trot step. (15 meas.) 84) 68 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Coyote Dance of Woodcraft This dance is taken from a Comanche Dance of the Zunis, as presented at Gallup, New Mexico, in August, 1927. The dancers were two men, four women, and one im- personated Coyote. _ The women dancers wore red skirts, turquoise-blue waists, buckskin shirts like men’s, fringed. The men were nude, ex- cept for bright-colored breech clouts in apron effect almost to ankles front and back; and wads of cotton-wool pasted all over the body; a feather in either hand. The Coyote wore a headdress like the head of a Coyote. Throughout the dance, there were frequent yelps by the dancers. There were two principal steps, which I have used in the following routine. The music (Song of Rising to Depart) is not what was used on that occasion, but carries the dance. (a) Enter, in a straight line, from right, with back-trot step, lifting feet backward very fast, and the right foot much higher than the left (4 steps to each meas- ure ) (4 meas. ) (b) Stop, all facing left; repeat (a) in place (4 meas.) (c) Face front. The four women remain in place, doing the same step, but not so much lift to the feet. The Coyote stands in front of the line and changes his step to:—Limp forward right (1); close with left (&); limp forward right (2); close with left (&); limp forward right (1); close with left (&) ; charge forward right (2&). Repeat, starting with other foot. The men, in a straight line from their places, progress forward at either side of the Coyote (8 meas. ) (d) The men stand where this has carried them, and switch to the back-trot step; while the Coyote re- turns to position in front of the women, using any step he likes as long as it is in rhythm. (8 meas.) (e) Now he repeats (c), followed by “the women, until the latter are again in a straight line with the men (8 meas.) (f£) All now back-trot together in place (4 meas.) (g) All face right, and back-trot off, led by the Coyote (4 meas.) 85) Dances 69 Eagle Dance of Woodcraft This is done by two dancers. As we saw them at Tesuque Pueblo in 1927, they were painted yellow on their bare fore- legs and breast. The upper legs were painted white, and the reat of the body, dark blue. Around the edge of the yellow breast were fastened soft, short white feathers. Each wore a short white skirt, embroidered in colors; bells about the waistline; red garters, fringed, below the knee where the yellow legs joined the white. The-close-fitting wig or cap was made of short white feathers, with a yellow bill attached. The wings were a strip of yellow material, extending across at back of the neck, along the arm line, farther than the finger-tips. To the back side of this were fastened the long eagle plumes hanging in a straight line. Each wore a danc- ing bustle as tail. They were barefooted. Music—Eagle Dance THE DANCE Enter one Eagle dancer, body bent forward, swinging wings from side to side, with a slow, simple walk (1 step and swing to each measure). Thus he makes one circuit of the dancing space (14 meas.) As he passes the entrance on the beginning of his second round, enter the other Eagle, as above, but progresses in op- posite direction. The first Eagle has changed his step to, step forward right, step forward left, with alow dip (7 meas.) They meet at one side of the circle, hesitate with both wing-tips meeting overhead, facing each other (3 meas. ) They cautiously encircle each other, lowering the wings and raising them again (4 meas. ) Then each completes his own circle to opposite side of the center (7 meas. ) Face to face again, they hesitate, waving arms, and bend- ing knees well (3 meas.) With feet close together, they hop, hop, hop, each to his own right, flapping the wings menacingly (I meas.) To his own left (I meas.) To his own right (I meas.) To his own left , (I meas.) More calmly, they again encircle each other (4 meas.) As No. I again starts to make the circle, No. 2 hesitates (4 meas.) 86) 70 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll No. 2 turns and follows No. 1 (6 meas.) After another round, one behind the other, they step side by side (7 meas. ) With the high hop-point step, they progress to right (I meas.) To left, forward, and back (1 meas. each) working in perfect unison (3 meas.) Now they face each other (3 meas.) Softly sway the wings parallel to each other (4 meas.) With 1 the step and dip, they go off together, wings overlap- ping (10 meas. ) Basket Dance of Woodcraft Music—TJhe Dust of the Red Wagon Enter six men, wearing. bréech clouts and headbands. Each carries in his right hand a gourd rattle, in his left a prayer plume, held high in the air. With back-trot step, go once around circle, softly shaking rattles, and chanting song - (8 meas. ) Line up, facing front, and vigorously tap right foot for- ward in time, and continue this while the maidens make their entrance (6 meas.) Enter six Corn Maidens, dressed simply, and alike except for tablitas (headdresses) which are of different colors—one white, one yellow, one red, one blue, one black, and one spotted in various colors, symbolizing the differeut colors of the corn grown in the Southwest. Each carries a flat round basket under the right arm. They use the Women’s Step, progressing sidewise until they are lined up in front of the men, also facing front (8 meas.) Now the maidens change to the tap step that the men are using, but do not raise the right foot as high on each tap as do the men (6 meas.) The maidens now grasp the baskets in both hands, flat side forward. In time to the music (up and down to each meas- ure), they raise and lower the baskets from full arms’ length to the waistline (4 meas.) Face right, and continue the same arm movement. (4 meas. ) Face front, and continue the same arm movement (2 meas.) 87) Dances 71 Face left, and continue the same arm movement (2 meas.) Face the men, and continue the same arm movement (2 meas.) The maidens kneel before the men (who are still tapping in place), and put baskets on the ground in front of them

(2 meas.)

They squat back, hands clasped in front on laps (2 meas.) The men wave their prayer plumes over the baskets (2 meas.) The men shake their rattles over the baskets (2 meas.) With back-trot step,,each man encircles the maiden before him, still shaking the rattle over her head (3 meas.) When he is back in his place, he drops his right hand low, though still shaking the rattle, and waves his prayer plume over the maiden (3 meas.) The maidens pick up the baskets in both hands, holding them flat side up, as if offering them to the men (2 meas.) The men shake the rattles high over the baskets (2 meas.) The men again encircle the maidens, shaking their rattles over them (2 meas. ) When they are back in their places, the maidens rise, hold the baskets high in air (2 meas. } The maidens pivot to right 114 turns so as to end facing front (6 meas, ) All tap-step again in place (4 meas.) The men now take steps forward, until they are in one line with the maidens, each to the right of his own maiden (4 meas.) With the back-trot step, all make one circle, and exeunt (6 meas. ) Corn Grinding Dance of Woodcraft Music—Zunt Corn Grinding Song Before the beginning of the dance, the metates (grinding stones) have been put in place in a row, one for each maiden. (a) They walk in, basket under left arm, brush in right hand (12 meas. ) (b) Each maid, now in front of her metate, raises head to the Great Spirit (3 meas.) (c) Kneel in place (3 meas.) (d) Place brush to right, basket to left (4 meas.) 88) 12 is Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll (e) Squat back on heels, hands relaxed, look lovingly at metate (5 meas. ) (f{) Grind in rhythm (14 meas.) (This completes one rendition of the song) In rhythm, sweep corn into the baskets (8 meas.) Stand with basket in both hands (4 meas. ) Feet together, raise basket to Great Spirit (6 meas. ) Lower basket toward Maka Ina (Mother Earth) (4 meas. ) (k) Pivot to right, throwing pinch of corn to each of the four winds (5 meas. ) (1) Encircle metate with Sneak Step (14 meas.) (This completes the second rendition of song) oe a hat ope SOQ (m) Face right, and skim away from metate, using Women’s Step (5 meas. ) (n) About face, and skim back to metate (5 meas.) (o) Hold baskets high, all close together (2 meas.) (p) Pivot to right (3 meas. ) (q) Pivot to left (3 meas.) (r) String out into one line as in beginning (4 meas.) (s) Hold basket high (5 meas. ) (t) Walk off in rhythm (14 meas.) (This completes the third rendition of the song) The English translation of the song given by Natalie Curtis as follows: Oh, my lovely mountain To’yallane! Oh, my lovely mountain, To’yallane! To’yallane! High up in the sky See the Rain Makers seated, Hither come the rain clouds now, He-ya, he-ya, he-ya! Behold, yonder All will soon be abloom, Where the flowers spring, Tall shall grow the youthful corn-plants! 89) Dances 73 Bow and Arrow Dance of Woodcraft Enter the Chief, followed by as many Medicine Men as desired. All sit about the fire in a circle, smoking, except the Chief, who, standing and in silence, holds up his pipe to the Great Spirit; then addresses the Medicine Men: “My friends, we have come again through a tithe of trial, a time of hunger, a time of want. For many suns, there was no meat in the pueblo, for many suns the babies cried for food.” First Medicine Man: “Yea, Chief, death walked with my little Tawak.” Second Medicine Man: “Oh, Chief, the Great Spirit called my woman.” Chief: ‘““Yea, my friends, our hearts were troubled. .. . Then came our young man, our ‘Trail-Finder,’ said he’d hunt the hiding deer-meat, find the tracks of Shakai-katal.” (Navaho for Deer.) Third Medicine Man: “After him, there came our archer, ‘He shoots True.’ These two together saved our babies, saved our women, saved our pueblo. Let us call them and do honor. Ya-hooooooo!” : (The Medicine Men retire, and form a shallow half-circle across back of stage, arms crossed. ) To a roll of the tombé, enter, running, from opposite back corners, two archers in breech clouts and headbands, each carrying a bow and arrow in one hand. They run across the back behind the Chief, passing each other at back center ; at each far corner, turn, and run so as to stand either side of the Chief who is at back center. They bow to him, extend- ing both arms backward and downward. The Chief signs them to proceed. They acknowledge his order with upstage hand raised shoulder high. They transfer the bows and arrows, so bow is in left hand, arrow in right. Music: Thlah Hewe—Blue Corn Dance. (a) Facing the fire, each step-closes to front, and circles self, holding up bow (1 step-close to each measure) (8 meas. ) (b) With toe-flat step, they cross each other in front of fire, to opposite corners, circle selves, bow down and arrow up (13 meas.) 90) 74 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll . (c) Face back, and cross-hop to back (8 meas.) (d) Quickly face front oblique, and shoot across fire to front (3 meas. ) (e) Hop-step in to fire - (4 meas. ) ({) Hop-step away from fire, still facing fire (4 meas.) (g) Hog-step in circle about self (4 meas.) (h) Hop-step half-way down side (4 meas. ) (1) Hop-step in circle about self (4 meas. ) (j) Hop-step to front (4 meas.) (k) Hop-step in circle about self (4 meas. ) (1) Face obliquely toward fire, hop-step in to fire (4 meas.) (m) Hop-step backward out from fire | (4 meas. ) (n) Hop-step in circle about self (4 meas. ) (o) Hop-step to back corner _ (4 meas.) (p) Hop-step in circle about self (4 meas.) (q) Trot-step to front (2 steps to the measure), and shoot into air, facing obliquely toward each other (8 meas.) (r) Run across the front, and up opposite side (8 meas.) ' (s) Kneel, and shoot to back (I meas.) (t) Hop-step backward down to middle of side (4 meas.) (u) Kneel, and shoot toward back (I meas.) (v) Hop-step backward down to front corner (4 meas.) (w) Kneel and shoot to back (2 meas.) (x) Stand, facing front, but head turned toward each other (4 meas.) (y) Scarce-step away from each other (4 meas.) (z) Trot toward each other (4 meas.) (a!) Scarce-step away from each other (4 meas.) (b') Trot in to meet each other (4 meas.) (ct) Circle each other with trot-step (4 meas.) (d‘) Pose, facing left, one kneeling, one standing behind

(I meas.)

(e') Both shoot to left. Rise, rapid trot around fire, one behind the other. The Medicine Men exeunt, walk- ing in time to the rhythm, half in either direction, upstage hand raised in salute. When they are off, the two archers, with same trot-step, exeunt. Use as many measures of music as are needed to carry this exit. 91) Dances 75 Sun Dance of the Woodcraft Indians Music—Sun Dance Song The Sun Dance pole, representing the sun, has been placed at the outer edge of the circle, opposite the Council Rock. In the center is a hung drum around which the orchestra are seated. Coumer ‘Reck LLM Enter four Old Men symbolizing the World-quarters. Each wears a headdress surmounted by an animal totem, significant of the quarter he embodies—a White Rabbit for the North, a Red Wolf for the East, a Badger for the South, and a Gray Bear for the West. They make one round of the circle, with a simple, slow walk, arms folded (14 meas.). They stand, each in his 92) 76 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll place, as indicated by the X in the Figure. (1 meas.). They raise both hands in silence to the Great Spirit (7 meas.) ; then sit in place. (2 meas.) A chorus of eagle whistles is heard off-stage. Enter four Sun Dancers, in breech clouts, each wearing a sun wreath; and in his mouth a bone whistle hung by a cord around his neck. The whistles symbolize the breath or life of man. Each dancer carries at waist level in front of him, a buf- falo skull. Looking straight ahead, they march briskly around the circle, to a single, measured beat of the drum. There is no music to this, but a steady blowing of the whistles. When they reach their appointed places, as indicated by the horns in the Figure, they stand still, and stop blowing. They let the whistles fall from their mouths. After a pause of a moment, they suddenly, in unison, raise the skulls at arms’ length, and sing the Sun Dance Song. (24 meas.) Then, to the same music, but in strong dance rhythm, they begin to dance in four straight lines toward the pole and back. From now on, they do not try to keep together. The ob- ject is for each to hang his skull on the sun-pole. After a few moments one of them staggers, but recovers. He is to be the first one to succumb. Now and again, one shows signs of weakening, but struggles back into the dance until he actually falls prone to the ground, then crawls off, dragging his skull after him. One remains longer than the rest. He must be a good actor as well as a vigorous-bodied dancer. After several vain 93) Dances T7 attempts to hang his skull on the pole, falling to the ground in weakness, recovering, again dropping, etc., he finally suc- ceeds. For a moment, he hangs limps to the pole himself ; then, his ‘strength renewed, he dances off in good form. 94) 95) SONGS 96) 97) SONGS Last summer (1930) on the Chief’s ranch at Santa Fe, were camped four Tesuque Indians who were making dobies for the new Woodcraft Headquarters and National Camping ground. We spent many evenings in their tepee, learning new Indian songs and dances. One evening, as we entered, there on the floor in a corner, with his tombe, the leader of the group was beating out a rhythm and singing a melody we had not heard before. We listened silently for a time, not interrupting. After many repetitions of the strain, he finally stopped. Then we asked what the song was. “A new one,” he replied. “I just make it now.” ‘What is the name of the new song?” we inquired. “Seton Rancho,” he answered laconically—and he sang it again. “What do the words mean?” we asked; for we heard no real words other than “Seton Rancho” repeated at intervals. The rest were mere vocables. | The reply came promptly: “Seton Rancho is a good place.”’ This Indian youth was called Benito Swazo, according to the custom of giving Spanish names to the Indidns of the Southwest. But we know that every Indian has also his — Redman’s name. After cautious weeks, during which these boys began to appreciate our respectful attitude, we learned that his Indian name was “Tse-pe meaning, “Eagle Stick.” Note that the song is in perfect form. First, the Indian “has a song for every occasion of his life, large or small, happy, sad or commonplace. Every event, every act, every activity, every phase of his daily life, every thought, indeed, may evoke a song.” Second, there is a downward trend in the melody of most Indian songs. They start very frequently on a high note, and steadily descend to a low one. Next, the Indian does not need words to express his thought in a song. A suggestive word here and there 1s all 98) 82 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll that is necessary to him. As Frederick R. Burton says: “The Indian is far enough advanced in musical develop- ment to be indifferent to the presence of words in connection with his art.” Seton Rancho Tse-Pe (Eagle Stick) Hu-- ya hu - - ya hu-ya hu - ya— -ya. hu - - ya Hu-ya hu - - ya Se-ton Ran - cho— Hu-ya hu - - ya we” ~~” hu-ya hu - ya—— Hu-ya_ hu - - ya hu-ya hu Se-ton Ran - cho— Hu-ya- = thu - - ye Se-ton Ran ye— Hu-ya -hu-ya hu-ya bu-ya has hu-ya hu-ya hu cho. Hu-ya hu-ya hu-ya hu-ya hu hu-ya ,hu-ya hu Sun Dance Song (Cheyenne) E ya ha we.. ye he ye ye he ye.. ho we.. ye whi ye ye E yaha we.. ye he ye ye He ye.. ho ha ya ya Ha ai yaha ai yoyu ai ye ye Ha ai yuho —_ NS west we wT ho o yu Ho ai ho ho ho-o yu He ye he a ya Natalie Curtis—Indians’ Book—pp. 166-67. wT 99) Songs 83 The Dust of the Red Wagon (Ute) An - a-gar vi - nun - umpa ha ku -a-vi_ tsi-ya a. ce ya ha An - a- gar vi - nun ump a ha Ku-a-vi tsi-ya ce ya ha ma-ri-kats a pu-mi-wa-nu pa-hai a ma-ri kats a pu-mi-wa-nou pa-hai a Frances Densmore—Northern Ute Music. p. $8. Eagle Dance Notated by Julia M. Buttree from Victor Record 20043. Song of Rising to Depart (Osage) A - ki-pawin-da-do ho - pe-dse ton tha. A - ki-pa win-da-do o~ ho - pe-dse ton tha A - ki-pawin-da-do ho - pe-dse ton tha - Francis La Flesche~39th Aon. Rep. Bur. Eth.. p. 237. Music tsanscribed by A. C. Fletcher. 100) 84 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Corn Grinding Song (Zuni) E-lu-ho-ma ya ya.... yal- lan.... ne E-lu-homa ya ya.... yal - lan... ne yal-lan... ne A-wehlwi-a kwai -i Im -u-nakwa-gia Lo-nan-esh-to wi -ya2-ne He ya.... ha ya Ya...... Li... wa... ma... ni-i - yu-te-a- pa . “ee . a e A-wi -ya....... ~ me Ha-wi-la-na, li......... i... tla..... Natalie Curtis—Indians’ Book—pp. 433-34. Omaha Prayer Alice C. Fletcher—27th Ann. Rep. Bur. Eth., p. 130. oo 101) Songs 85 Thlah Hewe—Blue Corn Dance (Zuni) Lo-wi.. yu te.. a pa.. Ma..... te-o-na ke - si Lo - wi.. yu te.. a- pa A - wi.. ya - ha -ne Li..... i-hi-tlaw A-hi.. yi..hai E... he.. lun... wi ya I yu.. hi yi a ha MHMi......... ya ha he Nee e e e yow.. he yu he yu he yu he yu he yu..... Natalie Curtis—Indians’ Book, p. 442. Carousal (Ojibway) ‘Kah nin-dah-ne - bah se - neen kah nin-dah- ne - bah se - meen ke tah-go- go- bah gaun - je nan'-ka ma min me - quay aung kah nin - dah - ne - bah s¢ ~ neen Frederick R. Burton—American Primitive Music, p. 226. 102) 86 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll When I Become a Sagamore LESTER THOMAS after a Foresters Song Music: There is a Tavera in our Town Wood - craft will mas - ter I will ~ I'm be - com - ing as - tro - nom - ic for - est + . run a trailmuchfast-er I will learn to use the com - pass and the wise and ge -o - log-ic and a rec - ord break-ing plung-ing ath -lete rub - bing sticks I'll learn the namesof fish and bugs fish and bugs and more -or less I'll know the names of ferns and flowers ferns and flowers and birds and but -ter-flies and slugs flies and slugs The. names of trees will by thestarscan tell the hours tell the hours The. In - dian signs I'll both-er me no more When I -come a Sag-a- - more know them by the score When I be-come a Sag-a- - more. Woodcraft Hike Song W. P.- ALEXANDER When the birds make mu-sic andthe chip-munks are mer-ry gay and free Let's straight-way hie a - way as birds fly a - way to the for-est and lea Where the stream sings soft-ly and all the world is bright and love-ly to ts the place where all of us short and tall of us now would like be La de 1-lar la dil-ler fa de dol-lar la de dil-ler la de dol-lar tla de dum dum dum La de elar la de dil-ler la de dol-lar la de dil - ler tla de dol - lar la de dum dum dum. 103) AGATHE DEMING Songs The Campers Song 87 EDW. LUTON WOOD Ful-low thetrailto the o - penair A - lonewiththehills and sky- A pack onyour back but. mev-er a care Let-ting the daysslip by Heal - ing fra-grance of the dark Glow from a camp-er's Star-light and shad-ow and mu-sic of waves While the gray smoke curls higher fire— Fol-low the trail to the o - pen air Let-tingthe days slip by — smile on your lips A— song in your heart One with the hills and sky. EMMA L. ANTZ A Canoe Song JOSEPHINE MORLOCK een <=> fA EE! OE a Pa e " eo er ot oF Wee We dip our pad dies rip ples start —— . out ward curve And break and dart The shore is t, Our cy or yet Fr ae Light eexoe Slips do wrwar: en tho rivers .dlus.. Oft willow trees with curved trunks Lean o’er us, gray like hermit monks; Wild grapes swing down and look and twist, All rich with fruit, wind-tossed, sun-kissed. And fairy castles in the sky Go floating by to realms on high; The long reeds swish and curve and bend And in a song their voices blend. We slip along by bank and shore Where many an Indian slipped before. All noiselessly, as though we, too, The old, old hunter wisdom knew. 104) 88 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll The Big Brown Bird JULIA M. BUTTREE Wm S. PITTS There's a big brown bird in the bog land He Theres a fan tailed_ bird in the wood land He There's a deep rich__. note on the shore line A There’s a thump thump_thump from a te pee A lives in the haunt of the frog He—— __—— trum-petswhile shad-ows are struts and he strumswith his wing He’s the soul of the wild in the voice in the clear sum-mer moon He blows out his throat as he throb of the mes-sage to come Its a vi - sion that thrills on the fall - - ing Its the boom of the bit-tern in the bog love - -land Its the drum thump-ing grouse in the spring bu - - gles It's the trump of the bull frog in June sun-set hills Its the Red man a - lone with his drum

Oh it’s’ boom boom boom boom boom of thebird in the Oh it's thump thump thump thump thump of the bird in the Oh its trump trump trump trump trump of thefrog on the Oh it’s thump thump thump thump thump of a drum from the bog - land A boom in the haunt of the frog It's a wood - land A thump as_ he strums with his wing It's a shore line A trump in the clear sum-mer moon It's a te pee A thump of the mes - sage to come It's oa hoom while the shad - ows are fall - - ing It's ~—s the thump of — the wild in the . love - - land Its the trump from his throat as he bu - - gies It's — the thump that thrills on the sun - set hills It's _—the boom of the bit - tern in the bog, drum thump - ing grouse in the spring. trump of the bull frog in June. Red man a « lone with his drum. ® Botwoea the two stars, half the group sing Boom, boom, boom, etc. while the other half sing the words as gives. 105) Songs 89 Song of the Seven Secrets ERNEST THOMPSON SETON Old English Air, adapted Now who be ye with cheektan-red Who march with swing and lim-ber tread? We are the Grey-wolfs gris -ly brood Weve won free of the wood With a Zon-zi-mon-di Wa-kon-da -je-muk-e - sin-a-ya With a huy anda huyand a huyand aha And a howl of a wolf in the dawn-ing (bel) LEADER And have ye seen the sun get up, When sky was roof and hand was cup? RANKS We have, we Grey-wolf’s grisly brood, etc. LEADER Oh, have ye undismayed lain damp While wild-cats yelled in some near swamp? Know ye the poison-ivy tall, Whose riddle’s key is alcohol? Know ye why set the rabbit’s feet The hind ahead when he runs fleet ? Oh, have ye made the magic blaze With rubbing sticks of bygone days? Know ye the wan white death toad-stool, The trap that waits the half-baked fool? Know ye that in the sun’s glad ray Is power to purge flesh ills away? Know ye the angel of the night, Whose influence hallows slumber light ? Know ye the wondrous spirit power, That comes in lonely vigil hour? Then are ye wise, ye Grey-wolf’s brood, In these seven secrets of the wood. December, 1921 106) 90 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll The Wood Child ERNEST THOMPSON SETON Slave Song See” 1 will | hie me in the | morn - ing when the | song hawks a - Oh the | wind whist - led _— moan - ing a - -| cross the tall Oh the | bell bird was— chim - ing way— down in the wing I will {scan the sky rn-ing in the {soft wind of /spring grass The |tree tops in -| ton-ing as the |west wind rode| past dell The |flick-er was |rhym-ing his lad news to | tell Come all ye town folk with your |cheeks wan and pale For Wood Child and I seek the green trail. Ive | found. the green | trail, I fol - low the trail. 107) Songs 91 Might of America ERNEST THOMPSON SETON ALEXIS LVOFF Might of A mer .- i - ca _— Not thy gun thun - der Might of A mer - i- ca_— Not thy vast em - pire d Not thy big bat p ships — Breast - ing the From Free-dom's torch to the far__._—s_—s sun - down ~~ ra Mag - net of na . tions — Bea - con in black - ness Great land of Lin - coln — This is thy foun da - tion < a Whence is the po - ten -cy Trust - ed to Whole - ness thy one - sess makes |world lord of J d 108) 109) HANDICRAFTS 110) 111) HANDICRAFTS ICr Cartwheel Stand in position at one end of the room, and face the left wall. Place the left foot in front of the right about 14 inches, all weight on it. Raise the arms straight above the head. Bend over, and place the left hand on the floor about 6 inches to the left of the extended foot (left foot). Turning from the waist, swing the right arm to the left, and place’ hand on floor about 12 inches from the left hand. At the same time, swing the legs into the air, right leg first. Push off from the left leg, and with the left leg following the right, go into a Hand Stand position. Do not hold this position, but swing directly over, and- ing first on the right foot and then on the left. Bring the hands above the head, and you will find yourself once more in an erect position. While the legs are.in the air, keep them well spread apart. This is a left cartwheel. The right cartwheel is, of course, the exact opposite. IC2 How to do a Handspring At first, a short run is helpful, but can be dispensed with later on. At the end of the run, bring the hands down quickly to the floor, tuck the head well in and under (but do not touch it to the floor), and swing the body and feet up- wards sharply and without hesitation. As soon as you feel that your body is over and beginning to drop, try to take your hands from the ground, at the same time swinging the whole body upward, pushing up vigorously with the chest. As the feet near the ground, curl them in and backwards, and so up to the standing position again. You must work quickly and fearlessly throughout. 95 112) 96 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Log Riding [BBB8 By Fay WELCH Fay Welch describes the log-riding done at Rock Oak Forestry Camp, as follows: The first step was to locate a dead White Pine near the shore of Spruce Lake. The boys who had become fairly expert with axes and cross-cut saws, felled this and cut off a twelve-foot butt log. This log was about two feet in diam- eter at the small end, and was very straight and symmetrical. Getting it into the lake was a good problem, but it was soon accomplished after a skid-way had been built and rollers and prys cut. At first the boys experienced considerable difficulty in reaching a standing position on the log, only about one in four being able to do it. Their method of accomplishing this was to swim to one end of the log, and pull up until prone on their breasts on the log. Often they were rolled off from this position; but if they were able to control the log, they next shifted to a sitting position. After balancing themselves, they, with hands on the log, drew their feet up under them, and then straightened to the standing position. In the beginning, the game consisted of seeing how long the boys could remain poised on the log; but some individuals soon became so expert that the rules were changed, making it necessary for the boys to start spinning the log after bal- ancing on it for 60 seconds. 113) Handicrafts 97 It had been planned, if the boys became sufficiently expert in riding the log, to have contests where one boy stood on either end of the log and at a given signal tried to spin each other off. In working for the coup it would not be necessary to mount the log from the water, which would simplify the problem. Then, if Woodcrafters wear heavy shoes, the soles, heels and insteps of which can be armed with sharp ‘“‘calks’? such as lumberjacks use, it will still further facilitate the operation. With all the aids possible, however, it will be found that “treading a sawlog 100 yards” is a real achievement, and a coup of which any Woodcrafter may be justly proud. Acorn Muffins IK2 By CaroL STRYKER The American Indians used acorns for food to a large extent. Great quantities of them were stored in baskets un- derground, later being dug out and made into a sort of hoe cake. They were also boiled as a mush, and combined with maple sugar and other ingredients; the method varying with the locality, and the food habits of the people of that locality. The important items in the preparation of acorn muffins are as follows: Only acorns from the white oak should be used, as those from the black oak group are too bitter. After husking, the acorns should be ground into meal (we found 114) 98 - Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll that a mortar and pestle served very well for the purpose). The meal is then mixed with hot water, and poured into a jelly bag. The bitter tannin, being soluble, will be taken out by the water, but sometimes a second or even a third washing may be necessary. If it has caked badly, it should be ground in the mortar again before using. In cooking, acorn meal may be used in the same way as corn meal. The taste suggests a mixture of corn meal and peanut butter. Out of the five batches of muffins that we had brought in, we discovered that those mixed with part white flour were the best. Materials used by Elwood Logan were as follows: I cup acorn flour I cup white flour I cup milk 2 tablespoons sugar 1 tablespoon melted butter 2 teaspoons baking powder I egg YZ teaspoon salt Muffins made in this fashion will be found quite palatable, and worthy of a place among the wildwood foods. With some experience, a strictly wildwood food could, I think, be prepared. Plaster Casts of Tracks II EE 3 By Jutia M. BUTTREE A track in dried mud is the best for the purpose. Carefully place over the track a cardboard cylinder, or a tin can which has had the top and bottom removed. The new type can openers are very useful, leaving no ragged edges to the can. A little vaseline rubbed inside the can for about an inch from the bottom, is helpful when it comes to remov- ing it later. Into this cylinder, sprinkle a thin layer of talcum powder over the track, blowing gently into the can so as to distribute it evenly. Be careful not to put in too much powder; the track should be just barely covered. Now mix plaster of paris with water (very little water at a time ), until it is a smooth thin paste just possible to pour. Stir slowly to prevent bubbles, but thoroughly to prevent lumps. If there is danger of the plaster setting before you can pour it, mix it with vinegar instead of water. Next, carefully and slowly pour the plaster down the sides of the tin can (and thus into the track), to the depth of about an inch. If you pour directly onto the track instead 115) Handicrafts 99 of down the sides of the cylinder, there is danger of disturb- ing the impression. Let the plaster set for half an hour if possible; if you dis- turb it too. soon, it will be utterly ruined. Now, carefully remove the tin can. This gives you a negative cast. To make a positive from it, pour some liquid plaster into a small shallow box (even a pasteboard box will do). Press the negative into this, and allow it to dry. When removed, you have a cast of the track as you saw it. If a wire eyelet be slipped into a slit in the box before the plaster is poured in, it will provide a loop to hang it to the wall. Thanks are due to Miss Elizabeth Price for some sugges- tions toward this article. Black Tracks of Animals II EE2 By Ernest THOMPSON SETON During many years of observation and experiment, I tried every known way of recording animal tracks; giving much time to casts, photographs, etc. At length, I came down to two practical methods; one, familiar to all the world and still used, viz. drawing on paper, free hand, and of natural size; the other, black tracks. The latter I invented, or maybe I should say, I was taught by a Coon, who got his feet well inked, then made black coon tracks all over the bed-spread of a friend. This method is of use chiefly with captive animals, but can | to some extent be used among the wild and free. The needed materials vary somewhat with the size of the animal to be tracked. Suppose we begin as.most do, with a dog. Get a few yards of soft white paper (I commonly use the back side of wall paper, or paper toweling) ; a pot of common black paint; an old blanket and some boards. Construct a narrow passage or runway, say 10 feet long and 1 foot wide; let the dog run through this a couple of times to get used to it. Lay. the blanket smoothly down the whole length of the runway; then on that, the wall paper, fastened down in some way, such as weighing it with the boards of the runway. At one end of the runway, give the paper a heavy coat of black paint for about 4 feet, and all is ready. 116) 100 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Send or lead the dog down the passage. On the black paint, he inks his feet; on the rest of the paper, he records his tracks in black permanent prints; and if skillfully man- aged, they are perfect records in size, spacing, shape and detail—better than can be got in any other way. The padding is necessary because the tracks made on a hard, unpadded paper would show only the high spots in the >. ‘ tt t i * @:& ~ 4 ; ecé é 9.9: Gey s

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¢ ‘ wes ? e an 6 os ig: road ? bile Bish e Cig 1 / 6 ‘ nw a, S us s e { f ‘ ip? Ss. ae 3 , : 5 . Sa a Joy 9: l@ a ‘, @ . 2 v& > 3 . . SN. . ' . vA Sew Pat 7 ye ¢ ah: ‘ ? ’ "4 gq .f oN i "a ce x. ‘, o, a8 . ae “e, , x ¢ a p tra d Lary e & * . be - fore “oo 2 ach , eae ¢ Lt twee ok 1 ee ee : tex ® ‘ TS dh Ee ee animals’ feet. I once tried to use printer’s ink, but it sets too quickly. If small animals are to be tracked, use thinner softer paper, even tissue paper or paper napkins. If a large animal such as a cow, use harder stronger paper,—manila or heavy wrap- ping paper, for example. Some animals are afraid of the paper, and will not walk over it at first; but leading them once or twice over some loose paper, commonly breaks them in. For some animals, such as rats or cats, it 1s necessary to 117) Handicrafts | 101 have a low roof over the passage, or they will leap over the black paint without touching it. Many of my experiments and results are recorded in Lives OF GAME ANIMALS. Smoke Prints of Leaves II FF 3 By Ernest THOMPSON SETON Maybe this is the oldest form of flat printing, for the leaves can print themselves if they happen to fall on a flat rock during a wet day. I remember the joy I had as a child in making these prints —for any one can do it. I only wish I had kept some of them, they would seem treasures to me now. But that was before the day of Tally Books. This is how they are made. Take a sheet of ordinary paper and grease it very well with butter or lard. Then hold this over a candle, grease side down so that the flame touches the paper; move it about quickly to keep the paper from — burning until it is everywhere smoked black. Now lay this black paper on a flat surface, black side up, and the leaf on it (usually the under side of the leaf prints better than the upper) cover this by laying a clean sheet of paper on it and press or rub all over this with the finger tips till every part of the leaf has been pressed against the black paper. Then lift the leaf and lay it, black side down, on a clean white sheet with a clean sheet over it. Hold it steady with one hand and press or rub all over with the finger tips as before. Lift the leaf up by the stem and, lo! you have a beautiful print of the leaf in permanent black ink. Add the name and date and your trophy is ready for the Tally Book. The easiest to print are the brambles, elm or dogwood. Ferns are always successful. Flowers rarely so. In making the black smoke paper it is wise to make it very black, but there should still be enough grease to make it shiny. If there is too little smoke the print is gray—if too much grease it smears. The same black paper will do for many leaves, especially if the black be evened up between times by rubbing it with the finger tips. A soft pad or sheet of blotting paper under the leaf makes a better print. A little practice enables any reasonably careful person to make the most exquisitely beautiful prints—the illustrations 118) 102 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll below give some idea, but are lacking in the delicacy and detail of the smoke print itself. These prints will smudge unless a fixative is used. With a blow-pipe, blow a spray of Weber’s or Dietzgen’s Fixatit over the print. Ink Prints of Leaves II FF 12 By Jur1a M. BuTTREE IIT FF 3 Printer’s black ink is the cheapest color for this purpose, though other colors are very effective. A teaspoonful will be enough for a number of prints; and should be all used up in one session, as it will dry and spoil if left too long. I. Squeeze out your ink on a piece of glass, and spread it evenly by rolling it back and forth with a rubber roller. II. Place your leaf, vein-side up, on a piece of cardboard, and roll over it a couple of times with the inky roller. III. Carefully lift the leaf, and place it, ink-side down, on a piece of unglazed white paper. IV. Cover the leaf with a piece of newspaper, being very careful not to stir the leaf from its position, or the print will be smeared. V. Rub the newspaper with the tips of the right fingers, holding it firmly in place with the left. Be sure to rub over every part of the hidden leaf. VI. Lift the newspaper, then the leaf, very carefully. VIT. Allow the print to dry. VIII. Mount on colored paper if desired. A leaf may be used several times, each time spreading it again with the inked roller. Be sure to clean the roller and the glass with turpentine after you have finished the work. Dried ink is ruinous to the rubber especially. 119) Handicrafts 103 Thanks are due Miss Elizabeth Price for suggestions on this activity. I Ts How to Make a Blue Print 3 II FF 12 By JuLtia M. BuTTREE Blue print paper may be bought by the yard, and then cut to fit your frame. Or, better, it may be bought already cut in various sizes, e.g., 5 X 7 inch sheets, at about a dollar per hundred. — I. A printing frame and glass is the first requisite. Be very sure the glass is clean. Place the frame on a table, glass side down. II. Lay the thing to be printed on the glass in the frame. III. Lay ina sheet of blue print paper, yellow side down. Do not handle the paper more than necessary, lifting it by one corner preferably. IV. Fasten in the back of the frame. V. Place the frame in full sunlight. About half a min- ute’s exposure is enough for a light blue print; if a dark print is desired, expose until the paper turns a splotchy yel- lowish white. VI. Take out the print, and dip into water for one minute. VII. Put print into aqueous solution of potassium chro- mate until it is a uniform color (about two minutes). VIII. Rinse in water. IX. Wipe off excess water from the face of the print. X. Dry between newspapers. XI. After the print is dry, you can write on it with a weak solution of potassium hydroxide, or Dietzgen’s Erasing Fluid. Spatter Prints By Jutia M. BuTTREE Our grandmothers had neither cameras nor blue prints, but they managed to amuse themselves with various kinds of nature printing that gave beautiful results in a permanent form, and were good records of many things in nature. One sort of art printing, much in vogue half a century ago, and being now revived, is the Spatter work. The tools for this are few and simple: A bottle of ink, preferably water-proof, or any dye diluted to the consistency of ink; an 120) 104 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll old nail brush or tooth brush, or a comb; a short stick like a penholder ; and a sheet of white paper. On the sheet of paper, lay flat the fern or flower to be pictured. Secure it at one or two points with pins. Dip the nail brush into the ink, hold it bristles-up, 3 to 5 inches from the paper ; then draw the wooden tool across it towards you, causing an explosion of little ink spots to fly from the brush onto the paper. A little experience will show how to get the speckling done evenly. If a comb be used, a bristle paint brush dipped into the ink, is rubbed across the comb, both fine and coarse teeth, so as to give variety to the size of the dots. When the background is sufficiently dark, lift the fern or flower, and you have a beautiful white silhouette or outline of the plant. One must be very careful to avoid blots by getting too much ink on the brush. It is best to pour the ink into a small dish, and dip only one edge of the brush into it. Charming effects may be obtained by spattering one color over another. In seeking designs for Spatter work, some of the loveliest are obtained from the common field flowers and weeds. Queen Anne’s lace, or wild carrot, makes a most dainty pattern; golden rod, daisies, and wild grasses are also recommended, because they have a lace-like appearance when pressed, that the large coarse flowers cannot achieve. If your flowers, after pressing, will not lie as flat as you wish, press them with a warm iron, laying them first on a board on which blotting paper has been placed, and covering them with slightly damp cheesecloth. Set the iron on top, and leave it until the cheesecloth is dry. Prints of leaves, etc., for nature wotk, are only the begin- nings of many artistic projects that may be worked out. Lamp shades made of any kind of substantial paper are fascinating subjects. The bases should be simple forms that blend with the gentle dignity of the Spatter work. Often a pickle or mayonnaise jar, a cookie jar, or some other house- hold container, will make a more artistic whole than an expen- sive piece of China or porcelain. Our Woodcrafters might, with advantage, combine one of our pottery coups with this activity. 121) Handicrafts 105 Tincandicraft IXX1 By InEz M. HarInc In working with tin for the making of jewelry and art products, treat the material as a more precious metal. Unless care 1s used, the product will be unsatisfactory. Begin with the simpler articles, and work up to the more difficult. Safety-match box covers are an easy point of starting. Cut from the side of a coffee can or any clean tin can, a plain piece of tin 214 x 334 inches. Draw a line 14 inches in from each narrow side, leaving 34 inch in the center for the back of the match box, and thus marking off the two sides. Now sketch a design on paper for these two sides. Copy onto the tin with a soft lead pencil, and outline with little dots a trifle less than 1 inch apart, made by placing a sharp nail on the outline, and giving a light stroke with the hammer. Aim to keep the dots from punching through. Shape to fit the match box by turning the tin, along the pencil lines, over any sharp edge. If many covers are to be made, it will save time to cut a hardwood block, the size of the match box ; and bend directly over this block. Be sure the edges are sharp. If a hammered effect is desired, use a ball-peen hammer (Y% inch in diameter at the round end), hammering the tin with a light stroke until the proper effect is obtained. This should be done before the design is put on. Should the tin curl, turn it over, and flatten it out with the flat end of the hammer. To make ash-trays, cut a circle of tin,.the diameter of which is 4 iach larger than the desired diameter of the fin- ished product. Mark well the center, and draw a line from the center to the circumference. Always begin and end ham- mering at this line. Now, holding the tin in the left hand, with the edge against the table, at an angle of 45°, strike hard with the round end of the hammer; and continue striking, going the whole way > around. This turns the edge. Each time round, be sure that the bottom is flat; if not, flatten it with the flat end of the 122) 106 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll hammer. Go around until the desired depth and shape have been attained. In jewelry, the most successful articles are the conches. Draw the design, and make one conch complete. If satisfac- tory, before doing any of the design, cut the required number for a belt, plus two for accident. This assures that all will be the same size. Then finish, as desired, soldering the belt holders on the back. To take away the tin look, heat the tin by holding it over a flame until a dullness comes over. Remove at once; and then, with brush and Dutch Cleanser, scrub, always in the same direction, until the whole takes on a silver appearance. Brush with chicken-feed lacquer, obtained at any hardware store. Try out on a plain piece of tin first. Rules Clean tin cans well before using. Bend tin with pliers. Use tin snips in cutting. File off rough edges at once. Tools Ball-peen hammer (% inch diameter at round end) Square and pointed pliers Tin snips (total length about 8 inches) Small file Several punches and nails Ruler T square Compass. IY i ID 2 ‘ Silver Jewelry IIN3 By INEz M. Harinc To Melt Silver The Navaho Indian uses Mexican coin silver for the mak- ing of jewelry. This he melts and molds to his liking. We can make our silver in the same way by using scrap silver or discarded Sterling ware; but remember that it is illegal to use United States coin in this way. 123) Handicrafts 107 To melt silver, obtain a small fire-clay crucible, holding about half a cup, with triangular top to make pouring easier. Place the silver, cut to small pieces so that none project above the top, into this crucible. Add a piece of borax the size of a hickory nut. | In order to melt, one must have access to a jeweler’s small, hand, gas furnace with a blow pipe, or a blacksmith’s forge. Place the crucible in the furnace, and allow to remain until the silver melts; This will take about half an hour. The absence of a furnace or forge sometimes seems to make the fashioning of silver an insurmountable difficulty. But hear how a Navaho Indian builds his forge, according to Dr. Washington Matthews: It “was twenty-three inches long, sixteen inches broad, five inches in height to the edge of the fire-place; andthe latter, which was bowl-shaped, was eight inches in diameter and three inches deep. The Indian thus constructed it: In the first place, he obtained a few straight sticks—four would have sufficed—and laid them on the ground to form a frame or curb; then he prepared some mud, with which he filled the frame, and which he piled up two inches above the latter, leaving the depression for the fire-place. Before the structure of mud was completed, he laid in it the wooden nozzle of the bellows, where it was to remain, with one end about six inches from the fire-place, and the other end projecting about the same distance beyond the frame. Then he stuck into the nozzle a round piece of wood, which reached from the nozzle to the fire-place; and when the mud work was finished, the stick was withdrawn, leaving an uninflammable tweer. When the structure of mud was completed, a flat rock about four inches thick was laid on at the head of the forge—the end next to the bellows—to form a back to the fire; and lastly the bellows was tied on to the nozzle, which, as mentioned above, was built into the forge, with a portion projecting to receive the bellows. The task of constructing this forge did not occupy more than an hour.” When ready to be poured, if plain gauge silver is desired, use a jeweler’s ingot mould, oiling it with a tablespoon of machine oil. When the silver is melted, pour without stopping, because any hesitation creates a separation in the mould. If it is necessary to clean the borax from the melted silver, —and it probably will be,—it should be done at this time. 124) 108 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Drop the chunk of silver into one part of sulphuric acid to fifteen parts of water so as to cover it, using a glass jar. Rinse well. Exceeding care must be used in the handling of sulphuric acid. Do not heat the solution. When clear and cool, run through a jeweler’s rolling mill, adjusting to the right gauge, and the silver is ready for use. The Navaho Indian pours his silver into moulds which he makes in stone. If he wishes to make a round button, with a home-made chisel, he chips out a round hollow place in a piece of sandstone, about a third of the desired size. He oils this with suet. Into this mould, he pours the melted silver, re- peating for as many buttons as he wishes to make. He then hammers each individual moulded bit of silver into the de- sired size and shape, and puts on the design. As to the anvil and crucibles among the Navahos, Dr. Mat- thews says: “For an anvil they usually use any suitable piece of iron they may happen to pick up, as for instance an old wedge or a large bolt, such as the king-bolt of a wagon. A wedge or other large fragment of iron may be stuck in the ground to steady it. A bolt is maintained in position by being driven into a log. Hard stones are still sometimes used for anvils; and perhaps they were, at one time, the only anvils they possessed.” In the making of all jewelry, the first step is to decide upon the design and to make a careful drawing, complete in every detail, of the article to be made. Bracelets Take a piece of 20-gauge silver, 6 inches long, and from 14 to 1% inches wide according as desired for the finished bracelet. (a) Punched Bracelets If a punched design is to be used, place the silver on the smooth side of a flat iron; or an anvil such as the Navahos use, and, with a small ball-peen hammer, begin at one end of the silver, and hammer with the round end until the whole surface has a hammered effect. Care must be used, because this is the upper side of the bracelet. Turn the bracelet over, and sketch accurately on the under 125) Handicrafts 109 side the design to be used, making. sure that the design is accurately centered in both directions. Place on a lead block, and punch the design, using a screw driver for the straight lines, and any round-ended tool for the ball and knob effects. Tools for this work may be purchased at a jeweler’s supply shop; but, by practicing on a piece of copper with a screw driver and any round-ended tool, good effects may be obtained with ordinary tools. Always try out the design on copper first, because silver is expensive, and should be carefully used. File the outside edges, rounding the four corners; and with a fine emery cloth, smooth down. Shape, polish, and oxydize, if desired. (See instructions below.) (b) Ratsed or Applied Design Use the same foundation for the bracelet as above, ham- mering, if desired. Draw on the right side, a line through the center, both lengthwise and sidewise. Shape to the arm, and set aside until needed. On paper, make an accurate drawing of the design to be applied or soldered on; and glue this paper on another piece of silver. Allow the glue to harden. Saw out the design, following the outline, but not cutting into it. If the design requires sawing inside the design, make a hole with a metal drill (No. 60), and insert the saw blade in this hole, and finish the design. When the sawing is finished, file all edges carefully, seeing that the curves are good, the lines are straight, and the cor- ners sharp. Fit the design carefully to the bracelet, being sure to center it in both directions. Wire the design tightly in place. Avoid using copper or brass wire, and now we are ready to solder. (See directions below.) After the soldering is finished, file edges and round the four corners; polish, and oxydize. (c) Pierced or Cut Design Use the same foundation, but do not hammer. Draw on paper the design that is to be cut from the bracelet, and glue it to the silver, making sure that the design 1s accurately centered. When dry, saw out, following closely the line of the drawing, but not cutting into it. Holes will always have to be made in order to admit the saw blade into the piece of silver. In sawing, use an up-and-down stroke, keeping the 126) 110 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll length of the blade perpendicular to the floor. Sawing is made much easier by first cutting a V-shape about 2 inches deep into the edge of the table, and doing the sawing over this opening. When the sawing is finished, soak off the paper, and care- fully true up all the details of the design with a file, being sure that the completed design is as accurate as the drawing. File outside edges and round the corners; shape, polish, and oxydize, Fobs Fobs may be made in the same way as bracelets. 20-gauge silver may be used. Piercing makes the most effective design. Draw the design, allowing a slot at the top for-the strap or ribbon. Proceed as for. pierced bracelets. A bar with a swivel must be made for the top. Swivels with two or three links may be purchased from the jeweler, and soldered on to a bar in which a slot has been sawed for mounting the fob, by means of a ribbon or strap. Brooches Brooches are made in the same manner as bracelets. Pierc- ing is most effective. After the piercing has been done, the brooch may be rounded by being placed upside down on a lead block, and carefully shaped like the bowl of a button or a spoon, this being done by hammering. The pin and catch may be purchased of any jewelry shop, and soldered on. If a set is desired, follow the directions given under rings. Rings Use 18-gauge silver. The directions given under bracelets may be used in making rings. To measure the size of the ring, cut a narrow strip of paper, and bend around the finger to fit. When this paper is flattened out, it is the size of the length of the metal to be used in the ring. If the ring is to have only a pierced or applied design, proceed as for bracelets. But if a stone is to be set, proceed as follows: After having chosen the stone, lay it on a piece of paper, and draw a careful outline. Make the design for the ring to fit this outline of the stone, being sure that the stone is in the center of both the length and the width of the ring. Glue the designed paper to the metal; then saw out. 127) Handicrafts | 111 Bend the ring into shape over anything round and small enough to give the right size. It is now ready for soldering. Wind a wire around the ring so that the two edges touch. Coat the joint with borax, apply small pieces of silver solder on the inside, and solder. The bezel for the stone comes next. 24-gauge silver is used for this. Cut a strip a quarter of an inch wide, and just long enough to fit about the stone, the ends meeting. Use care not to get the bezel too large, because it can easily be made larger by hammering out. Solder the ends together. Now fit the bezel to the ring by filing. The lower edge of the bezel must touch the ring all the way round. Wire in place tightly, being sure to center accurately. Solder in place from the inside, being careful not to get the flame near the joints of the ring, nor directly on the joints of the bezel. Drop the stone in place. If the bezel is too high, file it down, leaving just enough metal to cover the edge of the stone, and to hold it firmly in place. Place the under part of the ring in a vise, wrapping a cloth around it so as not to bruise the silver. With a stone setter or an eighth-of-an-inch screw driver, push the bezel towards the stone in four equi-distant places. Repeat be- tween these points until the bezel completely touches the stone, and holds it firmly in place. Polish carefully. Shaping and Polishing In shaping silver, use a rawhide mallet so as not to scratch or dent the metal. In shaping, a circular mandrel is best, but anything round may be used. In polishing, use a soft brush, flour of pumice, and water. Wash the article in clean water, rub with a soft cloth and dry pumice. Dr. Matthews says of the Navahos: “For polishing, they have sand-paper and emery-paper purchased from the whites ; but as these are expensive, they are usually required only for the finishing touches; the first part of the work being done with powdered sandstone, sand, or ashes, all of which are used with or without water. At certain stages in the progress of the work, some articles are rubbed on a piece of sandstone to reduce the surfaces to smoothness; but the stone, in this instance, is more a substitute for the file than for the sand- paper. Perhaps I should say that the file is a substitute for 128) 112 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll the stone; for there is little doubt that stone, sand, and ashes preceded file and paper in the shop of the Indian smith.” Oxydizing Oxydization gives a very finished effect to jewelry. To oxydize, place a piece of liver of sulphur in a pint of hot water, drop the bracelet in, and it will turn black. Re- move from solution, and with a little pumice and water, take off as much oxydization as desired. It is advisable to use the oxidizing liquid as soon as pre- pared. After it has been used for some time, the deposit be- comes dull and gray, and lacking in adherence. By dipping the oxydized article in a liquid composed of 10 parts of blue vitriol, 5 of sal-ammoniac, and Ioo of vinegar, the places of the silver left bright acquire a warm, brown shade. Another method of oxydization is effected by dipping the article in diluted chlorine water, in chloride of lime solution, or in eau de Javelle. The action of these baths is based upon the formation of a thin layer of silver chloride which becomes dark on exposure to light. Soldering Soldering should be practiced on scrap silver before being tried on a finished article. Place in a saucer a piece of borax the size of a hickory nut, and add enough water to make a milky solution. With a brush, apply this solution at the necessary points of contact around the design. It is not necessary that the whole design be soldered. | Cut small pieces of silver solder (1/16 x 1/16 inch), and drop on the borax solution saucer. Place these pieces, one at z. time, about the design, being sure that they always touch the silver ; and that, at these particular points, the design and foundation also touch each other, because metal must be touching in order to fuse in soldering. Carefully apply the heat with a blow pipe, slowly at first until the borax solution evaporates, heating the surrounding silver quite hot before applying the flame to the solder itself. Watch attentively for the solder to flow, then remove flame at once. The secret of good soldering is to keep the flame continually in motion, so as not to melt or burn the silver. 129) Handicrafts 113 Paper Mash By Jutia M. ButtrEE Many fascinating things can be made of this medium, and without expense for materials. Tear newspapers into small pieces (the smaller the pieces, the finer-grained will be the completed product). Cover with water, and let stand over night; or, if speedier action be de- sired, boil the whole until the mass has become a pulp. The next morning (or when this is thoroughly dried), crumble with the fingers, and moisten with enough water to make the consistency right for modeling. If some shredded asbestos and a little dry glue be added to the mixture, the results will be more permanent. | This pulp can be pressed onto a mould or form of any kind (previously greased), and allowed to remain until set, when it can be slipped off the form as a cast; or, it will adhere to glass, wood, iron, or any substance as a backing. In this way, picture frames, book-ends, candle-holders, fire- bowls, etc., may be made; or nature forms sculptured. When dry, it becomes very hard and tough, and takes paint as if it were made of wood. Napkin Ring IKK2 By Ernest THomMpson SETON Cut a limb of about 2% inches diameter of some rather soft wood (birch works up very beautifully). Slice this into I-inch sections. Cut out the center part of a section; then carefully cut away all but the sap-wood. A totem, or initial, is then marked out on the outside; and the bark carefully cut away from around the marking, allowing the totem to stand out in rough relief. Smooth the edges and the inside with sandpaper ; and oil and polish the whole. Elks’ Teeth | By ErNEST THOMPSON SETON In the heroic days of the West, when the Indian was clad wholly in the products of his tribal range, elks’ teeth were in great demand as jewelry. These are the rudimentary canine 130) 114 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll teeth which every bull elk grows in the upper jaw. They are to the Indian what fine pearls are to the White-man ; and are really beautiful ornaments—shining white, deep orange, or pale yellow, and when symmetrically displayed on a dark contrasting background, make a royal robe indeed. They became so sought after, that many a bull elk was killed for his teeth, even when his meat was not needed. In consequence, both law and sentiment have banned the real elks’ teeth as ornaments, but led to many substitutes. I have seen them made of bone, of ivory and of celluloid ; and fairly successful. For our present use, it is far better to make them of a cast- off deer antler, which will yield these dry-land pearls. Beside the old antler, one needs a half-round file, a hack saw, a small drill, some emery paper, and a vise. With the saw, cut from the antler a piece an inch or 1% inches long, and of the form shown in the Plate, p. 115. File it into good shape, and drill two holes as shown. Polish with the file and emery paper, boil in yellow or orange dye for color; give a final polishing on a piece of chamois leather, and the tusk is ready for placement. IL 1s (b) The Willow Whistle I IV E's (b) By Ernest THOMPSON SETON Every boy—and some girls—in the backwoods schoolhouse made a willow whistle at least once each spring, that is, when the sap was running. Some used a willow shoot and some a basswood ; but the method was the same and the melodies alike. Most of our school used basswood, because there was a thick cluster growing in the playground, and there were no willows short of the river a mile away. This is the plan: Select a straight, smooth shoot, (a), about nine inches long, 34 inch thick, without flaw, knot, curve, or blemish ; and in the thin smooth bark that covers all new shoots. Cut one end sloping as at (b), and a notch in the shoot as at (c). Three inches from the other end, cut a ring around through the bark to the wood, (d). This three inches is your handle. Now beat and roll the other six inches of the shoot.’ Gently hammer it with the back of your knife; roll it firmly between 131) Handicrafts 115 two boards; wet it, work it, and pummel it, for twenty min- utes. Then hold the handle firmly in the left hand; grasp the six-inch end in the right, and give it a twisting pull. If the twig was well chosen, and your hammering well done, the The Branch | Wood wilh bark off . Fe & tba erp than wg age beetgatemte of ce ~ —— ~ TT ei pre bepe arg ie jerneny eeter POOPIE tr tite pyre ly Willow Whistle Home-made Base Ball. Corks wilh lead. 2 > inside 132) 116 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll bark willl slip off, slick, clean, and intact.* Lay this carefully aside. Now shape the stem by removing a section of the wood as at (e) for a blowhole; and cut a deep large notch in the wood as at (f{). Replace the stem in the bark, and blow. If rightly shaped, it will give off a shrill, clear whistle, often improved by dipping the whole thing in water. I once saw a musical boy make a Pan-pipe by tying eight of these whistles side by side. Of course, they were of graded size, and had to be whittled so that each gave a note of the octave. Thus equipped, he played many simple tunes. To make a whistle flute, your stem must be much longer, and the inner chamber long enough for six holes in addition to the throat notch. These, however, are difficult to make, and are never very successful; they soon dry up. The Indians used the stem of the Cow Parsnip or Poison Hemlock (Haracleum lanatum) for the flute; also the wing bones of turkeys, eagles, or other large birds. The hemlock stem is hollow. Take a piece 18 inches long, closed by a joint at one end only. Two inches from this joint, cut a round ¥%-inch hole through the wall of the stem; blow across into this as into a flute. It gives a low, booming whistle. Blow continuously and much harder, then the note slurs into an octave higher, a piercing scream. This sound closely resembles the whistle of a three-year-old bull elk, and is often used by the Indians as a decoy, not only for the elk but for the hunters. IL 15 (a) Making a Baseball IV E'r5 (a) By Ernest THOMPSON SETON In my boyhood, spent in Canada, we youngsters were as fond of baseball as are any other boys in America. But we had no notion of spending two or three dollars for a ball, and as much more for a bat. We had no such money at command ; besides, we were brought up in the Woodcraft faith of “make everything for yourself.” The bat, of course, was easy. We made it of any tough wood, such as ash or spruce, roughed out with an ax, and trimmed to shape with a drawknife. It was not always of

  • The marvelous cleanness of the stem exposed is so exquisite that

a finger touch, a breath, a puff of wind, defiles it—which accounts for the phrase “Clean as a whistle.” 133) Handicrafts 117 strictly correct shape according to Spaulding standards, but it certainly served to make a joyous game. The ball was another matter. Modern American boys have no notion that a good ball can be made out of home-born materials and some deft handicraft. The method was a tra- dition handed down from far generations in the Old Country. Here it is in detail: Get a lead ball of one ounce weight, or near it; that is, an old musket ball of the kind that were plentifully fired at the defenders of Bunker Hill. Take a large cork, about 114 inches in diameter (or two small corks will do). With a sharp knife, frequently dipped in water, chip this cork roughly into ball shape. Split it in two even parts, scoop out each part so that the lead ball fits snugly in; and, with a wax-end, bind the two together enclosing the lead ball. This is the core of the ball, the weight, and much of the bounce. Now, get a lot of yarn by reeling old socks kept for the purpose, beginning at the toe. Wrap this firmly and evenly on the lead and cork core, changing the direction of each turn till the whole ball is perfectly round and firm, and of about three inches diameter. This completes the body of the ball, but it needs covering. Covers are of two kinds; crewelling and leather. The first was most popular because Mother and Sister could render effectual help in the making. For crewelling, you need a curved needle and a supply of strong pack-string, or other strong string. A few deep stitches will form a starter; then around this we begin the crewelling or chain stitch. Each stitch goes into the yarn of the ball a quarter of an inch each time, then out through its own loop where it entered; then repeat until the whole ball is covered with this hard netting,—an operation that took our mother an hour or so, but was spelled over many days if we kids attempted it alone. It made a fine, bounceable, and very catchable ball; a ball which never wore out, but lasted till lost, stolen, or mislaid. The older boys often made the cover of leather. This is more quickly put on, but takes more skill to handle. Any good strong leather will do. We usually took the leg 134) 118 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll of a worn-out boot. The tools needed are a sharp knife, a shoemaker’s curved awl, and some wax-ends with bristle tips. Wax-ends, for the benefit of the modern generation, are strong, heavy, linen threads, thoroughly waxed with shoe- maker’s wax, and one end rolled into the split top of a pig’s bristle ; said bristle being obtainable at a shoemaker’s supply house, out of a big paint brush, or from the back of a sleeping porker of large size and low degree, razorback preferred. The bristle serves as a needle, but is much easier to work in a small or curving hole. Begin by thoroughly soaking the leather in warm water until it is soft and pliable. Cut a band about 2 inches wide and 9¥4 inches long. This is fastened around the middle of the ball, and tightly stitched where the ends meet, by the shoemaker’s stitch; i.e., two wax-ends, one for each side, working the same hole each time and drawn very tight. The hole in each case is made by the curved awl. Having finished this equatorial belt, the polar caps are needed, one at each end. Of the soft, moist leather, cut a circular piece that will fit on and wholly cover the exposed yarn at one cap of the ball. Fasten this in place with three or four big pins or a tack stitch, at four opposite places. | Now, with two wax-ends, sew this to the equatorial belt, through and through, as before; or over-hand, drawing it tight. Set the other cap on in the same way. Now, while it is damp and soft, roll the ball thoroughly under two flat boards, till it is round and smooth without a bump, beating the stitch- ing a little where it is rough. Let the leather dry, and the ball is ready for the game. How to Make a Noggin IL8 IV E8 (a) By Jutia M. BuTTREE The word noggin is said to be from the Gaelic and Irish cnag,a knob, or peg. Hence it is named from its round form, or from its being made of a knotty piece of wood; and the name was transferred from the knot to the cup made of the knot, and even to its contents. Apple and maple burls are the best for the purpose. The burl should be a little larger than the cup is to be; as the 135) Handicrafts 119 outside bark, and some of the outside wood, must be removed. Before sawing it from the tree, part of the outer rind at the apex should be scraped away to find out whether the burl is sound, and without a possible hole, before putting any fur- ther work on it. This is the point at which a spot of decay would show. Be sure also that the shape of the burl is ap- proximately what you wish your cup to be; especially that there is a good point at one side to provide for the handle. The next step is facilitated if you have a vise in which to fasten the burl. Bore a good-sized hole in the center of the flat side; and if it seem helpful, a few smaller holes around it, being careful not to get near the wall or bottom. Then with chisel or jack knife, using these holes as starting points, carve out the wood inside the cup. It is slow work, and hard work; it takes perseverance and elbow grease. When the center 1s roughly hollowed out, it is well to peel off the bark. Great care must be exercised not to let your knife make a hole through the noggin. Often after hours of tedious work, a careless or impatient stab of the -knife will ruin the whole thing. When the cup is as thin as you desire it, smooth it with sandpaper both inside and out. Then it is ready for the pol- ishing. Soak it in linseed oil for a day or so; then polish it with a piece of flannel or buckskin. Make a small hole in the handle near the edge for the hanger. A piece of buckskin, 6 inches long and 1% inches or 2 inches wide, may be narrowed down at one end to a point which is run through the hole in the noggin, and knotted at the other side to keep it from slipping out. The upper end— the wide one—may be slit lengthwise for about an inch, so as to provide a buttonhole which may be hung on one’s button. Or, a buckskin thong may be run through the hole with a carved wooden button at the far end, to slip under the belt or through a buttonhole of the clothing. Chipping Arrowheads IB4 By Jutta M. BuTTREE Chipped arrowheads are properly made of flint or some local substitute, such as quartz or obsidian. But, in actual practice, it is far better to use common giass,—either a frag- ment of thick window pane or a piece of windshield. Some 136) 120 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll of the most easily worked pieces are from the bottom of a cold cream jar, or from a bottle of green glass. A most at- tractive exhibit of arrowheads can be made by using the green glass of ginger ale bottles, the brown of White Rock bottles, and the blue of Bromo Seltzer, together with the colorless glass of windows, etc. Every boy and girl can easily get such; and it works more easily than flint, so is better to begin with. A little study will show that various kinds of glass are of different tractability; when you get a piece that is very hard and unmanageable, throw it away. There are two different ways of chipping. First, the palm pusher ; second, the Apache pushing board. The first is more widely used, but it takes great strength; the second is easy, even for a ‘girl, Saxton T. Pope has described the method of the palm- pusher, as employ ved by the Indian, Ishi. He says, in effect, Ishi sits down with his elbows steadied on his knees, and the palm of his left hand protected by a doubled piece of buckskin or leather. With palm up, he holds the obsidian pressed down upon it with the fingers, (a). Then, with a piece of deer or elk horn, filed or rubbed to a flat point, he pushes upon the lower edge of the obsidian, evenly and with increasing force, downward and outward, until a fracture of the glass occurs. The chips come off on the under side, and are of shell shape, thinning to a fine edge, and vary in size from a sixteenth to a half inch in their greatest diameter. The first flakes are large and freely made. Their chief purpose is to thin the edge, after which the general outline is more easily shaped. As Ishi flakes, he turns the stone from side to side, work- ing the opposite faces alternately, all the time keeping a sharp eye for nicety of form, and taking advantage of the natural shape. The flaking tool he now uses is not horn, but iron or soft steel; hard steel is no good. He uses quarter- inch galvanized wire, a piece a foot long, bound with cloth to within two inches from the point, to form a handle. This large tool, he rests under his forearm, deriving leverage thereby, and uses it to flake the hardest portions of his stone. Smaller tools are made of wire nails driven into wooden handles six inches long. All of these are filed to a flat rounded edge, something like a blunt screw driver. In working the obsidian, this edge is held at a right angle to the stone. 137) Handicrafts 121 When the arrowhead has begun to take shape, he changes to a finer flaking tool. Resting the stone on his protected thumb, he then makes little indentations near the base, form- ing the notches for the sinew binding.

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The method of the Apache pusher I am more personally familiar with. These are the tools that I find most useful: The tine of a buck’s horn, cut with a slot in the top (b);a piece of iron, such as an old square nail set in a wooden handle, filed to a screw-driver edge (c), (two or three sizes of these are helpful) ; and last, the Apache pushing board, which is a piece of inch board, 4 x 6 inches, on which 1s nailed a letter T made of mason lath (d). To begin, break your window glass till, largely by good luck, you have a piece roughly triangular (e). The deer’s horn slot is a good nibbler when a large amount is to be removed, as in reducing a square piece of glass to a triangle; but not for little bits. To use it, put the glass edge in the slot; then rotate the horn tine firmly, till the piece of glass breaks off. If you bend the horn straight down, without rota- tion, it takes too large a piece of glass, or even breaks it straight across. The first three-sided beginning is nearly always by chance, whether you work in glass or in flint; so that every arrow- maker’s workshop has a pile of misfits, failures, or useless accidents, that are cast aside; and which have been the cause of many false deductions on the part of early archzologists who inferred that these represented the output of an earlier civilization, less skilled in working flint. Let me here sound a note of warning. The chipping of the ‘arrow point is not done by hammering, but by pushing. In my early attempts, I spoiled countless good beginnings through efforts to shape them by pecking with another flint. Cover the pushing board with a sprinkling of sand, earth, or sawdust, % inch thick. Lay the triangular glass on this in the angle of the T against the lath. Hold it firmly down with the left fingers, preferably protected with a glove; then, with the iron tool, press heavily against the lower half of the outer edge of the glass. At the same time swing the handle of the tool towards the center of the glass (f), so as to split 138) 122 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll off a flake that shall extend as far as possible on the under side along the dotted line (g). Go around the triangle, flaking o on the under side, till the whole piece of glass is thinned’ on that edge. Now, turn it over, and flake the other side of the edge. It now looks Detatls of Arrowhead Chipping E.7-S, like (h). If skillfully done, the whole face on each side will show the scale-like form of the chippin Now by pressing heavily with the iron ‘tool, nibble off bits till it is shaped as in (1). A little practice at this will enable you to make a fair arrowhead in 15 minutes. 139) Handicrafts 123 IHH8 I MM 1 (a) How to Tan a Skin IIDD2 , . III L1 (a) By Jutta M. BuTTREE The untreated dry skins of animals are inflexible, and soon rot. Primitive man early learned how to prevent this decay by treating hides in various ways—with smoke, oils, and the | brains of the animals themselves. This process is called tanning. The word tan is the old word meaning oak or fir, the tan- ning tree; hence also the word tannin, the principal substance used in the process. Tannin is a vegetable compound ob- tained from the bark of the oak, hemlock, and some other trees; also found in the brains of most animals. Raw hides, soaked in tannin solutions, undergo a complete transforma- tion, the solution bringing about certain chemical changes in the skins, that render them soft and pliable. A fresh skin must, first of all, have the hair removed. This may be done either by soaking it in water, or burying it in warm mud until the hair begins to slip. In summer weather, from three to six days is sufficient ; but I have had a skin in water for six weeks without success, when the weather was so cold that it froze every night. When the hair is ready to slip, the skin is much thicker than it had been, densely white, and soft as silk. If it is ready, the hair is easily removed with a dull knife. Now, stretch the skin on a smooth board, or stake. it out on the ground; and, with a blunt knife, scrape it clean of all flesh, fat, and grease. This leaves the flesh side bluish-white, and clammy but not greasy to the touch. Next, boil the liver of a calf for an hour, and then mash it up with the raw brains. If it is not easy to obtain the liver, the brains alone will do. They may be prepared by soaking in cold water with a little salt for twelve hours. One set of brains will do two hides. This mash is now rubbed thoroughly into the flesh side of the hide; which is then doubled, rolled up, and put in a cool place for one or two days. It is now opened out, washed clean, and hung till nearly dry. Then, over the sharp angle of a hardwood stake, it is worked till it is soft and leathery. A horse or other extra thick hide needs longer soaking in the “tan dope.” Instead of the brains and liver, a dope may 140) 124 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll be made by boiling hemlock, oak or balsam bark in water till it is like brown ink; then soaking the hide therein for a few days. But the Indians preferred the brain mash. In erder to keep the skin from hardening again after being wet, it is necessary to smoke it. For this, a clear fire should be smothered with rotten wood ; then the hide is fastened into a cone with a few wooden pins, and hung in the dense smoke for a couple hours, first one side out, then the other ; till it is all of a rich smoky-tan color, and has the smell so well known to those who have handled the real Indian leather. I LL 1, ete. . Indian Pottery Matilda Coxe Stevenson has described the making of pot- tery by the Zufii Indians as follows: The only implements used in making pottery are the bottom of a discarded water vase and a sort of trowel made of a gourd or a suitable fragment of pottery. No wheel is used, nor is any kind of lathe or revolving support known to _ these people. “‘The clay is ground to a powder and mixed with a small quantity of pulverized pottery, fragments of the latter being carefully hoarded for this purpose. The powder thus com- pounded is mixed with water enough to make a pasty mass, ‘which is kneaded like dough. The more care taken in pul- verizing the material, and the more time spent in working it, the finer becomes the paste. When the mass reaches such a state of consistency that the fingers can no longer detect the presence of gritty particles, it is still more delicately tested with the tongue; and when found to be satisfactory, it is placed in a vessel, and covered with a cloth, where it will retain the moisture until wanted for use. “In beginning the work, a sufficient quantity is first made into a ball, and then hollowed out with the fingers, until it assumes a conventional bowl shape; which serves as the foundation to be afterward built up and elaborated into any desired shape. The vessel is then formed by the successive additions of strips of the paste long enough to encircle the bowl, each layer being pressed on the brim with the fingers and accurately fitted, the trowel being then skillfully used to finish the joining, and to remove all traces of the original separation of the strips. “Most of the work of modeling the vessel into its final 141) Handicrafts 125 shape is done on the inside with a trowel, this implement being used on the outside chiefly to smooth the surface. The clay, if it has been properly worked, possesses sufficient tenacity and plasticity to admit of being pressed and scraped without cracking. “The completed utensil is placed in the sun for a day to dry; after which it must be handled carefully until after it is baked. This is, nevertheless, the state of manufacture in which it is to be decorated. The modern ware is usually painted white, except the cooking vessels, which are un- painted. A white clay is dissolved in water, and then made into cones which are dried in the sun. “When required for use these cones are rubbed to powder on a stone, again mixed with water, and applied in the liquid state to the object, with a rabbit-skin mop. Polishing stones are used to finish the surface. “After a thorough drying of this foundation, the designs are painted with brushes made of yucca needles, the pigments having been ground in stone mortars, and made into a paste with water to which a syrup of yucca fruit is added. Water from boiled Cleome serrulata (Mexican name waco) is mixed with black pigment (a manganiferous clay containing or- ganic matter) in decorating pottery. Ferruginous clays which on heating burn to yellow, red, or brown, are employed for decorating. “These potters do not use patterns in moulding or deco- rating their work. In many of the pueblos, the pottery is undecorated, the surface being finished in plain red or black. The ware is made of a yellowish clay, in the manner hereto- fore described; and the vases are placed in the sun, where they remain for some hours. They are then washed with a solution of red ocher ; and while wet, the process of polish- ing begins, the woman with untiring energy going over the surface again and again with her polishing stone, every little while passing a wet cloth over the vessel to keep the surface moist. “When the polishing is completed, the vessel is again placed in the sun for a short time before receiving its final baking in the oven. When the baking is completed, the vessels that are to retain the reddish color are removed; while those that are to be black remain in the ovens, which are then covered with a quantity of loose manure. The fire is so 142) 126 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll smothered by this process as to produce a dense smoke; and it 1s this smoke absorbed into the pottery that produces the black coloring, no black pigment of any kind being used. “While there is no attempt at surface decoration, many pretty and curious shapes are modeled by the clever potters. There are water jars and bowls with fluted edges, imitations of birds and beasts, and many queer figures. “When the Zufii potter has completed the decoration, the articles are ready for baking. A suitable spot out of doors is selected ; and, if possible, a day is chosen when there is no wind to interfere with the process, unless it be the regular time for baking pottery during the summer solstice cere- monies. The pieces to be fired are placed upon stones to raise them a few inches from the ground; and an oven of dried manure from the sheep and goat pens is built around and over them. The fire is carefully managed in order to produce a gradual heating; after which the entire mass is subjected to an intense heat until the baking is completed, the process usually requiring one or two hours. A bit of wafer bread is deposited in each vase so that the spirit of the vase may be fed with the spiritual essence of the bread.”

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So much for practical details of construction and decora- tion. But these are the bald (though necessary) skill of the art. The spirit of it is another matter. Among the Indians, a pot was not merely a vessel for carrying water or meal. It was an entity. As Frank H. Cushing says: “A pot is accompanied by a conscious existence. The noise made by a pot when struck or when simmering on the fire, is the voice of its associated being. The clang of a pot when it breaks or suddenly cracks in burning, is the cry of this being as it escapes or separates from the vessel. That it has departed, is argued from the fact that the vase when cracked or fragmentary, never resounds as it did when whole. This vague existence never violently cries out unprovoked ; but it acquires the power of doing so by imitation, hence no one sings, whistles, or makes other strange or musical sounds resembling those of earthenware under such circumstances, during the smoothing, polishing, painting or other processes of finishing. The being thus incited, would surely Strive to come out and would break the vessel in so doing.” 143) Handicrafts 127 How to Make a Rope I AA 4,6 110 4,6 By FRANK STOLL Did you ever make a rope? It is an ambition worthy of every Woodcrafter. “But,” you say, “how can we make ropes? The materials from which they are made are found in distant lands.” Commercially and generally speaking, that is true, although cotton, of which the United States pro- duces 60°% of the world supply, is used extensively in the manufacture of cords and lines. Cotton is perhaps the most flexible of the commercial materials and is sufficiently strong for the smaller cordage. Common hemp is superior, pos- sessing the combination of strength, flexibility, and dur- ability. Custom among sailors has decreed that the term “rope” indicates that the diameter is one inch or more. Other au- thorities agree that the diameter may be one-half inch or more. However, we hear cords of one-quarter inch diameter called “rope.” The principal rope materials are: common hemp, Manila hemp, sisal hemp, Phormium hemp, Sunn hemp, Jubbul- pore hemp, jute, coir, flax, agave fiber, and cotton, all of which are vegetable. A rope is composed of a certain number of strands, the strand itself being made up of a number of single threads or yarn. Three strands twisted together form a “hawser- laid” rope. ‘The prepared fiber is twisted or spun to the right hand to form the yarn; the required number of yarns 144) 128 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll receive a left-hand twist to form a strand; three strands twisted to the right make a hawser; three hawsers twisted to the left form a cable. Thus the twist in each operation is in a different direction from that of the preceding one. The yield of rope from a given length of yarn is about three- fourths of the length of the yarn composing it. The material from which you make your rope is, for the purpose of learning, of less importance than the method em- ployed. Almost any available fibrous material will serve your purpose. The young, inner bark of most shrubs and trees is very adaptable. The accompanying illustration is made from such bark of the hickory, is about the color of Manila paper, is reasonably flexible and very strong. The length of the individual fibers is of little consequence, since in hand-made rope additional pieces are twisted into the “strand” as required to maintain a uniform size. Having selected your material, make three little bundles of uniform size. Around each bundle, near one end, wrap a single thread of the material. Now place the three bundles parallel, with binding threads at the same point, and again wrap a thread around the three directly outside of the first three threads. These bundles are your strands. Holding this foundation firmly in the left hand, with thumb and fin- ger tips at the band, take one strand in the right hand and twist it to the left; meanwhile wrap it outside of the other two strands to the right. Hold this one in place with the thumb of the left hand, while the same twisting-and wrap- ping operation is practiced on strand number two. Now hold the two in place, retaining the twist, while the third strand is twisted and wrapped. All that now remains is to repeat the process, introducing additional threads to the strands as others are used up in your progress. BE The Loose Leaf Tally Book 2 III F 3 By ELLsSwortTH JAEGER These books are best made of what is called “side leather.” procured from dealers specializing in tooling leathers. This can be gotten in many colors, although a neutral sand color is best for painting and decorating. The design is drawn on with a sharp, hard pencil, and then colored with washes of either oil or water colors. Do not make the mistake of using the colors too vivid. Keep 145) Handicrafts 129 them rather in a low key, just a bit stronger than the back- ground color. Follow the painting on the Indian robes of BIND SEE EHCP eT EEE ES PEPER EESPRSSESESSS noe BINDER LACED

> 2 «| TO COVERT

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leather:Cover

» & Coose-(EAF pune a Ik OOK Loom BEADtO DESIGN BR iy Se 3 cowskin. Do not make the drawings realistic portrayals, but very primitive conventionalized designs. 146) 147) Handicrafts 131 The advantage of this tally book is that it serves as an ex- cellent binder; and yet pages can always be added without the usual danger of pages being easily torn out. Any one can make and decorate this book who is willing to be careful in his work. i z Binding a Coup or Tally Book ,2 III Fi (b) By JouHn F. GrasBau Fold paper of medium thickness (No. 65) of any color desired, into sections of two sheets each (1), the grain of paper to run with the fold (across the grain will not fold as readily). Cut stubs of same paper, two inches wide, and of the same length as sheets; and fold twice (2), insert one stub between each two sheets, thus making four folded leaves at back. The two first and two last sections should receive no stubs. Temporarily fill the space left by the stubs with magazine pages cut to same length, fitted against the stubs, to even the back (4). Cut extra stubs, and place between sections, so as to be able to later add extra pages to the book. Press the back as flat as possible. Mark one-half inch from each end, then divide intervening space into five equal spaces. Draw a line one-quarter inch on either side of these divisions, making four double lines across the back one-half inch apart. Saw into these lines to the depth of 1/16 inch (5). Next, make a sewing frame of a flat board eighteen inches long, with an upright stick six inches high at each end, and a Stick across the top of these (6). Place the book on this frame with the back of the book against the side where the upright rectangle has been built. Exactly opposite each dou- ble saw-cut on the back of the book, stretch a white tape one- half inch wide, tacked to the bottom board underneath (7a), ‘and wound around the cross bar and pinned tight (7b). Remove all but the first section. Thread a heavy needle with strong linen thread, and insert it from the inside of the section through the first mark at the right (7d). Bring out the needle at left of the first tape and enter at right, then at left of second cord; repeating this until the needle comes out -at the mark 4 inch from the left-hand end of the book. Stretch all tightly, and place the second section above the 148) 132 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll first ; insert needle, and repeat operation in opposite direction, tying threads together at end mark. Place third section on, fe Lea < +. Grae len

Osta de sheet 

| jo aA e SG Saw - groves fesin dee? == ’ . ?- e . Leap ech 3 see roas 709 ether and repeat. Loop up the two lower threads at each tape for each three sections (7e) ; tie at lower stitch by inserting needle between two lower sections, and looping thread. Repeat the 149) Handicrafts 133 Meine a gainst whieh Cover vs glued, Cover boards in [2luee 4- /2. e~ size caver. Teak tin Prosecting edge < Tarrin leather over fS boards and under baok. 150) 134 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll tie, and proceed with other sections, until all are sewed. Cut tape about 2 inches from each side of book (7f). Tip two sections together at each side of book by pasting edge %4 inch, keeping back exactly even. Paste the four tapes flat to page, and paste lower portion of outside sheet 3 inches wide, and fold this over tapes, even with back edge; and press flat (8). Now glue the back with hot glue or fish glue, working in well between the sections, and allow to dry. Round the back with flat hammer by tapping the edge, first one side, then the other, until a nice round is formed (9). Press or put under heavy weight until dry. Cut folded sheet two inches from back. Cut off edges and make a cut to the back 114 inches from each end (10). x * * Cut heavy cardboard of binder board % inch longer than the book. Draw a line % inch from back edge, and meas- ure the board from this line to *%g inch beyond the front edge of book (11). Cut two pieces of thin cardboard, or the same paper as the book, the exact size of heavy board; glue the thin cardboard to the heavy three-fourths of the way (11a), leaving the back ‘edge unglued; and press flat. Open this flap, and glue both insides, and slip thin side under the center flap on book, leav- ing the two ends underneath (11b). Square board even with the line, and with % inch projecting at top and bottom; and press. - If the book is to be full leather, cut the piece % of an inch longer than the cover, top and bottom, and the same for the front edge, after stretching the leather over the back and marking it (12). With a sharp knife, pare off the edges and miter the corners (13), leaving 1% inch beyond the corner. Cover the wrong side of this leather well with flour paste, also the back of the book. Place the latter on the leather, even with the marks and stretch the leather over (14). Turn in the top and bottom edges, tucking the leather under the back (15). Tuck in the edges at ‘the corners, and fold in the front edges (16). Rub down the back well; insert cardboards under the covers to prevent dampness wrinkling the edges of the sheets. When dry, paste in a sheet of heavy paper on the inside of the cover, hiding all the cardboard that shows between 151) Handicrafts 135 the edges of the leather. Allow to dry. Then paste the first sheet and the two short stubs together. Close the cover, and press until dry. The decorations can then be made with stain, hot tools, or paint.

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For leather back, mark a line where wanted, 11%4 or more inches from the back edge, and cut the leather correspond- ingly, measuring from line to line around the back and 5¥g inch longer than the sheets, top and bottom. Pare and put on the same way as above. When dry, cover the sides with cloth or paper, covering the edge of the leather. (Col- ored linings can be pasted in if desired. ) Cloth, buckram or canvas may be used, and does not re- quire paring. La Materials for Basket Making VE; By Jutia M. BuTtREE I have found much help for this chapter in a part of George Wharton James’ book “How to Make Indian and Other Baskets,” to which book I refer the student for further information and inspiration. The common bur of the burdock is found in most parts of the country; and is perhaps the easiest medium for the small child to work in, since no stitching is required. The burs can be made into pleasing shapes by merely pushing them together. Raffia is a very easily manipulated weaving material. It is soft and flexible, yet tough and durable. It comes in lengths of 18 to 24 inches, so requires less threading of needles than do the shorter Indian materials. Rattan is a popular medium, being long, light, tough, flex- ible and fissile. It may be bought in the market, numbered from I to 15. No. 1, the finest, is the most expensive. Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 are the usual sizes used for basketry, at least two sizes being usually combined in the pattern. Bamboo is another weaving material, both the leaves and stems being used, but is not so common in America as the Rattan. The Palm family affords much material for basketry. One 152) 186 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll species, the bamboo-palm, is the source of the raffia we use for basketry. The leaves of the Palmetto, peeled, make ex- cellent material for wrapped splint baskets. The Buckeye (@sculus) makes very good splints, the wood being white, soft, spongy, and easily worked. Splints may be also bought in the market, already cut in long wide strips. Bulrushes are largely used in basketry. The kind whose tall, smooth, bluish-green, round stems are seen projecting above the water—lakes, ponds, pools and rivers,—dries well, and is excellent for the purpose. Be careful not to mistake the flag for. the bulrush, as the former is too weak for satis- factory weaving. The Tule of California is a bulrush whose root is a rich brown color, and is very good for wrapping splints for coiled baskets. Corn husks may be used, but are too perishable to make anything very durable. Sweet Grass is an aquatic plant which grows immersed in shallow bogs. It is largely used in the making of simple baskets. The Long Moss of the South is useful for the inner coils of baskets. Broom Corn also makes excellent filling for the coiled ware, and is cleaner and stronger than the above. Pine needles dry easily, and are well adapted either for material for the inner coils of coiled baskets, or as un- wrapped coils sewed together. The Long-leaved (or Georgia) Pine furnishes the longest of these. They can be bought in bunches in the market. The Martynia (unicorn plant) supplies the black used in the designs of the Pima, Apache, and Havasupai Indians. The plant can be cultivated in any part of the country. A | small. package of seeds will be enough for half a dozen bas- kets, at least. The Maiden Hair Fern gives the rich black wrapping splint of the twined basketry of Northern California. The stem is used for the purpose. There are two or three species of Willow that are largely cultivated for basket making, these trees being used probably more generally than any other plant. Indian Hemp is employed by the Indians, usually in the strings and cords used in beginning a basket, and in ” making the carrying loops. 153) Handicrafts 137 Split Cane was used largely by the Southern Indians, such as the Choctaws, Seminoles, Crees, Cherokees, etc. (Mason. ) The long, woody interior portion of the rootstocks of a Sedge (Carex barbare) is used to form the white sewing strands in the fine coiled baskets of the Pomo Indians of Northern California. (Chestnut. ) Black Ash is used extensively by the Six Nations in New York, Pennsylvania, and Canada in their modern splint bas- kets. (Donaldson. ) Splints from the wood of a White Oak are used by the Cherokee Indians of North Carolina for some of their baskets. Twisted strands made of slender ribbons split from the sheathed portions of Cattail leaves are used by the Klamath Indians in their smaller flexible baskets, either to form the body of the basket or to make an ornamental band. . ( Mason.) It is ashy gray in color. Hickory bark, birch bark and the roots of spruce and tamarac were popular with the Northern tribes. The Sioux Indians used the inner bark of the elm to make a coarse basket. (Havard.) . Black Elm is used among the Menominee Indians. Dr. Walter J. Hoffman says: “The necessary limbs are from 3 to 4 inches in diameter. These are thoroughly hammered with a wooden mallet until the individual layers of the branch are detached from the layers immediately beneath. These layers are then cut into thin narrow strips by means of the knife universally used. The strips are kept in coils until ready for use, when they are soaked in water. “Cutting is always done away from the hand holding the material to be cut, and toward the body. “The club or mallet employed in hammering the elm wood, is about 20 inches long, and has one end thinner, so as to form a handle.” When one begins to search the records of the plants used by the Indians in basket-making, one is soon forced to the conclusion that all parts of all plants have been used, and all with some degree of success. 154) 138 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 103 (a) (b) IO 5 a D 3 (a) (b) Vegetable Dyes IVG 3 6 By Jutta M. BuTTREE It must be remembered that different textiles are differ- ently susceptible to coloring matter. That is, dyeing wool or silk is a wholly different matter from dyeing cotton and flax. To dye wool and silk, use oak bark, hickory, walnut, cherry, walnut hulls, walnut roots, sumach berries and yellow puccoon root. To dye cotton, best results are obtained from swamp maple bark, red oak bark, or full grown peach leaves. The best bark comes from youngish trees of vigorous growth. First the rough outside is peeled; then long strips and shav- ings cut next the wood. Of course, the Woodcrafter takes bark only half round so as not to kill the tree. The best bark is stripped in September and. October, when the new wood is forming, and the bark rich with sap. If properly cut, and dried in the shade, it keeps good for years. Swamp maple bark dyes anywhere from light gray to slate-purple, according to the strength of the infusion. To make it, boil the bark three hours, preferably in an open iron kettle. Dip in a bit of the material to be colored. If it comes out too dark, add water; if too light, put in more bark and boil again. After boiling, skim out the bark and put in your mordant, or fixative. Stir until well dissolved. The material to be dyed must be clean, and wet all through with clear hot water. There must be no grease in it. Put it quickly under the dye bath so it will take the color evenly. Keep the whole boiling for ten minutes, then dip out the material, hold it above the pot to air for half a minute, drop it back, boil ten minutes longer, and hang it to drain and cool. Then wash it in water until no more dye comes out. Poke weed dyes purple. Mary White tells of ‘one basket maker who found in the purple iris a dye almost as deep as its own blossoms. The faded flowers are full of the purple liquid; and, when they are rubbed on rattan, color it a beautiful shade which is quite as fast as most dyes.” Peach leaves dye yellow. Take them in early September— or even late August—when they are green, glossy, oily-look- 155) _ Handicrafts 139 ing, and smell of almonds. Fill a pot full, cover the leaves with soft water, bring it to a slow boil, and simmer for an hour. Then skim well, and put in the mordant. As the water boils away, add more so as to keep the pot full. When the leaves are all in rags, stir the dye very hard, then put in the material to be dyed, sopping wet. Ragwort blossoms, tied into a muslin bag, and boiled in soft water for about twenty minutes, give a soft yellow. Bracken roots and shoots, dock roots, birch, pear, plum, privet, poplar and willow leaves, ash roots, goldenrod or sun flower blossoms all give yellow. Onion skins give a dull yellow. Saint John’s wort—stems, leaves, and flowers—give a light yellow. Hickory bark (either shagbark or pignut), well boiled, set with a trace of alum, and skimmed clean, gives a pure lemon yellow. The common broom sedge, winter dried, yields a yellow— almost burnt orange—which works beautifully in basketry materials. The sneeze weed, a kind of aster, made into a tea, yields a beautiful and fadeless yellow. The Navahos get their lemon yellow by boiling the flower- ing tops of the goldenrod about six hours, until a decoction of deep yellow is produced. The dyer then heats over the fire some native alunogen (alum) until it 1s reduced to a pasty consistency. This she adds to the decoction, and puts the whole in the dye to boil. From time to time, a portion 1s 1n- spected, until it has assumed the proper color. Hydrastis (yellow root or gold seal) gives an intense golden yellow. Red oak bark, if set with alum, gives a light grayish brown with just a hint of green. If set with copperas (green vitriol), the color is burnt orange. Larch needles and red currants give brown; alder bark gives a brownish yellow or orange. Logwood gives a fine brown; combined with ammonia, a good purple. Butternut bark and pine bark give satisfactory browns. Black walnut bark and ripe black walnut hulls, used to- gether, give tones from tobacco to seal brown. The fresher the hulls, the better. If they have dried and turned black, they have lost half their strength. 156) 140 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Butternut, if mixed with unripe nuts, thoroughly cracked, gives a brown with tones of red. Oak bark set with a very little alum or copperas, dyes wool a brilliant tawny color, neither brown nor yellow, but with tones of both. Sumach leaves and stems give a good tan. The fruit gives a pinkish tan; but sumach 1s a weak dye, and requires large quantities of the plant to produce satisfactory results. Sloes dye red, but when the wool is washed, it changes to blue, which is permanent. Raspberries, huckleberries, su- mach, red currants (or better, black currants) give red; also the rootstock of the bloodroot and kinnikinnick. But, best of all is the red made of the squaw berry (blitum). Dogwood roots make a fine scarlet ; madder root gives a dull red. Cran- berries also give a dull red ; and beets a color much like it, but more satisfactory in lasting qualities. A reddish dye is made by the Navahos from the bark of the thin-leaved alder, and the bark and root of the small leaved cercocarpus, which is an annual belonging to the rose family. The mordant they use is juniper ashes in the water. Devil’s bit scabious, elder, privet, sloe and whortleberry fruits give various shades of blue. The bark of the red maple gives a dark blue; the flowers of the larkspur are the source of a light blue dye used by the Hopi Indians. The Hopi use also sunflower seeds to make a blue dye. Elder and nettle leaves together, also privet berries and leaves together, give green. Black walnuts, cracked and mixed, hulls and all, with an equal quantity of sumach berries (unstemmed), dye an ex- cellent fast black. According to Washington Matthews, the Navajo Indians make their black dye from the twigs and leaves of aromatic sumach. They put into a pot of water, leaves and branches of the sumach. The water is allowed to boil five or six hours. Ocher is reduced to a fine powder, and slowly roasted over a fire until it assumes a light brown color. It is then com- bined with an equal quantity of pinyon gum, and again the mixture is placed upon the fire and stirred. The gum melts, and the mass assumes a mushy consistency. As the roasting progresses, the mass is reduced to a fine black powder. When it has cooled, it is thrown into the decoction of sumach, with which it forms a rich, blue-black fluid. This is essentially an ink, the tannic acid of the sumach combining with the 157) Handicrafts 141 iron of the ferric oxide in the roasted ocher. The whole is enriched by the carbon of the calcined gum. None of the walnut dyes require setting other than several dippings and exposings to air, in the course of the dyeing. Mordants If you have an acid dye, it is well to use an alkali mordant, and vice versa, though this is not absolutely necessary. As wildwood mordants, we may use alum, vinegar, or salt, all of which may be obtained naturally. Tannic acid, from the bark of hemlock or chestnut oak, should also make a good mordant. The Indians of Southern California use pigeon dung as a mordant. Chicken dung would probably do equally well. Urine has always been a common mordant. In old Eng- land, it was a daily occurrence to hear the cry from the street collector “Chamberlings! Chamberlings! A penny a pot!” The Hopi, Zufii, Acomas, and other pueblo tribes of Indians still preserve the urine for this purpose. Wood ashes also forms a good mordant. Colors in Basketry “In the first place, second, third, and every other place,” says George Wharton James, “fix firmly and forever in your minds that aniline dyes are anathema to all true basketry lov- ers. They are the ‘accursed things’ which bring sorrow into the camp of the faithful. Do not touch them. . “Vegetable dyes are softer in tone, more harmonious, more permanent, and better in accord with basketry work. The loud trumpet notes of aniline color do not suit such soft and flexible work as basketry. Never until the white man, of no artistic taste, perverted and led astray the Indian with aniline dyes, did he make mistakes in color. Hence, to get the true conception of color, one has but to study the old baskets.” Much of the color in Indian baskets is produced, not by dyeing, but by clever combinations of natural materials of different tints. The oldest Indian basketry was without decoration,— sometimes very fine weave, but no color combinations. George Wharton James points out that often “the two sides of a leaf will give distinct colors, as in the case of the yuccas out of which the Hopi women make the meal trays; or the palm leaves abounding in the tropics. The Californian 158) 142 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll women get a black effect with Martynia pods; a deep brown with the stem of the Maiden Hair fern; a bright red in the use the roots of a yucca. These, added to the wood color of different plants, produce a pleasing variety.” White grass may be dyed brown with an extract of alder bark, as do the Shastas. “Among the Cahuillas, the only colors used are black, brown, yellow, and white. The white, yellow, and brown are colors natural to the growth, and are neither bleached -nor dyed. The black is made by taking a pot full of mud from the sulphur springs that abound on the reservation, and boiling it, stirring the mud and water together. As the mud settles, the liquid is poured off ; and, while hot, is used to color the splints. Two or three soakings are necessary to give a fast and perfect color. “The brown is the natural color of the tule root. The outer coating is peeled off into splints never longer than Io inches, but generally nearer 6 or 7. It is a common sight to find skeins of this basket-making material in the four differ- ent colors ; and now and again, one may see the patient woman peeling off the cuticle of the tule root, stripping the skunk weed, boiling the black mud, or soaking the skunk weed strips in the black dye.” IL Basket Making IVE3 By E. A. Laport I. A. Laport, of the Bald Eagle Tribe of Camp Belknap, writes: "There are many baskets, varying widely in pattern and material, which conform to the requirements for winning a handicraft coup for Basketry. But one particularly novel way to make a very strong, serviceable and artistic basket will be described. It is not so much the actual basket itself as the preparation of the material that is interesting. “Brown, red, or river ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) is the first requirement. Be sure it is brown or swamp ash, be- cause nothing else will do. A tree about 3 inches in diam- eter at the base is about right. One tree of this size will furnish enough material for several baskets. Next, select the part free from knots, cut out the necessary length (and this will depend on the size of basket you desire) and peel the bark off. Third, cut a short piece, say 18 inches long and 3 159) Handicrafts 143 inches in diameter, out of some hardwood, and whittle away one end to fit the hand comfortably, being sure to have it smooth. This “mallet” will be productive of a couple of blis- ters anyway ; and the smoother the handle 1s, the fewer blis- ters will result. “Vigorous pounding is the next process. Lay the ash stick on a large projecting root (a stump smoothly cut, as with a saw, or some similar object), and begin to pound at the upper or top end. It is essential that both the mallet and under-block be such that the ash will not be bruised during the pounding process. “After a few long minutes of work, the rings (or year- marks) will begin to separate. It is advisable to follow one strip down the whole length of the stick instead of continu- ally turning it. It is well, however, to turn it about a sixth of an arc so that the strip will be fairly wide—maybe an inch and a half. “As soon as the idea of the thing is obtained, after the rings begin to separate, the work becomes easier and more fascinating. After removing three or four strips on one side, turn to another side and take those strips down even, and so on, all the way around. By working one strip on one side down the whole length, a wide strip is obtained; and its re- moval allows the next layer to come off without interference. The strips are very smooth, white, thin, and extremely flexible | and strong. When wet, the narrow strips can be tied into knots without cracking or breaking. They may even be used for stitching birch-bark utensils, and similar things. It may be added that every inch of the way must be pounded, as it is impossible to separate it otherwise. “Very neat round baskets may be made with brown ash strips, using very narrow ones in weaving the bottom, and wider ones for the frame and outside. They may also be stained to any desired color for added artistic value and at- traction. The finished basket of this material is very service- able and strong, due to even weaving allowed by the uniform- thickness of strip.”

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Robert W. Graham, head guide of the Orion Tribe, writes: “By stripping the outer bark of the white ash in half-inch widths, and using it while it was fresh, with a cigar box as a 160) 144 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll form, we have made some very serviceable baskets, neat in appearance, and lasting. They cannot be painted, as I imagine the red ash baskets can, but a novel pattern can be worked out by alternating the strips, using first the inner side out, and then the outer side out. “While on a camping trip, I found myself surrounded by nothing but white cedars; and, experimenting with the bark of this tree in the same way, I made a fairly good basket. The white cedar has three advantages over the white ash: it keeps its pliability for a longer period, it retains a slight fra- grance of the cedar wood, and the rough outer bark gives the appearance of a more tightly woven basket. When dry, the inside turns a deep chrome yellow, that is really quite pretty.”

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In the Modern Priscilla for November, 1921, there is an article by Mrs. Quincy Williamson, on making baskets from iris leaves. Three leaves twisted together and sewed with carpet warp, form the coils of the basket. In the suc- ceeding rows, each stitch is taken into a stitch of the preceding coil. IF4 IIA, IV C4 Mats Walter J. Hoffman has described the making of mats among the Menomini as follows: “Several varieties of mats are made by Menomini women from leaves of rushes, from the flag or cat-o’-nine-tails, and from cedar bark. The leaf-made mats are used chiefly for roofing temporary structures. . . . They consist of two layers of leaves, each layer being secured by cords made of basswood fiber passed through transversely from one end of the mat to the other, to keep the edges of the leaves together. To each layer, cords extend from end to end, at intervals of about 10 inches, thus leaving three or four cords to each layer ; the ends of the leaves at the lateral edges of the mat being woven together to make a secure and durable seam. _ Each layer or sheet of leaves is therefore free from its fel- low, so that when the rain falls on the mat, the water usually follows the leaves on the inside of the mat. The extreme 161) Handicrafts 145 ends are secured by tying to two strips of wood, one above and one below, and wrapped with basswood cords. The rush-leaf mats are compactly woven, and are used upon the floors and in the medicine structure for seats. “Leaves for mat-making are prepared by first cutting them when green, then steeping them in boiling water, and laying them in the sun to bleach. Some leaves are then dyed, to produce in the final wosk various designs in colored stripes. These colors are chiefly dull green, red, and brown. ‘“‘The frame employed in making mats consists of two up- ‘right poles about 10 feet high, and 6 to 8 feet apart. An- other pole is then tied transversely as high as the face of the worker. Along the crosspiece is then stretched a stout cord of basswood fiber, to which the leaves are attached by plaiting, thus making the latter pendent, one against the other, for as great a length as it is desired to make the mat. A long thread, also of basswood fiber, with a diameter of nearly %, of an inch, is then attached to the left side of the row of leaves, and run across toward the right by passing it in and out alternately over and beneath the leaves in succession. At intervals of every 4 or 6 inches, a loop is made, to prevent the woof from slipping down, the loop being pulled out when another space of 4 or 6 inches is woven and stretched taut. The worker is occasionally obliged to spray water on the leaves, to make them pliable and to prevent breaking. When the right side is reached, the woof is secured to a heavier warp cord, which had been previously attached to the vertical pole. The colored leaves have already been placed at proper points, in the first instance, to give the desired stripes when finally woven. The lower edge is fin- ished by cutting the leaves of equal length, and plaiting them from left to right, when the last leaves are turned under and tied. | | “Bark mats are now rare among the Menomini. They are made of the inner bark of the cedar, cut in strips averaging half an inch in width. Some of the mats are nearly white, others are colored dark red and sometimes black with native vegetal dyes. The decoration is effectively produced in dia- mond and lozenge patterns, as well as in zigzag lines, both by color and by the weaving of the weft strips, the latter being accomplished by taking up and dropping certain numbers of the warp strips.” 162) 146 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll IG Beading IY1,2,11 By Jutta M. BuTtTREE There are so many forms and varieties of beading that the art 1s almost inexhaustible in its possibilities of decoration. Probably the earliest type of beading as practiced by the Indians, with what we now call seed beads, was sewing the beads onto a piece of buckskin with a sinew thread. For this, no needle was required. Holes were punched into the skin with a bone awl, four or five beads were strung on the sinew, and the stiffened end of this thread passed through the hole. The process is much facilitated these days by the use of needles. If the material to be beaded is leather or buckskin, the work is done on the flesh side, and the stitches do not go through to the other side; thus giving a perfectly smooth surface to be worn next the body. In a moccasin, particu- larly, this 1s very important. The method of beading depends largely on the design se- lected. If it 1s full of-curves as in the Chippewa floral pat- terns, the outline must be followed first, then filled in. The thread is fastened firmly on the side to be beaded, so no knot is on the side next the body. A number of beads (varying according to the curve to be followed) are strung on the needle, then a tiny stitch taken into the leather, but not through; and the process is repeated. If a large area is to be solidly covered with beading, the method is much the same, except that no outline is first followed. But even here, there are two variations. If a ridged appearance is desired, the same number of beads are strung on the thread at each stitch. If a flat surface 1s wanted, the number of beads at each stitch should vary a little ; that is, if on one line 5 beads are strung at each stitch, use 6 or 4 on the next line. Both methods were used by the Indians. Beaded hangers of various kinds were popular among the Redmen, and are a very decorative touch to add to the ro- settes of a war bonnet, or as loose ends with which to trim a dress. The method is much the same as in the floral design beading. A thong, or other core, is cut the required length. The needle, threaded with sinew or other strong thread, is an- 163) Handicrafts 147 chored about an inch from one end of the core, leaving enough unbeaded material to sew the finished product to the bonnet or dress. Wrap the core firmly with several rounds of the thread. Now string about a dozen beads on the thread. Wrap these around the core as many times as they will go, keeping the beads close together, and take a small back stitch into the core. Repeat until the beading is the required length. It is helpful if the thread be the same color as the beads; also if the core be strained between two points.

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There are two methods by which a solid circular disk may be beaded. One is by concentric rows of beads, done ac- cording to the method above described for sewing beads to any design. The other method has been variously called the Ute and the Mohawk beading. A very small circle of beads is sewed to the center of the design, firmly to the leather or other backing; but not enough beads to fit close together in the circle. There should be space enough between each two beads to allow of another bead being slipped in on the next row. . A bead is now strung on the thread, and the needle passed through a bead of the original circle. Another bead is strung, and the needle passed through the next bead of the preceding row; and so on, the thread taking a zigzag path with each successive bead. Once in a while, it is necessary to anchor the thread through the backing, or the rosette will be loose, except at the very center where it is fastened.

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Thongs may be beaded in the same way, or the handles of war clubs, quirts, etc., going round and round the core to be covered. Also watch fobs or other flat pieces may be made by this method, using no backing at all.

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The Menomini type of beading, which is done on a loom, is perhaps the most popular among us now. The loom itself may be bought for anything between 25c and a dollar; or, one may easily be made at home in an evening. If the beaded band is to be a short one (not over 8 or 9 inches), the loom may be made of a cigar box with 164) 148 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll the cover removed and the two long sides cut down to about half the original height. Cut slots into the two short sides, the distance apart depending on the size of the beads to be used. Drive a nail into the bottom of the box at one short side, and peck a hole into the middle of the other short side. Cut a wooden peg to fit the hole. Cut one more thread than the number of beads to be used in the width of the band, and about 12 inches longer than the finished band is to be. Tie all these strings together at one end, and secure the bunch on the nail which you drove in at one end of the box. Pass the threads through the slots which you cut into the tops of the short sides of the box, one thread in each slot. When all are in, gather them together, roll them into a rope, slip the end through the hole in the side of the box, and fasten there with the wooden peg. If the finished band is to be 15 or 16 inches long, the loom may be threaded differently, and the hole at one short side eliminated. Fasten to the nail one end of a thread from a spool. Draw the thread through the far slot, across the top of the loom, through the near slot, around under the box, up through the slots again; and so on till the required width is obtained. As the beading progresses, move the whole band of threads until it is long enough, then cut across the threads, releasing the band. | If the finished band is to be longer than twice the length of the loom, another device must be employed. In this case, a cigar box is not desirable, though still possible with rein- forcement. The best plan, I take it, is to make one’s loom out of solid pine boards. Herewith I offer a plan that is quite satisfactory. JI made this loom in one hour—could do it in less time if all ma- terial was ready at hand. The baseboard (A) is of 34 inch stuff; 1.e., dressed inch. The roller (G) is 3 inches of a broom handle, with a small hole bored right through the long way, and four small holes at right angles to this to receive nails that hold it fixed after the bead work is rolled. The slot (E) is nailed on the two arms so that the nails may rest against it as a lock. The roller has a short strong nail in the middle to secure the bundle of warp strings. ° The first bridge (C) has saw cuts at intervals determined by the size bead to be used. This bridge is nailed on to the 165) Handicrafts 149 end of the baseboard. The second bridge needs no grooves or saw cuts; it is nailed between the arms on the other end of the base. The warp holder is of 4 inch stuff. It has three slots, into each of which one-third of the warp ends are firmly A. Base-board «x /2Inches of YAinch slu ff Stoyt Wire Warp Holder B babu LVL all near Bridge C Wau adil far Bridge - D t ALL parts of the Bead Loom- Complete The Loam assembled ET Selon held by plugging with one of the wooden plugs (F). This holder is nailed on the under side of the base after the first bridge is in. Now, cut your threads as before—one more than the number of beads in the width of the desired band, and about 12 inches longer than the desired length. Tie them together at one end, and fasten this bunch to the large-headed nail in your spool. Slip a thin wire nail into whichever hole on the 166) 150 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll sides of your spool will hold the spool, without allowing it to turn. Thread the loom as before, using the slots in the two bridges ; then gather them together in one bunch (or two or three if there are many ), slip the bunch through the open side of the holes in the base, (C) and fasten with a wooden peg. As the beading progresses, and becomes too long for the loom, wind the finished part up on the spool, and proceed to the end. . x x * The method of beading on a loom is very simple, and results are quick when once the mechanics are mastered. Attach the beading thread to the left hand warp thread about an inch in front of the top bridge. Put on as many beads as are required for the width of the band (one less _ than the number of threads), pass the beading thread under the warp threads, pushing one bead up between each two threads. Now double back the beading thread over the right hand warp thread and pass the needle back through the rcw of beads, making very sure that it always goes over the warp threads. Then string the beads for the next row and proceed as before. When the beading thread is almost exhausted, go back through as many beads as you can get through, and cut off the end close to the work. Rethread the needle, pass through the last row of beads again from right to left, and you are ready to start again. The band may be finished off with a square edge straight across, or with a tapered point, or with a fringe of beads.

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In making your beading designs, the most important point is to make them simple. The complicated curves and whirls are inartistic as well as difficult to accomplish in this medium. Do not try to draw realistic patterns; use symbolic forms. Some one has well said: ‘Symbolic forms send the imagina- tion soaring; realism chains the imagination to the earth.” These designs must be drawn on graph paper; but beware of the error of using square-boxed graph paper. A bead is not a square; it is almost (but not quite) twice as long as it is wide. There is a special beading graph paper made which is marked in correct proportions. The square-boxed 167) Handicrafts 151 type will give a wholly wrong conception of the appearance of the finished product.

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There is another type of bead which works up into many artistic forms. This is the tube bead, much like the old wampum. These beads are practically square, about %4 inch each way, and pierced with a much larger hole than any size of seed bead—so large indeed that they may be strung on thongs instead of threads. They are particularly useful in the making of armbands, garters, etc. When tube beads are strung on thongs, they are not worked on a loom. First, make four or five leather strips about 1% an inch wide and as long as the width of the finished arm band is to be. This strip is pierced with a hole at each spot where a row of beads will pass through; that is, about % inch apart. Now pass your thong through the uppermost hole in one leather strip, string five or six beads on the thong, then thread the thong through the uppermost hole in the next leather strip. Take up another five or six beads, and con- tinue till the required length is obtained. Fasten into the first leather strip to hold the circle. Then proceed to the remaining rows in the same manner. Or the band may be made in a long strip, and tied in place on the body when worn. These arm and leg bands are very effective if finished off with a pendant thong strung with beads and tipped with a few fluffy feathers.

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Breastplates may be made in the same way; or very good ones may be made of long ivory paper beads. The making of paper beads is an activity which is popular with our Little Lodge members. It is a real Woodcraft pur- suit, in that it costs practically nothing for material. These beads may be made of colored magazine covers, scraps or samples of wall paper ; and even printed newspapers make most attractively designed beads, no longer resembling print, but producing a beautiful mottled effect of coloring. But for breastplates, of which the Indians’ original were made of bone, the best material is a slightly creamy paper 168) 152 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll without any pattern (such as the cheapest wrapping paper or a cheap quality of ivory wall-paper ). | For most beads, the paper is cut into long isosceles trian- gles. The length of the bead is determined by the length of the short side of the triangle; the finished bead will be exactly as long as the short side. The thickness of the bead is determined by the length of the two long sides; the longer these sides are, the thicker the bead. For the breastplate, instead of a triangle, cut a form 4 inches on one side, tapering to 2 inches, 24 inches away. Starting with the 4-inch side squarely toward you, begin to roll the paper onto a steel knitting needle or other rod of about that thickness, slightly greased to prevent the bead from sticking to the needle later on. When the whole strip is thus rolled up, paste the final end firmly in place. As many beads should be put on the knitting needle as it will hold. Then dip the whole string, needle and all, into colorless shellac, being careful that the bare needle is not exposed to the shellac, or there will be difficulty in removing the beads. When the shellac is dry, take the beads off the needle, and they are ready for use. For the breastplate, the leather strips should be used as in the arm bands, in order to hold the strings in place. I have seen these separating strips made of felt or even cotton cloth, but they have not had body enough to hold the breast- plate in shape. I acknowledge thanks to Mr. Lester Griswold for many suggestions on this article. ive II . II N6, 11 Quill Work Among the Indians, several tribes excelled in quill em- broidery. Porcupines supplied the great bulk of the quills, but sometimes the feathers of birds were stripped of the flues, and the ribs split and used in the same way. Alice C. Fletcher has written on this subject: “The gathering of the raw materials, the hunting of por- cupines or the capture of birds, was the task of the men, who also in some tribes prepared the dyes. Sorting and coloring the quills, tracing the design on dressed skin or 169) Handicrafts 153 birchbark, and the embroidering, were exclusively the work of women. “In sorting porcupine quills, the longest and the finest were first selected, and laid in separate receptacles. Another selection was made, and the long or fine quills of the second quality were laid away. The remaining quills were kept for common work. Bladders of the elk or buffalo served as quill cases. “The dyes, which varied in different parts of the country, were compounded variously of roots, whole plants, and buds and bark of trees. The quills were usually steeped in con- coctions of these until a uniform color was obtained—red, yellow, green, blue, or black. No variegated hues were made, and rarely more than one shade of a color. The natural color of whitish quills afforded a white, and sometimes those of a brownish cast were used. . . . “The quills of feathers were split, except the fine pliant tips. But the porcupine quills were not split, nor were they used in the round state; they were always flattened. This was done by holding one end firmly between the teeth, press- ing the edge of the thumb-nail against the quill held by the forefinger, and drawing it tightly along the length of the quill; the process being repeated until the quill became smooth and flat. This flattening process was never done until the quill was required for immediate use... . “Among most tribes, the awl was the only instrument used in quill working. ‘The Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Sioux, the principal quill-working tribes, had a specially shaped bone for flattening, bending, and smoothing (Mooney). A small hole was made with it in the skin or bark, through which the sharp point of the quill was thrust from the back, and drawn out on the front side. An end of the flattened quill was left at the back, and this was bent and pressed close to the skin or bark to serve as a fastening, like a knot on a thread. Another hole was. made, perpendicular to the first ; and through this the quill was passed to the back, thus mak- ing the stitch. The distance between the holes determined not only the length of the sitches, but also the width of the lines forming the design. “All the designs in quillwork were made up of wide or nar- row lines, each composed of a series of upright stitches lying close together. As quills were always so short that one could make only a few stitches at most, the fastening of ends and 170) 154 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll uniformity in the length of stitches were important points in the technic of the work. The width of the lines varied from a sixteenth to a quarter of an inch. Very rarely was more than one width employed in one design. “The banded fringe usually attached to the border of to- bacco-bags was made on strips of dressed skin, cut in the desired width, around which flattened quills were closely and evenly bound, care being taken to conceal the ends of the quills in order that the binding, even when various colors were used to form the design, might look as though it was one band. Different colors on the different strands of the fringe were so arranged that when the strands hung in place, the meeting of the colors made the figure. “The stems of pipes were decorated with fine flattened quills, closely woven into a long and very narrow braid, which was wound about the wooden stem. Different colors were sometimes so disposed along the length of these braids that when they were wound around the stem, they made squares or other figures. Careful calculations, as well as deftness of finger, were required for this style of work.” Feather Quill Work. By Jutta M. BuTTREE I have been experimenting with feathers, and find them a most fascinating medium to work with. Ordinary chicken feathers are easy to get; and if only one color is desired, serve very well. I happened to have also some feathers of the Western flicker, and of a couple of Western jays. These provided me with three natural colors ; and the white chicken feathers can be dyed in the same way as porcupine quills. If they do not readily take the dye, the grease can be extracted by boiling them first in a solution of washing soda, and then in the dye. These feathers can be used, first of all, just as they come from the bird, except that they be cut the required length. Then, using tail feathers (which are straight) or all feathers of one wing (so as to get the same curvature), sew them, one next the other, on a background, each feather just over- lapping the rib of the previous. In this way, two stitches in each feather will suffice to hold it in place, and nothing but the soft veins or flues will show in the finished product. Ai 171) Handicrafts 155 simple pattern could be worked 1 in by carefully selecting your colors. The Eskimo produce belts and headbands by a method which I have found successful, and easy of accomplishment. Strip your feathers of the veins, except for % or 34 inch at the tip. Cut all the feathers the same length; then sew them to a backing of leather or felt, one next the other, each with two stitches, and alternating so the feather tips lie first at the top of the band and then at the bottom. Wonderfully good effects can be produced by using two different colors, aking upright stripes. I used the gorgeous orange of the flicker and the white of the leghorn hen, with a predominance of four of one color to one of the other. A more complicated pattern than mere stripes could be managed by cutting the various colored quills into the lengths required for the design; and using the background color where needed, and the pattern color in the same row, as per your drawing. I next tried using them as beads. After stripping the flues, cut them up into 14-inch lengths, string them, one at a time on a needle, and sew them in rows to the backing. The ef- fect is much the same as in parallel row beading. If they were cut into shorter lengths, they could be worked on a loom in the same way as beads by the Menomini method. Some time, I shall try this loom-work with feathers cut into bead lengths, but leaving the flues on. I think a feathered design could be worked out in this way, which would be a marvelously beautiful thing. The stripped quills can be used also in the manner of por- cupine quills. Soak them in warm water, and flatten them with a hot iron. While they are still damp, they are flexible enough to turn under, and work into your backing as per one method of quill work; or wrapped around thongs, as per the other (see p. 152). A loom might be strung with its warp threads as usual in a color that would harmoniously contrast with the color of the feather to be used. Then, instead of cutting up the stripped quill into small bead forms, string a long quill on the needle, and darn over and under the warp threads. No doubt, many other uses will be found as we experiment. Won’t you pass on your results? 172) 156 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll ry Pendants for Indian Costuming II Ny | By Jutia M. BUTTREE Strings of decoration are a most useful adjunct to Indian costuming, and helpful not only for the outward appearance of the dress, but for graceful effect in dancing, etc. Many of the modern war bonnets are degraded by the use of ribbons as ear pendants, but these do not produce the proper effect because of their lack of weight. The Indians often used ermine tails, and even whole er- mine skins, flattened, as hangers. These days, it is not easy to obtain ermine skins or tails, so that we have often found a very satisfactory substitute as follows: At any furrier shop, one may buy scraps of white rabbit fur for a nominal price. Pieces as narrow as one inch are helpful to us, and practically useless to the furrier. Strip this fur in lengths of about 12 inches, and about I or 1% inches wide, cutting it on the back side of the fur, prefer- _ ably with a razor blade. Cut a 15-inch length of heavy, but rather soft cord, and make a knot 2 inches from one end. Around this knot, lap the fur in a circle, and secure all with a few stitches. Then sew down the length of the fur strip, forming a tube enclosing the cord as a core. The hair will brush over the stitching so as to make it almost invisible. A triangle of black fur, about 114 inches long, attached to the bottom of the white, gives the finishing touch to our realistic ermine tail. Run the upper end of the cord above the original knot, through the ear rosette of the war bonnet, or the disk of beaded or quilled work for a dress. Put it in from front to back, and secure it by another knot or a strong tacking stitch.

  • * *

Other types of hangers are possible and good looking. _A buckskin thong is cut the required length. Four or five fluffy feathers are strung on a thread alongside each other, and the thread pulled up so as to crowd them together. Now, sew through the end of the buckskin thong, letting the feath- ers dangle softly below. The joint is easily concealed by a tiny triangle of tin pinched around it, or a large tube bead _ strung on the thong and fastened down at the joint. The 173)

rest of the thong may be wrapped with porcupine quills, 

beaded strings (as described in the beading article), or even colored yarn; or they may be strung the full length with tube (or even paper) beads.

These pendants form artistic adjuncts on arm bands and garters, as well as for war bonnets, dresses, war shirts, etc.

Woodcraft War Shirt

I Y5; II N5

By Ellsworth Jaeger

The Woodcraft war shirt is made of buckskin, European goat skin (which comes in several colors, and can be secured from bookbinders’ supply houses); or a flannel shirt can be utilized, making the fringe of leather or felt.

The decoration is elaborate or not, according to the individual’s wishes; and is made of painted, beaded, or appliqued strips about 3 inches wide. The beadwork can be made on a loom, and then sewed on the sleeves and shoulders of the shirt.

Make the fringe as long as possible, and cut it not more than ¼ inch wide. Some tribes cut it very thin, and roll it until it resembles heavy fish twine.

The shirt and woman’s dress make a beautiful addition to the color of a ceremonial council, and greatly help in arousing interest in the handicraft work of a tribe.

Woman’s Buckskin Dress

I Y11; II N11

By Ellsworth Jaeger

The woman’s buckskin dress can be made in one or two pieces, as shown in the drawing.

Some costumes are most elaborate, others very simple. Personal and tribal symbols should be utilized for every dress, should be individual; and tell something of the owner’s interests, characteristics, and personality.

Indian Leggings

I Y10; II N10

By Ellsworth Jaeger

The Indian leggings shown in the drawings are of several different patterns. The leggings at the top were popular with both Indian and pioneer, and are suitable for either outfit. 174) 175) Handicrafts 159 . Vomans <a on BUCKSKIN 07 S| nko vest DRESS CS wo : SASGER, : i CAPE. D TWO PIECE DRESS : Uff Was ce tl ; Tivo PIECE } | ‘. ORESS BEAD WORK ao . ; > sewn oveR <4 > Zi SHOULDER, y / onan, BEST MADE OF BUCKSKIN OR, EQROPEAN GoarT- SKIN WHICH COMES IN VIViO COLORS FRONT Hf

oh 1. 

i : PATTER ANOTHER PATTERN FOR ONE PIEC SWOWING CAPE ATTACHED Oe ORESS TO SKIRT FOLD WWERE INOICATED SEW UP BIDES “CUTTING FRINGEON CAPE. a ANO OTHER PARTS ¢/ DRESS LNs OEsSIGN 176) 160 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll MACE oF me BUCKSKIN, - GOATSKIN, FLANNEL OR PELT VY SN A Oesians: B8EADLO PAINTEO APPLIQUED STRIPS stwnon BEFORE LEGGINGS ARE ST1Eueo- TocetHer MEn's Leacinas FASTENEDP BELOW MENS Gs THE KNEB 177) Handicrafts 161 The breech clout worn with these is a rectangular piece of flannel, decorated with designs, and usually edged with ribbon. . Another type of breech clout—one which may be used by our girls in doing Indian dancing—is made in the form of a pair of shorts, with decorated flaps, front and back. Many such are described and fully illustrated in Buttree’s RoytHM OF THE REDMAN, Pp. 250. = The Dancing Bustle 10 II N1o By Ernest THOMPSON SETON During my young days on the Plains, we saw daily during the springtime, the Dance of the Pintailed Prairie Chickens. In performing this, each bird, especially the males, would bend forward, erect and spread the tail, trail the wings like a turkey cock, go strutting and crowing around with rapid foot work, varied by a double-time stamping that helped the tail feathers to vibrate with singular noise and effect. This was precisely the action of a Taos Indian I watched doing the Bustle Dance. The stooping pose, the strutting, the rhythmic steps, the occasional vibration that made the bustle shiver with life, as the lithe young dancer kept time to the music, with swing and step of marvelous poise and grace,—all seemed to me simply a dramatization and hu- manization of the Grouse Dance. The bustle was obviously copied from the grouse tail,— the rays of long and white-tipped feathers, the two long medicine plumes above, and the trailing wings represented by the double tail behind. — The sage grouse has not the two medicine plumes, but the prairie chicken has. 4 And this fact seems to me significant: The Bustle Dance was done among the Indians wherever the Plains grouse were found; and outside of this region where the grouse do not dance, the Indians also had it not.

  • * *

Ths bustle which this Taos Indian wore for the dance was apparently made as follows: Twenty beautiful long sage grouse feathers were each tipped with a ball of white down. These were laid, under side up, flat on a table, radiating out in a circle, bases as close 178)

+h Dancing 4 Bustle AE TS, 179) Handicrafts 163 as possible. A strong thread is run through the feather bases, and drawn up so as to keep them in this position. A second thread is run through the midribs, about 3 inches from the bases, and just tight enough to hold the feathers in the circular form. Now, a 24-inch circle of rawhide is slipped under the bases as they lie on the table, and each feather is firmly anchored to the rawhide in as many places as are necessary to hold it securely in position, the whole making a disk about 24 inches across. A red flicker tail feather is sewed to the rawhide disk be- tween each two grouse feathers. Two medicine plumes, much longer than the feathers in the circle, are now attached to the disk, so one will extend upward over each shoulder of the dancer when the bustle is in place. These medicine plumes are either very long feath- ers, stripped of the veins, or reeds, or light rods, slightly curved. They are tipped with white down; a couple of other wads of down are attached to their length at intervals. The flare is outward from the disk to the shoulders. A second 2”%-inch disk of rawhide is beaded in concentric circles of white with a simple red design. This is placed over the bases of the feathers, and conceals all stitches. A small fluffy tail is fastened to the center of the disk. (This is omitted in the drawing, for the sake of clearness.) * A tail of red flannel is attached under the whole thing ona short cross stick the width of the flannel. It is about 8 inches wide, and hangs in one flat piece to a depth of about a foot, then divides into two halves which extend to the calves. This tail is decorated with hanging feathers, and completes a dance accessory which aids materially in the grace as well as the symbolism of the performance. Still other bustles have been seen with a large pompom of white feathers in the center; others with a stuffed owl or hawk head. Many have been seen that were composed of flight feathers of an owl. There are endless variants in detail; but all adhere to the main plan of a central corona, with two long medicine plumes above, and two long tails below.

  • In another bustle seen at the same time, the second disk was not

beaded; instead, little bunches of porcupine hair were inserted in round holes punched around the rim of the disk, and a skunk tail fastened in the very center. 180) 164 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll IO1 (a) Bayberry Candles III D1 (a) IV G1 (a) By Juria M. BuTTREE The bayberry berries or drupes should be gathered in the fall, though not so late that the protective wax has been brushed off. It takes about two quarts of berries to make an 8-inch candle. Pick the berries from the stems, and put them on the fire in water to cover them. Let them stew for four hours, then simmer for another hour. Let the mass cool, and skim off the heavy green oil which has come to the surface. When it is quite cold, this 1s a cake of beautiful translucent wax. In order to clear this of all impurities, it is well to boil ‘this up in a kettle of water, and strain the liquid through a cheesecloth. Again, the wax will rise to the top in a cake when it is cold. If this wax has been put into a tin can, the can will serve as the inner dish of a double boiler. (In order to make the candle last longer, about 20% of paraffine should be added at this stage.) When all is melted, it is ready for the next step. The candles may be made by either of two methods,— moulding or dipping. A mould may be made of paper. P. L. Sperr, of the Wikantanka Tribe of Staten Island, New York, describes the making of his moulds as follows: “T found that a convenient method was to use a cork about 5g of an inch in diameter for the base. I cut a small hole in the center of one end of the cork, about large enough to hold a knot in the wick. Tying a knot at the end of the wick, I then passed it through the center of a piece of paper which would cover the cork. The paper was pasted onto the cork, and the wick thus held in place. The mould was then completed by making a cylinder of wrapping paper, with the cork at one end and the wick running through the center. I found the adhesive paper tape used for wrapping packages, a convenience in making the moulds. I used it for the bit of paper which held the wick. The seam of the paper cyl- inder was closed with it, and it was used to bind the cylinder to the cork. “Into this mould the melted wax was poured, and there came out a beautiful candle of the richest green.” 181) Handicrafts 165 Dipping is the older method of making candles, and some- how seems to hold more of romance than the moulding. To a stick are tied as many lengths of wicking as the desired number of candles. This stick, with its wicks hanging at right angles, is held over a tub of the wax, and dipped again and again until the candle is of the required thickness. The delicate fragrance of the bayberry candle is reminis- cent of the many delightful legends and customs now drop- ping out of use. Let us W oodcrafters seek to revive some - of them, and thus experience the “joy of being alive” which comes of these primitive activities, and which moderns are losing in the jazz rush of their existence. (b) Caning a Chair Seat bbs By Jutia M. ButtTREE A square or rectangular frame is the easiest on which to learn the method of caning. The holes should be about an inch apart. | The octagonal mesh is the most common. It consists of six layers of cane, which form eight-sided spaces when com- pleted. The cane must be soaked in water for a few minutes to make it pliant before using. When the work has once be- gun, be careful not to twist the cane, always keeping the right side upward. Place the chair with its front edge toward you. Find the middle of this front edge. This is your starting point. I. Run a strip of cane up through the hole to the left of the middle front, leaving a 3-inch end below. Put a peg in this hole from the top, to hold the cane in place. Run the cane down through the opposite hole in the back edge, and insert a peg. Bring the cane up through the next hole to the left at the back; and pass it down through the opposite hole at the front, inserting another peg. Continue in this manner, until all the holes to the left have been filled, except the corner ones. Then, starting at the middle front again, repeat the whole to the right. II. Start from the center of one side, and run the cane horizontally in the same way as the first layer worked verti- cally. 182) 166 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll III. Starting at the middle front, work this set over the horizontal layer, using the same holes as in I. IV. Start as in II, on the right edge. You must now work over and under ‘the I and III layers, passing over the III layer and under the I, thus keeping the III layer to the right of the I. Y. This is the first diagonal row. Starting at the far right corner, pass the cane under the front-to-back canes, and over the side-to-side canes, in pairs. The first diagonal “stitch” will be from the far right corner, under the front- to-back pair, on the far side of the farthest side-to-side pair. There will be another diagonal row from this same corner, passing over the farthest side-to-side pair, then under the right-most front-to-back pair, and so on. This far right corner is the only hole to have two canes starting from it. VI. Reverse V. That is, start from the far left corner with diagonal weave, and where V passed over a pair, VI passes under it, and vice versa. VII. For this, which is the binding, a slightly wider cane is used—wide enough to cover the holes. Bring it up through a left corner hole, carry it to the right on top of the holes, and with a piece of fine cane, couch it through each hole—that is, bring the fine cane up through the hole, over the binding cane, and down again through the same hole, proceeding under the seat to the next hole. _ When starting or finishing a strand of cane, the ends are fastened neatly and securely to an adjoining loop under the seat. Lights For campvuse, there is nothing better than the Stonebridge folding lantern, with a good supply of candles. A temporary torch can readily be made of a roll of birch bark, a pine knot, or some pine-root slivers, in a split stick of green wood. it? 10, 14 S IV f 7,14 Hunter’s Lamp A fairly steady light can be made of a piece of cotton, or twisted rag stuck in a clam shell full of oil or melted grease, An improvement is easily made by putting the cotton wick through a hole in a thin, flat stone, which sets in the grease and ‘holds the wick upright, 183) Handicrafts 167 Another improvement is made by using a tin instead of the shell. It makes a steadier lamp, as well as a much larger light. This kind of a lamp enjoys wide use and has some queer names, such as slot-lamp, grease-jet, hunter’s lamp, etc. - To win the honor that is allowed for it the hunter’s lamp must be made entirely of wildwood material and without the use of whiteman’s tools. Some have protested that this is impossible to-day or wus su 1) ‘S Tornald-tin 77g. ~ Lanterns unlawful at certain times. “How,” they ask, “are you going to get your oil—even the small spoonful that is needed ?” The answer is: Any bird, beast or fish has in it oil that | is easily rendered out by one or other of the ordinary modes well known in the kitchen—either by boiling the flesh and skimming off the oil as it comes to the top, or by letting it slow roast on a couple of sticks across a pan, so that the hot grease is secured as it drops. A cat-fish, a crow or a rat will, under such treatment, surrender enough oil for a big lamp, while a woodchuck will give enough for a score or two. Nevertheless, Woodcrafters are unwilling to sacrifice even 184) 168 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll these creatures of doubtful reputation, so the Council has decided to allow the use of any animal or vegetable oil that can be obtained in the house, but of course, not kerosene or its kin. The simplest oil-holder is a big clam shell, and the easy and natural wicker-holder is a small clam shell with a hole bored in it. “But how,’ exclaims the Wayseeker, “are we to bore the hole without forbidden tools?” Very easily. Rub the sharp rounded bump of the little shell (that on the outside, next the hinge) up and down many times on a flat but gritty stone. In two or three minutes, a hole is worn through, which is easily enlarged or shaped by turning a sharp flint point in it. The wick of truly wild material has puzzled many who assumed that they might use a cotton rag. Silk in the pod of a milkweed will be found perfectly satisfactory, as is also the bark of the Indian hemp or dog-bane. Last week I saw one of these silkweed wicks in a clam shell lamp that burned clearly and steadily for three hours. IXX1 | Woodman’s Lantern When nothing better is at hand, a woodman’s lantern can be made of a tomato can. Make a big hole in the bottom for the candle, and punch the sides full of small holes, prefer- ably from the inside. If you have a wire to make a hanger, well and good; if not, you can carry it by the bottom. This lets out enough light and will not go out in the wind. If you want to set it down, you must make a hole in the ground for the candle, or if on a table, set it on two blocks. Another style is described in a recent letter from Hamlin Garland: “Apropos of improved camp lights, I had a new one ‘sprung on me,’ this summer: A forest ranger and I were visiting a miner, about a mile from our camp. It came on dark, pitch dark, and when we started home, we could not follow the trail. It was windy as well as dark, and matches did very little good. So back we went to the cabin. The ranger then picked up an old tomato can, punched a hole in the side, thrust a candle up through the hole, lighted it, and took the can by the disk which had been cut from the top. The whole thing was now a boxed light, shining ahead like 185) Handicrafts 169 a searchlight, and the wind did not affect it at all! I’ve been camping, as you know, for thirty years, but this little trick was new to me. Perhaps it is new to you.” Still another style, giving a better light, is made by heating an ordinary clear glass quart bottle pretty hot in the fire, then dipping the bottom part in cold water; this causes the bottom to crack off. The candle is placed in the neck, flame inside, and the bottle neck sunk in the ground. Knife and Hatchet or Whittling and Chopping If I were marooned on an island or left alone in the wilder- ness, and had the choice of but one weapon to take along, I should take a good knife. If I were allowed two, the second would be a hatchet. With these two one can make most of the things needed for securing food or building shelters. The Northern Indians are probably the best whittlers in the world. They use a curious curved knife called the crooked knife. It is made of an old file curled up at the point so it can cut a narrow groove. With such a knife a Chipewyan Indian can make bow, arrows, traps, snowshoes, canoe, and wigwam—as well as clothing, his whole outfit complete ; a good crooked knife, therefore, is a fair start in life for an industrious Indian. Rules for Using a Knife In whittling, always assume that the knife ts going to slip, therefore, arrange so it can do no damage when it does slip. For this reason, it is usual to make a beginner whittle away from himself, but that is not always safe. Indeed, all the best whittlers in the world, including Northern Indians, far- riers, wagonmakers, etc., whittle toward themselves, with the hand held palm up, the knife blade at the little finger side, using the pull of the arm instead of the push, thereby get- ting more power and better control. But this is sure, you should never whittle toward the hand that is holding the wood. Always keep your knife sharp. It is a sign of a tenderfoot to have a dull knife, and of a trained Woodcrafter to have a keen one. To keep a knife sharp, it must be a good piece of steel and 186) 170 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll you must know how to sharpen it. The only way to get a good blade is to go to a good maker and pay a good price. The fancy knives that are corkscrew, toolchest, bootjack, and whistle all combined, are seldom of good steel. Old-timers prefer a white-handled knife as it is more read- ily found if dropped on the ground or in the water. The blade cannot be kept in good condition if used for anything but a wood cutter. Therefore, do not cut nails, metal, or softwood knots (especially hemlock knots) with it. Never stick the blade in the fire. That would draw the temper and spoil the knife. Do not abuse your knife by using it for a hammer, wedge, screw driver, or pry. Carry a little whetstone or else_a small file to keep your knife in good shape. A pocket or shut-up knife is the only style worth carrying. The hunting knife or dagger has not enough use to-day to make it worth while. It is a proof of a good whittler if one can make half a dozen firelighters in succession. A firelighter or fuzz-stick (see illustration) is a stick of soft wood about an inch thick or six or eight inches through, shaved into thin slivers which are still on the stick; that is, are one solid piece at one end and all thin slivers at the other. This can only be done if you have a sharp, strong knife, a well-selected piece of soft wood without knots in it, and a steady hand. Provided the wood is good, the firelighter is perfect if not a sliver is loose or drops off. Use of Hatchet A good camper is known by his hatchet; if it is always sharp, and kept muzzled when traveling, the owner knows his business. — Most of the knife rules apply equally to the hatchet. Never try to break a stone with a hatchet or let the hatchet be driven into a log by striking its back with another hatchet or anything of metal; use a wooden maul if it is necessary to drive the hatchet, as in splitting a stick. If you are going to hew a piece of timber with a hatchet, always draw a line first to guide you. If you are going to point a stake, make it a four-sided point, cutting sides No. 1 and No. 3, No. 2 and No. 4; so that finally at any cross-section of the point it will be square. 187) Handicrafts 171 It is a sure sign of inexperience when a camper throws his hatchet at trees, etc., to see if he can make it stick. Broken blades, broken handles, and injured trees are the inevitable result, with the large possibility of serious accident. ID IVA2 Use of the Axe The hatchet has long been the emblem of George Wash- ington, in allusion to the incident of the cherry tree. So also the axe has become an emblem of Abraham Lincoln, the backwoodsman, the railsplitter, the typical American, who used the axe to carve his home out of the wilderness. I think that the axe might well be the emblem of America, for it was composed originally of the finest metal that Eu- rope could supply, combined with a handle of the finest, toughest stuff that America could grow; and thus became the best weapon ever wielded by man for subduing the wilder- ness. Most of the instructions for use of the hatchet apply equally to the axe; but the axe chiefly is used for cutting down trees and cutting up logs. To cut down a large tree with an axe, first clear a space around so you have firm footing and no limbs are left to catch the axe as it swings. Now begin by cutting the notch A. (see illustration) at a convenient height, on the side to which you would throw the tree. Then split out the big chips B A by strokes at B. Con- tinue the operation until you reach C D. Then stop and cut in the notch E. Resume cutting at C D until the tree falls. The notch E is never made on the level with D or lower, because then the butt of the tree might shoot backward as the tree falls and kill the woodsman; also, the upright part left standing between E and D prevents the tree falling the wrong way. When it matters little which way the tree goes, the notch is made much lower. If the tree leans much the wrong way, you can push it over by guide or spring poles. Thus the tree F is leaning to the east, but a strong brace planted at G will make it fall to the south, if you cut the tree chiefly on the south side and leave the last uncut fibers of wood to run east and west, so they act as a hinge. This hinge is very important at times. In the section H the tree may be inclined to fall toward I, but it is easiest to 188) 172 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Fuzz-stick or Fire-Lighter SS tf ey end am o: = <a ipo it By iW Fi}, f Brace for yn Side throw Whittling’ and Chopbing 189) Handicrafts 173 bend the hinge at right angles to-its main length so the angle of the hinge will throw it toward J, if there is no wind and the tree does not lean too much. | Another well-known device is the spring pole. To make sure of the tree K falling toward L, put in a spring pole M, as long and as heavy as you can manage, force it in and have it bent down so that it is pushing against the tree. In some cases, several of these poles are put in. Two are, of course, twice as powerful as one, and when the tree 1s cut at the L side, the poles push it that way. These were very familiar woodsman’s tricks in my young days, but they are now largely displaced by the saw; the plan being to notch the tree at N, then saw it in at O until large iron wedges may be driven in behind the saw as it sinks into the trunk, and the tree is inevitably thrown toward N, usually in a line at right angles to the cut of the saw. A clever woodsman can throw a tree so exactly where he wants it that he can make it drive a given stake. A good axeman can fell a six-inch tree in a minute. When one is cutting a sapling, it helps greatly if the tree be bent over, then one blow of the axe on the bulge of the bend will usually cut it off, whereas a dozen might be needed if the tree were not pulled over first. To cut a large log on the ground, the axeman stands on it and cuts between his wide-spread feet, cutting half through each side and keeping the kerfs or cuts plumb, P Q (see illustration). If it were cut through entirely from one side as at R, the labor would be double, because fully twice as much wood must then be removed. For a small log, it is easier to stand on the ground and cut more nearly on the upper side till halfway through, then roll the log half over and make the other cut. The Knife Sheath IBBs By ELtswortH JAEGER The knife sheath illustrated is typical of early Plains Indians ; it 1s made of heavy cowhide or leather, sometimes rawhide. The inner sheath, made of soft light wood, is stitched together with fine wire. This inner sheath can be dispensed 190) Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 174 DEesiar. TOOLeD on sPoRGeD LEANER were hur ACK ~ CAN / 191)

with if copper rivets are placed at intervals inside the stitching, to guard against the cutting edge of the knife.

The design is traced and tooled on the sponged leather before it is stitched together. Thin washes of oil colors can be used to tint the design; or solid black and red India ink symbols may be used. It is then polished with light shoe polish.

An ordinary nut pick will serve for tooling the leather. Be sure to moisten the leather before working on it with the nut pick, which is used merely to indent or groove the surface, and not to break it. Use the rounded part of the pick near the point, not the point itself.

The Axe Sheath

I BB5

By Ellsworth Jaeger

The axe sheath is made of stout leather, laced with thongs. The fringe is placed between the front and back pieces; and then all three are laced together.

The flap button is made of a rolled strip of leather, as shown in the Pioneer Hunting Pouch illustration.

The design is drawn and tooled before lacing. An old nut pick will make an excellent tool to work with. Trace the design on leather, and be sure to sponge the leather before using the pick for tooling.

Colored India inks may be used to color design.

A Waterproof Shelter of Wilderness Stuff

I RR 1; IV P2

If you have plenty of spruce, balsam, or hemlock boughs available to furnish a roof thatch, it is easy to make a lean-to. This consists of a frame of poles bound with roots of spruce or tamarac, or else the inner bark of the elm, tamarac, leatherwood, or pignut hickory. (See A in illustration.)

Begin at the bottom and cover them with the boughs cut twenty or thirty inches long, and each one attached to the poles at D in the illustration.

If you chance to have an abundance of birch bark, it is even simpler. Cut the birch bark as large as possible and insert a row of sheets at the bottom, brown side up, overlapping at the up-and-down joints instead of setting the bark pieces side 192) 176 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll by side as in shingling. The top row may need extra binding poles to hold the bark sheets down (XX in B). These poles are bound at their ends to the ends of the poles below them. If grass or rushes are used, tie it in bundles and put on as with boughs. Sometimes the grass bundles are lashed sepa- rately to the upper sides of the poles with root or bark bind- ings. If one happens to have a supply of clay handy, a first-class j | Plan of ark shing/ess A Lean-lo frame holes Lashed on . we! Diagram showing arrangemen? x tI’ — . tip Ss " XX are holes

Wty arm SN

yy Somelimes added / 7 Hf! or After the bark 1s on Shingling with boughs clay roof can be made. Make the structure very strong with © cross poles so close side by side that they touch each other. On them lay a few inches of grass, and cover all with the clay hammered smooth. In each case, the ends may be filled up with the same ma- terial as the roof. A fire in front makes of it a very comfortable dwelling. 193) Handicrafts 171 In rough, hasty work, the lashing of the poles is dispensed with, the poles being held in place by knots left projecting on the two main end supports. This answers for the clay or the bough roof, but will not do for birch bark or other shingling. IL IV £ 4 (b) Camp Loom and Grass Mats The chief use of the camp loom is to weave mats for the beds of grass, straw, hay, or, best of all, sedge. JI have made it thus: i Loose Crost-bar .o Fixed Cross-bay fF A 3-foot cross-bar A is fast to a small tree, and seven feet away five stakes are driven into the ground 8 inches apart, each 3 feet out of the ground. Five stout cords are tied to each stick, and to the cross-bar, keeping them parallel. Then, between each on the cross-bar, is attached another cord (four in all), the far end of which is made fast to a loose cross-bar, B. One person raises the loose cross-bar B, while another lays a long bundle of grass tight in the corner C. Then B is low- ered to D, and another roll of grass or sedge is tucked in on the under side of the stake cords. Thus the bundles are laid one above and one below, until the mat is of the required length. The cords are then fastened, the cross-bars removed, and the mat, when dried, makes a fine bed. When added to 194) 178 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll the willow bed, it is pure luxury ; but lawful, because made of wildwood material. ICCC 5 (a) Navaho Loom A profitable amusement in camp is weaving rugs or mats of inner bark, rags, etc., on a rough Navaho loom. The crudest kind, one which can be made in an hour, is illustrated below. I have found it quite satisfactory for weaving rough mats or rugs. A and B are two trees or posts. C is the cross piece. D is the upper yarn-beam, wrapped its whole length with a spiral cord. E is the lower yarn-beam, similarly wrapped. F F are stout cords to carry the frame while the warp is being stretched between the yarn-beams. G Gis a log hung on for weight. H H is a round stick fast- ened between the yarns, odds on one side, evens on the other, to hold the yarns open until the rug is all done, but about one inch when it is drawn out. Now, with a needle, the yarns or strings for the warp are stretched from one yarn-beam to another, as a continuous string. The exact method is shown on a larger scale in the upper figure I I. The batten or spreader J is a piece of light wood two inches wide and one-half inch thick, with square edges, but thin, sharp point, and about as long as the yarn- beam. Now, we are ready to begin. Run the batten between the yarns under the sticks H H. Then drop it to the bottom and turn it flatwise, thus spreading the yarns apart in two rows. Lay a line of soft bark, rags, or other woof in this opening on top of the batten, making sure that it projects a couple of inches at each end. Double these long ends around the strong cords F F, then back along themselves. Now draw out the ‘ spreading batten and press the woof down tight. Run the batten through alternate threads again, but the reverse way of last, and this time it goes more slowly for the lack of a guide rod.* Lay a new line of woof as above. When the rug is all finished, except the top inch or more, draw out the rod H H and fill the warp to the top. Finally cut and draw out the spiral cords on each yarn-

  • This is done much more quickly by help of a heald-rod, that is, a

horizontal stick as wide as the blanket, with every other strand of the warp loosely looped to it by a running cord near the top. When this rod is pulled forward it reverses the set of the threads and allows the batten to drop in at once 195) Handicrafts 179 beam. This frees the rug, which is finished, excepting for trim and binding, when such are desired. Those who want full details of the best Navaho looms and 7 a. methods will find them in Dr. Washington Matthew’s article on Navaho Weavers, 3d Annual Report, Bur. of Ethnology, 1881-2. Washington, 1884. Camp Rake A camp rake is made of forked branches of oak, beech, hickory, or other hard wood, thus: Cut a handle an inch thick B C and 4 feet long, of the shape shown. Flatten it on each side of A, and make a gimlet-hole through. Now cut ten branches of the shape D FE, each about 20 inches long. Flat- ten them at the E end, and make a gimlet-hole through each. Fasten all together, five on each side of the handle, asin F, | 196) 180 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll with a long nail or strong wire through all the holes; then, with a cord, lash them together, spacing them by putting the cord between. Sharpen the points of the teeth, and your rake is ready. — = x Camp Broom There are two ways of making a camp broom. First, the twig broom. This is easily made as follows: Cut a handle an inch thick, and shape it to a shoulder, as in A BC. Lash on birch or other fine twigs, one layer at a time, until suff- ciently thick, as D L. Now at F, put a final lashing of cord. This draws the broom together, and binds it firmly to the handle. Trim the ends even with the axe, and it is ready for use. The other style is the backwoods broom. This was usually made of blue-beech or hickory. A 4-foot piece of a 4-inch green trunk is best. After the bark 1s removed, shavings 18 inches long are cut and stripped down, left attached at J, and bent back over the end until there 1s a bunch of them thick enough; when they are bound together with a cord and appear asin K. Now thin down the rest of the handle L M, and the broom needs only a little drying out to be finished. Is III H I Rubbing-stick Fire I have certainly made a thousand fires with rubbing sticks, and have made at least five hnndred different experiments. So far as J can learn, my own record of thirty-one seconds from taking the sticks to having the fire ablaze is the world’s 197) Handicrafts 181 record,* and I can safely promise this: That every man who will follow the instructions I now give, will certainly succeed in making a rubbing-stick fire. Take a piece of dry, sound, balsam-fir wood (or else yucca, cedar, cypress, tamarac, basswood, or cottonwood, in order of choice) and make of it a drill and a block, thus: Tools for firemaking The Drill The drill should be not more than five-eighths of an inch in diameter and 12 to 15 inches long. The larger your drill, the harder you have to work. There is no use in having an immense pile of powder to get a spark. If the drill averages five-eighths of an inch in diameter, is perfectly straight, and tapers off at the top nicely, it will revolve smoothly and bring your spark quickly. The drill should be held perpendicularly, and should be held solidly by the hand resting firmly against the shin bone. The drill should be placed in the bow so that the loop is on the outside of the thong away from the bow. This prevents the drill from rubbing against the bow. _ Block, or board, two inches wide, six or eight inches long, five-eighths of an inch thick. In this block, near one end, cut a side notch one-half an inch deep, and near its end half ‘an inch from the edge make a little hollow or pit in the top of the block, as in the illustration (cut b). The notch should be cut into the board deeper at the

  • This was written 20 years ago; since then the record has been

repeatedly lowered by others as well as myself. 198) 199) Handicrafts 183 bottom than at the top, and wider from a side view at the bottom than at the top. The narrower the notch is, while al- lowing the powder to drop, the better. The notch should be so cut that when the hole has been drilled, there will be just a little slit running from the side to the center of the hole through which the powder drops down. The wood must be cut smooth, or the spark may stick and not drop below. I have found it best to have the notch face me rather than have it on the other side of the board away from me. I have noticed that the average person leans his drill, which causes it to push against the outside rim of the hole and to break the side away. Usually it is better to start your hole above the notch and then open up the notch until it connects with the hole. Tinder. For tinder use a wad of fine, soft, very dry, dead grass mixed with shredded cedar bark, birch bark, or even cedar wood scraped into a soft mass. A meadow mouse’s nest does very well for tinder. It is easy to get a number of them after the snow has gone from the wet meadows in springtime. Bow. Make a bow of any curved stick two feet long, with a strong buckskin or belt-lacing thong on it (cut c). Socket. Finally, you need a socket. This simple little thing is made in many different ways. Sometimes I use a pine or hemlock knot with a pit one quarter inch deep, made by boring with the knife point. But it 1s a great help to have a good one made of a piece of smooth, hard stone or marble, set in wood ; the stone or marble having in it a smooth, round pit three-eighths inch wide and three-eighths inch deep. The one I use most was made by the Eskimo. A view of the under side is shown in cut d. The hole in the stone should .be large enough and deep enough to hold the upper point of the drill solidly without slipping out. The socket itself should not be held in the fin- gers but in the palm of the hand. Never let a light muscle do what a heavy muscle can do. There is a very general tendency to let the wrist get away from the shin bone, which leaves the hand wobbling, unsupported in the air. The Foot. The foot is placed close to the drill, with all the weight on the ball of the foot, the heel off the floor so that you can regulate the pressure by the raising and lower- ing of the heel. Now we are ready to make the fire: 200) 184 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Under the notch in the fire-block set a thin chip. Turn the leather thong of the bow once around the drill: the thong should now be quite tight. Put one point of the drill into the pit of the block, and on the upper end put the socket, which is held in the left hand, with the top of the drill in the hole of the stone. Hold the left wrist against the left shin, and the left foot on the fire-block. Now draw the right hand back and forth steadily on level and the full length of the bow. This causes the drill to twirl in the pit. Soon it bores in, grinding out powder, which presently begins to smoke. When there is a great volume of smoke from a growing pile of black powder, you know that you have the spark. Cautiously lift the block, leaving the smoking powder on the chip. Fan this with your hand till the live coal appears. Now, put a wad of the tinder gently on the spark; raise the chip to a convenient height, and blow till it bursts into flame. N. B. The notch must reach the middle of the fire-pit. You must hold the drill steadily upright, and cannot do so without bracing the left wrist against the left shin, and having the block on a firm foundation. You must begin lightly and slowly, pressing heavily and sawing fast after there 1s smoke. The Spark. When you get your spark, hold your left hand on the board as you take your foot off, and tap with the right hand (to loosen any spark that might hang onto the notch) before lifting the board. When you put your tinder on the spark, hold it down in the back and on the sides so that you will not blow the spark away. If the fire does not come, it is because you have not fol- lowed these instructions. The Medicine Bag TY 12 II N12 By ELtswortH JAEGER The medicine bag’ is made of leather or felt. The design is in beadwork, quillwork, or applique, and is placed on the bag before lacing together. The lacing may be of a contrasting color, which adds some- thing to the decorative effect. This bag may be utilized to hold the pipe for the Peace 201) Handicrafts 185 He te 1a ‘i es oEsg vane ooeoant0 Mepiciné BAG as = SHOWING “PATTERN of BAG FOLD on DOTTED LINE &, STITCH TOGETHER. THUNDER. ob DESIGNS PAINTED POCKET FoR. SOCKET 202)


Pipe Ceremony, or as a pouch in which to carry notes, curios, scout reports, etc., to create good medicine in council.

All of this material not only gives the Woodcrafter something unusual and colorful to make in handicraft, but adds picturesqueness and romance to the council.

The Tinder Bag

I BB 2

By Ellsworth Jaeger

The tinder bag illustrated is a more elaborate pouch for the rubbing-stick outfit. It can be made of a variety of materials, but leather looks best.

The fringe is cut, and the design and socket pocket are sewed on, before the side of the bag is laced.

Some of the Woodcrafters have made most elaborate bags, beautifully designed and embellished, which are highly prized by them.

Making a Fire Stick Bag

I BB 2

By Julia M. Butree

When one has made a set of fire sticks, out of material of one’s own gathering, there is a personality to the otherwise common bits of wood. He has put himself into the thing, has become a part of it, the two inseparable for all time to come.

It now becomes necessary to provide housing for such a precious spirit. The fire stick bag is the answer.

To be sure, this is an individual matter; no two would (or should) be alike. But there was a practical usefulness to the bag that I made, which may serve some other fire worshiper.

When the priest sets about begetting his fire, it is desirable that all his tools be within easy reach and visibility. Therefore it is well to have a small rug of some kind on which to place these before starting. If it be white, they show up that much more.

So, I first made an oblong 24 x 15 inches, of white felt. In the center, I appliqued the symbol of the Four-fold Fire in brilliant orange. In the four corners, I sewed on the totems 203) Handicrafts 187 of our four Lamps,—a rainbow for Beauty; a symbolic face with an arrow coming straight out of the mouth, for Truth; an iron-bound heart for Fortitude; and a tadpole, the Indian symbol of Spring, for Love. I put a black border 34 of an inch around the edge, and had a striking symbolic mat. Now I cut a rectangle of the same size from brown lea- ther, decorated it with a beaded circle depicting my Council Fire Name, and a simple beaded border all around. These two rectangles, I sewed firmly together on three sides. The fourth side I provided with snap fasteners which could be secured after my rubbing sticks were safely en- sconced in the bag. On the black border of the white mat, I put a number more of the snap fasteners, so the whole could be folded long ways in half, to be a comfortable size and shape to carry about either by hand, or tucked away in a suit case. Altar Cloth and Prayer Rugs IY II N12 By Jutia M. BuTTREE This leads naturally to the making of an altar cloth and prayer rugs. If the council be outdoors, the altar cloth is unnecessary, since the sand painting will be made directly on the ground with flour, lime, salt, or other white powder ; but the prayer rugs are of practical value in that they keep the law-reciters clean and warm, as they kneel in their places. If the council be indoors, the fire-proof altar cloth is a measure of safety; and the prayer rugs, though not so neces- sary, are an added touch of color which is helpful to the general picture. The altar cloth is a square yard of asbestos cloth or other fire-proofed material (such as burlap), with the sand paint- ing permanently painted thereon in red and white. This is placed on the floor under the fire bowls. The four prayer rugs are for the corners, each represent- ing one Lamp. The designs are as noted for the priests’ rug, in any brilliant color on a white background, and embellished according to the desire and ability of the maker. 204) 188 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 4, FRINGE A Ay SE = PIONEER HUNTING il _— = Sr es ARAPAHO } "STRIKE } A LIGHT"!

POUCH. 

WS. DESIGN PAINTED

TOOLED OR BEADED 

‘i Noe ve nen 7 WHEN Punckin _x% OLES-Punct =A. ALL 3 PIECES Sel at once TO = INSURL EVE LACING + 205)

The Pioneer Hunting Pouch

By Ellsworth Jaeger

The pioneer hunting pouch is made of buckskin, goatskin, calfskin, sheepskin, or felt.

The design may be painted, beaded, appliqued or made of quill work; and should be placed before pieces are laced together.

Fringe is inserted between front and back pieces of the bag as in the Axe Sheath, and all three pieces are then laced together.

This bag, with the Tinder Horn attached, can be used as the Fire Maker’s regalia, and gives a picturesqueness to the council.

The Arapaho “Strike-a-Light” Pouch

By Ellsworth Jaeger

The Arapaho strike-a-light pouch is another type of bag to hold flint and steel, or tinder. It is made of two pieces of leather.

The design and belt loop are placed before the pouch is laced together.

The fringe, in this case, is cut on the back piece of the pouch. After fringing; it is laced together with thongs.

BLAZES AND SIGNS

Blazes

II OO 6,8

First among the trail signs that are used by Woodcrafters, Indians, and white hunters, and most likely to be of use to the traveler, are axe blazes on tree trunks. Among these some may vary greatly with locality, but there is one that I have found everywhere .in use with scarcely any variation. That is the simple white spot meaning, “Here ts the trail.”

The Indian in making it may nick off an infinitesimal speck of bark with his knife, the trapper with his hatchet may make it as big as a dollar, or the settler with his heavy axe may slab 206) 190 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll off half the tree-side ; but the sign is the same in principle and in meaning, on trunk, log, or branch from Atlantic to Pacific and from Hudson Strait to Rio Grande. “This is your trail,’ it clearly says in the universal language of the woods. There are two ways of employing it: one when it appears on back and front of the trunk, so that the trail can be run both ways; the other when it appears on but one side of each tree, making a blind trail, which can be run one way only. The blind trail is often used by trappers and prospectors, who do not wish any one to follow their back track. But there are treeless regions where the trail must be marked; regions of sage brush and sand, regions of rock, stretches of stone, and level wastes of grass or sedge. Here other methods must be employed. A well-known Indian device, in the brush, is to break a twig and leave it hanging (second line). Among stones and rocks the recognized sign is one stone set on top of another (top line) and in places where there is nothing but grass the custom is to twist a tussock into a knot (third line). These signs also are used in the whole country from Maine. to California. In running a trail one naturally looks straight ahead for the next sign; if the trail turned abruptly without notice one might easily be set wrong, but custom has provided against this. The tree blaze for turn ‘‘to the right” is shown in No. 2, fourth row; “to the left” in No. 3. The greater length of the turning blaze seems to be due to a desire for emphasis as the same mark set square on is understood to mean ‘‘Look out, there is something of special importance here.” Combined with a long side chip it means “very 1m- portant ; here turn aside.” This is often used to mean “camp is close by,” and a third sign that is variously combined but always with the general meaning of “warning” or “some- thing of great importance” is a threefold blaze. (No. 4 on fourth line.) The combination (No. 1 on bottom row) would read “Look out now for something of great impor- tance to the right.” This blaze I have often seen used. by trappers to mark the whereabouts of their trap or cache. Surveyors often use a similar mark—that is, three simple spots and a stripe to mean, “There is a stake close at hand,” 207) Handicrafts 191 A ATep to SIGNS AND BLAZES Signs in Stones ce BoC This is the Trail Turn to the Right ‘Turn to the Left. Important Warning Signs in Twigs Ma, : % 3 Sky ‘& . This is the Trail Turn to the Right TurntotheLeft Important Warning Signs in Grass ( wh. ' wt. Oh. : ? ¢y This is the Trail Turn to the Right Turn to the Left Important Warning Signs in Blaz Turn to the Right' Turn to the Left Important Warning Code for Smoke Jignals | Sa te JY . SS ee eg . = = SDSS a 3 Oe = = a 7 i = = 3 ; j Camp is Here’ Lam lost. Help! Good News All come to Council Some Special Blazes used by Hunters & Surveyors rats PAIRS Adirondack Ji urveyors Right Left Right Left Special = Line Here ATrap tu Campis to Camp is | 208) Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Woodcraft Blazes in Town Point officially fixed; checked off; that direction; a crossing three posts ahead; live wire; dangerous curve; exact center; both ways; equals; parallel; divided by; number. TURN RIGHT CURVE OR DESCENT J | SCHOOL SLOW SLOW AND CAREFUL e - 2o ZONE OF QUIET — Standard Signs of the Road 209) Handicrafts 193 while a similar blaze on another tree near by means that the stake is on a line between. Stone Signs These signs done into stone-talk would be as in the top line of the cut. These are much used in the Rockies where the trail goes over stony places or along stretches of slide-rock. Grass and Twig Signs _ In grass or sedge the top of the tuft is made to show the direction to be followed ; if it is a point of great importance three tufts are tied, their tops straight if the trail goes straight on; otherwise the tops are turned in the direction toward which the course turns. The Ojibways and other woodland tribes use twigs for a great many of these signs. (See second row.) The hanging broken twig like the simple blaze means “This is the trail.” The twig clean broken off and laid on the ground across the line of march means, “Here break from your straight course and go in the line of the butt end,” and when an especial warning is meant, the butt is pointed toward the one follow- ing the trail and raised somewhat, in a forked twig. If the butt of the twig were raised and pointing to the left, it would mean “Look out, camp, or ourselves, or the enemy, or the game we have killed is out that way.” With some, the eleva- tion of the butt is made to show the distance of the object; if low the object is near, if raised very high the object is a long way off. These are the principal signs of the trail used by Wood- crafters, Indians, and hunters in most parts of America. These are the standards—the ones sure to be seen by those who camp in the wilderness. Smoke Signals There is in addition a useful kind of sign—that is, the Smoke Signal. These were used chiefly by the Plains In- dians, but the Ojibways seem to have employed them at times. : 210) 194 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll A clear hot fire was made, then covered with green stuff or rotten wood so that it sent up a solid column of black smoke. By spreading and lifting a blanket over this smudge the column could be cut up into pieces long or short, and by a preconcerted code these could be made to convey tidings. But the simplest of all smoke codes and the one of chief use to the Western traveler is this: One steady smoke—“Here is camp.” Two steady smokes—‘I am lost, come and help me.” I find two other smoke signals, namely: Three smokes in a row—‘‘Good news.” Four smokes in a row—‘“All are summoned to council.” These latter I find not of general use, nor are they so likely to be of service as the first two given. Signal by Shots The old buffalo hunters had an established signal that is yet used by the mountain guides. It is as follows: Two shots in rapid succession, an interval of five seconds by the watch, then one shot; this means, “Where are you?” The answer given at once and exactly the same means “Here I am; what do you want?’ The reply to this may be one shot, which means, “All right; I only wanted to know where you were.” But if the reply repeats the first it means, “I am in serious trouble; come as fast as you can.” Tramp Signs Among the many signs and blazes doing active service in our cities, just as their predecessors did in the wilderness, are the signs of tramps and gypsies. These, no doubt, vary from time to time, but they must be fairly permanent and general; otherwise, they would not serve their purpose. | An interesting article on Tramp Signs appears in the American Examiner of January 30, I910. It is accredited to Professor Wallace Ernster (Michigan University) and Chief of Police C. J. McCabe, of Poughkeepsie, N. Y. It gives the following as well-established Tramp Signs: 211) Handicrafts 195 Burglar Alarms and... telephone Look out | _ gun handy os a A « WomarTe here ; easy. AN = Old woman Go by! Pliceman . x =Man Constable or Judges house This camp is Safe x 32 = Child 1? Make you Work = T 4 = Old Man twill . A rygne 2 wy = vicious ~ Dog “Worth robbing D = No vse . K for O : Xp = Mester To these, the Reverend Horace E. Clute, of New York, in December 6, 1914, issue of the same paper adds: 04 s Good for a,meal VM . « Tell ayarn There are W ment hovs [rrr] = Pog In Chambers’ Encyclopedia, 1901, is an important article on Vagrants. The author is Chief Constable Henderson. He notes the fact that “The Book of Vagabonds and Beg- > gars,” edited by Martin Luther in 1529, is one of the most ‘interesting and instructive records of Vagrants, and classi- fies them in twenty-eight well-known groups. 212) 196 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll He then gives the following blazes used by Vagrants, Tramps, or Mouchers in England. I do not know that these are used in America, but the same ideas are in use and some of these marks are much like the corresponding ones in the American List. Religious but kind. Go in this direction; the other road not Stop. If you are good. selling what they hap- pen to want, they'll VW Spoiled; too many buy; they are cute. vagrants call. Mind the dog may (*) Dangerous; likely give you in Charge. to be given in charge. the junction of roads ing. to show in which di- rection their friends have gone before Good; safe for them; the long limb something if you don’t pointing the way. talk much. Cross sticks put by a gypsies and tramps at xX Too poor, give noth- Automobile Signals The officer regulating the traffic uses daily and hourly at least a dozen signs of the hand sign language. Thus: stop, come, hurry, go, easy, go by, go left, go right, go straight, I warn you, go to the curb, there, here, you, me, him, tut-tut, yes, no, I don’t understand, I don’t care, I can’t hear. All of these are very ancient, well-known and much used. All are set forth in the listed signs of the Book of Wood- craft. But there are a few that the automobilist has developed recently. They are quite new and have been made official ; as follows: | When you are driving and wish to signal the driver behind you, warning or stop is signaled by your flat left hand held out of the window, thumb up. Left turn, that is, I am going to the left: hand out with fingers closed and index finger pointing to left and up- wards. 213) - Handicrafts 197 Right turn, that is, I am going to the right: Same as the foregoing, but index finger pointed down and out. Go by me: Flat hand with fingers slightly spread, rotated. Indian Names for the Months Most all primitive people called the months “Moons.” The North American Indians particularly were noted for naming the months quaintly and well. The following is a list which may be used: (January) Snow, (February) Hunger, (March) Crow or Wakening, (April) Wild Goose or Green Grass, (May) Planting, (June) Rose, (July) Thunder, (August) Green Corn or Red, (September) Hunting, (October) Falling Leaf, (November) Mad, (December) Long Night. The Indian Village IEE2 II P2 By Ernest THOMPSON SETON The map shows the plan of a model Indian Village of Woodcraft type, laid out on one and a half acres of land, and surrounded by a barbwire fence. If more land were available, the buildings and lodges might be farther apart with advantage—almost twice as far as herein. This Village houses 100 boys or girls. If they are chil- dren of the Little Lodge, nearly twice as many might be accommodated by putting two in a bed. Of course, the structures must be varied to suit the ma- terials of a given region. I shali first assume that we are in a country where rough lumber slabs, and chestnut, cedar or locust posts are available at little cost; also flat stones for chimneys, and abundance of old canvas, and green slate roof-paper in quantity. Taking the buildings in order as we approach: The Indian Office or administration building, is frame, 8 x 10, and 6 feet high at the eaves. The walls are of board or other cheap stuff, but the roof is a Woodcraft roof, made thus: When ridge, perline and eaves are ready for the roof, lay on slabs, round side up. With a hatchet then, they are trimmed so no points or knobs stick up to puncture the cov- ering. Then, on this, the ordinary roofing paper is laid, 214) 215) 216) 200 - Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll pressed down into all the hollows. Finally, it is splashed with yellow, green, black and white paint, and the result is a picturesque and satisfactory roof. In one or two cases, when boards only were available for the roof, I laid the paper on flat as usual, but covered the roof afterwards with a few long slabs and narrow slats that broke the plain, unpicturesque surface. The Smoke House or kitchen is a common frame build- ing, 8 x 10, 6 feet at the eaves, 714 at ridge inside; with a good range picked up second-hand. A stone chimney avoids the perils of a common stove-pipe, and adds to the appear- ance of the building. The Long House or Tepee Wakan is 12 x 30 feet, 6 feet high at the eaves, 8 feet at the ridge. The frame is made thus: 6-inch posts of locust or cedar are sunk 214 feet in the ground, 6 feet apart; that is, six on each side, and one in the middle of the door end. On these posts are nailed 2 x 4’s, or else straight poles, to form plates and sill. On these, siding is nailed—it may be common sheathing. If slabs are used, they may be spiked on upright, with strips nailed on inside to cover the joints. The windows may be of any old sash available, and should be made to slide sidewise, or hinged at the bottom to swing in at the top for a foot or more. This simplifies the flyscreening, if any be needed. As this is the eating hall and meeting place in wet weather, it should be well lighted. The stone fireplace at one end is a most desirable feature. This room, being 30 feet long, will accommodate 60 boys or girls, assuming two long tables, fixed benches around the wall, and movable benches down the middle. If I00 are in camp, it means a relay of two servings. The Toilets are strictly of Woodcraft type. (See p. 229). Four toilets are shown, because they should be of easy access from the sleeping quarters. It reduces the proportionate cost if the building be of double size,—that is, two addi- tional seats on the other side of the back, making a double. In most ways, however, this is less convenient. Six seats are enough for a camp of 50. It is very helpful to put up a few board screens among the-trees close to these toilets where the boys may retire for short calls. This much reduces the crowding of the toilets, and obviates much danger of bad odor. Trash Burner. Dig a hole a foot deep and 4 feet across. 217) Handicrafts 201 ~~ “Baro-wire fenee : ‘ —_—eeoernrreer Q barbage ‘? Owe

~~ burner’ Ko 

( > ¢ ©) Ssmoke <4 E house. of & Roa. —> Teer ww wetn i WIA . Sy A, “Cooking 20) Long-housey) , PAP =° 12% 304 / x . - 4 + *feeldewn> —_— /! 4 “ely ™~ Hwee The a / “” , ct © Oe 7 " be SNe os? C cy . “ Taiter ¢ Toler © , / (3 l , yf Toler -fole WR" hov sf oes io is 4 f i of Gone tf ‘ ut- ° { ’ bath —— ( Bun k- house 10 X 4$~ Byn k-hovse OK 1S ° pen op 07 Si 150 feet — os WOoOOoDCRAFT INDIAN VILLAGE 218) 202 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Inside, build a dry-stone circular wall, 2 feet high, leaving an 18-inch opening at one side for fire hole and draught. On this wall, lay a lot of old irons—bedsteads, anything of iron—then, on this, some scraps of chicken wire. Then con- tinue the stone wall 3 feet higher. Put wood, paper, etc., underneath, garbage and tins on top, and fire once a week. Tepees. Tents may, of course, be used, and are good for some conditions. But the true Indian touch is given by the tepee, with its romantic paintings and the glow of the fire inside. Those who wish to make a correct Plains Indian tepee,— detachable cover, with smoke flaps, lacing pins, peg loops, and ceremonial door, are referred to the article on page 246; also to Buttree’s Rhythm of the Redman, where a very full description is given. But it would cost at least $50 per cover alone, so that I recommend the Chipewyan tepee, which can be made of scrap canvas, and by any one. This has the disadvantage of being neither detachable nor transportable. You build it at one place, and leave it there till it rots—a period of 10 or I5 years. | The Bunk Houses. Each bunk house, or War lodge, is 10 feet x 15 feet on the plan; and is furnished with a double tier of wooden bunks, each 3 feet wide and 6 feet long; with 2 extra ones at the far end, and 2 extra at the door end. That is, 12 bunks to accommodate as many men, or twice as many children. The bunk house has a slab roof, a screen door, and two screened gables for ventilation. It is better to have two small bunk houses than one big one—that is, do not put too many occupants in one house. Each bunk house should have a trash box or can nearby. Totem Pole. A cast-off teleprone pole makes a good totem pole. It should be carved and painted before being set up. All totem poles must bear the Woodcraft emblem, also the totems that are of especial interest to the Village. The Totem Board is attached on the lower part of the pole. This is to post notices on; anything put on the totem board 1s considered published. : Sun Bath. This is any secluded, sunny place where the campers can play in the sun for 20 minutes to half an hour, absolutely nude, and beyond reach of prying eyes. In my own Indian Village at Greenwich, it is a large island, with 219) Handicrafts 203 a screening fringe of bushes and a barbwire fence around all. It has one entrance through a gate which may be pad- locked. In some Villages, we have had the sun bath on a distant hilltop; and in some, we have had it on a big scow moored away from the shore. -In each place, we find a new solution for the problems of how and where. Sweat Lodge. See article below. Council Ring. The great central heart of the Woodcraft Village is the Council Ring. This is the dramatic presenta- tion of the whole scheme and truth of Woodcraft. The making of it is fully set forth on page 21Io. The finishing touch to the Indian Village is its ornamenta- tion. The Indian beautifies everything in his life, so far as he can. We can, therefore, find abundance of real Indian decoration for tepee, lodge, etc. Beginners, especially, are cautioned not to invent patterns of decoration; but copy authentic Indian designs, of which an abundance are to be found in the publications of the Smithsonian Institution, and the American Museum; also some very good selected ones in Buttree’s Rhythm of the Redman. How to Make a Sweat Lodge IIM , IV KY By Ernest THOMPSON SETON We need, first, 12 limber willow rods, each 12 feet long | and 114 inches thick at the butt. In an oval about rox4, on the lake shore, 1f possible, drive a short sharp stake at 12 equidistant points, pull out the stakes, and push into each hole the butt of a willow rod, wedging them in so they are firmly embedded in the ground. After all are placed, bend the tops inward, and tie each to the opposite until a skeleton dome is made. A rod around, tied horizontally to each upright makes the frame stiff ; then cover the whole with ponchos, old blankets or waterproof canvas. Inside the lodge, a shallow pit is dug near one side. A fire is built 12 or 15 feet away on the outside of the lodge; and in this a number of stones are heated. The patient strips and goes in. His helper, outside at the fire, tends the stones. These, when nearly red hot, are rolled in under the cover of the sweat lodge into the pit. The pa- 220) 204 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll tient has a bucket of water and a cup. He pours water on the hot stones, and a dense steam arises which fills the lodge. The more water on the stones, of course, the greater the steam. Aromatic herbs or leaves are sometimes thrown in the water. The aroma of cedar is very pleasant in the lodge, and most beneficial to the patient. Meantime, the patient drinks plenty of water, and is soon in a profuse sweat. Fifteen minutes of this 1s enough for most persons. The patient then comes out, plunges into the cold lake for a moment, then is thoroughly rubbed down, rolled up in his blankets, and put away to sleep. The sweat bath is a splendid remedy for colds, rheuma- tism, sluggish skin, etc., if taken properly with the cold plunge so as to avoid getting chilled. It must not be taken too soon after a meal—not less than two hours after. It must also not be overdone, as it is then weakening; and is not good for those with weak hearts. Most Indians took it once a week, and some tribes took it 221) Handicrafts 205 every day. With them, it was religion as well as a hygienic performance; and was accompanied by special prayers, also the taking of purgatives. IK IV D 4 Water, or the Indian Well If there is a swamp or pond, but no pure water at hand, you can dig an Indian well in half an hour. This is simply a hole about 18 inches across and down about 6 inches below water-level, a few paces from the pond. Bail it out quickly; let it fill again, bail it a second time, and the third time it fills, it will be full of filtered water, clear of everything except matter actually dissolved. It is now well known that ordinary vegetable matter does not cause disease. All contamination is from animal refuse or excreta, therefore a well of this kind in a truly wild region is as safe as a spring. White Man’s Woodcraft or Measuring Weights and Distance Would you like to tell a dog’s height by its track? Then take the length in inches of his forefoot track, multiply it by eight, and that will give you his height at the shoulder. A little dog has a 2'%-inch foot and stands about eighteen inches ; a sheepdog with a 3-inch track measures twenty-four inches, and a mastiff or any big dog with a 4-inch track gives thirty to thirty-two inches. The dog’s weight, too, can be judged by the track. Multi- ply the width of his forefoot in inches by the length, and multiply that by five and you will have a pretty close esti- mate of his weight in pounds. This, of course, does not apply to freak dogs. IlD2,3 The Height of Trees To get the height of a tree, cut a pole ten feet long. Choos- ing the smoothest ground A, prop the pole some distance from the tree. Lay down so that the eye B is level with the tree base and in line with the top of the pole and the tree. Mark the spot B with a peg and measure the distance from the peg to the foot of the pole, then from the peg to the 222) 206 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll foot of the tree. The height of the tree will be found by the formula: the distance between the peg and the pole is to the height of the pole as the distance between the peg and the tree is to the height of the tree or BA: AC::BE:X. This may be proved by selecting a knot on the tree which may be easily climbed to. See inside line. C7 58 &k To Measure Distance Across a Stream Drive a stake at H. To measure distance from H to D cut three straight poles of exactly the same length and peg them together in a triangle. Place the triangle on the bank Tattle Aemlock. D> at A, B, C, sighting the line A B for the spot at D, and put three pegs in the ground exactly under the three pegs where the triangle is. Move the triangle to E F G and placing it so that F G should line with A C, and EG with D. Now AG. 223) Handicrafts 207 D almost must be an equilateral triangle; therefore, accord- ing to arithmetic, the line D H must be seven eighths of A G, which can of course be easily measured. To Measure Distance Between Two Objects at a Distance Cut three poles six, eight, and ten feet long and peg them together in a triangle. A B C is a right angle according to. the laws of mathematics if the legs of the triangle are six, eight, and ten. Place the right angle on the shore, the side O The GM ccc c cece e cece seen Tite ——— —— ls =Ss - A B pointing to the inner side of the first object D (say a tree), and the side B C as nearly as possible parallel with the line between the two trees. Put in a stake at B, another at C, and continue this line toward K. Now slide the tri- angle along this till the side G F points to E, and the side H G is in line with C B. The distance from D to E, of course, is equal to B G. See “Two Little Savages,” 1903. The Indoor Council Ring Wall Hangings Most of our Councils will be indoors. In the next article I give directions for turning a grocery box into a successful Council seat. Three other important things will complete the possibility of Woodcraft at- mosphere: 224) 208 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll The Council Rock, or Chief’s seat. The Fire, or its symbol in the center. The Wall Hangings to hide discordant surroundings. Because it is least understood, I shall treat the last of these first. There is one simple and effective way of turning the saddest and ugliest of interior walls into a thing of beauty and pleasant remembrance. Get enough common, cheap, rough burlap to cover the walls all around from a line 1 foot from the floor to a line fi a ; LEE: RO RRMA le T oa B i Ie SOs cf rele of alee 7 feet from the floor, that is 6 feet wide, and in sections g feet long. The burlap should be of the ordinary yellowish gray, without holes, but as coarse grained as possible. This is to be decorated with painted designs, but first let me turn aside and lay down some principles for its dec- oration. Ist. Never use photographs or realistic pictures in this decoration. No one, not even the cleverest artists, can make them successful. and. Always use symbols. No one can wholly fail with these. They have furthermore an appeal to the imagination ; they set it free to soar, while the photographs chain it to the ground. 3rd. Use very few and very quiet colors in flat tints. Some of the best have been done in black, white, or red, with the ground color of the burlap everywhere showing through. Some have added a little pale turquoise blue. A great col- 225) Handicrafts 209 orist could use the whole box with advantage, but let the beginners stick to three, or at most four, low tone colors. Oil colors thinned with kerosene are best. 4th. Do not try to make the tapestry—for that is what it is—one scene or a picture, or anything but a record. Don’t ‘worry about perspective or any of the limitations of realism. Make it a quiet-colored record in symbols, of events that belong to your tribe, or Council Ring, and ever keep this strongly in view—imitative realism will be certain to fail, symbolic record certain to succeed. With this in mind, let us by way of illustration design a tapestry, to record the history of a certain tribe. It was founded in 1902, first sun of Song moon, by Chief Black Wolf, who lighted their. first fire with rubbing sticks. Pine trees and a storm over them are shown as well as four lodges besides the big lodge. | In 1903 a robin built a nest on their big tepee. In 1904 it formed an alliance with the Y. M. C. A. In 1905 four of its members made a big canoe trip and two deer came into camp. Many more events are recorded, but can be read only by those who know the history. Four different styles of border are illustrated, but it 1s bet- ter to keep it the same all around. A Woodcraft Stool Many Woodcraft groups that meet in a room, for lack of a real Council Ring, are put to it for something that will give the picturesque touch, the real Woodcraft flavor, to the circle. oO pe ral { Win One of the simplest, most satisfactory ways is for each to make his own seat in the council. Assuming that you are in town, and have little to help in the way of tools or ma- terials, the quickest way is for each to get a strong grocery box about 8 or Io inches high (not over 12 for the inner 226) 210 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll circle). Draw out all unnecessary nails, smooth it, remove all printing or papers, round the corners. Save the lid, as it will furnish the back pieces. Round off all sharp corners, and vary all straight lines, using a knife. Finally paint it with any good Woodcraft device in symbols, never in realistic pictures; and never try to hide the structure. If the wood is cleared off, it will do for the ground color; then the pattern may be put in with black, blue, red, or brown, using one or two, or perhaps three colors. The own- er’s tribe totem should appear somewhere. Cuts A and B show one of the stools that I made in 14 hours, then took 114 hours to paint it (C and D) ; total three hours. Woodcraft is “What you have, where you are, right now.” Therefore, if nothing but grocery boxes are at hand, use them; but out in camp one can get the branches of chestnut or pine, and for these a different pattern is recommended. The simplest is the old log stool. Get a chestnut, pine, or other soft wood log, about 12 inches thick and 16 inches long (E). Split it in or near the middle, with an axe. Now get two smaller logs, each about 6 inches thick and 15 inches long (F and G). Notch the big log so that it sits solid on them and can be nailed there. Two limbs each 3 inches thick and 20 inches long (H, H) nailed on to both under-log and seat, form uprights to which the back may be nailed (I). This forms a very strong seat (J) and may be decorated as in previous sketches. IYY1 IIIN . IVS ‘ Woodcraft Outdoor Council Ring No camp can be truly a Woodcraft Camp without a Coun- cil Ring. The Council Ring in the woods about the fire was the original grouping of mankind. When so arranged, we 227) Handicrafts 211 get at once the ancient spirit of the woods—the democratic equalization of responsibility and of honor. I do not feel that any camp can get the best results without a Council Ring, no matter what organization it may belong to. I have made 86 of these personally, and that means partly Lian of Council & nr APIRE} eee at least with my dwn hands, and have been responsible for the building of many more. These are the essentials :—a dry, level, beautiful place in the woods, not more than a quarter of a mile from head- quarters, and out of sound of the kitchen. It must be at least forty feet across—that allows for the open circle in the middle of twenty-four feet across. Having selected the exact spot, take a 12-foot cord; drive in the stake at the probable center, then try the 12-foot radius from it until you have found the spot that will destroy the fewest trees, and call for least labor in leveling. Set out a dozen or more stakes to mark the rim of. this 24-foot circle. Now begin with axe, spade, etc., to make this absolutely level—as level as a tennis court, because it 1s used for danc- ing and performances. If you have no other, you can make a level out of a saucer full of water set on a 10-foot board. The earth cut off the high places is usually enough to level up the low places. | At one side should be the “Council Rock” against one or more big trees, if possible, or a high rock. The Council Rock is usually a plank seat 15 inches high and 8 feet 228) 2i2 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll long—to accommodate the Chiefs who are running the Coun- cil, and the distinguished visitors. Right opposite, as nearly as convenient, should be an opening for entrance; all around the circle elsewhere should be seats 10 or 12 inches high, with a comfortable back to each. The plan of the Council Ring is as in the diagram, but omits the back to each seat; the other details of the seats are sufficiently shown. To make the seats, cut about 14 sections of a 10-inch log, each about 18 inches long. Lay these flat on the ground, about 5 feet apart, radiating from the center, each at a place where it can carry the end of a 5-foot plank; have them firmly and evenly bedded. On these, nail pieces of plank, using heavy nails. Make the Council Rock in the same way, but a few inches higher, with a back piece against the tree. The Ring is now ready for use, and will accommodate about 60, but it is well always to add a back to the seats, for one cannot give full attention if uncomfortable. The simplest way to carry this out is by driving a 4-inch stake down alongside the block that projects back of the seat. Let this stick up about 18 inches above the seat and lean backward a little; nail it to the side of the under block. At a height about 14 inches above the seat, spike on either a board, a slat or a pole to make a comfortable back rest. The sketches show the plan, etc. Of course, it is all the bet- ter if the poles be flattened with a hatchet where they are to be nailed together. If more seats are needed, a second row can be made out- side the first with a space between of 18 inches. The outer ring should be at least 6 inches higher than the inner. The Fire is placed about 2 feet off the center, nearer the 229) Handicrafts 213 door, so as to increase the open space next the Council Rock, where the performances take place. As final ornaments, a bar may be nailed across the tree 8 feet above the Council Rock to carry the Chief’s Robe or other Ceremonial Robe during Council, and last of all a Totem _Pole may be set up opposite the Council Rock, near the entrance, but outside. ~Never forget that beauty of approach, as well as of sur- roundings and details, is all-important in creating the true atmosphere. The Covered Council Ring In the previous article I gave the plans for building the usual woodland Council Ring, for use chiefly in summer and in fine weather. The Covered Council is good in any weather and the year round. The one we use, and on which I built my model, is a close copy of the old Sioux Council Ring, with one or two slight modifications. The materials needed are: Q posts of cedar or chestnut about 10 inches at the butt and 10 feet long ............. 2. ce eee eee $5.00 Q others 13 feet long .......... cee eee eee ee eee 7.00 A lot of chestnut, cedar, spruce or pine poles for frame work, 4 to 8 inches thick, and amounting to 500 linear feet ........ ce ccc ee eee cece eeee 20.00 Enough chestnut slabs or else rough lumber, to cover roof, 1,200 board feet............ ccc c eee cceee 45.00 Enough slabs or lumber to close in the sides all around, 1,000 board feet................00ceeee 40.00 Boards or selected slabs for the seats, 500 board feet 20.00 Roofing paper—1,200 square feet at $3.00 per sq.... 36.00 10 lbs. of 3 inch nails, 20 Ibs. of 4 inch, 20 Ibs. of Loa 66 Cel» 4.00 Incidentals ........ 0... eee eee cee ee ee eee eeee 13.00 Materials...... $190.00 Labor usually equals the cost of material, but nowadays might be more. First, select a level place, or make one, in some quiet and picturesque spot not more than 400 yards from camp and better half that. 230) 214 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll This space must be 36 feet across, with the central 24 feet at least, dead level. lLay out the plan with 18 stakes representing the 18 posts. (Cut I.) Dig 18 post holes 2% or 3 ft. deep, set the posts a A a | ge o> NN Li f 100q7 > c ~~ YON 774uNGI DouvajyuyT UIE! Line of Simoke hole Whilh is tigh above on his Cet > 2k Bl, t A. | a A jd strongly. Saw the tops off the posts level, after they are in, leaving the outer posts 7 ft. above the level of the ground, and the inner, 10 ft. (See Cut II.) Now prepare to put up the frame. For eave-stringer over 231) Handicrafts 215 the 12 ft. space between each outer post, select a stout 13 ft. pole (A* Cut II1) say 5 or 6 inches thick. Flatten its two ends to 3 inches thick, as they are to lap the next pole on the posts. The lap joint 1s stronger than the butted joint. Spike this in place. Then at the bottom sink in another stout pole for a sill. (F in II and III.) The ends of this may be butted to the next sill where they meet on each post. Coverep Councit RING += a & Hin & ae Scale ~10tt, : : ‘Section at each pair of Post V = / Plan& y Cu ‘ of Roof. Eaves: stringer. Av + per erate! Sit outside Elevation do eeacer | Guta, Wy the J-foot fasts |i) | : For the upper, inner or 10 ft. level (B?) on the tall posts (L), the space is only 8 ft., therefore a g ft. pole will do. The innermost highest pole (C*) is across a 6 foot space, soa 7 ft. pole will answer. This last is carried on braces, one from each post. The braces (C) are 6 ft. long and must be held in place, each with a 3 ft. binder of slab “(D). The bottom of the brace (C) is notched a little way into the post (3). At the top, this brace is sawed off level; then all is strongly spiked together. 232) 216 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Roof. Having set up in 9 sections the whole frame as in Cuts II and III, you are ready for the roofing. It is not easy to get 14% ft. slabs and one can do without many of them; but it is well to have 2 or 3 in each of the 9 sections of the roof, to bind it together. (Cut IV.) Of course there should be no joints on the third stringer (C?). All breaks must come on B*. If slabs are used, it is best to set them round side up. And before laying them, cut off all knots and rough spots that might make a hole in the roof paper. Of-course, a lumber roof is much easier to manage. Finally note that each slab, or board, projects inwards 3 ft. beyond C*. All of these loose projecting ends should now be bound by nailing them to a 4 ft. slab (E, Cuts II and IV), which is placed under them, flat side up. This, it will be noted, leaves a smoke hole, 12 feet in diameter. Now for the paper roofing. The most satisfactory kind is the heavy asphalt paper covered with broken slate; green looks best of the available colors. It is usual to lay this paper on in horizontal bands, begin- ning at the top, and leaving the lower edge loose, to slip the next breadth under it. Thus you avoid walking on the paper. If nailed on slabs with round side up, you must select the nailing places carefully, letting the paper sag all it will, into the dip between each slab. Each paper strip must be cut in a gore at the end of the section ; give it 4 inches lap over the next paper on each side. The paper is best put on in warm weather, as that makes it more pliable, and less apt to break. In time the heat and rain cause it to settle down between the bumps of the slab roof, giving an agreeable and picturesque variation. Seats The simplest way to make the seats is as follows: Spike a stout 6 ft. pole (G) on the face of the posts A and B, so that its top side is 1 ft. from the ground and level ; 2% ft. back from the front of G, set up the stout strong post, H, 8 or g inches high. On this, set the heavy 3% ft. pole I, the outer end of which is spiked on the cheek of the post A; 2% ft. back from the front of I, set up another 8 inch post, and on that a thick pole K, which is 18 inches long, the outer end spiked as before to the upright post A. 233) Handicrafts 217 Of course, before nailing, all these poles, etc., must be flat- tened at the place where they fit on the other pole. Go all around the g posts, making a strong frame of this kind, except at the Council Rock, which is the Chief’s Seat. This is 2 ft. wide with a sloping back 2 ft. high. There are no seats behind it. That space is reserved for storage of fire-wood, etc. Of course, the 12 ft. space between posts is too wide for seats without support ; therefore, we must set a small upright between each pair of posts (Lin III). This upright may be a 4 inch pole, or a 2 x 4 scantling. It rests on the sill, and is butted under the eaves-stringer. This takes the place of the big posts A when it comes to spiking up the horizontal poles, G, I, K, that carry the seats. It is now an easy matter to nail on the seats, using scrap lumber or slabs, but taking care to make them comfortable and strong. Cut off all rough and sharp points. The lowest and second seats are 2 ft. 3 inches wide because they must serve as foot-rests for the row above as well as seats. The top seat is 18 inches wide. Entrance There should be two entrances, one just behind the Chief’s seat for messengers, and one at the most convenient part of the ring for the crowd. Sometimes the main entrance is right opposite the Chief, and that is perhaps best, but it does very well at whatever is the most convenient place. Slab doors with wooden hinges may be added to each en- trance if desired. Closing-In If necessary to close in the Council Hall for the weather, it is easily done by nailing 7 ft. lumber or slabs up and down between the eave-stringer and the sill, leaving space for the two doors. | Now set up two poles behind the Council Rock 6 ft. apart, 7 ft. higher than the seat; over the top of this put a 7 ft. cross bar. This is to carry the Tribal Robe while the Council sits. Now the Council Ring is complete and ready for consecration. It will seat about 200. 234) 218 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll IN IV F2 A Woodcraft Cabin When Moses instituted the Feast of Tabernacles and started the world out on an annual camping trip, he undoubt- edly had several good reasons in the back of his mind. I imagine the smallest of them was in reference to the very poor but necessary trip that his people, “his forty-niners,” made across the plains. _ The most important part of it all probably was the com- plete hark back to the primitive. His people were told to put on wilderness clothes, eat wilderness food, dwell in wilderness tabernacles, and live the wilderness life their fathers had done in the desert. The resumption of simple life was essential—this elimi- nation of the middleman—the masterful contact of the man with wild nature—this elemental face to face of man and the wilds. | I am sure this is the most valuable thing in it; and when I see a New York family building a Fifth Avenue mansion in the Adirondacks, then nailing a few slabs on the outside and calling it a “camp’—I marvel at their poverty. It does not surprise me when I learn that they add tennis, billiards, moving pictures, etc., to relieve their boredom. It does not surprise me but it fills me with sorrow. Let us face the matter frankly. There are certain great benefits and certain great dangers in camp life. It is the leader’s job to get all the good for his band, and dodge all the evil. The good things are the sun-and-air life, the calm, the sweetness of the night, and the total change of thought and home world. This last is maybe the best of all, yet the one that some campers are deliberately leaving out. It seems to me that we should begin our camping plans by leaving out everything unnecessary that we can get at home or in town—mansions with oriental fittings, electric lights, graphophones, yes, baseball and tennis as well as billiards, motor boats and motor cars, because we can get them elsewhere. They belong to another life. For the complete hark back we have two usual plans. One, the wilderness traveling trip in which we are perforce tied to dog-tents and one-night stands. This is very close to ideal. But a much larger number are limited to the per- 235) £ See SL a C XS! 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aad NS os £ 1uN eae A) Oo ~ +e. ~-7 | — — N Woe SSH PAS GQ WL Say 1 omits er Ro] Jos, of Ld PLLA Lidind "LiL ied ooo LL LLL RLU LS 236) 220 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll manent camp, and it is for these especially that this message is meant. As long as your permanent camp is of real tents or tepees -and close to the ground and hallowed with wood smells, you are getting the big good thing. But as soon as you begin to floor your tent and set up over it a permanent frame and roof, you have taken a step back toward town, a step that will rob you of some good things. It is for these that the Woodcraft cabin was built and is now recommended. For full practical application each gang should as far as possible make their own camp out of material secured by themselves from the surrounding woods or country. A leader is needed who is artistic as well as constructive, and has Woodcraft instincts, because from the very nature ‘of it every camp must be a separate proposition. In Maine, we are free to cut and use all the soft timber we want. In Carolina it would be more or less of stone, but in Texas there is no choice but “Dobies.” The Woodcraft cabin is full of the beauty of the things that grow. It has the glorious smell and magic of the woods. Its every feature stands for a little triumph of the owners over the wide world about. It has all the charms of beauty, personality, conquest and romance. The very fact that every- thing in it was made by the owners’ hands fends a consecra- tion that cannot be got in any other way. Last and largest, it rnay be blessed with the crowning glory, an open fire. The cabin may, in short, be a wonderful spiritual expe- rience that the bungalow or house can scarcely be. But all of this is providing that the cabin be of true Wood- craft construction; not one of those hideous machine-made things ground out by the mile and sold by the foot, that are sometimes called ‘‘cabins.”’ Roosevelt was a good Woodcrafter and he is credited with a saying that sums. up the spirit of Woodcraft, if we assume the outdoor surroundings. It is, “Where you are, with what you have, right now.” The Woodcraft League has found many sympathetic friends in the Y. M. C. A., and when E. M. Robinson showed his belief in the Woodcraft Way by asking us to set up a Woodcraft Cabin, a Woodcraft Council Ring and a Wood- craft Toilet in the woods at Blue Ridge to show at the great May Assembly, it was an opportunity not to be let slip. 237) Handicrafts 2921 Ridpe-hole projecting’ SS P frojecli lfootat each ° £5 purline portineyys as Long { aT | a ridge me . T i TT | | Last Elevation hl } before =| | } slabs are} | I on. | a ‘eS — a = Re te is ya ahdad N s L ted pote ied is) (8 ere FN NILIN( _f5 —)

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238) 222 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll West. Elevation before Slabs are ==} Fy place = 3M <+-Section a AUG. po” __ Pron 8 | A TUE 239) Handicrafts 223 E. M. Robinson, himself a doughty woodsman, with the Chief of the Woodcraft League, did practically all the work; and the cabin, except the fireplace, was finished in four days. The interest it aroused at the Y. M. C. A. Conference was such that many requests have come in for the plans, to be used in other camps. Please note all are free to use this; but it is asked that those who do so, even in a modified form, retain the name Woodcraft Cabin and give credit to the League, for this is a point of honor. The Woodcraft Cabin at Blue Ridge is 12 ft. x 18 ft. It is 514 ft. at the eaves, and 9 at the peak. Its posts are about 6 inches through and of chestnut (cedar would have been better), and 214 ft. in the ground cut off level after they are in. The roof is of spruce slabs laid flat side down. At the eaves they project one foot or more. On them is heavy rubberoid roofing paper, which sags naturally over the rounded sides of the slabs, giving a pleasant variant of their surface. At the gable ends it is bent over and nailed on the edge of a thick slab. At the eaves it lies flat, and is nailed on top. . The walls are of slabs nailed flat side in, against the up- right posts on the outside. The cracks between the slabs are covered either with rubberoid or short slabs, nailed on inside. There is no floor except the clay smoothed and hammered flat. ; Cost of Cabin 2 cords of slabs (2 loads, about 100 slabs).......: $20.00 3 rolls rubberoid roofing paper at $3.00 .......... 9.00 10 Ibs. 5” nails, 10 lbs. 4” nails, 5 lbs. 3” nails (25 Ibs. at 8 cents) ........ Cece e cece cece ecene 2.00 2 bags cement for fireplace ............cccecceees 2.00 IT load sand ...... cece wen c cece ener ences seccees 2.00 Odds and ends ........ccceccccccccsccccvcceces 7.00 42.00 The labor cost about .........cc000 eecceesecces 58.00 Total . nn... ee ccc ccc cc ccc ccc ccccececees »P100.00 The stone and timber we gathered in the nearby woods. The tools were on hand and are not charged. For the benefit of those tribes who cannot get timber, a “rock cabin’ will be described. 240) Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 224 ss 20,0478 OY gM OI Oe LS t asdoy 42 [efi X) r/ 2EY ren phe SE] | 27 apps 2e WNC (AG a we 45 401993, 7 Paro “2no 74/37 2g —Szays sayjoz) 47 DAIf SPLeMo? yuaq Jo pua jx ‘SyUuUNd U2IMlaq bed Lost DR to Sa? Zool [ AsvS UTA FOS A Vou pany ES MY prea Seer SE Ly 2/24 Jo uoyraloay a20u 241) Handicrafts 225 Ultimately a Navaho hogan will be built and tried out for use in the open country. The Woodcraft Rock or Stone Cabin The very spirit of Woodcraft is to use what you have where you are and right now; so that a rock cabin is the best thing to make when you are in a rock country where timber is scarce. It has many advantages over a wooden cabin—thus it cannot burn down, and it will last forever ; but it has the disadvantage of being far more work, and in any case, you need some timbers for the roof. The necessary tools are: for digging foundation, spade and pick; for the stone work, buckets, a shovel and hoe to mix the mortar, mason’s hammer, trowel, level, plumb line and square, as well as 2 crowbars, spade, and sledge for the heavier stone; for the carpenter work, hatchet, hammer, crosscut handsaw, two-handed timber saw, I-inch auger, 10 pounds of 3-inch nails, 10 pounds of 4-inch and 5 pounds of 5-inch spikes. The principal work is the hauling of the material. If you have a team and wagon or stone boat to help, it greatly simplifies the matter. And further, if the stone for use is naturally of flat shapes, it turns the labor into fun; but, oh, beware of the stone cabin in regions where you have only round boulders for material. Then a complete outfit of ma- son’s tools and real cement as well as much skill and much labor are needed to produce a good building. Let us assume, however, that you are in a slate or lime- stone country, with plenty of good flat stones at hand, and that you have abundance of clay; then it is easy to build a stone cabin, using no bought material. Clay will hold the stone if the rain is kept off; and if, further, you can get enough fresh cow dung to mix one part with 3 parts of clay, you have cement that will mock at the weather for a hun- dred years. In addition to the stone and mortar, you need log lintels for windows and door, and a heavy beam or roof tree to carry the roof. The lintels should be about 8 inches thick and 12 inches longer than the space they are to bridge, and flattened on top and bottom. Railway ties are just the thing. The roof tree should be about a foot thick and 20 feet long, so that it will project a foot at each gable. An old telephone 242) 226 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll pole is fine for this; it is so important that I often change the plan to fit in with whatever good rooftree I can get. Plates also are necessary to carry the gable projection and to nail all rafters to; for this you need 4 or more heavy poles each about 10 feet long. It will be seen that shorter poles may be used as long as there is a foot projection over each gable and nailing place for the rafters. The first thing, after drawing the plan, is to decide on the site, and often this calls for a new change in the plan. A ~_—_ SFrepicd WoODCRAFT CABIN built of , Rock or Slone, by £75. . * on (A) Foundation. Plan ‘Bonk to eT [AX (84 2 fe outside: S OY > * TRunk Front Mares — ~ —) Z hI KI Ee ie 3 Front Elevation 2 (J 97 floor leveler- ee ~= . -—~eeee Ground Levedc big rock all ready for chimney foundation is a great help, and a noble view is worth moving a window to secure. Morning sun and afternoon shade are desirable, while good ventilation and good drainage are essential. Some builders are particular about having the house square with the compass points; 1f you wish it so, your simplest plan is to go to the place at night, and get the north from the North Star. Then line up one side of your cabin with that. The plan herewith is 12x 18% feet outside; that 1s, 10x 16 feet inside, allowing for 14-inch walls (A). This cabin will, however, accommodate 4 fellows in double-decked bunks, or even more if cots or bunk seats be added. 243) Handicrafts 227 When you have selected your site and staked out your ground plan, the first thing is to dig for the foundation (A). In the Northern States, you must go down 3 feet below the surface to be safe from frost, unless by good luck you strike bedrock or a big boulder. Having dug a trench about 3 feet wide—that is, wide enough to work in—and 3 feet deep, unless you strike bed- rock sooner, all around as in the plan, then begin the foun- dation by laying in it a row of the biggest stones you can handle. Work each stone into place with crowbars, and block up with smaller stones pushed under, until they sit solid and do not tip up in the least when heavy weight is set on one or the other side. Level up with smaller stones ; then add a new layer until 6 inches above the ground—that is, at the intended floor level. The foundation is 3 feet wide at the fireplace. Now leave a 3-foot opening at the place for the door, that is, 6 inches wider than the intended door; then build up the walls all around 14 inches thick, according to the plan, breaking every joint with a bigger stone right over it, setting every stone firmly on at least 3 points before bedding it in the cement. A properly built stone wall would stand just the same if all the cement were dissolved away. Use the plumb line and work all along the wall until it is 3 feet high. Now leave openings for each of the windows. When the walls are carried up to a height of 6 feet above the floor level, it is time to set the timbers—that is, the wooden lintels over doorway and over each window and over the fireplace—as well as the plates that carry the gable-overhang. When these are placed, as in the sketch, build up the front and back walls level with the top of the lintels; but the two end walls should be gable shape, a foot higher in the middle. Now roll your big rooftree or ridge log up on to this by means of two skids or long logs leaned against the cabin front, using all the help you can get. This is the grand religious ceremony of the undertaking. It is far more im- portant than laying the cornerstone. And as soon as it is up and solidly placed, it should, according to ancient custom, have a green bough stuck upright on each end to »remain there and bring good luck till the family moves in and lights the first fire, into which these green boughs are cast. Now for the roof. This calls for about 80 straight poles or rafters, each about 4 inches thick and 7% feet long. Lay 244) 228 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll them close together—that is, touching—from the rooftree to the walls, using the hatchet whenever necessary to make them set well. Put a big nail into each at the top end— that is, nail it to the rooftree—and one at the bottom, nailing it to the plate. Let the lower end project over the wall for eaves (C and D). Be sure that the outside rafter at each end is twice as thick as the others. Four of these thick ones or end rafters are needed. Now nail a gutter pole across all these rafters, but 6 inches beyond the walls on the over-hang. This may not touch all the rafters, but one good spike every 2 feet will hold it. It should be well fitted and nailed to the two big outside rafters. Now cover the whole roof with hay or marsh grass evenly to a depth of a foot. Then cover this hay or grass with good stiff clay to a depth of 3 inches all over, well tramped down and sprinkled with a little water if it is too dry to work well; under this the hay goes down to about one inch thick. The big poles at each side, with the gutter poles, act as a frame to hold the clay in its place. It is well here to sound a note of warning—do not put too much clay on the roof. It is quite possible to crush the timbers with the weight. Enough clay to run off the rain is all that is needed. If the rooftree seems to give, it may call for a post under it inside. Build up the chimney, keeping the flue undiminished, and carry the chimney up to a foot or more above the highest part of the roof. The window frames and door frames may be of I-inch stuff, but are better of 2-inch. They are now fitted into their openings, held there by one or two spikes and plenty of mor- tar. But it is easier to manage them by making them in advance and building them in where they belong as the wall goes up. . The floor is simply clay, leveled off and hammered smooth. The finishing of doors, windows, and beds is as in the Woodcraft cabin already described. | A eertain amount of plastering will be necessary to cover holes after the roof is on, especially at the gables. If the fireplace does not draw the smoke, lower the front by building in a thin wall carried on a stone or a green oak timber; or even follow exactly the lines of the fireplace in 245) Handicrafts 229 the Woodcraft cabin. By omitting the fireplace, the labor is, of course, greatly reduced. Dobies So far these instructions are for the rock or stone cabin, but many parts of the country have no good building ma- terial except stiff clay. By mixing straw or hay or wiry grass in this clay after it 1s worked up into a paste with water, one can make bricks. A good size is 8x16 inches x 4 inches thick. They are thoroughly dried or baked on boards in the sun, and used instead of the stone for the cabin. Enough grass 1s worked with the clay to hold it together when soft. 600 or 700 dobies will be needed for the cabin. It is a lot of work making them, but they are easily and quickly laid. There are dobie houses in the West over 400 years old, and Babylon was built chiefly of these, so do not fear that they will soon crumble. The rest of the building methods are the same as for the stone cabin. The Woodcraft Toilet It is easy to buy a satisfactory sanitation department if you have several hundreds of dollars to spend ; but the Wood- craft toilet may fairly claim to answer the ideal require- ments and to be obtainable at a cost of about $5.00 and a little labor. For this make a light sentry box, 3 feet by 3 on the ground plan; 6 feet high in front, and 5 Vf, feet behind. The frame may be of 3-inch poles or of 2 by 4’s, or even of 14-inch boards. If of poles, as in true Woodcraft, use only soft wood, and select straight poles. Begin by making two frames, one for front and one for back, as in the diagrams A and B, each joint being made by cutting away half each pole and overlapping. Nail these together as in C. The roof boards at one end and the floor boards at the other hold the frames in place. Leave out the middle part of the floor so that there is a hole 10 inches wide and 15 inches long (diagram D). The under-support to the short pieces of flooring is indicated by the dotted lines. Cover the opening with a hinged lid that drops on to it (diagram E), fitting tightly when down, or resting back against the wall when up. 246) 230 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Note that there is no seat. | This style is the “hole-in-the-floor” plan. Theoretically, it is best. It gives the proper position to the body, with knees higher than hips. But we were not brought up that way, and it may be well to make the slight compromise of a low seat. If this is used, it should not be over 14 inches high, and the hole should be rectangular, not oval, 8 or 10 inches wide, and 18 to 20 inches from front to back, that is, the full width of the seat. This obviates all personal contact except on the two necessary places at the side that support the body. This opening should be covered with a fly-tight hinged lid. lows ft Sideview™.: . , Vshowing front -> 4° % lames ad held in place dy |; [roof boards ~-.]- Front frame of poles floor wilk lid dowre The old-fashioned round or oval hole is a menace. At the front part especially the woodwork is likely to convey itch, lice, poison ivy and several horrible diseases. In the Woodcraft toilet, this is entirely cut out. The roof may be either of boards laid close or of thin slabs laid round side up and trimmed smooth. The final cover of the roof is of tar-paper, as described in the cabin article. Tf the sides are to be closed in with burlap or canvas, the angles should be brzced as shown by the dotted lines in A, B, and C. If light boards are used, the braces are hardly needed. 247) Handicrafts 231 For door, use either a curtain or a screen a couple of feet away. Now dig a hole in the ground, 3 or 4 feet deep and about 2 feet square. Set the sentry box squarely and firmly over this. Have at hand a box of slacked lime with a trowel, and the affair 1s complete. Every time it is used, a little lime should be thrown in. The earth should be tightly banked up outside the house. The floor should be light-tight, using tar-paper when necessary. It is quite essential that the floor, the lid, and the pit be light-tight when the lid is down. This toilet house has been found to be ideal—absolutely sanitary, natural, fly-proof, odorless, and costing almost nothing. When no lime is at hand, ashes can be used, or even dry earth. When the pit is nearly full, move the house, level it off with earth, then dig another pit, and set the house over that. If a larger house is needed, make it on the same lines, but 8 feet long and with 3 floor holes. Making Council Fire The Council Fire is a very different thing from the cook- ing-fire or the so-called bonfire. And there are just as many ways of making it wrong. These are the essentials: It must be easily started. It must give a steady, bright light. It must have as little heat as possible, for it is mostly used in the summer. Therefore, it must be small. It is best built as in (c), about two and one-half feet high ; the bottom stick about three feet long; the rest shorter and smaller. _ The small wood and chips to light it can be put either under or on top of the second layer. It should be drawn in toward the top, so as to burn with- out falling apart. It must contain a large proportion of dry, winter-seasoned wood, if it is to blaze brightly. The readiest seasoned wood is usually old lumber. | For an all-evening Council Fire, at least three times as much should be in stock as on the fire when started. Here are some wrong methods: 248) 232 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll The high pyramid or bonfire (a) goes off hke a flash, roasts every one, then goes dead. The shapeless pile (b) is hard to light and never bright. The bonfire is always bad. It wastes good wood; is dangerous to the forest and the camp; is absolutely unsociable. A bonfire will spoil the best camp-circle ever got together. It should be forbidden every- where. Camp Horn By ERNEST THOMPSON SETON I wish every camp would get a good camp horn or Michi- gan lumberman’s horn. It 1s about four feet long, has a six- inch bell-mouth, and is of brass. Its sounds are made by mouth, but a good player can give a tune as on a post horn. Its quality is wonderfully rich, mellow, and far-reaching, and it can be heard for three or four miles. It is a sound to stir the echoes, and fill the camp with romantic memories. The Hunter’s Horn ILog IVE9 By EL_tswortu JAEGER The hunter’s horn is one of the ancient sound makers that has come down to us from a misty past. After the cow’s horn has been boiled, cleaned and scraped, both inside and out, the tip is cut off, still leaving about two inches of solid horn. A small hole is then bored, and en- larged near the opening to admit a mouthpiece. This mouth- piece is made of wood, the left-over horn tip, or a regular bugle mouthpiece. It can be embellished with designs and thongs and polished into an object of real beauty. 249) Handicrafts 233 “TINDER. HORT °° AS or DESIGN INCISED C I SCRAPE ROUGHNESS RUB INDIA Ink. I) DESsIGn- Rn, OFF WITH GLASS <THEN GROOVE. “> ALLOW TO DRY * THEN WIPE. Gy WITH CHAMOIS & OFF SURPLUS VITH VET CLOTH MAGE WITH FILE. KC. TALCUM POWDER_ CEATHER BOILING INAKES /T PLIABLE. SO THAT (7 CAN BE BENT into HANDLE CAN GE BENT DESIRED S#APE. BACK AFTER SOAK- INaIn SOLUTION L CIME AND WATER YOODEN BASE TACKED AND _ CEMENTED WITH MOUTH Piece. OF OOO oR. BUGLE. MourH Piece. ( | HOLE WITH MeTAL i| ORILL SS Xs oS aN wh Ciuprot JAtce a 250)

The Tinder Horn

I S9

By Ellsworth Jaeger

The tinder horn is made of an ordinary cow’s horn which can be secured from a local butcher. It first must be cleaned and scraped smooth before any design can be etched. Boiling in water softens the horn, thus enabling it to be cleaned and scraped more easily. A piece of broken glass serves as an excellent scraper, after which sand or emery paper can be used.

An etching tool can be made from an ordinary nail, by grinding a 3-cornered point on a grind stone.

The design should first be sketched in pencil, and then incised with the tool. The design is then inked with India ink and allowed to dry, the surplus ink being removed with a wet cloth, and the horn polished with chamois and talcum powder. The polishing brings out the real beauty of the horn.

The stopper is made of heavy cow-hide, and should fit tightly into the horn so no moisture can get at the tinder.

The Horn Cup

I L9; IV E9

By Ellsworth Jaeger

The horn cup is also cut from a cow’s horn, although the Indians in the western mountains sometimes used the horn of mountain sheep. The cup is cut out with a saw, and the edges filed and worked smooth and even all around.

Boiling the horn softens it so it can be smoothed more easily. The handle can then be soaked in a solution of building lime and water to make it pliable, so it can be bent into shape. It is washed and bound into place until it again hardens.

Follow the same directions for polishing and etching as for the Tinder Horn.

Totem Pole

I Y14; I DDD1 (b); II N14

Directly opposite the Chief’s throne, on the outer edge of the circle, should be the Totem Pole. This is always set up as soon as possible in all permanent camps. Its purpose is, 251) Handicrafts 235 Ist, to typify the movement; 2d, to display the totems of the _Tribe, 3rd, to serve as a place of notice. Any document posted on the Totem Pole is considered published. How to Make a Totem A general request for light on Totems and Totem-making has called for an‘article on the subject. _ A Totem is the emblem of a man, a group of men, an animal, or an idea. It is perhaps the earliest form of signa- ture that any man used. It reached its highest development in the form of heraldry. Of course, a trained artist who has specialized in decora- tion is needed to get the best style of Totem; but most of us can make one passably good by adhering to certain rules: Ist. The Totem is a symbol, not a portrait. 2d. The simplest forms are the best. 3rd. Any approach to realism or photography is sure to result in a failure. fi be Y Y y ] a. Totem Pole of the Becket Tribe (15 feet high) b. of Flying Eagles c and d. from Niblack’s West Coast Indians, Eagles and Bears 4th. Beauty is obtained chiefly by beautiful colors. 5th. Printing or letters are always ugly; avoid them alto- gether, if possible. 6th. Avoid any appearance of machine work—the varied and wavering touch of handwork is always better. 252) 236 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 7th. The Totem is usually meant for display at night or against a dark background; therefore it should be either in light colors, or on a light background. For our purpose there are two principal kinds of Totems: the silhouette carved out of wood, etc., and the emblem on the shield. If the design is to be in dark colors, it is better on a shield. If something white, silhouette is more man- ageable. Some complicated designs like Lightning or King-snake can scarcely be made in silhouette; they must be on a shield. The shield should be 12 or 14 inches across and when finished should everywhere have the marks of knife, never of saw. The exact mathematical circle of a scroll saw with its sharp edges is always ugly; whittle them off. The pole to carry the shield should be about 6 or 7 feet high, so as to hold the Totem well above the heads of the men; and it should never be a boughten, factory-turned, White Heran Man on Wie straight-edged, cross-grained rake handle, as one sometimés sees, but a real sapling cut in the woods, rather straight, peeled and trimmed smooth of knots and limbs, but showing all the little variations of surface and thickness that tell us it is the real thing, with the real grain running along the main line and therefore strong. I have added a number of totems to show the two types, silhouette and shield. Note that while Wiite Buffalo, White Heron or White Fox may be best in silhouette, the same ani- mals in any other color are best on a shield of which the background is white. The main thing is to have it clearly visible in the dim light of a Council fire, with the dark woods as a background. Canter 253) Handicrafts 237 iMag Indian Drums tLe (a) By Bernarp S. MAson Indian drums are of two general types: Those longer than they are wide, of which the Southwest Indian drum, made over a hollow log is typical; and those which are wider than they are deep, such as the “hoop drums” of the northern plains and woods Indians. Let us consider the hollow log type first. | The Log Drum or Tombe Cottonwood logs are the traditional—and in many respects -—the best logs for the drum frame. White cedar and white pine are also excellent. White cedar is not only easy to work, but produces a drum of delightful tone. The log must be hollow, but with a solid unrotted outer shell. The little cracks and checks which all dead logs have, make no difference at all; but care must be taken to see that there are no large cracks, The drum should be a little less than twice as long as it is wide; that is, if it is I2 inches wide, it should be about 22 inches long. A log 10 or 12 inches in diameter makes a good sized drum. With mallet and chisel, or gouge, hollow out the log toa thin shell. Make your mallet out of a hardwood stick—oak or maple—4 inches in diameter, inserting a handle of the diameter of a broomstick. The shell should not be thicker than %4 to 3% of an inch—the thinner, the better. Work slowly and carefully, taking no chances in splitting it. Round off the sharp edges. Any kind of rawhide (untanned hide) will do for the heads, provided it is not too thick. If obtainable, I would ‘recommend goat skin, which 1s not only thin, but unusually tough and strong. Send for it to the saddlery or leather stores. Young calfskin can also be used. Soak the hides for at least 24 hours, making them soft and pliable. Cut out two disks, each 6 inches larger in diameter than the log. Lay them over the ends, and tack them in place temporarily. Be careful not to stretch the hide too tight, or it will split when it dries; pull it just tight enough so that it does not sag. Cut holes for the lashes every 4 inches around the edges of the hide. Make the 254) 238 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll thongs from the loose ends of the rawhide; cut a 6-inch disk, and go round and round it with the scissors, thus stripping it into one long thong. Lash the heads together as in A; and when all is tight,

sal J > pee TE AANA a eo ond ALL ee eS yunavuaes Ty Bt ie HAL Cesk. POT TIN I pe Cn ce Ce ii re . Dromioe Fomde. Rory al ae Y AMAT .S ell Sa MANATEE, =; b Pueblo Aung-drum Chipbewa Hong Brum —————=D eee == 3) Thdian Drums Tom-torrs £.7T Selon remove the tacks. If you want a real fancy drum, scallop the edges of the rawhide as in B; being sure that every other thong goes straight up and down as in the picture. To decorate the drum, rub lamp black into the rawhide, 255) Handicrafts | 239 while it is still wet, making it black all over. Decorate the log with red, blue, and yellow paint powder (obtainable at any paint store for a few cents), mixed with water and a little glue, thus making a paste which is applied with the fingers. Never use liquid paint on a drum. The drawings show typical designs. Hang the drum up in the sun, but where the wind cannot strike it; the wind dries it too rapidly. Take it in at night, and keep it in a warm room. In about 36 hours, it should be ready to use; but to strike it sooner, will ruin it. Use a soft beater on this drum, made by padding with cloth the end of a 14-inch stick, of the thickness of one’s little finger, and covering the whole with leather. To get the best tone of a drum, it must be hung. As Julia M. Buttree says in her Rhythm of the Redman: “Unless suspended . . . there is no boom to the drum—no musical tone, no spiritual uplift; nothing but an earthy, flat, dead thud, without vibration.” Hoop Drums or Tomtoms The war drums of the Chippewas were made over hoops of white cedar. Cut down a 10-inch solid white cedar ; quar- ter and eighth it. Split one of these eighths into half-inch boards, taking them off parallel to the outside of the log. Pick out a nice straight board, and whittle it down to a thickness of %4 inch, being careful not to cut into the grain. A war drum 17 inches in diameter is a good convenient size; this would call for a board 514 feet long. The width should be 214 ‘inches—wider ones are inclined to have a flat tone. Soak it for 24 hours, and bend it into a hoop, tying the ends together with thongs of leather (C). In case cedar cannot be found, use an old cheese box; cut off two hoops 2% inches wide, and put one outside the other, with the openings at opposite sides. Burn holes through them with a red-hot wire, and lash together with wet rawhide as in D. The Chippewa war drum was a two-headed drum. Lay the goat skins over the hoop, stretched as in the log drum described above, and tack temporarily. Cut holes every inch, and lace together with thongs as in F. Trim the edges of the rawhide off to about 4 inch; and tie a heavy cord around the hoop, holding these edges down flat until they dry. 256) 240 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll When all is laced tightly, remove the tacks. Tie on a thong of rawhide for a handle. Much time can, of course, be saved by tacking the hide instead of lacing it, but such methods are scarcely Indian. E indicates a typical Chippewa decoration for a war drum, put on with red and blue paint powder, mixed with water and a little glue. The opposite side of the drum should show only a 3-inch round spot of red in the center and a ¥%-inch border of blue around the edge. Just why this spot is insisted upon, I do not know; but my Chippewa friends have it that no drum will make medicine without it. A handful of fine pebbles thrown inside before lacing will add interest to the tone. The Sioux used a hoop drum with one head only, laced together as in G. A large Chippewa powwow drum can be made over a cedar washtub. Remove the bottom by sawing around it 2 inches from the edge of the tub, thus leaving 2 inches of the bottom in place all the way around. Use six-months-old calfskin, laced every inch. You can hear this drum for miles at night. Thumpers Hoop drums call for hard beaters; whittle a stick of oak or ironwood 24 inches long, down to a diameter of % 6% inch, leaving it a little larger on one end, say 4 inch. Wrar this larger end with three or four thicknesses of red or yellow cloth, or ordinary gauze bandage, and the stick is ready for use. Drums of Any Old Thing If you cannot get a hollow log, use a nail keg. If you -cannot make a hoop, use a mixing bowl, cutting holes in the back for thumb and finger. If everything else fails, make a square drum frame by sawing off 2% inches of a small square packing box. If possible, however, be a good Indian, and make it in the Indian way, using only woods materials. Beds Of all things, the camper’s bed is the thing most often made wrong, and most easily made right, when one knows 257) Handicrafts 241 how; and of all things, comfort at night is most essential. Every dealer in camp outfits can produce an array of dif- ferent camp beds, cots, and sleeping bags, that shows how important it is to be dry and warm when you sleep. The simplest plan is the oldest one—two pair of blankets and waterproof undersheet on a neatly laid bed of evergreen boughs, dry leaves, or dry grass. The ideal way of laying the boughs is shown in the figure below. When I cawt get grub of the Broadway sort, I'll fatten on camper’s fare, I'll tramp all day and at night resort To a bed boughed down with care. STAKE STAKE~ But there are few places a now in eastern America where i: you are allowed to cut boughs freely. In any case you can- not take the bough bed with you when you move, and it takes too much time to make at each camp. Sleeping bags I gave up long ago. They are too diffi- cult to air, or to adjust to dif- ferent temperatures. Rubber beds are luxurious, but heavy for a pack outfit, and in cold weather they need thick blankets over them, otherwise they are too cool. So the one ideal bed for the eyes Camper, light, comfortable and ZX) of wildwood stuff, is the In- dian or willow bed. STAKE w a STAKE~ ILs IVES The Woodcraft Willow Bed The only bed I know of which is light, portable, wood- crafty, made of wildwood stuff that can be got anywhere, and costing nothing but a little labor, is the willow or prairie bed used by all the Plains Indians. This is how it is made: On your first short hike to the country, go to some stream bank or swamp, and cut about 258) 242 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll seventy straight rods of red willow (kinnikinik), gray wil- low, arrow-wood, or' any straight shoots, each about as thick as a pencil, when peeled, except one or two that are larger, up to half an inch thick; and all thirty inches long. Tie them up in a tight bundle with several cords until you get time to work them. Peel them, cut a slight notch in the butt of each rod, three-quarters of an inch from the end, and you are ready to make the bed. And here I may say that some folks, who could not get to the country to cut willow rods, have used the ordinary bamboo fishing-poles. These are sawed up in 30-inch lengths and split to the necessary thinness ; the butt end yields four or even five of the splints, the top, but one. This answers well, _ —" ( rae dst FY TT ee ct ee pam PHP tC Ce EE eT Ee ee ~ U The veeph frame used fn making She bed . one ved 1s in place. Cut No. 1 and three poles furnish material enough for the bed. This is allowable because, though the stuff is not of our own woods, it is American ; it grows in the Southern States. One or two fellows in town have made the bed of dowels from a furniture factory. | Now get a ball of cord, that will stand a 25-Ilb. pull, a ball of fine linen thread, and a piece of shoemaker’s wax, to com- plete your materials. If outdoors, you can stretch your cords between two small trees about seven feet apart, but it is much easier if you make a rough frame of strips or poles seven feet by three inside to work on. Cut four pieces of the cord, each about twenty feet long. Double each and tie a 3-inch hard loop in the middle. Twist these doubled cords and put them on a frame (Cut No. 1), 259) Handicrafts 243 fastened to nails as at A B, the surplus cord wrapped around the frame, and the others as at CD E J’ G and H. Take one of the heaviest rods, say a half-inch one, for a starter. With a pointed stick, open the two stranus of the twisted cord, and set the rod tight against the knots I J K L. Now set a second rod in place below the first, seeing that two twists of the string are between each rod and that the space separating them is one inch. Keep alternating butts and tops. At each point, that is at four places on each rod, — — style of finish. Alt sh ates 7 4 +H+4 HTS co Lm TTT q e 3 Ne + Willow bed. With Black Wolf toCem make a lashing of waxed thread, holding rod and cords to- gether (No. 2). I have seen beds with only two lashings, that is, one at each end, but four lashings is the sound and safe plan. Oo When the rod-work is six feet long, it is time to taper off. 260) 244 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Put in one big rod for a finish, and tie hard loops in the cords at this point. Then, using shorter rods, make a narrower part about eighteen inches high for a head. Finally, cover this head with a piece of brown khaki or canvas which should be decorated with the band’s colors and totem, either painted or done in beadwork, or in colored cottons that are cut out and sewed on (Cuts Nos. 3 and 4). It is well to add alsoa wooden hook for one’s watch (a and b, Cut No. 3) anda pocket for matches and money, etc., at night. The Indians often elaborated these beds to a great extent when in permanent camps. Each rod was selected, perfectly straight, thinned at the butt end, to be uniform, and an extra piece added at the bed, head and foot, to curl up as end- boards. That at the head was elaborately decorated with symbols in beadwork. The illustration (No. 5) shows a beautiful beaded bed-head in my possession; not only the head, but the edges all around, are bound with red flannel. When in use the bed is laid with the ends of the rods rest- ing on two 4-inch poles, which are set firmly twenty-six inches apart; and the bed is staked at the corners through the loops to hold it in place (Cut No. 6). Cut No. 7 shows a fine specimen of an Arapaho bed all ready for / = use. When we can get no poles, NeS The beaded head. we lay down a couple of boards or rods to carry the ends of the bed, and then dig the ground out in the middle. By means of two tall stakes the head part is held upright. When packed up the bed is rolled. It weighs about five pounds. Of course, you always need as much under you as over you. Couched on such a natural spring mattress as the wil- low bed you sleep in perfect comfort. No, 6, —~ — 7 ™ ) — | ne TTL NU, 261) Handicrafts 245 For those who wish to complete its sumptuousness a rush or grass mat may be added. (See Camp Loom.) After long use the willows get bent ; to prevent this the bed should be turned over every few days. i , V/ eo) A IN ') Oz Spe es ON Up “et mae a t 4 =i Es | Vi cess || acer rately de 1 (HO yee B ERE (UU ' fr (tlle! Ht Ls sf fF +) = |e in se a = 5 o No. 7. ARAPAHO BED OF WILLOWS. Rep. Bur. Am. Ethn. p. 963, 14th Ann. IE1(a) How to Make a “Four-Poster” for a IV Br (a) Willow Bed For complete equipment for the willow bed, you need a “four-poster.” Get four posts of soft, strong wood, each about 4 inches thick, two of them 24 inches long and two of them 30 inches ; five poles, 7 feet long and about 3 inches thick; four poles about 3 feet long and 3 inches thick, flattened for a few inches at each end; a block of heart wood of either pin oak Four-host e+ Ic. (I ti Fig 1. End View. © Woodcraft.«  ed eoooe by ET. SeTfon 1924 5 r A re , ' di fi | re c~s | 3. 1 cB i Fig.2. Side View. i | te a SLE hols. et ee ee ef ° - le = = SS i Scale t_.4_ | if LRT 262) 246 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll or white oak, 6 inches long, of which you make 18 pegs 3¥g inch thick ‘and 6 inches long. For tools you need a saw, a sharp hatchet, a good knife, a turning brace with a 1-inch bit and a ¥4-inch bit. Ten inches from the ground in each of the posts, make a . hole 3 inches by 1 inch, by boring 3 holes with an inch auger and clearing them out. (Fig. 1, AA.) At right angles to these in the same posts, but 4 inches from the ground, make a 2-inch hole (Fig. 2, BB), and 4 inches from the top (Fig. 2, CC), make another 2-inch hole; that is, three holes in each post, the middle one at right angles to the other two. Into the top and bottom holes (CC and BB), fit the flattened ends of the 3-inch poles (DE), so that the posts are 3 feet apart measured on the outside. Secure them at each joint with an oak pin driven through. Put the head boards together in the same fashion. Into the holes AA, fit the side poles by flattening the ends. The more tightly they fit, the more steady the bed. One pin at each joint is enough. On the lower cross piece (E), at each end are rested the three smaller poles. They may rest in slots, or be pegged in, or even tied on. If flattened and well-pegged, they help to brace the bed. In general, the better the joints, the better the bed. Square shoulders on the mortices will make it steady. If wabbly, angle braces of naturally bent wood may be pegged on the underside of the side poles and against the posts, as indi- cated by the dotted lines. Rawhide braces across the angles are sometimes used. The oak pins, after they are shaped, should be dried in. heat strong enough to scorch their tips. This makes them very hard, and such will drive into soft wood without a preliminary auger hole. It is from its use in this way that pin oak got its name. . The willow bed rests on the side poles. The under poles 4 inches lower (UP) are to support the rods if they sag more than is safe when all the weight chances to rest on one place. ~ Now the frame of the “four-poster” is finished, and it is - ready to receive the willow bed, unless you wish to decorate it. Carvings on the posts are good, also circles and squares | of color. But whatever is done in this line should be of the simplest style. Beware of realistic pictures or flower paint- ings, and do not decorate it on the parts that are never seen. 263) Handicrafts 247 Making a. Tepee * (From Ladies’ Home Journal, September, 1902) Many famous campers have said that the Indian tepee is the best known movable home. It is roomy, self-ventilating, IRR3 IVP3 j om @pme The Com ¢ Teepee Cover —Unornamented. Cut IZ — Frame for Door. B— Door Completed. cannot blow down, and is the only tent that admits of a fire inside. |

  • A more recent and detailed description will be found in Buttree’s

Rhythm of the Redman, published by A. S. Barnes & Co., New York, 1930. In this article, many illustrations are given, including decora- tion of tepees in color. 264) 248 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Then why is it not everywhere used? Because of the diffi- culty of the poles. If on the prairie, you must carry your poles. If in the woods, you must cut them at each camp. A 10-foot tepee is the smallest size worth having for prac- tical use. A larger one is easier to keep clear of smoke, but most boys will prefer the small one, as it is much handier, cheaper, and easier to make. [ shall therefore give the work- ing plan of a 10-foot tepee of the simplest form. It requires 22 square yards of 6- or 8-ounce duck, heavy unbleached muslin, or Canton flannel (the wider the better, as that saves labor in making up), which costs about $6; 100 feet of 3/16 inch clothesline, 25 cents; string for sewing rope ends, etc., 5 cents. Total about $7. Get your material machine run together 20 feet long and Io feet wide. Lay this down perfectly flat (Cut I), Ona peg or nail at A in the middle of the long side put a 10-foot cord loosely, and then with a burnt stick in a loop at the other end draw the half-circle B C D. Now mark out the two little triangles at A. A E is 6 inches, A F and E F each one foot; the other triangle, A R G, is the same size. Cut the canvas along these dotted lines. From the scraps left over cut two pieces for smoke-flaps, as shown. In the long corner of each ‘(H in No. 1, I in No. 2) a small three-cornered piece should be sewed, to make a pocket for the end of the smoke pole, or else a 2-inch hole right through. _ Now sew the smoke-flaps to the cover so that M L of No. 1 is ‘neatly fitted to P E, and N O of No. 2 toQ D. Two inches from the edge B P make a double row of holes; each hole is 14 inches from its mate, and each pair is 5 inches from the next pair, except at the 2-foot space marked “door,” where no holes are needed. . The holes on the other side, Q D, must exactly fit on these. At A fasten very strongly a 4-foot rope by the middle. Fasten the end of a 10-foot cord to J and another to K; hem a rope all along in the bottom, B C D. Cut 12 pieces of rope each about 15 inches long, fasten one firmly to the canvas at B, another at the point D, and the rest at regular distances to the hem rope along the edge between, for peg loops. The tepee cover is now made. si For the door (some never use one) take a limber sapling 34 inch thick and 5% feet long, also one 22 inches long. Bend the long one into a horseshoe and fasten the short one 265) Handicrafts 249 across the ends (A in Cut II). On this stretch canvas, leav- ing a flap at the top in the middle of which two small holes are made (B, Cut II), so as to hang the door on a lacing-pin. Nine of these lacing-pins are needed. They are of smooth, round, straight, hard wood, a foot long and % inch thick, They skewer the overlapped edges together. Photographic Cage By Ernest THompson SETON While the ideal photographs of mammals are made from wild specimens free in their native surroundings, the difficul- ties of such photography are so great and the opportunities so few, the majority of photographs and the best of them on the whole, are made from captive animals. Most of the cages in Zoological Gardens are constructed as though it were intended to make photography impossible. They are ill-lighted and have hideous backgrounds. They have square floors, instead of uneven ground to give variety of pose. They are without provision for eliminating the bars; and it is by luck rather than by management that the animal comes within the range of the camera. After a dozen experiments, I have at length evolved a photographic cage that meets all the difficulties for animals or birds of any size up to a fox or goose. Its plan 1s shown here. To make it, take two pieces of 2 x 2, each 10 feet long; and two pieces of 2 x 4, each 12 feet long; with other pieces of 2x 2, enough to make a box or tube, as in the diagram ABCD. This is Io feet long, with the two lower pieces projecting for a camera shelf DE; 3 feet by 3 at the large end, and 1 foot by 1% at the small end. The sides are boarded up solid with %4-inch boards, from AD to FG on both sides. The whole cage should be floored with inch boards. GFHI is a wire door 2 feet high by 1% feet wide, through which the animal enters, and the acces- sories arranged. The opposite side is covered with wire net- ting. | The side IHBC and its mate on the other ‘side, are of plate glass, as also is the top from H to B. These pieces of plate glass are costly if ordered from the glass dealer; but I find that five or six old wind shields, or door glasses from a “car graveyard” answer very well. If these are too long and 266) 250 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll cannot be cut, the side pieces can stick up in the air, and the long part of the roof glass stick back of H toward A. If plate glass is out of the question, the cage can be cov- ered with mesh wire (No. 19 wire, I inch mesh) ; this will answer quite well except in sunlight. Under full sun, the wire will cast a netted shadow on everything. JKCB is the background. This should be covered with canvas or muslin, on which, in soft gray color, is painted some woodland scene. TN % 2Pis_azisogdo A small door, opening outward from Au mop 4% da Uaaws x “TACT we 7 opyT wast | ~My om wang aamap ay Pua. | an | 6 oS ; Po8 oie A cece >y x - is. .. U 22 a _t x N, 7 RIWKIS | a 5 = — tt ~~. “4 ‘ use. S | a) 4B ns TF oO — te e Vy A ce K -——__ L MC Pholograf hie Cape - by £.T Sefon— the middle of this, is very helpful at times when rearrange- ment is needed. From L to M is a slot % inch wide, and the full height of the cage. This is to receive a large card on which is painted a new background when a change is desired. Across the inside of the cage at FG, is a screen of wire, firmly fastened. This reaches across the whole chamber, and is meant to keep the animal from coming into the dark corners next the camera. It will not show on the negative, being quite out of focus. 267) Handicrafts 251 At the point HI is another screen that has proven neces- sary. This is of fine wire (No. 19 or No. 20); and 1 inch mesh for most creatures. It is movable, being hinged at the bottom. This is meant to keep the animal in the illuminated part of the cage. But-there is danger of it blurring the plate ; so that when the animal is settled down, and reassured by silence, the screen can be quietly lowered inside, by the photographer gently pulling the cord N. This stretches the rubber band that held the screen in place, so the screen lies flat on the floor. If the animal tries to come too near the camera, release the cord; and the screen puts the creature back in the light chamber. Since it must lie flat on the floor, this screen must taper, being 30 inches at bottom and but 20 inches across the top. This calls for a fixed triangular flange at the top of each side of the cage when the screen is erect, to close the gaps in the partition. The camera shelf at DE is strongly built. The camera hole is 2 inches wide and a foot high, to fit various cameras; and is closed with a slide from above. A few blocks of wood can be used when the height of the camera needs adjusting. This contrivance controls the animal and the accessories, but another structure is needed to control the light. This is a strong stool, three feet high, with a top 2 feet by 2, made of 2 inch plank OP. Balance. the cage on anything that will show its center of gravity. In the middle of the bottom, at this center, bore a hole that will take an inch bolt or peg that shall also go through the exact center of the stool. Thus, the cage is balanced strongly on the stool, and may easily be turned in any direction, giving you control of the li ght. The landscape and accessories may be varied endlessly— sods, flowers, sticks, stones, evergreen boughs—all are help- ful, with or without the painted backgrounds. With this contrivance assuring control of the animal, the light, and the background, ninety-nine per cent success 1S often attained. In my own book, Lives of Game Animals, Vol. IV, p. 790, I give a demonstration of the above de- scribed cage. My subject was a trapped cotton-tail. I made 12 shots in rapid succession; and got twelve different poses—1I2 successes, 268) 252 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Taxidermy IHH7 IIDD:r By Ernest THOMPSON SETON There are two ways of preserving a bird: (a) By making a skin. (b) By mounting the bird. Mounting is such a difficult and special operation that it is better not to offer directions in the brief space of this Manual. Making a skin is removing and preserving the skin in such a way that it may always serve to show what the bird’s plu- mage is like. Most naturalists prefer to keep their speci- mens as skins, not only because it is easier and cheaper to do so, but because they take up less room, and the skin may be properly mounted at any later time. These are the tools and materials used in making a skin: A sharp knife, a pair of stout, short scissors, and a pair of small forceps. For materials, you will need cotton wool, needle and thread, arsenical soap (some naturalists prefer dry white arsenic), and cornmeal (or fine hardwood sawdust). Some plaster of paris and benzine will also be required if the specimen is soiled with grease. Arsenical soap can be bought of a taxidermist, or made by the following recipe: White soap ................-. 1 |b. Arsenic ........ ee eee ee ee eee I ¢ Salts of tartar..... eee eee 8 oz. Spirits of camphor............ 4 “ Powdered chalk .............. 2 * Shred the soap into a tin can, and add as little water as will dissolve it, stirring gently over a slow fire. When well dissolved, add the chalk and salts of tartar, and mix thor- oughly. Take it off the fire and add the arsenic slowly, stir- ring meanwhile. Last, add the spirits of camphor, and mix the whole. Remember, the mixture thus made is a DEADLY Porson. In using, the soap should be worked up into a good lather, and applied to the skin with a brush. The hardest birds to begin on are the very large ones; and the next hardest, perhaps, are the very small ones. The 269) Handicrafts 253 easiest birds are those about the size of a robin or bluejay (leaving out the woodpeckers). | Supposing the specimen to be skinned is a robin: | First put a little plug of cotton wool in its throat and mouth, also into any wounds the bird may have, to staunch WY ACRASS EN NWS a Za Z cut heacl off here “~wing-bone j Shackle under stele of = SKULL, Showing hole eu fo remove brains Making a Bird-skin | (Robin) E.TS. be —_—e penne the flow of blood, etc. This should be done the moment the bird comes into your possession. Now lay the bird on its back, tail toward your right hand; part the feathers, and make a slit from near the end of the breast-bones into the vent (Fig. 1), taking care to cut only the skin, not the walls of the abdomen. Separate the skin from the flesh by pushing it with the finger nail or knife- blade. As soon as the flesh 1s exposed, put a pinch of meal 270) 254 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll on it to keep the feathers from sticking, and also to soak up oil, blood, etc. Some use plaster for this; but plaster is dis- agreeable under the finger nails, it takes the gloss off the feathers, and if the specimen happens to be a game-bird it injures the meat for the table. The plaster is better, how- ever, for white, fluffy birds, as meal or sawdust lodges in the down. Push the skin from the body till the leg is reached. Work the leg out of the skin till the knee-joint is clear on the in- side of the skin; cut the leg off at the knee, taking great care not to cut or tear the skin. The severed leg now hangs to the skin. When both legs are thus cut, work around the base of the tail, freeing the skin. Then, with the scissors, cut straight through the bone, leaving the tail bone and tail hanging to the skin. This is one of the most difficult parts of the skinning. It is so hard to get at, and so easy to tear the skin, that one 1s to be congratulated if in the first lesson he safely “rounds Cape Horn.” ' At all stages, keep the meal applied to the body as fast as it is exposed ; and in quantity enough to soak up all moisture ; and avoid stretching the skin. With the tail and legs free, there is no difficulty in pushing the skin off until stopped by the wings. Cut them off at the shoulder joint deep in the muscles of the breast, leaving them attached to the skin, just as the legs and tail are. The skin is now inside out. It can readily be worked along the neck and onto the head. Here it is stopped by the ears. In the robin, these are like pockets of skin tucked into the. skull, and may be easily pulled out without cutting. In large birds, the knife must be used. The next and last difficulty is the eyes. The skin must be cut free from them, carefully avoiding injury to the eyelids or the eyeballs. Now the skin is attached only to the forepart of the skull. Cut off the neck at the back of the skull, and the skin is freed from the body, but needs careful cleaning. Dig the eyes out of the sockets, taking great care not to break the eyeballs, as their liquid is very difficult to remove from the feathers. Cut out a section of the skull (Fig. 3), and remove the brains through this. Cut off any lumps of flesh left about the jaws; but do not break the jaw bone or its joints. 271) Handicrafts - 255 Next turn attention to the wings. Push the skin back to the first joint (the elbow) in each. Cut and scrape the meat from the bone. But there ts a joint beyond this—the one that corresponds with our forearm. This must be reached in a different way. There are two bones in this, and the space. between them is full of meat. The quill feathers on its under side hold the skin tight. In birds up to the size of a robin, this can be cut out after the skin is forced a little farther back than the elbow joint on the upper side; but in large birds it is well to slit the skin under the wing—along the line between the two bones. Clean off the leg bones in the same way as the first wing joint, turning the skin back as far as the heel joint. Care- fully scrape off any lumps of fat left on the skin, and espe- cially remove the grease and flesh about the tail bones. Now this is the time I have usually found most convenient to remove stains from the plumage. If of blood, hold the stained feathers on the inside rim of a cup of lukewarm water, and wash till clear. Then dry the feathers with cornmeal. The shaking and turning they get in the next operation will make them fluff out as before. If the stain is grease, use a cream made of benzine and. plaster of paris. Let this dry on the feathers. It dries as powder and falls off, taking ihe grease with it. The next thing I now do is to tie the wing bones with a stout linen thread, so that their ends are shackled together as far apart as in life. Some do not do this, but it strengthens the skin, and I find it a great help in several ways. Now comes the poisoning. After trying dry arsenic for long, I have come back to the old-fashioned arsenical soap. It is much less liable to poison any one, since it is not blown about by the wind. It does not look or taste like anything but soap; hence is unlikely to be mistaken for something good to eat. And last of all, the soap in it takes care of the grease in the skin. Every part of the under side of the skin and of the bones exposed is to be painted with this cream of the soap. It is well now to lay a thin film of cotton over the skin or sprin- kle it lightly with sawdust, to keep the feathers from stick- ing in the soap. Make two tight round plugs of cotton each as big as the eyeball; put one into each eye-socket. Now push the head back into its place. This is easy when 272) 256 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll the neck is slippery with the soap. Work the wings and legs back into their places after wrapping each leg bone with enough cotton to take the place of the flesh cut off. This wrapping is not necessary with very small birds; but the larger the bird, the more it is needed. Make a neck of the cotton, push it with the forceps up the neck skin, and well into the skull. Let it hang into the body part, under the string that joins the wing bones. Push an- other soft wad up the neck and into the throat. Shape a large piece of cotton for the body; set it in place, and draw the skin gently over it till thé opening is closed. In large birds, it is well to stitch this up; but it is not needed in small ones. All that 1s now needed is the prinking. Use a needle through the openings of the eyes to fluff out the cotton balls in each, till they fill out the sides of the head properly. Set the innermost wing bones parallel with each other (Fig. 4). If, at any time, it is necessary to leave the specimen half finished, wrap it in a damp cloth and put it in a close tin box. This will keep it from getting dry. In skinning large birds, a strong hook, attached to a string, from the wall or table in front, is a great help. As soon as the tail is cut off, stick this hook into the bony pelvis. It holds the bird away from you, and answers as a third hand. Finally, make a little shroud out of a sheet of cotton, and wrap the bird in this before setting it to dry. A dead bird lying on its back is the ideal shape for a skin. | Cross the legs, and attach a label to these, giving date, sex, and place where the bird was taken. A skin without this label is of little value. The work is now done. But it is wise to lift the skin the next morning, and see if all goes well. Ina few days, it will be dry, and safe from ordinary corruption; but must be pro- tected from moths and insects. Making a Swallow Bank I Iv ; 3 By Ernest THOMPSON SETON Most outdoor folk make bird boxes and other forms of bird homes ; and some years ago I had great pleasure in build- ing a hollow tree, which was really a large number of bird boxes and bird homes in one. Then J made experiments in 273)

the way of founding a swallow bank; for modern influence 

was making these things as scarce as hollow trees.

Without detailing my various failures or the causes, I give in brief the methods which led to success.

On the bank of my lake, I selected a site that looked southward. On a rocky ledge for foundation, I built a stone wall that enclosed a space 12 feet long x 4 feet deep and 6 feet high, leaving some drainage holes at the bottom. This I filled with loose stone. Leaving the front at the 6-foot level, I raised the two sides and the bank 3 feet higher. I fastened some heavy plank temporarily across the front, then proceeded to build my bank.

First I laid down a 6-inch stratum of sandy clay, well wetted and hammered down over the whole area enclosed in the stone walls. Over this I laid one inch of concrete. Next, a layer of clay, 3 inches thick, and again an inch of concrete; then a layer of clay 4 inches, and concrete; so on, varying the thickness of clay till the top was reached, and the last layer of concrete, tilted backward, formed the roof.

After leaving all for a month to set, I removed the boards and put up a sign “To Let”. It was too late in the season for large results; but before many months, I had 2 pairs of sand swallows, a pair of kingfishers, and a pair of phœbes, availing themselves of my hospitable offer.

Making a Hollow Tree

IU3

IVJ3

By Ernest Thompson Seton

Many years ago I realized that the modern foresters were destroying all the hollow trees, — which meant robbing a quarter of our woodland birds and animals of their home sites.

To offset this on my own land, I built one or two artificial hollow trees, and urged my friends to do the same. The reward was immediate and ample.

My first effort was a huge trunk, 35 feet high and 6 feet through. It had ladders and stories inside, so I could climb up unseen, and observe the tenants. (See Country Life in America, Nov., 1908.) But it was very expensive, and I found that a less commodious tree did as well.

For the guidance of those who wish to try this new style of bird box, I give instructions that are the result of my own experience. 274)

First, select your site. It should, if possible, be on an island, if you wish to achieve instant favor with the birds.

Suppose your tree is to be 10 feet high, and 3 feet wide inside. Get four timbers or poles, 4 inches thick at the top, 6 or 8 at the bottom, and 15 feet long. These should be of locust, cedar, chestnut, or other durable wood.

Dig four post-holes, each 4 feet deep, and arranged in a square; that is, 4 feet across each side. In these, plant the posts, sloping slightly inwards; so that at the top they make a square of 2%4-foot sides (A). Around the top nail 4 pieces of 2x6 lumber, to hold all true and square.

Just clear of the ground, outside the posts, nail on a circle 275) Handicrafts. 259 of four pieces of 2x6, each 4% feet long, as in (B). Set another circle 5 feet above this, and a third at the top. Make a door frame for an 18-inch by 4-foot door, and set it in the side selected, at a foot from the ground. Now, sheath this whole structure outside with ordinary sheathing, up and down, nailing to the circles (C, D, and E). Cover the top with a similar roof, seeing that it has a good pitch. Make the roof the size of the highest circle, and let the side sheathing stick up higher than the roof, with uneven outline. Cover the whole of the wall with tar paper, nail on a mason lath up and down every six inches, and cover this again with metal lath and stucco.* The stucco may be made rough to resemble bark, or smooth like an old stub, at your choice. The door should be of sheathing, strongly hinged, swinging in, and covered with stucco like the rest. The roof should be thoroughly waterproofed with paper and tar. The base outside should be banked up with clay. Long cleats nailed to one of the posts inside makes a con- venient ladder to reach the upper floor, which rests on the cross pieces already in, and should, of course, have a man- hole at the top of the ladder. The nesting spaces should be various in size and style. Floor off a space near the roof a foot high, half of the tree’s diameter; and make a 4-inch entrance through the outer cover of the tree, for screech owls. | Make an upright slit, 6 inches x 34-inch for bats. Make some boxes 4x 4, and 12 inches deep. Hang them to the inside of the wall. Give them I-inch, 2-inch, or 3-inch entrance holes outside the trunk. Follow the general instructions for regulation bird boxes, to attract the different species; but hang the boxes inside with the opening out through the tree’s skin. Every one of these nesting boxes should have a 1-inch peep- hole behind, through which you can watch the inhabitants without being seen. A little drop shutter closes this when not in use (F). As a final embellishment, paint the tree with russet and green, and maybe nail on a couple of short thick limbs. Now your work is done; and you surely have opened a new

  • Good stucco iy made of 1 part Portland cement, % part hydrated

lime, 7 parts fine building sand. 276) 260 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll chapter in local natural history. You can count on screech owls, flickers, martins, wrens, flying squirrels, tree mice, and wasps with something like certainty; and there is always a chance of an osprey or a heron nesting on the top, if you happen to live in their country. And of this you may rest assured : the results will continually be a surprise and a pleas- ure, 277) BIBLIOGRAPHY Birch Bark Rolls of the Woodcraft Indians, by Ernest Thompson Seton, 1902-1927. Brief Manual of Games for Organized Play, by M. T. Speak- man, 1925. Handbook for Pioneers, published by Association Press, IQIQ.- Handcraft for Home, School, Playground and Summer Camp, published by Playground and Recreation Asso- ciation of America, 1930. Physical Activities for Fall Semester, by Los Angeles De- partment of Education, 1930. Play for Rural Children, published by New York State Edu- cation Department, 1930. Recreational Games, by Capt. E. N. Hebbert. Reports of Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. Rhythm of the Redman, by Julia M. Buttree, 1930. — 278) 279) Able Tailor ... Acknowledgments Acorn Muffins... Adobies, see Dobies. Advantage Wrestling Advertisement Contest Alexander, Prof. W. P. . All Up Relay Alphabets, Dramatic Altar Cloth ... Animal Blindman’s Buff Ankle Grasp Walk Antz, Emma L. . Anvil of Navaho Indian Apache Pusher . Apache Relay. Arapaho Pouch . Arch Ball Relay . Archery Golf . Arm Bands... Arrowheads, Chipping Arsenical Soap . Ash, as Basket Material Ash Trays. . Authors, Verbal . Automobile Signals Axe, Sheath Axe, Use of Back Fence, Cats on Bag, Fire Sticks Bag, Medicine B Tinder . Bait the Bear. . Baking Indian Pottery . Bald Eagle Tribe Ball Relay, Arch Ball Relay, Stride Ball, Target . Ball, Trap Bamboo, as Basket Material Bands for Arm and Leg Bang the Bear Bank Swallow Barn Dance Baseball . Basket Dance . Basket Materials . Basketry . _ Baskets, Colors in Basswood Whistle . Bat . . . Battle Royal see Bayberry Candles Beading Beading Designs _ Bear and the Hunter Bear, Bait the . 120, "137, Index 45 3 97 44 47 86 23 45 187 27 28 87 108 121 24 189 22 20 151 119 252 142 105 47 196 175 171 32 186 184 186 5 125 142 22 23 52 12 135 151 5 256 60 116 70 135 142 141 114 116 32 164 146 150 9 5 Bear, Bang the Bear Dance . Bear Hunt . Bear in the Pit . Bear Walk . Bed, Bough, Bed, Willow . Beds in Camp Belknap, Camp Bibliography . Big Bear Hunt .. Big Brown Bird (Song) Binding Tally Book Birch Bark, as Basket Material . Bird Catcher . Bird Store . . Bird Wants a Tree, Little . Birds, Guessing Birds, Imitating Blackboard Relay Black Tracks Blazes and Signs . Blind Man’s Breakfast .. Blind Man’s Buff, Animal Block for Fire Making . Blue Corn Dance (Song) Blue Prints Blue Ridge. Boat Race Relay . Book Binding, Tally Bow and Arrow Dance . Bow for Fire Making Bracelets of Silver . . Breakfast, Blind Man’s . Breastplates of Beads Breech Clouts .. . Brook, Crossing the . Broad Jump Relay Broncho Tag . Brooches . . ., Broom, Camp Broom. Corn, as Basket _ Material Broom Ride, Witch’s. Buck, Still-hunting the... Buckeye, as Basket Material building Council Ring Bull Fight. . Bulrushes, as Basket “Material . Bunk House . Burdock, as Basket “Material Burls ... oe Burner for Trash Burton, Frederick R. Bustle’... ..... Buttree, Julia M., 83, 88, 98, 103, 113, 118, 119, 123, 146, 154, 156, 164, 165, 247 Buzz 263 135, 186, 5 28 16 4 42. 241 241 240 142 261 16 88 131 137 8 53 53 46 54 54 99 189 43 27 181 85 103 220 54 131 73 183 108 43 151 161 8 25 53 110 180 136 31 17 136 210 11 136 202 135 118 200 82, 85 161 102, 138, 187, 31 280) Index 264 Cabin Building, Log. 218 Cabin, Rock or Stone . 225 Cage, Photographic . 249 Calendar, Woodcraft 197 Camp Belknap 142 Camp Broom 180 Camp Horn 232 Camp Loom 177 camp Rake 179 er’s Song. 87 came les, Bayberry. . 164 Cane, as Basket Material . 137 Caning a Chair Seat 165 Canoe Song . . 87 Can You Smell? 50 Capitals . . . 50 Casts, Plaster . 98 Catching the Dodger 37 Catch of Fish... 7 Catch the Lynx 39 Catch the Salmon __.. 7 Cats on Back Fence . 32 Cattail, as Basket Material 137 Cat Walk, Wet Foot 42 Carousel (Song) 85 Cartwheel . . 95 Cedar, as Basket “Material . 144 Centipede . Lo 10 Chain Race, Crow Hop . 6 Chair Seat, Caning . 165 Chariot Relay . . 22 Chicken Fight, One-legged . 32 Chinese Get-up . 43 Chipping Arrowheads 119 Circle Hop Fight 29 City Games ... 36 Clute, Rev. Horace E. i “en "Tramp Signs . oo. 195 Colors in Basketry . 141 Comanche Dance 67 Corn Grinding Dance 71 Corn Grinding Song . . 84 Corn Husks, as Basket “Material . 136 Cost of Cabin... 223 Cost of Council Ring 213 Costuming, Indian 156 Council Fire oe 231 Council Games, Indoors 42 Council Games, Outdoors 26 Council Ring . 203 Council Ring Building 210 Council Ring, Covered 213 Council Ring, Indoors 207 Covered Council Ring 213 Coyote Dance 68 Crab. Relay 24 Crab Walk 43 Crane Dive . 44 Crawl, Seal 42 Crewelling . 117 Cross-hop Step ... 65 Crossing the Brook .. 8 Crow Hop Chain Race. .. . 6 Crucible of Navaho Indian . . . 108 Cup, Horn . . . 234 Curtis, Natalie . . 72, 82, 84 Cushing, Frank H., on Indian Pot- tery 7 . 126 Dance, Barn . 60 Dance, Bear (Game) 28 Dance Section Dancing Bustle ... De Coverley, Sir Roger Deer Hunt... . Deer Stalking . Deming, Agathe . Densmore, Frances Distance Measuring too Diving Relay, Medley . Dobies . . Dodger, Catching the Dog Walk, Lame . Dramatic Alphabets . Dress, Woman’s Indian . Drill for Fire Making . Drum, Hoop . . Drum, Log Drums . Drum, War . Duck Waddle . Dust of Red Wagon (Song) Dyeing Quills. Dyes, Vegetables Eagle Dance ... Eagle Dance (Song) . Eagle Stick or Tse-Pe . Eggs in a Nest . . Elephant Walk Elk’s Teeth .. Elm, as Basket Material Essentials of Teaching Games Fans, Feathers and . Far Sight se Feathers and Fans . Feather Work Feeling Fence, Cats on Back . Ferns, as Basket Material . Fest, Song . Fest, Talk Fire, Council Fire Lighters . Fire, Rubbing Stick . Fire Set. . Fire Stick Bag . Firing Indian Pottery Fish, Catch of . » oe F letcher, Alice C., Songs . On Quill Work . Flute . « . . Fobs. . Forge, Navaho Indian . Forward Pull Four-poster . . Fox and Rabbit . Freeze. . . . Frog Hop Fundamental Indian Dance ‘Steps Fuzz Sticks Games, Camp Games, City . . Games, Council Indoors Games, Council Outdoors Games, Grouping of . Games, Indoors Games, Informal Games, Night . Games, Outdoors . 154 136 33 33 231 170 180 180 186 125 83, 84 152 116 110 107 30 245 44 42 65 170 36 42 26 42 50 39 281) Games Section . . . . Games, Water Gavotte, Simple Golf, Archery . . Grabau, John F., on Binding . Graham, Robert W., on Basket Making oe ee Grass Mats Grass Signs. . Grass, Sweet, as Basket “Material . Grey Wolf’s "Song . Griswold, Lester . Guessing Birds Handicrafts Section Handspring. Hand Wrestling . Hangers for Costuming . Haring, Inez M. Hatchet, Use of . Hat-trimming . Height Measuring. . Hemp, as Basket Material . Hickory, as Basket Material Hide, see Skin. High Hop-Point Step . Hike Song, Woodcraft . . Hoffman, Walter Js on Elm in Basketry . . ee On Mat Making . Hollow Tree... Hop Fight, Circle ... Hop Fight, One Hand Hop, Lunge and . . Hop-Step, Sioux Horn, Camp . Horn Cup . Horn for. Elk’s Teeth . Horn, Hunter’s Horn, Tinder Horse Racing Hostile Spy Hunt, Bear . Hunt, Big Bear . Hunt, Deer . .... . Hunt, Man... .. . Hunt, Rabbit . Sk Hunter, Bear and the Hunter’s Horn Hunter’s Lamp Hunting, Lion . Hunting of Mishi- Mokwa Hunting Pouch . 105, Imitating Birds Indian Dances . . Indian Hemp as Basket Material . Indian Names for Months . Indian Office . . Indian Pottery Making . Indian Running . Indian Village Indian Well . Indoor Council Ring Indoors Gamies Informal Games . Ink Prints . 8 Into the Ring Introduction Ishi and Arrowheads Index 40 59 20 131 143 177 193 265 1 ) Jaeger, Ellsworth . 128, 157, 173, 175, 184, 186, 189, 232, 234 James George Wharton . 135, 141 Jewelry of Silver . 106 Jewelry of Tin se elle) «106 Jumping Relay .... . . 22 Jump Relay Broad... . . 25 Jump Rope Relay... . at Kangaroo Jum 43 136 89 152 46 93 95 28 156 106 170 45 205 136 137 66 56 137 144 257 29 120 Kitchen of Indian Village . . 200 Knife Sheath ... . : Knife, Use of . La Flesche, Francis . . . . . 83 Lame Dog Walk .... . 42 Lamp, Hunter’s . . . . . . 166 Lantern, Woodman’s ... - 168 Laport, 'E. A., on Basket Making . 142 Laughing Contest... . 46 Leap Frog Relay . 8 we ew 23 Leg Bands. . © - -. 151 Leggings, Indian . eo es ee 157 Lights . . . » © © « « 166 Lion Hunting . oo. 12 Little Bird Wants a Tree . . . 53 Lives of Game Animals... 101, 251 Lock Arm Tag . .... . 52 Logan, Elwood . .... . 98 Log Cabin . ..... . 218 Log Drum ..... . . 237 Log Riding . ..... . 96 Long House . .... . . 200 Loom, Beading 147 Loom, Camp. . 177 Loom, Navaho .. .. . . -178 Lunge and Hop... . ... = 29 Lvoff, Alexis . . . . .. . @t Lynx, Catch the. . .... 39 Man Hunt... . 15 Martynia, as Basket Material . 136 Mason, Bernard S., on Drums . 237 Match Box Covers . . . . . 105 Match Box, Pass the oe oe he) USS Mats ... ~ ee) «144 Mats, Grass. . 177 Matthews, Dr. Washington "107, 108, 111, 140, 179 Mazurka, Polka . . 60 Measuring Weights and Distances . 205 Medicine Bag. » ow ee «184 Medley Diving Relay » oe ele) C4 Medley Swimming Relay . . . 41 Meet, Parlor Track . . . . . 48 Menomini Beading ~ « 147 Menomini Mats ... . . 144 Might of America (Song) _ Lo. 91 Mishi-Mokwa, Hunting of Lo 16 Modern Priscilla, on Basketry . 144 Months, Indian Names for . 197 Mordants .. ~ oe ele) C4 Morlock, Jose hine . 2 wt 87 Moss, as Basket Material 136 Moulds for Silver Jewelry . 107 Moulds of Navaho Indian ~ . « 108 Muffins, Acorn ... ~ 2 « 97 Mule, Obstinate . . . .. . 5 Names for Months, Indian. . 197 Napkin Ring. . . .. - 113 282) 266 Navaho Jewelry Methods Navaho Loom... Navaho Weaving... Needles, Threading the . Nest, Eggs ina. ... Night Games . Noggin Oak, as Basket Material Object Game . - oe Obstinate Mule Office, Indian Old Plug . Omaha Prayer (Song) One Hand Hop Fight . One-legged Chicken Fight Orion Tribe ... Ostrich Walk . Oxydizing Silver . Palm, as Basket Material . Pan Pipe . . Pantomimes . . . . Paper Beads . . . . Paper Mash . Papier Maché Or “Paper Mash . Parlor Track Meet . . Pass the Match Box Peanut Carry... Pendants for ‘Costuming Photographic Cage Physical Education Pine Needles, as Basket Material Pioneer Hunting Pouch . Pitts, William S. Pivot Step. Plaster Casts . Plough Race... Pocket Knife Craft . Polishing Silver Polka Mazurka Pope, Saxton T. . Porcupine Quill Work Posing. . . Post General .. Post Relay, Round Pottery Making Pouch, Arapaho Pouch, Hunting ... Pouch, Strike- a-Light Prayer Rugs . Price, Elizabeth Prints, Blue Prints, Ink Prints, Smoke Prints, Spatter Pull, Forward Quick Sight Quill Work Rabbit, Fox and . Rabbit Hunt . Rabbit in a Hollow Tree Rabbit, Spot the . Race, Crow Hop Chain Race, Indian Hunting Race, Plough . Race, Travois Race, Tug. 99, Index 106 178 178 45 11 39 118 137 47 5 197 9 84 28 32 143 42 112 135 116 33 151 113 113 48 35 Sl 156 249 Vv 136 189 88 66 98 113 lil 60 120 152 33 48 124 189 189 189 187 102 103 102 101 103 30 51 152 11 14 20 50 40 Race, Wheelbarrow . . .. . 4 Race, William Tell 44 Race, see Relay. Racing, Horse. . 43 Raffia, as Basket Material . 135 Rake, Camp . 179 Rattan, as Basket Material 135 Red Wagon (Song) . 83 Reel, Virginia 62 Relay, All Up. 23 Relay, Apache 24 Relay, Arch Ball 22 Relay, Blackboard 54 Relay, Boat Race 54 Relay, Broad Jump 25 Relay, Chariot 22 Relay, Crab 24 Relay, Jumping . 22 Relay, Jump Rope . . 21 Relay, Leap Frog... 23 Relay, Medley Diving 41 Relay, Medley Swimming 41 Relay, Round Post . . 21 Relay, Running and Catching . 25 Relay, Stride Ball . . . 23 Relay, Wheelbarrow .. 22 Rhythm of the Redman . 161, 203, 247, Riding a Log . . . 96 Ring, Into the 30 Rings ... 110 Rising to Depart (Song) 83 Road Signs. 190 Robinson, E. M. 220 Rock or Stone Cabin 225 Roger de Coverley 62 Roosevelt, Theodore . 220 Rooster Fight 30 Rope Making . 127 Rope Relay, Jump 21 Round Post Relay . 21 Rubbing Stick Fire . 180 Rugs, Prayer . 187 Running and Catching Relay 25 Sagamore Song . . ... . 86 Salmon, Catch the . . .. . 7 Scare Step ~ oe ele 66 Schottische 59 Scouting. 13 Seal Crawl 42 Sedge, as Basket Material . . 137 Seton, Ernest Thompson . 89, 90, 91, 99, 101, 113, 114, 116, 161, 197, 203, 232, 249, 256, 257 Seton Rancho’ (Song) 82 Seven Secrets (Song) 89 Shadowing we oe ue lel ele Shadow Tag . ..... . 4 Shaping Silver ~ oem) CU Sheath, Axe. 175 Sheath, Knife. 173 Shelter, Wilderness 175 Shot Signals 194 Siamese Twins 43 Sight, Far 20 Sight, Quick 51 Signals, Auto 196 Signals, Shot . 194 Signals, Smoke 193 Signs and Blazes . 189 Signs, Grass 193 283) Signs, Road . Signs, Stones . Signs, Tramp . Signs, Trees Signs, Twigs . Silver Jewelry Simple Gavotte - . Sioux Hop Step... Sir Roger de Coverley . Skinning Birds Skin, Smoking ee Skin, Tanning a Skin the Snake tee Slave Song. Smell, Can You... .. . Smoke House. . . . . «- «  Smoke Prints Smoke Signals Smoking Skin Snake, Skin the Snake Walk Sneak Step Soap, Arsenical Socket for Fire Making Soldering Silver Solemnity . Song Fest. . . Song of Rising to Depart . Song of Seven Secrets Songs Section . Spatter Prints . Sperr, P. L., on Bayberry Candies . Spirit of Indian Pottery . . Spot the Rabbit . Spotting the Spot Spruce Roots, as Basket “Material . Spy, Hostile Loe Stalking, Deer. . Steps, Fundamental Indian . Stevenson, Maltida Coxe, on Indian Pottery . Loe ele Still-Hunting the Buck... Stoll, Frank, on Making Rope Stone or Rock Cabin . Stone Signs. . Stools, Woodcraft _ . Stream, Measuring Distance A Across . Stride Ball Relay . . Strike-a-Light Pouch Strong Hand . Stryker, Carol Submarine Sunbath Sun Dance . Sun Dance Song . Swallow Bank Sweat Lodge . Sweet Grass, as Basket Material Swimming Relay, Medley Tag, Broncho Tag, Lock Arm Tag, Shadow Tag, Water Tailor, Able ‘Talk Fest. . . Tally Book Binding . Tally Book Making . Tamarac, as Basket Material Tanning Skin oe ele Target Ball . . . 1. ee Index 190 193 194 190 193 106 59 67 62 252 134 123 27 90 256 203 136 41 53 52 40 45 33 131 128 137 123 52 Taxidermy . Telegrams . . . . Tepee Making Tepee Wakan Tepees . Tesuque Indians . Thlah Hewe (Song) Thomas, Lester . . Threading the Needles . Thumpers . ... . Tilting, Tub Tincandicraft . Tinder Bag . . Tinder for Fire Making | Tinder Horn . Toe-flat Step . Toilet Building . Toilets in Indyan Village Tombe . . Tomtom. Tools for Tincandicraft Totem Making Totem Pole . . Track Meet, Parlor . Tracks of Animals Tracks, Black . Tracks, Plaster Casts of | Trailing . Tramp Signs Trap Ball . Trash Burner . Travois Race . Tree, Hollow . Tree, Measuring Height « of . Tree, Rabbit in a Hollow . Tree’ Signs Trimming, Hat. Tse-Pe or Eagle Stick Tube Beads . Tub Tilting Tug Race . Tule, as Basket Material Turkey in the Straw . Twig Signs Twins, Siamese Twin Watermen Umpire Essentials of Unicorn Plant or Martynia : Varsovienne. Vegetable Dyes Verbal Authors Village, Indian Virginia Reel . Waddle, Duck. Walk, Ankle Grasp Walk, Bear . . Walk, Centipede . Walk, Crab. Walk, Elephant Walk, Lame Dog Walk, Ostrich Walk, Snake ... Walk, Wet Foot Cat Wall "Hangings Warshirt Water Games... Water Men, Twin Water Tag 267 . 202, 81, 251 284) 268 Index Water Wrestling - «+ « « « 40 | Williamson, Mrs, Quincy, on Iris as Wax-ends . oe eh hehe C8 Basket Material . . . . 444 Weather Cok ...... 6 | William Tell Race. . . 44 Weaving, Navaho... ... 178 } Willow, as Basket Material « . « 136 Welch, Fay . . . . . . . 96 | Willow Bed... . . . 241 Well, ‘Indian. . . . . «. 205 | Willow Whistle . . . . . . J114 Wet Foot Cat Walk . . . . 42 | Witch’s Broom Ride woe) US What’s Wrong . . . ... +. 36 | Woman’s Indian Dress . . . . 157 Wheelbarrow Race... . . 4 | Women’s Step ~ oe . e)~©6 666 Wheelbarrow Relay ... . 22 | Wood Child (Song) . ~ oe «© « 90 When I Become a Sagamore (Song) . 86 | Woodcraft Calendar. . . . . 197 Whistle, Willow . . .. . . 114 | Woodcraft Hike Song... . 86 Whistling Match . . . . 33 | Wood, Edw. Luton . . . . . = 87 White Man’s Woodcraft. . 205 | Woodman’s Lantern. . . . . 168 White, Mary, on Vegetable Dyes . 138 | Wrestling, Advantage . . . . 44 Wilderness Shelter... . 175 | Wrestling, Hand. .... . 28 Wikantanka Tribe . . . . . 164 | Wrestling, Water. . . . . =. £40 THE END 285) 286) 287) 288)


  1. The “Military Commandant” is usually the lady of the house that he gets to.