The Birch Bark Roll of Woodcraft – COUPS and DEGREES, 1930 (book)

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Contents

The Birch Bark Roll of Woodcraft

The Twenty-eighth Edition of the Manual

For Boys and Girls from 4 to 94

BY

ERNEST THOMPSON SETON

CHIEF OF THE WOODCRAFT LEAGUE OF AMERICA, INC.

Author of “Wild Animals I Have Known,” “Two Little Savages,” “Life Histories of Northern Animals,” “Game Animals and the Lives They Live,” etc.

COUPS and DEGREES

1930 8) Copyright 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1930, by Ernest Thompson Seton.

All rights reserved including that of translation into foreign languages, including the Scandinavian 9) Conservation In my young days some 50 odd years ago, trees were considered the greatest plague of the settler, and every means of destroying them was employed with vigor. The man who cut down a tree on his neighbor's land, was sup- posed to be doing him a benefit. Now what a change we see! Forest destruction has gone so fast and so far that we have been suddenly confronted with the probability of a woodless waste where once were the American forests famous the world over; with a deso- lated. deliberately desolated, fatherland. We know these things today, and wise leaders are every- where at work inculcating the methods of true conservation. With these leaders, the Woodcraft League co-operates, and to this end, we have in this issue of the Birch Bark Roll carefully avoided any line of activity that seems likely to lead to destruction of any of Mother Nature’s blessings. Collections of butterflies and birds we no longer encourage, baskets made of materials where their use would be a men- ace to our forest resources are not now listed for honors. On the other hand, the placing of bird boxes, the planting of trees, the dissemination of wild flowers and the destruc- tion of tent caterpillars, etc., are cited as honorable Wood- craft activities. 10) Climbing the Mountain

Afar in our dry Southwestern country is an Indian village, and in the offing is a high mountain towering up out of the desert. It was considered a great feat to climb this moun- tain, so that all the boys of the village were eager to attempt it. One day the Chief said, “Now, boys, you may all go to-day and try to climb the mountain. Start right after breakfast and go each of you as far as you can. Then when you are tired, come back, but let each one bring me a twig from the place where he turned.” Away they went, full of hope, each feeling that he surely could reach the top. But soon a fat, pudgy boy came slowly back and in his hand he held out to the Chief a leaf of cactus. The Chief smiled and said, “My boy, you did not reach the foot of the mountain; you did not even get across the desert.” Later a second boy returned. He carried a twig of sage- brush. “Well,” said the Chief, “you reached the mountain’s foot, but you did not climb upwards.” The next had a cottonwood spray. “Good,” said the Chief, “you got up as far as the springs.” Another came later with some buckthorn. The Chief smiled when he saw it, and spoke: “You were climbing ; you were up to the first slide rock.” Later in the afternoon one arrived with a cedar spray, and the old man said, ‘Well done. You went half-way up.” An hour afterwards, one came with a sprig of pine. To him the Chief said, “Good: you went to the third belt, you made three-quarters of the climb.” The sun was low when the last returned. He was a tall, splendid boy of noble character. His hand was empty as he approached the Chief, but his countenance was radiant, and he said, “My father, there were no trees where I got to—I saw no twigs, but I saw the Shining Sea.” " Now the old man’s face glowed, too, as he said aloud and almost sang. “I knew it! When I looked at your face, I 11)

 knew it. You have been to the top. You need no twigs for token. It is written in your eyes, and rings in your voice. My boy, you have felt the uplift, you have seen the glory of 

the mountain.”

Oh, ye Woodcrafters, keep this in mind, then—the badges (the coups and degrees) we offer for attainment are not “brizes’—they are merely tokens of what you have done, of where you have been. They are mere twigs from the trail to show how far you got in climbing up the mountain.

BLACK WOLF.

Chief. 12) 13)

COUPS AND DEGREES

The honors of the Woodcraft League are standard, not competitive. For example, we do not give an honor to the boy who wins a running race; but to all the boys who can run a certain distance in a given time. We believe, not in downing the other fellow, but in raising yourself.

A coup is a single exploit for which the feather badge is given. It is meant to be a really meritorious exploit in a given department. A grand coup of the same department is similar, but of such excellence that a person achieving it, is in the highest class, short of the record makers.

Any lowering of these standards would rob the coups of their value. The committee has steadfastly aimed at raising the standards, but has added greatly to the number of departments of activity.

A degree is an honor which is evidence of all-round proficiency in a given department.

No badges are conferred unless the exploit has been properly witnessed or proven, and approved by a careful local committee. When it is a question of time under one minute, only stop-watches are allowed.

Badges, once fairly won, can never be lost for subsequent failure to reach the standard.

Three witnesses are preferred as sponsors for the achievement; but obviously, in some cases, this is impossible. In such cases, it is sufficient if claimant convinces the committee in charge that the coup has been fairly won — what would be considered legal evidence in the courts of law.

No two coups can be claimed for one exploit. For example, there is a coup for swimming 200 yards, in time, and another for swimming 220 yards, no time limit. You cannot swim the 200 yards in time, and then swim 20 yards more and claim two coups. Each coup must be a separate exploit.

A coup is sometimes listed as a repeater, and a second coup claimed for it, provided entirely new material is offered on the repeat. For example, if you identify 25 birds in the field, according to the conditions attached, you claim a coup. If you identify 50, you claim a grand coup. If you keep on, 14) and identify another 25, all different from the first 50, you may claim another coup. But please note that, in a case like this, a second coup may not be claimed before the first grand coup is attained. None are repeaters except those so noted; and a repeater may not be claimed within six months of the first claim on that coup.

We are well aware that there is a certain group of educators who decry the awarding of any honors or the tangible recognition of any exploit, claiming that virtue 1s its own reward — the sense of accomplishment is adequate recompense for the performance of a deed.

We have considered this attitude very seriously; and by the light of much experiment and observation, have been forced to the following conclusions:

  1. An individual who would feel that the power to identify 25 birds is enough reward for the study given up to such identification, is an ideal figure.
  2. We are all aiming to be and to train ideal figures.
  3. The world has not yet reached the stage where all are ideal figures; some of us are still human.
  4. In order to compass quickest results, we must deal with humanity as we find it, not as we would like it to be.
  5. Human nature, as it exists, demands some sort of recognition for its efforts.
  6. Therefore, we signalize achievement by a mark of attainment, valueless in itself, but priceless in the spur it gives to further development. Such has been the custom of every great teacher of humanity on record.

This is the basis of our coup system; and our members very soon realize that the idea back of a piling up of coups is not the embellishment of our honor bands with pretty little feathers, but the bigger, broader thought of further attainment and fuller knowledge. Therefore, we find that, though, for instance, the coup asks for the identification of 40 wild flowers, our people are not content with claiming said coup for 40, but go on to 50 or more before they receive the coup. Thus, the award has accomplished its purpose. That boy (being human) may have started out learning wild flowers in order to be awarded another feather, but he surely ends up with the desire to know the flowers.

Such an attitude in the claiming of honors has another very practical value. When your claim is turned in to the Honors Committee, they may reject one or two of your list 15) as being improperly identified. However, you have given perhaps 5 more than was required so you still are within the law, and are awarded the coup without delay. So also in the claiming of ranks: do not be satisfied to turn in 24 coups for the rank of Sagamore, though, strictly, that is all that is required. Have a couple extra to allow for some which the Committee may not accept.

Your Tribal Honors Committee should consist of three persons with the broadest knowledge available. It should always be of adults, possessed of good judgment and of the strong desire to keep up the standards of the League. All honors must be submitted to these three persons, who pass not only on the material submitted, but on the form in which the claim is made out. This saves endless time and trouble later, when the claims are submitted to the National Honors Committee for the higher ranks.

All coup claims should be carefully preserved either by the individual attaining them; or, in the case of children, by the Guide. They should also be recorded in the Tribal Tally, which would be accepted as legal evidence, should they, by some unfortunate accident, be lost.

For convenience in reference, we have numbered all the coups. Thus, all the coups under Lamp I are I, etc. Each section under a Lamp is lettered with a capital, and each coup under a section is numbered with a small numeral. For example, if you wish to refer to the Tackle-making coup, it would be I, T, 1. If you wish to refer to the coup on training a bird or animal, it would be III, K, 1., etc., etc.

Little Lodge

The Little Lodge coups are being included in this edition of the BIRCH BARK ROLL. These are prefixed in each case by (L.L.), and may not be taken by those over 12 years of age. In the Athletic coups, the index number determines the class into which each member falls, so that this prefix is unnecessary.

The general rulings on coups, as given for the Big Lodge on the preceding pages, apply to the Little Lodge. The coups are symbolized in the Little Lodge by bars of felt instead of feathers. These felt strips are 1½ inches long by ⅛ inch wide, and are sewn on the honor band with a little space between each two. Coups of the First Torch or Lamp 16) are indicated by blue; those of the Second Torch by green; those of the Third Torch by brown; and those of the Fourth Torch by yellow. They are grouped on the band according to color, in the order given herewith; that is, all the blue honors are in one group at the upper end of the band, nearest the shoulder; the green are attached below these, etc.

No coups are repeaters unless so noted.

A Little Lodge member may, with the approval of his Guide, make a Big Lodge honor; and may be awarded for this a bar of felt; but no feather may be worn by a Little Lodge member. When he attains the Big Lodge, he may carry over with him any Big Lodge honors he has made, and be awarded the feathers without further accomplishment.

In cases not specifically covered herein, meritorious work approved worthy of a coup or grand coup by the Tribal Honors Committee, may be submitted to the National Honors Committee for action. If the National Honors Committee, after carefully reviewing the achievement submitted, finds it in accordance with the standards maintained in the listed honors, they may authorize the tribe to award the coup or grand coup as the case may be. But in no other way may a coup not listed in the Birch Bark Roll be awarded.

Ranks in the Little Lodge

Brownie — One who has passed laws and initiation tests.

Woodman — One who has been awarded 12 Honors.

Waterbearer — One who has been awarded 24 Honors.

Fire Keeper — One who has been awarded 48 Honors.

Ranks in the Big Lodge

The ranks must be taken in order.

Wayseeker. To qualify for the Big Lodge — that is, to enter as a Wayseeker — one must:

Be over 12 years of age.

Know the 4 Torches or Lamps, and the 12 laws.

Take one of the initiations.

Be voted in unanimously by the other members of the group.

Having passed this, the candidate becomes a Wayseeker and receives the Big Lodge badge of the lowest rank.

Pathfinder. This is the next higher rank. To win the rank 17) of Pathfinder, the Wayseeker must have won 12 coups, 3 under each Lamp; know and tell publicly the story of the First Fire; make and explain the Sand Painting; be a Woodcrafter at least three months.

When these tests have been satisfactorily passed, the member is called out in Council, the Guide then in charge reads a list of the coups won, cuts from the horned shield the green tassels and burns them, hands the candidate a thread of scarlet silk to be embroidered — a red spot — in the door-way of the teepee, saying as he does so: “Thus do I, acting for the Council, take away the green tassels of inexperience, and with this silk, I light your teepee fire. You are now a Pathfinder.”

A Sagamore is one who has won 24 coups, 6 under each Lamp; must be at least 14 years of age; and be a Woodcrafter at least six months.

A Grand Sagamore is one who has won 24 grand coups.

An Eagle Sagamore is one with 36 coups.

A Grand Eagle Sagamore is one with 36 grand coups.

A Sachem is one with 48 coups.

A Grand Sachem has 48 grand coups.

An Eagle Sachem has 72 coups.

A Grand Eagle Sachem is one with 72 grand coups.

A Sachem Ipawa is one with 100 coups.

A Grand Sachem Ipawa is one with 100 grand coups.

An Eagle Sachem Ipawa is one with 200 coups.

A Grand Eagle Sachem Ipawa is one with 200 grand coups.

Local tribes are authorized to confer the ranks of Wayseeker and of Pathfinder. Before taking any action on claims for the rank of Sagamore or higher ranks, the Head Guide must forward to the Field Council of the District (if in the district of a Field Council; otherwise to National Headquarters) the original coup claims. The Committee on Honors will there pass upon them, make record of same and return them to the local group. Without their action, these titles may not be approved or conferred.

Woodcraft Honor Band

When one is received into membership, he should have placed on his shoulders the Woodcraft Honor Band which 18) must be secured from the Great Central Lodge (Headquarters).

The Woodcraft has never emphasized a uniform in the ordinary sense, chiefly because of the expense entailed. Its two visible and personal symbols have always been the Honor Band and the Sagamore Robe. On them, we display our honors. On them, we lavish effort to achieve a brilliant effect.

The Honor Band of the Big Lodge is of flame colored felt, 3 inches wide, with a 6-inch shield on the breast. Those who wish may add fringes of buckskin, leather, or other material. The band is secured on the left hip by a button which each one will prefer to make for himself. Some use a bear’s tooth, some a piece of deer’s antler, carved, some a bone or wooden button, or perhaps a piece of shell, shaped to his own fancy.

The Honor Band accommodates the honors of a Sachem, and yet looks well when first hung on the shoulder of the Wayseeker. At once, it turns any costume into a uniform. No matter how differently those in a group are dressed, the Honor Band on each makes all seem to be in uniform, light or dark, — a uniform with a flaming shoulder strap and shield. It is visible afar off. It is unlike the regalia of any other organization.

When the rank of Sachem is reached and passed, a second Honor Band is needed and allowed. This is worn from the opposite shoulder, crossing the first band under the shield. (See dotted line.) It needs no shield of its own; that is, one shield is all that is ever allowed.

The Little Lodge Honor Band is flame color felt 24 inches wide, worn across the right shoulder and fastened on the left hip, with the badge of the Little Lodge in the center. 19)

Badges

The symbol of the Woodcraft League is a white shield with blue horns.

The banner is the Horned Shield on a flame-colored background with buckskin fringe.

The badge of the Big Lodge has in addition a blue teepee with a white doorway on it.

That of the Coup is a black and white eagle feather embroidered in wash silk or made of celluloid.

That of the Grand Coup is the same with a red or yellow tuft or a bead on the end.

That of the Sagamore has a crown with five points.

Those of the Grand Sagamore, Eagle Sagamore, Sachem, Grand Sachem, Eagle Sachem and Sachem Ipawa are made in the same way as the Sagamore badge with the addition of tufts, etc. See ill.

The badges for degrees are squares (with a design in black) on the Zuni coil.

The robe badge for degree is the Zuni Coil of a larger size in the centre of which is the emblem of the degree.

That of the Guide has a trail on it.

That of the Shaman has on it the four mountains of attainment.

That of the Ranger has the trail and a horseshoe.

The Meaning of the Badges

The badge of the Woodcraft League is an ancient Indian totem composed of a pair of horns attached to a shield; the horns meaning “attack” and the shield “defense” ; the idea symbolized being, “trained and ready.” This is used by all in the League, whether boy or girl, man or woman.

The blue on the badge is to remind us of “Blue Sky,” which is our watchword. For under the blue sky, in the sunlight, we seek to live our lives; and our thoughts are of “Blue Sky,” for that means “cheer”; and when there are clouds, we know that the blue sky is ever behind them, and will come again. The flame background is to remind us that the Council Fire is the focus of all our thought. It is the flame of the Spirit. 20)


The blue teepee reminds us that the teepee, the only movable dwelling that permits of any open fire inside, was the abode of the first Woodcrafters of this country. It always faced the east with the sunrise that symbolizes the ever-renewed promise of the day. The fire within it was the symbol of the Great Spirit and the smoke was the established emblem of prayer, ascending from the mystery of the Fire below to be lost in the mystery of the far above.

The two green tassels are the badges of inexperience; and when by achievements the Woodcrafter is entitled to have them removed, the meaning of the symbolism is as evident as it is happy. 21)

THE ATTAINMENT OF THE SHIELD

Entering the Big Lodge

When a young man in the days of Chivalry reached the years of discretion, his admission to the High Order of Knighthood was solemnized with many ceremonies. He fasted, prayed, took vows of clean living; he consecrated his powers to the service of his country and of his God. Then he received the sword, the spear, and the shield. On the latter was blazoned the fame of his family and the watchwords of their noblest aspirations.

Among the Plains Indians, very similar ceremonies took place. As soon as the young brave had demonstrated his manhood in his war-party, or other great undertaking, he was formally initiated into the lodge of Warriors. He was no longer a child, but judged fit to sit among the men of the Big Lodge. Before being installed he made careful preparations. He had, by fasting and vigil, to establish the domination of his spirit over his body. Then in the presence of the Council, he was invested with his shield, decorated with the symbols of his attainment, as well as his aspirations. Henceforth, through life, that shield was his most sacred possession.

Thus, through all the ages, the conferring of the shield has symbolized the attainment of manhood, the evidence that henceforth the bearer is to be numbered among those that accept the responsibility of strength and experience.

In the Woodcraft League, there is retained as much as can be of the sacred ceremony of the Redmen on this occasion. In the Litte Lodge, the Woodcrafter wears an honor band, but no shield. When he is turned 12 years of age, he is judged to be worthy of a place in the Big Lodge.

In preparation for this, he takes the Sweat Lodge, if there be one in camp; or failing that, a hot and purifying bath. Then he puts on clean clothes. He is now led to the place of vigil which is secluded and remote from the crowd, preferably in the woods, where he must sit alone and silent, watching a small fire, a vigil fire. While there he must not eat, or sleep, or talk, or read, or have anyone visit him. The Indian did it at least all night. We ask that the candidate do it not less than three hours, in the dawn, or at dusk, or night, but not when the sun is high. If it be impossible to 22) sit in the woods, he may sit in a room silent and by himself, and for a fire, he may use a candle in a fire bowl.

He is then brought back to the Council Ring. The Guide or Chief explains to him the new responsibilities which come with his new position, The Candidate recites the Twelve Laws of the Big Lodge of Woodcraft, indicating their relation to the sandpainting. Then the Guide places upon his shoulder the Big Lodge Honor Band, saying:

“In the conferring of this, the shield of the Order of Woodcraft, I declare your installation complete as a member of the Big Lodge.”

He shakes him by the hand and adds the Woodcraft greeting “How Kola!” (Hail Brother).

The member may place upon his Big Lodge Honor Band, the totem of the Little Lodge, clipped from the center, and sewn just above the shield. 23)

WOODCRAFT BADGES

24)

COUNCIL ROBES

Tribal Robe

Many tribes have made tribal robes. They are best made of some bright colored material, since they are essentially a display property. Their usual place is hung banner-like behind the Council Rock or on the wall. The proper ornaments are the Woodcraft shield, the tribal totem, any pictographic incidents of local history and any coups or degrees that have been won, by every member of the tribe, provided there are not less than six members enrolled.

The Sagamore Robe

The proudest visible ornament of the Woodcrafter is the Sagamore robe, the right to wear which is bestowed at the time of installation as Sagamore and continues thereafter.

The robe is designed to be, first, a comfortable blanket or wrap; second, a bedspread; third, a wall drape, or a banner background in council. But its ornaments are the Woodcraft record of the wearer, and may be embellished and beautified to any desired extent. The robes of our Sagamores, are, perhaps, the most picturesque adjuncts of all our Woodcraft work.

While much of its plan is left to individual taste, there are one or two essentials that all must accept.

First, it is a robe, and when spread out, lies flat.

Second, it must have on it the crown of 24 white feathers about the wearer’s personal symbol or totem, and somewhere also the horned shield, the symbol of Woodcraft, also the wearer’s tribe totem.

To all this, you add as won your additional coup feathers and your degree emblems, also other decorative features desired, arranged according to your own taste.

The circle within the crown of 24 feathers must be reserved for the owner's Council Fire Name.

These are the essentials, but it is urged that the robe be of soft, beautiful material, any color you please so it be beautiful. The best pattern or cut is the one given in the illustration. This is 4½ feet wide and 6½ feet long. Its peculiar features are as follows: The head hole which is 25) 15 inches long and begins 4½ feet from the bottom, and which, when worn, is closed by the buttoned throat latch CD. At E and F, but on the under side, are two tie strings, fastened on. They are about 18 inches long each, and are meant to tie around the wearer’s waist under the robe while it is worn with the head through the head hole.

Sagamore robe. Individual taste finds full scope in the decoration. Buck-skin fringes, shoulder bands, borders of beadwork or quill work, spangles of wampum beads, shells or imitation elks’ teeth, pockets or pouches, painted, appliqued or embroidered pictographic records, — all are used and allowed, so long as the above named essentials are adhered to.

But above all, first, last and all the time, remember that the robe is made a thing of beauty.



26)

THE WAY OF THE FIRST LAMP

No test requiring violent exercise should be taken unless the member has passed a general physical examination. The Guide of each group should see that this precaution is observed, and especially so in the case of the girl members. Failure to observe the condition of the body may result in life-long harm.

Do not try for any coup in athletics without getting your Guide's approval.

The First Lamp includes, besides athletics, a number of handicraft coups, such as Basketry, Beading, Macrame Work, etc., where the exploit is a matter of finger dexterity. 27)

CLASSIFICATION CHART FOR BOYS’ ATHLETIC COUPS

Exponents based upon a three point system of height, age and weight.

. Age Weight Sum of Height Under Under Exponent Exponents Under 50 in. 10 yrs. 60 Ibs. 1 (6 or less) 51-53 ll yrs. 70 lbs. 2 Class B 54-55 12 yrs. 80 Ibs. 3 (7 to 12) 56-57 13 yrs, 86 Ibs. 4 Class A 58-59 14 yrs. 95 lbs. 5 (13-18) 60-61 15 yrs. 114 lbs. 6 Class B : 62-63 16yrs. ‘125 Ibs. 7 (49-21) ( Junior 64-65 17 yrs. 137 Ibs. 8 Class A 66-68 18 yrs. 145 lbs. 9 (22-28) 69-72 19 yrs. 152 Ibs. 10 Class B Seni 73 plus 19 vrs. 165 Ibs. 1 (29-33) enior andover andover Class A Example: William Jones is 54 inches tall, age 12 years and weight 70 pounds. Height 54 in. Exponent Weight 70 Ibs. “ 3 2 Age 12 years 3 Total 8 Classification Class A. Little Lodge John Brown is 68 inches tall. age 17 years and weighs 139 pounds. Height 68 in. Exponent 9 Age 17 years “ 8 Weight 139 Ibs. “ 9 Total 26 Classification Class B. Big Lodge For girls: Get the sum of the exponents as above; then, in the Big Lodge, drop back one class. That is, a girl with 20 would fall into Class B of Juniors; a girl with 22 would be in Class A of Juniors, etc. Nore: For this chart, and for many of the athletic require- ments for boys, we are indebted to Mr. Stephen M. Jessup, Assistant Supervisor, Physical Education, Los Angeles Public Schools. 21 28) A-ATHLETIC COUP

LITTLE LODGE - BIG LODGE - BIG LODGE

Events 29) A-ATHLETIC COUP

LITTLE LODGE - BIG LODGE - BIG LODGE

Events 30) 24 Wooderaft Birch Bark Roll 1“In the standing jump, the feet of the competitor may be placed in any posi- tion, but shall leave the ground once only in making an attempt to jump. . . . A competitor may rock back and forward, lifting heels and toes alternately from the ground, but may not lift either foot clear of the ground, nor slide either foot along the ground in any direction.” ““All measurements shall be made from the front of the ‘take-off’ to the nearest point at which any part of the body touches the ground. . “In the running broad jump, there is no limit to the distance that may be run before making the jump. . “For the running high jump, the bar shall be a thin stick and shall rest on pins which shall project not more than three inches from the uprights.” 2 The primary consideration here is distance, although the balls should be kept within a fairly well defined area, say the width of a road or track, Any number of steps shall be allowed, but the thrower must not step over the Jine in making the throw. Measuring may be simplified by placing markers at the specified distance. 3 Make a target 15 inches by 24 inches of wood or canvas to represent the area within which a strike must be thrown. Suspend this target a foot or two in front of a backstup of wire, a fence, or a mat in the gymnasium, The lower edge of the target should be 24 inches from the floor. <A strike is any throw that hits the target enough to move it at all. Care must be taken to see that the ball hits the target directly and not on the rebound, The thrower shall stand facing the target with both feet upon the line indicating the distance specified for his event. In delivering the ball, he may step forward with either foot, but bis other foot must be upon the line when the ball is thrown.

  • A lead or iron shot should be used, and care taken to get one of exact weight.

The test calls for a put and not a throw—that is, the shot must be propelled from above and in front of the shoulder. The put is made from within a 7-foot circle. Touching the ground in front of the circle with the foot, hand or any part of the bedy is not allowed. The measurement is taken trom the spot where the shot first touches the ground to the nearest point on the circumference of the circle. ... "The standard rope for this event is 1% inches in diameter, but any rope will be allowed provided it does not have any assisting devices of any sort, such as knots or balls. It must not he fastened at the hottom. Points should be marked by a white or colored string or cloth, and the climber must touch with his hand the mark indicating the height for his event. The start must be made from a standing position without a jump or spring. ° A portable chinning bar in a doorway, a horizontal bar in the gymnasium or the rungs of a ladder set at an angle against a building may serve the purpose. The contestant begins with his hands on the bar. Then with his arms straight- ened at full length he pulls himself up without a kick, snap, jerk or swing, until his chin is above the bar. Lowering himself again until his arms are straight, he repeats the pull-up. cacy, Lhe rulings given in the foregoing footnotes are extracts from the official “Handhook of the Public Schools Athletic League of New York City” and the Athletic Badge Tests” of the Playground and Recreation Associations of America. 51. (L.L.) Swimming—Swim in any approved style 5 yds. for each year of your age for coup. Swim the same in 2 min. 39 sec. and be able to use two different approved strokes, for grand coup. 52. Perform well any two standard dives, for coup. Any four standard dives for grand coup. 53. Fetch a given object in six feet of water, for coup. In eight feet of water, for grand coup. _ 54. (L.L.) Rowing—Row a boat in good form and land it alongside of a dock or other object, two times out of three, for coup. Row the boat to pass through floating objects twice as far apart as the width of the boat without touching them; and make three perfect successive: landings alongside a dock or other object for grand coup. 31)

B — Archery

(Revised by Will H. Thompson, of Seattle, Wash., and Arthur Young, of Los Angeles, Calif.)

1. Construct a target, not less than 30 inches in diameter with accurate pattern, and bull’s eye 6 inches, for coup. In addition, hit the bull’s eye three out of six shots at 20 yards, for grand coup.

2. Make a bow and six arrows that will carry 100 yards, for coup. To carry 150 yards, for grand coup.

3. (a) Make six properly feathered, flint-headed arrows, shaping the flint one’s self.
(b) Make a rain-proof, decorated quiver and bowcase for same. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

4. Make 24 arrowheads, — 6 of glass, 6 of flint, 6 obsidian, and 6 optional, for coup. If tools are made by self of bone or horn, grand coup.

5. Make a total score of 300 with 60 shots (in one or two meets), four-foot target at 40 yards (or three-foot target at 30 yards), for coup. Make 400 for grand coup.

6. Shoot so fast and far as to have 3 arrows in the air at once, for coup; 4 for grand coup.

7. (L.L.) Under 10 years of age: Send an arrow 90 yards, coup, 115 yards, grand coup.

8. (L.L.) 10 to 12 years of age: Send an arrow 105 yards, for coup; 125 yards, for grand coup.

9. 12 to 14 years of age: Send an arrow 125 yards, for coup; 150 yards, for grand coup.

10. 14 to 18 years of age: Send an arrow 175 yards, for coup; 200, for grand coup.;

11. Over 18 years of age: Send an arrow 250 yards, for coup; 275 yards, for grand coup.

Hit the Burlap Deer in the heart, first shot:

12. (L.L.) 10 to 12 years of age: at 40 yards, coup; 50 yards, grand coup.

13. 12 to 14 years of age: at 45 yards, coup; 55 yards, grand coup.

14. 14 to 18 years of age: at 60 yards, coup; 70 yards, grand coup. 32)

15. Over 18 years of age: at 75 yards, coup; 85 yards, grand coup.

(The heart is 9 inches across.)

To cover a mile:

16. (L.L.) Under 10 years of age: in 21 shots, coup; 17 shots, grand coup.

17. (L.L.) 10 to 12 years of age: in 18 shots, coup; 15 shots, grand coup.

18. 12 to 14 years of age: in 16 shots, coup; 13 shots, grand coup.

19, 14 to 18 years of age: in 12 shots, coup; in 11 shots, grand coup.

20. Over 18 years of age: in 10 shots, coup; in 9 shots, grand coup.

Long range, clout, or flight shooting:

21. 14 to 18 years of age: Three-foot target at 130 yards, on a steep hillside:

Target Counts 9
Within 3 feet of outside of target 7
Within 6 feet of outside of target 5
Within 9 feet of outside of target 3
Within 12 feet of outside of target 1
Coup is for 300 at 60 consecutive shots; grand coup is for 400 at 60 consecutive shots. (In one or two meets.)

22. Over 18 years of age: Four-foot target at 180 yards on a steep hillside:

Target counts 9
Within 6 feet of outside of target 7
Within 12 feet of outside of target 5
Within 18 feet of outside of target 3
Within 24 feet of outside of target 1
Coup is for 300 at 60 consecutive shots; grand coup is for 400 at 60 consecutive shots. (In one or two meets.)

C — Athletic Specialties

1. Turn a cartwheel, for coup. Do it both right and left, for grand coup. (A cartwheel: Stand erect, left hand at side, palm down, right hand raised over head. Bend directly to the left, throw right foot in air, left hand striking the 33) ground. The right hand touches the ground next, as the left foot comes up, then the right foot touches, and lastly the left foot. The body is kept rigid, and the feet must travel straight up in the air over the head, with no bend at the hips.)

2. Throw a tumbler or four-legged handspring, for coup. Do it backward for grand coup. (A tumbler or four-legged handspring: Only the hands and feet touch the ground, — not the head.)

3. Turn a somersault, forward or backward, for grand coup. (Somersault: Stand erect, turn in air, and finish standing ; nothing but the feet touch the ground.)

4. Tread a barrel, for 100 yards, forward or backward, for coup. Tread forward 100 yards, then tread backward to starting point, for grand coup. (Treading barrel: Lay barrel on its side, stand on it and go through walking movement, moving the barrel in direction required, without falling off.)

5. (L.L.) Play regularly on some athletic team, participating in at least 3 match games within 6 months, for coup. Participating in 6 games, as a member of one or two teams, for grand coup.

6. (L.L.) Be a member of a gymnasium, physical training, or dancing class for at least 3 months, carrying on the work to the satisfaction of the instructor, and being absent from class no more than once, for coup. Perfect attendance and satisfactory work for 5 months, grand coup.

7. (L.L.) Know how to play 3 group games sufficiently well to teach them to at least 3 boys of your own age who do not know them, and to direct a group in the playing of the games, for coup. Six games, for grand coup.

D — Axemanship

1. Cut (and split if need be) sufficient rails to enclose an adequate horse corral 60 feet across. Build the corral. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

2. Chop down 3 six-inch trees in succession in 60 seconds each, throwing them to drive each a given stake, for coup. In 45 seconds each, for grand coup.

3. In accordance with forestry laws, fell a dead tree in the forest, of at least one foot diameter, and cut same into 34) fire wood of approved lengths, for coup. Six such trees, and cut up into fire wood, for grand coup.

E — Backwoods Handicraft

1. *Do one of the following for coup; 2 for grand coup:
(a) Make solid “four-poster” for a willow bed, and make a stout bench from split logs, with driven legs (no nails).
(b) Build a useful foot bridge, by felling a tree whose log shall span a stream or chasm at least 25 feet between the two natural abutments on which the log rests. (The stump may form one abutment, provided the foot bridge may be made readily accessible by means of a dirt fill, stone approach or gangplank of natural material.)
(c) From a log, hew a plank (not a slab), not more than 3 inches thick in any part, and not less than 10 feet long.
(d) Split from a log, ready for use, 200 shingles. The use of a saw and plane not permitted for either this or the preceding. An augur may be used,
(e) Make an old-fashioned lanthorn with horn sides.
(f) Make a set of wooden hinges and a latch, and fit these to a door so that it hangs true and latches well.

F — Basketry, Etc.

1. (a) Make two baskets of different designs and shapes (each large enough to hold 2 quarts) of rope, raffia, grass, rattan, splits, pine needles, or willow.
(b) Weave a hat of straw or corn husks. Either for coup; both for grand coup.
2. (a) Make a broom from broom corn, raised and prepared by self.
(b) Make a “Boonder broom” (scouring brush) in floor-scrubbing size, with a one-piece handle, total length of handle and broom, 4 feet. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

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3. (a) Make a rush seat of rushes gathered and prepared by self.
(b) Cane a chair seat. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

4. (L.L.) Make a mat or basket of reed, raffia, bark, pine needles, or other natural material, symmetrical and well made, for coup. Two such articles, of different materials, for grand coup.

G — Beading

1. With tube beads, bead 60 square inches, for coup; 100 square inches for grand coup.

2. With seed beads, by the wrapping method, bead thongs to the length of 24 inches, for coup. With seed beads, bead a rabbit’s foot with two flaps, or the handle of a rattle or club, for grand coup.

3. With seed beads, bead a pair of rosettes at least 1½ inches in diameter, for coup. By two different methods, for grand coup.

4. With bone beads or long paper beads, bead a breast plate, for coup. If beads are made by self, grand coup.

5. Make a loom, and on it bead a headband, belt, chain, bag, or other article, containing at least 20 square inches, with a good design. Make a piece of quill work, not less than above size, quills to be dyed by self with wildwood dyes made by self. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

6. (L.L.) Do woven or embroidered bead-work to the extent of 10 square inches, for coup. If loom is made by self, or 20 square inches are woven or embroidered, grand coup.

7. (L.L.) Make an artistic sealing wax pendant and 3 beads, using at least 3 colors of wax, for coup. Two pendants with 5 beads each, using at least 4 colors of wax, for grand coup.

H — Bicycling

1. Ride 40 miles on bicycle every week for 4 weeks, riding at least 3 days each week, for coup. Ride 70 miles every week for 4 weeks, riding at least 5 days each week, for grand coup.

2. Ride bicycle on a 15-mile trip once a week for 20 successive weeks, for coup. For 40 successive weeks, for grand coup. 36)

3. Ride bicycle on a 5-day trip, covering at least 15 miles a day, camping out and cooking at least one meal each day over a campfire, for coup. Same for 10 days, and in addition, make a sketch or photograph of some interesting natural object or view each day, for grand coup.

I — Binding

1. Bind a book, not less than 100 pages, with stiff covers, properly stitched and hinged, for coup. If with tooled leather, grund coup.

J — Bone

1. Make from hard bone a corn husking peg of practical, useable size, fitted with finger straps of strong leather, for coup. With this peg, husk 5 bushels of corn, for grand coup.

K — Camp Cooking

1. Build out of doors, a clay, stone or brick oven which will bake good bread, for coup. Make and bake good, digestible bread in such an oven after building it for grand coup.

2. Make one pint of edible acorn flour, and prepare same for eating. Grind one pound of corn meal in a self-made mortar, prepare for cooking, and cook into good eatable cakes. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. Make for actual use 5 pounds of jerky, or 5 pounds of pemmican, for coup. Make 5 pounds of each, all to be used, for grand coup.

4. Make an “Indian well,” and get clean water from a swamp or other place where the water is undrinkable, for coup. Build 6 such wells, each in a different swamp, for grand coup.

5. Collect maple juice, and make 1 quart of maple syrup and 1 pound of maple sugar, for coup. In addition, make 1 pint of syrup from box elders, birches, or hickory trees, or from honey locust pods, for grand coup.

L — Camp Tools and Furniture

1. Build a strong, serviceable table at least 4x8 feet, and a solid bench to use with it, both of wildwood material, for coup. If no nails are used, grand coup. 37)

2. Make a serviceable watertight bucket or wash basin, of wildwood material, at least 5 x 8 inches, for coup. Make both, each to be at least 7 x 10, for grand coup.

3. Make a serviceable basket of wildwood material, not less than 6 inches in diameter, for coup. If made with a handle, is not less than 10 inches in diameter, and will carry 25 pounds, grand coup.

4. Unless forbidden by forestry laws, make a comfortable bough bed, properly laid. Make a grass rug, at least 2 x 5 feet, on a string camp loom. Both to be made of material gathered by self. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

5. Make an Indian bed of at least 60 rods, all tied tight, for coup. Make one of 80 or more rods, with 4 cords all tied tight and straight, and with a decorated head, for grand coup.

6. Make a good, serviceable camp chair, picturesque and decorated, entirely from wildwood material. Make a serviceable hammock or bed of wildwood material. Either for coup, both for grand coup.

7. Make a hunter’s lamp, a set of tilting spears, and a totem for tribe or band, all of wildwood material, except oil for lamp and colors for painting, for coup. If entirely of wildwood material, grand coup.

8. Make a noggin out of a tree boll, and decorate it. Make a wooden kneading trough, of smooth interior surface, not less than 6 x 12 inches, or make a waterproof vessel of wildwood material to hold at least 2 quarts, and attach handle to same (spruce gum allowed). Either for coup; both for grand coup.

9. Make from a cow’s horn, by one’s self, a huntsman’s horn that will sound, for coup. If engraved with personal record, grand coup.

10. Make a horn cup with a handle, and decorated, or with feet and decorated, for coup. In addition, make a hunter’s lamp or a torch, entirely of wildwood material, that will burn steadily for an hour, for grand coup.

11. Make a canoe paddle, for coup. If decorated with Indian design, grand coup.

12. Make a pair of snowshoes. Make a pair of skiis, including bending. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 38)

13. Make a pair of tilting stools, according to description in BIRCH BARK ROLL. Construct a burlap deer, or a burlap bear, according to BOOK OF WOODCRAFT. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

14. (L.L.) Make a hunter’s lamp of wildwood material, except that the oil may be purchased, that will burn for an hour, for coup. Make 2 different kinds of such lamps for grand coup.

15. (L.L.) Make any one of the following for coup. Any 2 for grand coup. (Repeater.)
(a) A usable twine or worsted baseball.
(b) A whistle from willow or other wood.
(c) A waterwheel of at least five paddles, that works.
(d) A kite that will fly.
(e) An elder or bamboo pop or water gun.
(f) A good pair of barrel stave skis.
(g) A snow scooter (barrel stave runner, nailed to bottom of upright, across the top of which is board seat).
(h) A game board, demonstrating its use before the Tribe.

M — Canoeing

1. Paddle 1 mile alone, using single blade, in canoe not less than 15 feet long, on water without favoring wind or current:

Under 14: 14 min., coup; 13 min., grand coup.
14 to 16: 13 min., coup; 12 min., grand coup.
Over 16: 11 min., coup; 10 min., grand coup.

2. Alone, or as active member of a crew, paddle, row or pole 5 miles a day for 5 successive days, each day making a note and sketch or photo of some interesting scene, for coup. Paddle, row, or pole 10 miles a day for 10 days within 21-day limit, making each day note and sketch or photo of some interesting scene, for grand coup.

3. Canoeman. Alone in canoe, single paddle, in deep water with fair breeze, fall overboard with paddle, replace paddle properly in canoe, climb in without shipping water, and paddle to shore, for coup. In addition to this, turn over canoe, right it, and empty it while still in deep water, canoe to be at least 16 feet long, for grand coup. (This should not be attempted by any but adults, because of physical strain of emptying canoe.) 39)

4. Canoe Voyager. Do equal share of paddling on trip that includes paddling 80 miles within 5 days, making own camp every night, and carry all necessary duffle, for coup. 150 miles within 10 days, for grand coup.

5. Tandem Paddling. Paddle stern over a triangular course, keeping boat under control, and giving all commands to bow, shifting sides not more than twice, for one-half hour, in rough weather, and make a safe landing, for coup. Do same alone in canoe, for grand coup. (Stern paddling is not done by using paddle as a rudder, but by scientific “tripping.” Rough weather means wind blowing hard enough to raise whitecaps.)

6. Paddle bow, steering well without waiting for orders from stern, 2 miles upstream (with decided current), at least some twisting portion of which is too narrow to turn canoe around in, returning immediately 2 miles down, without touching the bank with paddle or canoe at all during the trip, for coup. Do same alone in canoe, for grand coup.

7. Same, paddling stern, for coup. Alone in canoe, for grand coup.

8. Paddle stern in rough weather, and, without shifting paddle, describe a figure 8 within the space of 100 yards square, ending at point of beginning. Repeat with paddle on other side, for coup. Alone in canoe, for grand coup.

9. Paddle bow under same conditions, except that “cross bow” stroke is permitted, for coup. Alone in canoe, for grand coup.

10. Carrying. (Not permitted for girls under 18.) Overhead carry: Canoe must be handled from ground without assistance. ¼ mile over trail, or ¼ mile over road. Two persons, coup. One person, grand coup. (Canoe to be not less than 15 feet.)

11. Poling. Pole in quick water (running at least 4 miles an hour) 5 miles down stream and 5 miles return, without rest in 3 hours, with assistance of bow paddler, without bumping or grounding canoe, for coup. Without bow paddler, for grand coup.

12. Gunwales. Alone in 18-foot canoe, get up on gunwales within 2 feet of one end, one foot on each gunwale, without aid of paddle, walk the gunwales to within 2 feet of other end, without upsetting canoe, for coup. As above, in a 16-foot canoe or less, turn about on the gunwales at the far end, and return to starting point, for grand coup. 40)

13. (L.L.) Paddle a canoe properly and make three good landings, for coup. Be able to paddle either side properly, handle a canoe in rough weather, and make three good landings in a fair wind, for grand coup.

N — Carpenter

1. Demonstrate the use of the square, level, plumb line, mitre, chalk line, plane, brace and bit, saw, hammer, chisel, draw-knife, and driving nails, for coup. In addition, lay out a right angle by the 3, 4, 5 plan, and orient a foundation, for grand coup.

2. Build a cabin at least 12 x 18 x 7 feet, to be used in camp as bunk house, kitchen, long house, store house, or similar purpose, for coup. In addition, furnish it with shelves, bunks, or whatever is necessary for its purpose, for grand coup.

O — Colonial Crafts

1. (a) Make 4 bayberry candles, each not less than 6 inches long and ½ inch thick, from material gathered and prepared by self.
(b) Grow, gather, dry and use half a pound of lavender flowers or of lemon verbena (tripolium.) Either for coup; both for grand coup.

2. (a) Make 1 pound of hard and 1 pound of soft soap, from material prepared by self. (For hard soap, lye may be bought.)
(b) Construct a lye gum or leach tub with properly constructed filter, of wildwood material, and with this lye gum, make enough lye from wood ashes to make 1 gallon of soft soap. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. (a) Make 1 pint each of 6 different dyes from wildwood material.
(b) Dye 6 squares of white woolen material, each not less than 4 x 4 inches, or 6 bunches of porcupine quills (20 quills in each bundle), each a different color, and use a mordent, all to be found in the woods. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

4. (a) Make 3 pounds of any 3 of the following : butter, cheese, sausage, head cheese, lard, tallow, neats-foot oil.

41)

(b) Dry 3 pounds (weight when dried) of some fruit or vegetable, to include at least 3 varieties. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

5. (L.L.) Make 3 kinds of vegetable dyes, dyeing blotting paper or other stuff to show sample for coup; 5 for grand coup.

P — Dancing

All of the following dances must be presented on some public occasion; and all except the European folk dances, must be of not less than 2 minutes’ duration.

1. Dance correctly 10 European folk dances, for coup. In addition, dance the Virginia Reel, and barn dance; also teach all of these to at least one other person, so it is correctly performed, for grand coup.

2. *Do 5 of the following, for coup; 10, for grand coup:
(a) The quadrille
(b) The lancers
(c) The gavotte and the schottische
(d) The polka mazurka and the varsovienne
(e) A good cake walk
(f) The minuet
(g) A Spanish dance
(h) A Japanese dance
(i) A Scottish dance
(j) An Irish dance
(k) An Egyptian dance
(l) A Russian dance
(m) A Javanese dance
(n) A Hawaiian dance
(o) An Argentine tango
(p) A solo American Indian dance
(q) A Greek dance (includes Natural Dancing)
(r) An Italian dance
(s) A baliet dance
(t) A toe dance
(u) A musical comedy dance
(v) An exhibition ballroom dance
(w) A gypsy dance
(x) A Chinese dance
(y) A character dance
(z) A tap or clog dance.

42)

3. *(a) Act as leader in 8 different dances, and teach a class of at least 6 pupils 8 dances, representing at least 4 of the departments mentioned above.
(b) Compose, teach and present publicly a dance for a group of not less than 6, to take at least 3 minutes. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

4. *(a) Write and present a dance drama, to take not less than 15 minutes to present.
(b) Compose, and dance publicly 4 different solo dances. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

5. Record a new Indian dance (one not in the BIRCH BARK ROLL) from actual Indians, and write it out so it can be followed by others, for coup. As above for two Indian dances, and teach them so they are presented, for grand coup.

6. Perform 5 authentic Indian dance steps, and do 3 solo Indian dances, or principal part in group dances, for coup. Teach the above to at least 6 others, so they perform it creditably in public, for grand coup.

7. Dance a different solo dance on each of 8 public occasions, without pay. Teach another 8 solo dances, performed on 8 public occasions. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

8. (L.L.) Make a shield and spear for the “Lone Scout Dance,” as given in the Big Lodge, for coup. For grand coup, dance this dance, using the shield and spear.

9. *(L.L.) Do either of the following for coup; both for grand coup: Sing and take part in at least 5 singing games. Dance correctly 5 simple, European folk dances, not necessarily solo.

10. *(L.L.) Do either of following for coup, both for grand coup: Dance one Indian dance for each 3 years of your age, not necessarily solo. Take leader’s part satisfactorily in a group Indian dance.

Q — Eyesight

1. Spot the Rabbit 3 times out of 5 at 30 yards, also distinguish and map out correctly 6 Pleiades, and see clearly the “Papoose (Alcor) on the Squaw’s (Mizar) back,” for coup. Spot the Rabbit 3 times out of 5 at 40 yards, and as above for 7 Pleiades and Papoose, for grand coup. (Those who habitually wear glasses, may use them in this test.) 43)

2. Make a 75 score in 10 tries in the game of Quick-sight, with 10 counters, for coup. A 95 score, for grand coup.

3. (L.L.) Make a score of 60 in 10 tries in Quick-sight, with 10 counters, for coup. Make a score of 75, for grand coup.

4 (L.L.) Spot the Rabbit 3 times out of 5 at 30 yards, for coup. 3 times out of 5 at 40 yards, for grand coup.

R — Farming

1. Make a seed tester, and test the germination of 3 kinds of seeds, 100 of each kind, and report results, for coup. Make 2 different kinds of testers, and test 6 kinds of seeds, 100 of each, for grand coup.

2. Work 8 hours a day for 1 month, as helper on commercial ranch producing commercial crop of fruit, grain, vegetables, dairy or floricultural products, for coup. 2 months, for grand coup.

3. (a) Seed 5 acres of land or weed 5 acres with cultivator.
(b) Cut, rake, and bunch 3 acres of hay, or haul and store hay from 3 acres, either in mow or in stack. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

4. (a) Describe in full when and how to plant peas, lima beans, string beans, turnips, carrots, potatoes, parsnips, kohlrabi, and beets; and successfully raise any 5 of these.
(b) Tell when and how to sow and reap wheat, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, red clover, white clover, alfalfa, timothy, and 2 other kinds of grasses, and successfully raise 5 of these. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

5. Grow, harvest, and market any 5 of the following: cherries, prunes, peaches, pears, apricots, oranges, lemons, grapefruit, asparagus, lettuce, onions, gladiolus bulbs, narcissus bulbs, freesias, peppers, artichokes, rhubarb, celery, walnuts, almonds, for coup. 10 for grand coup.

S — Fire Making

1. Make a set of fire sticks from material of one’s own gathering (except that thong may be bought), and get with 44) it a fire, for coup. Get a fire in one minute from such a set, and tell the story of the first fire, for grand coup.

2. Make a fire set for lighting a fire without the use of a bow, and get a fire with it, for coup. Get a fire in 2 minutes with such a set, for grand coup.

3. Match fire. Light 15 camp fires in succession, with 15 matches, all in different spots, and all made with stuff of one’s own gathering and found in the woods, one at least to be on a wet day, for coup. If 15 are on wet days, or 30 lighted in succession, 2 at least on wet days, grand coup.

4. (L.L.) Build 5 camp fires, each with 1 match, each in a different spot, and all made with material gathered in the woods by self, for coup. If 2 fires out of the 5 are on wet days, grand coup.

5. Flint and steel. Light 10 camp fires in succession with flint and steel, all in different spots, and all made with stuff gathered by self in woods, 1 at least to be on a wet day, and none to take more than 2 minutes from striking the flint to having the blaze, for coup. If 10 are lighted on wet days, or 20 lighted in succession, 2 at least on wet days, grand coup.

6. Fire drill or rubbing sticks. Same as flint and steel.

7. Make a torch of wildwood material which will burn for half an hour, for coup. Make 2 such, each of different material, to burn for an hour each, for grand coup.

8. Make a fire bow of ivory or bone (such as a rib), polished, engraved, and painted with a symbolic design, for coup. Make a fire in one minute with such a bow, for grand coup.

9. Make a tinder horn like the old powder horns, for coup. If attached by a carrying strap made by self, of rawhide, plaited thongs, or horsehair, etc., grand coup.

T — Fishing

(Boys and young girls are those under 14; lads and girls, 14 to 18; men and women, over 18.)

1. Tackle making. Make a 6-foot leader of clean gut, with smooth knots to stand a strain of 5 pounds, for coup. Tie 6 different flies, of regular patterns, on number 8 to 12 hooks, and take trout with each of them, by daylight casting in clear water, for grand coup.

2. Make a bait rod of three joints, straight and sound, 16 ounces or less in weight, 10 feet or less in length, to stand 45) a strain of 1½ pounds at the tip, 13 pounds at the grip, for coup. Make a jointed fly-rod 8 to 10 feet long, 4 to 8 ounces in weight, capable of casting a fly 60 feet, for grand coup.

3. Fly fishing. Take with the fly, unassisted, a 3-pound trout or black bass, on a rod not more than 5 ounces in weight, for coup. Take a 5-pound trout or black bass or a 4-pound landlocked salmon under the same conditions, for grand coup.

4. Hook and land with the fly, unassisted, without net or gaff, a trout or landlocked salmon, over 4 pounds, or a salmon over 12 pounds, for coup. Take, under the same conditions, a salmon over 25 pounds, for grand coup.

5. General fishing. Take on a rod, without assistance in hooking, playing, or landing, any game fish, whose weight in pounds equals or exceeds that of the rod in ounces, for coup. Take under the same conditions, a game fish that is double in pounds the ounces of the rod, for grand coup.

6. Fly casting. Cast a fly with a rod of 5 ounces or less, not over 10 feet long:

Boys and young girls, 65 feet, coup; 85 feet, grand coup.
Lads and girls, 75 feet, coup; 90 feet, grand coup.
Men and women, 80 feet, coup; 95 feet, grand coup.

7. Bait casting. With ½-ounce dummy frog, 5-foot rod, overhead casting, tournament style:

Under 12, 50 feet, coup; 100 feet, grand coup.
Boys and young girls, 75 feet, coup; 125 feet, grand coup.
Lads and girls, 100 feet, coup; 150 feet, grand coup.
Men and women, 125 feet, coup; 175 feet, grand coup.

(If a wooden plug is used instead of a dummy frog, add 20 per cent to each distance.)

U — Forestry

1. Plant successfully, and tend for 2 seasons, 15 different species of wild flower in a new locality. 10 different species of tree. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

2. Establish a bird sanctuary, with dog-proof fence if necessary, at least 20 bird houses used by not less than 10 different kinds of birds, and equipped with water (at least a bird bath), for coup. With 40 bird boxes, and the place used for nesting by at least 20 species of birds, for grand coup. 46)

3. Make a successful swallow bank, not less than 10 feet long and 4 feet high, for coup. It is successful when 3 pairs of swallows or other birds have used it. Twice the size, with 6 pairs of swallows or other birds, or two such above, for grand coup.

4. Build an artificial hollow tree, with nesting places for various kinds of wild creatures, to be used by 6 different species of animals (not counting insects), either for nesting or for winter shelter, for coup. As above, to be used by 12, species; to be at least 15 feet high, and big enough for observer to go inside, for grand coup. (See Bird Lore, Jan., 1909. )

5. Establish a wild rice or water celery bed, of not less than ¼ acre, in a new region, to be visited as a feeding ground by at least 6 kinds of wild ducks or geese, for coup. ½ acre, or two such as above, with 12 kinds of wild ducks or geese, for grand coup.

6. Establish and maintain for three months a feeding station, to be visited by at least 6 species of bird, noting the first appearance of each species, for coup. As above for 6 months, including 3 winter months, to be used by at least 10 species, for grand coup.

V — Gardening

1. Once a week, for 25 weeks in 1 year, cut the grass, trim the edges, clean the walks, loosen the ground around hedges, bushes, etc., on a space not less than 25 x 25 feet, for coup. Same for two years, for grand coup.

2. Do 2 of the following for coup; 3 for grand coup:
(a) Have 4 window boxes, at least 24 x 8 inches, or equivalent, of successful growing plants, planted and cared for by self, for 4 months.
(b) Plant and raise successfully by self a dozen plants each of 5 of the following: cucumbers, tomato, egg plant, pumpkin, watermelon, muskmelon, peppers, cabbage, cauliflower, headed lettuce, Swiss chard.
(c) Identify 20 different kinds of garden flowers, tell where they grow best and when, and raise 10 of them.

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3. (a) Do all the work of a successful flower garden, containing not less than 10 different kinds of flowers and 3 different kinds of shrubs, for 2 years.
(b) As above for a successful perennial vegetable garden, containing not less than 6 different kinds of vegetables. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

4. (L.L.) Do all the work of a successful garden containing at least 100 square feet with at least 3 kinds of flowers or vegetables, for 1 season, for coup. 2 seasons for grand coup.

W — Health

1. Within 1 year, pass 30 nights out of doors (at least 14 of these successive), never once sleeping under a roof, but in tent, tepee, or open, for coup. 60 nights of same (30 of which must be consecutive), and tell the story of the Angel of the Night, for grand coup.

2. (L.L.) Unbroken practice of any 2 of the following for 1 month, for coup. Any 4, for 3 successive months, for grand coup.
(a) Brush the teeth at least twice each day.
(b) Sleep with at least one window open, cloth ventilators permitted during freezing weather.
(c) Go without eating candy.
(d) Bathe at least twice each week.
(e) Go without drinking tea or coffee.
(f) Drink a full glass of water each morning before breakfast.
(g) Be in bed every night by 9 o’clock.

3. (L.L.) Sleep outdoors (tents allowed) 14 nights in succession, for coup. 1 month, for grand coup.

4. (L.L.) Be sun-tanned to the waist, for coup. Be sun-tanned all over, for grand coup.

X — Horsehair

1. Make 20 square inches of horsehair work, by either the plaited, woven, or half-hitch method, for coup. If a design in at least 2 colors is worked into it, grand coup. 48)

Y — Indian Handicraft

1. Make a pair of leather or skin moccasins of Ojibway pattern, for coup. Bead a design by the parallel row method, on these, for grand coup.

2. Make a pair of leather or skin moccasins of Plains pattern, for coup. In addition, bead a design on these, for grand coup.

3. Make a pair of Navaho moccasins, for coup. If the silver buttons are made by self, grand coup.

4. Make buckskin from a green hide, without the use of any bought chemicals. Prepare the skin of some other animal from the green state until ready for use in some form of clothing. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

5. Make an Indian war shirt, for coup. Decorate it with a symbolic pattern, for grand coup.

6. Do 20 square inches of porcupine quill work by the method of sewing with two needles, for coup. Add 20 square inches by the wrapping method, and have a pattern worked in 2 colors on either one, quills to be dyed by self, for grand coup.

7. Make a war bonnet of at least 24 feathers, with fluffed bases and tips, horsehair tufts at ends of feathers, for coup. As above, with beaded brow band, rosettes at ears, ear pendants made by self (not ribbons) for grand coup.

8. Make 6 dancing rattles of various materials, each decorated with Indian design, for coup. In addition, dance a solo Indian dance, or the principal part in a group dance, using one of these, for grand coup.

9. Make 2 parfleche bags or boxes, 6 x 12 inches each, or equivalent, of rawhide, for coup. If decorated with authentic Indian designs in colors, grand coup.

10. Make a pair of leggings of leather or buckskin, with decoration of Indian method. Make a dancing bustle, of at least 12-inch diameter, and at least 3 concentric rows of feathers. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

11. Make an Indian woman’s costume, in 1 or 2 pieces, of leather or buckskin, for coup. Decorate it with beading, quill work, applique, or other method, to the extent of at least 100 square inches, for grand coup. 49)

12. Make a medicine bag of buckskin or leather, at least 14 inches long, exclusive of fringe, 5 inches wide, decorated in some standard Indian fashion. Make an altar cloth, and 4 prayer rugs of any strong material, representing the Sand Painting and the 4 Torches. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

13, Make a headdress for the Devil Dance, headdress to be at least 18 inches high, and 18 inches at widest points, after the manner of the Apaches, for coup. (See Rhythm of the Redman.) Also, make the wands, devil rattle, and bell strings for the warrior, and take part in the dance, for grand coup.

14. Make a totem pole, at least 15 feet high, 8 inches thick at butt, carved and painted in authentic Indian manner. Make a shield with the Horns of the High Hikers, shield to be at least 12 inches in diameter, horns each at least 6 inches long, and emblazoned with the tribal or other totem. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

15. Make and decorate a tom tom or war drum, for coup. If log is burned or hollowed out, and skin prepared from green state by self, grand coup.

Z — Knitting, Crocheting

1. Knit a pair of socks or stockings for someone other than self, for coup. With tops in a design of more than one color, grand coup.

2. Knit or crochet a sweater with sleeves, for someone other than self, for coup. If at least half is in a fancy stitch, grand coup.

3. (L.L.) Crochet five yards of cord or yarn on a spool, and coil and sew into a mat, for coup. 10 yards, for grand coup.

4. (L.L.) Knit or crochet some article, at least 100 square inches in area, for coup. 2 different articles, for grand coup.

AA — Knots and Ropes

1. Tie from memory, know the name and use of 20 different standard knots, mounted and tagged for exhibition, for coup. 40 for grand coup. 50)

2. Know and demonstrate from memory the following: short splice, long splice, chain splice, back splice, eye splice, cut splice, loop splice, and cringle, for coup. In addition, know and demonstrate wall and crown, double wall, double crown, shroud knot, Mathew Walker, and rosebud ; also 3- and 4-strand plaiting, for grand coup.

3. (L.L.) Tie from memory, know the name and use of, 1 standard knot for each year of your age, for coup. 2 knots for each year of your age, for grand coup.

4. Make 10 feet of rope, ½ inch thick, from bark, vine, grass, root or horsehair, which will in actual demonstration support 100 pounds, for coup. Make 15 feet of such rope from materials all gathered and prepared by self, for grand coup.

5. Make 15 feet of rawhide riata, preparing the necessary hide from which to make this riata, as well as making the riata itself, for coup. Make a rawhide lasso, not less than 25 feet long, equipped with rawhide hondu, all fit and strong for service, for grand coup.

6. (L.L.) Make 3 feet of rope from bark, grass, root, horsehair, or natural material, which will by actual demonstration, support 50 pounds, for coup. 6 feet of such rope, for grand coup.

BB — Leather Work

1. Half-sole and heel 1 pair of shoes, using ordinary camp equipment, for coup. Same for three pairs of shoes, for grand coup.

2. Make a box or bag for a rubbing stick set, with an extra compartment to hold tinder, attractively decorated with bead or quill work, to the extent of 4 square inches. Make limp leather covers for 2 books, such as tally book, well decorated with appropriate designs in tooling, etching, applique, painting, quill, bead, or burnt work. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. Make a purse, at least 3 x 6 inches, of leather, felt, or other such durable material, for coup. Decorate it to the extent of ¼ of its extent, for grand coup.

4. Make a belt of braided split strap, for coup. If buckle is also hand made, grand coup.

5. Make a knife sheath, with fringe. Make an axe sheath, with fringe. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 51)

6. Make a linked leather belt. Make a linked leather wrist band, hat band, head band, and head harness. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

7. Make, and mount for exhibition 6 methods of edge lacing. Make a leather book cover with edges laced. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

8. (L.L.) Make a leather book cover, decorated with Indian or other design, for coup. Make 2 such covers with different designs for grand coup.

CC — Macrame

1. Make a handbag of attractive design, all knots pulied evenly, the work being smoothly and neatly done for coup. As above, using square knots, half hitches, spirals and double carrick bends, with tassels, for grand coup.

2. Make a belt at least 30 inches long and 1½ inches wide, in 2 or more colors, without varying in width throughout, the work neatly done, knots pulled evenly, and edges regular, for coup. As above, with detachable buckle, sliding belt loop and worked eyelets, with balanced worked design, for grand coup.

3. Make a centerpiece of attractive design, at least 18 inches in diameter (or equivalent), the work being regularly and neatly done, for coup. As above, with 6 individual doilies to match, for grand coup.

4. Any one of following for coup; two for grand coup:

(a) Make a necktie, four-in-hand length, with regular edges, and all knots evenly pulled.
(b) Make a pillow top on a frame with clove hitches, with attractive design in colors, clusters properly fluffed, evenly and neatly worked.
(c) Make a rug or door mat of at least 6 square feet with worked design, all knots evenly pulled, edges regular, and work neatly done.

5. Make, and mount for exhibition, properly labelled, the following: Turk’s head, a row of square knots, a row of half-hitches, a flat, a spiral, for coup. In addition, make 6 small articles, such as a shade pull, for grand coup. 52)

DD — Metal Work

1. (a) Make an article in etched metal work, such as a sundial or an ornamental name plate.
(b) Make a set of 4 small knockers, for study, playroom, bedroom, etc., each with an appropriate design, or make a large knocker of Colonial or Indian design. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

2. (a) Make + of a set of fire shovel, tongs, poker, hearth brush, stand and scuttle.
(b) Make a set of andirons, or a swinging crane with hooks. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. (a) Make a toasting fork, warming pan, corn popper and trivet for tea kettle.
(b) Make a decorated brass tankard with cover. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

4. (a) Make a hall or porch lantern with its bracket.
(b) Make a set of ornamental door hinges, key escutcheons, door latch or door handle. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

5. (a) Make a set of tracking irons.
(b) Make a set of 4 candle sticks and a fire bowl for the altar fire. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

6. Make a piece of silver jewelry, such as ring, brooch, bracelet, by the Navaho method, for coup. If the silver is melted and cast, drawn, shaped, decorated, cleaned and at least 1 piece mounted with turquoise, grand coup.

EE — Models

(Many of these models have been suggested by I. O. Evans, in his SUGGESTIONS FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN WORLD HISTORY, to whom we are indebted for same.)

1. Make a model bridge, of wood, stone, or concrete, properly timbered or reinforced, with good parapets, the span to be at least 1 foot in length, and sufficiently detailed so it could be used to guide a builder, for coup. Make 2, of different materials, for grand coup. 53)

2. Make a miniature tepee, at least 1 foot high, with correct poles, smoke flaps, lacing, decoration, etc., for coup. Make a model Indian Village, at least 2 feet square, with not less than 5 painted tepees, smoke house, long house, 2 bunk houses, 2 toilets, council ring, sweat lodge, diving board, totem pole, all embellished in Indian fashion, for grand coup.

3. (a) Make a miniature council ring, not less than 18 inches across, with 3 rows of ‘seats, council rock, tribal robe, tribal shields, and standards, sand painting, fire, etc. (b) Make a model sail boat, with one or more masts, correct spars, and orthodox sails and rigging. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

4. Make correct models of different specimens relating to any of the following cultures: Sumerian, Akkadian, Elamite, Kassite, Babylonian, Assyrian, Chaldean, Ancient Egyptian, East Indian, Chinese, Mayan,—2 for coup; 4 for grand coup.

5. Make correct models of the Ark, Temple, or other subject out of the Hebrew Scriptures,—2 for coup; 4 for grand coup.

6. Make correct models of Greek statuary or temples, etc.,—2 for coup; + for grand coup.

7. (a) Make a correct model of a stone-throwing cata~ ult. (b) ‘Ot a war chariot. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

8. Make correct models of subjects in Roman art or life, such as galleys with banks of oars, etc., 2 for coup; 4 for grand coup.

9. Make a correct model of a pagoda, and other subjects illustrating Eastern culture—2 for coup; 4 for grand coup.

10. Make 2 models illustrative of Mohammedan art or life, for coup; 4 for grand coup.

11. (a) Make a model of a Viking Long-ship. (b) Make a correct model of a ship of the type used by Columbus. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

12. (a) Make a model of a wind mill that works. (b) Make a model of a water mill that works. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 54)

FF — Motoring

1. Motor, doing all the driving, at least 50 miles per day for 5 successive days, and make each day 2 sketches or photos, of some interesting natural history object or view, for coup. Camp out at least 4 of the 5 nights, and cook at least one meal a day over camp fire, for grand coup.

2. Motor, doing all the driving, 200 miles in a week, in not less than 4 days, each day identifying, photoing or sketching 5 natural objects or views, for coup. Do same for 2 weeks, in not less than 4+ days each week, for grand coup.

3. Motor, doing ali the driving, 2,000 miles within 30 days, for coup. Sleep out every night for grand coup.

4. Motor across the Continent, camping out at least half the nights, and making 20 photos or sketches of things of national fame, for coup. If all the driving is done by self, grand coup.

GG — Mountain Climbing

(This is a repeater; that is, climbing 2 different moun- tains counts 2 coups, but climbing 1 mountain twice is only 1 coup. Also, no more than | repeater may be counted. All mountain climbing must be on trails, not highways.)

Coup for those under 18 Great Britain 1. Ben Nevis 2. Ben Macdhuie 3. Ben Lawers 4. Ben Cruachan 5. Snowdon 6. Ben Wyvis 7. Scarfell 8. Ben Lomond Europe 9. Vesuvius 10. Breithorn il. Mt. Blanc, Swiss Alps 12. Monte Rosa, Swiss 13. Monte Viso, Italian Alps Alps 14. Mt. Etna, Sicily North America 15. Washington, N. H. 16. Electric Peak, Wyo. 17. Mt. Wilson, Calif. 18. Old Baldy, Calif. 19. San Bernardino, Calif. 20. Strawberry Peak, Calif. 21. Taquitz, Calif. 22. San Gorgonio, Calif. 55)

23. 25. Asia 27. Coups and Degrees Pikes Peak, Colo. Adams, Wash. Fujiyama, Japan 24, 26. 28. Shasta, Calif. Any other mountain over 14,000 ft. Tabor (Olives) Coup for those over 18; grand coup for those under 18 Europe 29 31 33 35 37 . Ecrins, French Alps . Jungfrau, Swiss Alps . Westerhorn, Swiss Alps . Ortler, Austrian Alps . Matterhorn, from Zer- matt North America 37 39 41. 43. 44 (a). St. Helena, Wash. . Mt. Shaughnessy, Canada San Antonio, Calif. (from Camp Baldy) Orizaba, Mex. (a). Pacifico, Calif. 30 32. 34. 36. . Grand Paradis, Italian Alps Finsteraarhorn, Swiss Alps Bernina, Swiss Alps Gross Glockner, Aus- trian Alps . Mt. Hood, Oregon San Jacinto, Calif. St. Stephen, Canada Popocatapetl, Mex. Grand coup for those over 18 Europe 45. 47, 49. 51. 53. 55. Aig. du Géant, Swiss Alps Aig. du Grépon Aig. du Dru, Swiss Alps Mischalbelhorner, Swiss Alps Monte di Scerscen, Swiss Alps Kleine Zinne, Hungary 46. 48. 50. 52. 54. Meige, French Alps Matterhorn, by Italian or Stockje Ridges Dent Blanche, Swiss Alps Schreckhorn, Swiss Alps Funffingerspitze, Aus- trian Alps 56)

North America 56. Sir Donald, Canada 57. Logan, Canada 58. Assiniboine, Canada 59. St. Elias, Alaska 60. Fairweather, Alaska 61. Mt. McKinley, Alaska 62. Grand Teton, Wyo. 63. Tacoma, Wash. ; 64. Any other mountain over 14,000 ft. South America 65. Chimborazo 66. Cotopaxi 67. Ilimani 68. Aconcagua Asia Africa 69. Any peak 19,000 ft. or 70. Any peak 15,000 ft. or over. over.

HH — Nature (General)

1. Make and maintain for a season a bird bath. Record the visits of at least 10 species, including the dates when seen, for coup. Maintain the bath for 6 months, and record visits of at least 15 species. Tell about 10 methods of bath- ing, and the birds that do them, for grand coup.

2. Build and put up a bird's nesting box which is used by a pair of birds, and keep a record of its tenants for 1 season, for coup, 5 such boxes and records, for grand coup.

3. Build 5 boxes or shelters and set them up, to be ten- anted by at least 3 different species of birds, for coup. 10 boxes or shelters tenanted by 6 different species. for grand coup.

4. (L.L.) Make a successful linch counter for birds, for coup. It is counted successful if 4 kinds of native wild birds come to feed. (English sparrows are not counted.) If 8 native wild birds come, grand coup.

5. (L.L.) Make a successful bird bath, for coup. It is a success when 4 kinds of wild birds visit it. 6 birds, for grand coup.

6. (L.L.) Make and set up a bird house so that some native wild bird uses it as a home, for coup. 3 such houses, for grand coup. (English sparrows are not counted. )

7. Taxidermy. Skin and mount, according to accepted standards of taxidermy, a specimen of a bird, fish, or mam- mal, for coup. One each, of bird, fish and mammal, for grand coup. 57)

8. Tan a skin of some wild animal, smaller than a fox, so that the leather is soft and the fur will not slip, for coup. Of 4 animals, as large or larger than a fox, also sewing them together for a robe, for grand coup.

II — Pack Animal Care and Equipment

1, Pack a horse or mule with not less than 100 pounds, with the single or double diamond, miner’s, squaw, square or any other standard hitch, to hold during 6 hours of travel, for 3 consecutive days, for coup. Do the same for 30 days’ journey, not necessarily consecutive, and using 3 different hitches, for grand coup.

2. Pack a burro with not less than 50 pounds, with the single or double diamond, miner’s, squaw, square, or any other standard hitch, to hold during 6 hours of travel, for 3 consecutive days, for coup. Do the same for 30 days’ journey, not necessarily consecutive, and using 3 different hitches, for grand coup.

3. Take entire charge of a horse or mule, including catching, during 10 days of wilderness travel. Hobbles and bell allowed, but no picketing, for coup. Take such care of 1 horse for 30 days or 5 horses for 15 days, and put a shoe on a horse, mule, or burro 5 times for grand coup.

4, Catch 10 different horses in a corral with 10 throws of the lasso, for coup. Catch 5 horses on the range with 10 throws of the lasso, for grand coup.

5. Catch a horse or beef by each of his forefeet in turn, for coup. Catch him by each of his forefeet with 4 succes- sive throws of the lasso for grand coup.

6. Make a serviceable pair of kyacks, or side-panniers, of rawhide or canvas reinforced with leather, and make a pack saddle which will fit some particular animal, for coup. Add to this, the breechings and breastings needed to hold it in place, all properly fitted, and make a pair of serviceable, strong-lined hobbles, for grand coup.

7. Make a comfortable pack harness which will carry 50 pounds for coup. If, in addition, this be properly fitted with breast straps and tump line, and used by self daily for 2 weeks (not necessarily successive), carrying not less than 30 pounds, grand coup. Not open to those under 18.

8. Pack 2 burros or pack animals with equipment, per- sonal or otherwise, not less than 100 pounds, and transport 58) by trail through mountains to destination of not less than 4 miles, for coup. Do same three times for grand coup.

JJ — Parchment

Make 4 articles of parchment or clarified rawhide, such as lampshades, miniature tepees, etc., for coup. Deco- rate these with authentic Indian designs, for grand coup.

KK—Pocket-knifecraft (Jacknifecraft)

1. With no tool but a pocket-knife, make: (a) 2 toasting forks; one 2-pronged for broiling meat, with tines long and stiff enough to go into the meat; other, a 3-tined fork for toasting bread, center -tine pointed to pass into the bread, the 2 outer ones flattened to lie against the bread and keep it from turning on the center tine. (b) 2 spoons; 1, straight grained; the other, from the crotch of a small tree, taking advantage of the natural grain of the wood. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

2. Make 15 different small articles, such as candle holders, tie racks, coat hangers, pot hangers, etc., for coup. 30 for grand coup.

LL — Pottery, Cement Work, Etc.

1. Do 1 of following for coup; 2 for grand coup: (a) Make and decorate 4 small pieces, 1 a bow! and the others optional, clay to be gathered and dishes fired by self. (b) Make by coil process 4 bowls, each decorated with a different authentic Indian design, such as Zuni, Hopi, Acoma, etc. (c) Make a practicable potters wheel, and with this wheel, make 12 different pieces of pottery.

2. Do 1 of following for coup; 2 for grand coup: (a) Make a practicable potter’s kiln, and in this kiln fire successfully 12 pieces of pottery. (b) Make a rectangular shallow dish, glazed to pre- vent leakage, and at least 1Ox6x 2 inches, and decorated with original design. 59)

(c) Make a set of 4 candle sticks and fire bowl for the altar fire.

3. Make a bowl or vase with lip, for coup. In addition, describe the principal varieties of native clays, tell where they are found and what colors they take when baked. Tell how ancient and prehistoric pottery of America may be dis- tinguished from that made today, and describe the Pueblo method of firing, for grand coup.

4. (a) Paint “overglaze” a set of 6 china dishes, using a native American design. (b) Ditto for “underglaze” painting. Either for coup, both for grand coup.

5. (a) Make a pottery or cement bird bath, at least 12 inches in diameter, which is used by birds. (b) Make a cement flower box, at least 6x 8x 20, waterproofed and drained. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

6. Make 5 pieces of pottery with some commercial clay, decorating each with an authentic Indian or Mexican design, for coup. 10 pieces, of which 5 are Indian and 5 Mexican, for grand coup.

7. Make 500 adobe bricks, 9x 15x 4, or equivalent, for coup. Construct with adobe bricks a 2-roomed house not less than 12x 18x 7, with rain-proof roof, for grand coup.

8. Make an imitation of the Ming period porcelain. Make and fire a piece of pottery decorated in the Chinese fashion. Make and fire a piece of pottery in the Greek fashion. Any 2 of these for coup; 3 for grand coup.

9. (L.L.) Make and paint with Indian design, a clay pot or receptacle, for coup. Make 2 such, of different form, for grand coup.

MM — Primitive Civilization

1. (a) Chip a flint or bone scraper, and dress the skin - of an animal with it. (b) Make a fishbone needle, and use it to sew skin or bark into a costume or vessel, such as used by primitive man. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

2. (a) Make a small clay statuette (human figure or animal), like those made by primitive man, care- fully finished, detailed, and recognizable. 60)

(b) On a piece of bone, scratch a series of animal drawings, depicting a hunt, not less than 6 fig- ures, sufficiently detailed for recognition. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. Get a handful of wheat or other grain, and plant it. Tend it till it grows, grind it between stones to make flour, for coup. Also bake it in the camp fire to make biscuit, tor grand coup.

4. Do 1 of following for coup, 2 for grand coup: (a) Make a harp, by stretching strings across a bent stick, reed pipes, a bone whistle, and a tom tom, using nothing but what you can find in the woods. (b) Spend a day in company without speaking or writing a word, communicating only by sign language or by making rough sketches. (¢) Copy 10 animal paintings made by primitive man, using the same sort of paint that he used,—red clay and charcoal mixed with grease. Copy them on skins, or material resembling skin, and use them for decoration of your camp.

5. (a) Make a Sumerian seal, and roll off a design on wax, (b) Make a composite bow of the Parthian type. Kither for coup; both for grand coup.

6. (a) Copy a cuneiform inscription on a piece of clay, and bake it in an oven. (b) As above with Egyptian hieroglyphs, or hieratic script. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

7. Make a painting in Egyptian style, of some adventure in the life of yourself or your group. for coup. (Such paint- ing to be not less than 4 feet square or equivalent, and not less than 6 figures.) Keep a record in this way for entire camp period (not less than 2 weeks), with at least 1 incident for each day, for grand coup.

8. (a) Learn the Greek and Runic alphabets, be able to write them in both small letters and capitals. (b) Write from memory 25 signs each of cuneiform writing and Egyptian hieroglyphs. Either for coup, both for grand coup.

9. Build a hut of wattle and mud, not less than 6 x 8 x 4, for coup. In addition, sleep in it for 30 nights, not neces- sarily successive, for grand coup. 61)

10. (a) Make 4 javelins, each with an ownership mark of some kind. (b) Make a dummy bear, for game of Hunting the Big Bear. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

11. (a) Paint an illuminated manuscript in the medieval fashion, dealing with some modern event, or episode in your life, to contain not less than 6 figures. (b) As above, in the manner of the Bayeux tapestry. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

NN — Radio

1. (a) Make a simple crystal radio set, and log at least 6 stations. (b) Make a regenerative tube set (one or more tubes), and log 12 stations. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

2. (a) Make a multi-tube set, (4 or more), using radio frequency amplification. (b) Wind the coils for any of the above sets con- structed. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. (a) Know and be able to explain at least 24 common symbols used in radio construction. Make a chart, and explain. (b) Draw a diagram, and use it in building a suc- cessful crystal set. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

4. (a) Construct a workable speaker unit of magnetic type. (b) Construct a successful unit for cone type. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

5. (a) Build a complete radio cabinet with built-in horn of expotential type. (b) Build a complete radio cabinet, and mount a dynamic speaker in same. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

6. (a) Build a successful B battery eliminator. (b) Build a successful A battery charger. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

7. (a) Build a spark coil transmitter for C.W. trans- mission. Know the Morse or international code for use with the same. 62)

(b) Obtain an amateur license to operate a transmit- ting station. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

00 — Riding and Driving

1. Ride a horse 1 mile in 3 minutes, clearing a 4-foot hurdle and a 10-foot water jump, coup. Do it in 2 minutes clearing a 5-foot hurdle and a 15-foot water jump, grand coup.

2. Rope your mount out of a bunch without swinging the rope and in not more than 3 throws, bridle him properly, the whole to be done in not over | minute, coup. Catch your horse as above but with only 1 throw, saddle and ride him 20 miles, the whole to be within 214 hours and the horse brought back in good condition at the finish, for grand coup.

3. Pick up a hat from the ground while at full gallop on a horse of not less than 13 hands, coup. Do it 3 times with- out failure, from each side, with horse of at least 15 hands, grand coup.

4. Groom, hitch and drive a trotter a mile in 2.40, coup. Do this with 3 different trotters, grand coup.

5. Act as teamster, unaided during 30 successive days of travel on Western trails with a team and wagon, loaded at least half the time, coup. With a 4+-animal team for 60 successive days, grand coup.

6. (L.L.) Mount and ride a horse in good form, and cover at least 25 miles in 6 rides, for coup. Saddle a horse, ride in good form at any gait, and cover 50 miles in 6 rides, for grand coup.

PP — Roping

1. Do the flat spin for 112 minutes, for coup. Do both right and left circles, each 2 minutes, for grand coup.

2. Do the body spin or wedding ring correctly for 1 minute, using a rope up to 35 feet in length, for coup. Do same for 114 minutes, with rope 40 feet or longer, first right hand, then left, then back to right, without stopping between, for grand coup.

3. Pass the stem from one hand to the other, below the belt, for 1 minute, for coup. Do the hurdle, 5 times, for 63) grand coup. (A hurdle is jumping over the stem or spoke as the rope is being spun below the belt.)

4. Jump into loop and out three times without missing, for coup. 5 times for grand coup.

5. Do the juggle or spring + times without missing, for coup. 7 times for grand coup. (The juggle or spring is done by spinning the rope around the body in a horizontal position, and throwing it about the head; then letting it come to a horizontal position again.)

6. From a flat spin, bring the rope up over your head to a horizontal position around body, for coup. As above, then back again to flat spin, for grand coup.

7. Do the merry-go-round + times, for coup. Two- handed merry-go-round + times, for grand coup.

8. While lying down, spin the rope for 1 minute, for coup. For 2 minutes, then stand and do the wedding ring for 1 minute, for grand coup.

9. Do a butterfly for 1 minute, for cowp. Do any trick, such as skip and ocean wave, having the butterfly as foun- dation, for grand coup.

10. Any trick with 2 or more ropes, grand coup.

QQ — Sewing

1. Plan, make, and fit up complete for outdoor sleeping, a sleeping bag that can be easily ventilated, for coup. In addition, plan and make complete outfit for the sleeper, including bed-sox, for grand coup.

2. Decorate a Sagamore blanket or robe, containing at least 24 coup feathers and 6 other symbols or emblems, for coup. In addition, make a Sachem or tribal robe, containing at least 48 coup feathers, and 10 other symbols or emblems, for grand coup.

3. Show hand-made samples of the following stitches: basting, hemming, running, felling, back-stitching, gathering, overcasting, buttonholing, sewing on buttons, herringbone, feather, darning stocking, darning a tear, patching, double feather, tucking, French knots, hemstitching, cross-stitching, blanket stitching, eyelet, blind loop, French hem on damask, and mitering a corner, for coup. In addition, make a well- made dress entirely by hand, for grand coup. 64)

4. (LLL.) Do either of the following for coup; both for grand coup: (a) Present samples of the following stitches, made by self: basting, overhanding, hemmuing, running, gathering, stitching, backstitching, sewing on but- tons, darning a stocking, and darning a tear. (b) Make some article of clothing for a person or a large doll, or some other piece of practical needle- work, using in either case at least + different stitches.

5. (L.L.) Embroider some piece of fancy work, not less than 100 square inches in area, using at least 2 different fancy work stitches, for coup. 2 such pieces, using at least 4+ ditferent stitches, for grand coup.

6. Make a costume for each of 5 different Council activ- ities, costumes to be the property of the tribe, for coup. For each of 10 as above, for grand coup. These need not be entirely by hand.

7. Hem a tablecloth and 6 napkins by hand, for coup. If initialed in letters at least 1 inch high, grand coup.

8. Cut and make 4+ different pieces of baby clothes, all by hand, for coup. 6 pieces, embroidered or lace trimmed, for grand coup.

9. Cut and make a dress, middy blouse or smock for someone other than self. for coup. If entirely by hand, and embroidered or appliqued, grand coup.

10. (a) Cut and make a boy’s suit, trimmed. (b) Cut and make a girl’s dress, trimmed. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

11. Dress a doll, not less than 10 inches high, in clothing complete and removable, for coup. In national or distinc- tive costume, grand coup.

12. Make a piece of needlepoint, for chair, stool, or pillow cover, to be at least 1 foot square, or its equivalent, for coup. 2 feet square, or equivalent, grand coup.

RR — Shelter

1. Without breaking forestry laws, build a useable log cabin, with walls plumb and true and rainproof, at least 6x8 feet in size, for coup. In addition, build a fireplace that will draw, opening to be not less than 24x 24 inches and 16 inches deep, for grand coup. 65)

2. Make a rainproof shelter other than the above, of wildwood material, at least 6x8 feet in size, 3 times for actual service, for coup. If equipped with windproof walls and wildwood bed, suitable for 2 or more campers, grand coup.

3. Make a 2-man tent or an 8-foot tepee or better, from cloth dyed and waterproofed by self, for coup. In addition, set up alone a 2-man tent with walls taut, sides true, bottom pegged, and trenches dug, 20 times, for grand coup.

4. (L.L.) Know the requirements of a good campsite, and have a general knowledge of outfit necessary to a camp- ing trip, for coup. In addition, choose such a campsite, and aid in setting up camp twice, for grand coup.

5. (L.L.) Demonstrate correct packing of blanket roll or packsack, and how to carry it, for coup. In addition, make a good blanket bed on the ground at least twice, and spend the night thereon, for grand coup.

SS — Small Stock Farming

1. Build a correct bee-hive and an approved rabbit hutch, for coup. In addition, raise a swarm of bees and a pair of rabbits, using same, for grand coup.

2. Hatch and raise a brood of a dozen chickens, turkeys, ducks, or geese. Coup for any 2, grand coup for 4.

TT — Stock Farming

1. Care for a team of horses or mules for 3 months, including bedding, currying, feeding, watering, etc., every day, for coup. Same for 6 months, for both horses and mules, for grand coup.

2. Raise at least 4 beeves, hogs or sheep for market or for home consumption, for coup. Any 2 of these for grand coup.

3 Successfully raise 1 animal, such as pig, lamb, or calf, from 3 days to 3 months, without its mother, for coup. For 3 different kinds of animals, for grand coup.

4. (L.L.) For a period of at least 3 months, properly care for any domestic or wild animal which might he classed as a pet, such care to include feeding, watering, cleaning, care of quarters, and any other personal attention needed, for coup. For 6 months, for grand coup. 66)

UU — Swimming, Diving, Etc.

Only two of these may be counted toward Sagamore. Coup for those 14 to 16 years old

1. Perform standing front dive and swim in good form 75 yards using (a) Breast stroke 25 yards. (b) Back stroke with inverted back kick, spiral or combination frog scissors, 25 yards. (c¢) Side stroke for last 25 yards.

2. Swim 25 yards on back, using legs only, 25 yards on back, using arms only, float motionless for 3 minutes, and tread water with hands out for 3 minutes.

3. Be dumped unexpectedly from canoe, clothed in camp costume, undress in deep water without touching boat and swim 25 yards. Also, break wrist hold and front neck hold of subject same weight and strength in deep water. +. Perform surface dive in 6 feet of water and bring up definite object. Also, demonstrate side stroke carry, 30 feet. and tired swimmer carry, 30 feet.

4. (a) Swim 220 yards, no time limit. Coup for those over 16; grand coup for those 14 to 16.

5. Perform running plain front dive from springboard, or racing dive in at least fair form, and swim in good form 150 yards, using: (a) Breast stroke for first 50 yards. (b) Back stroke with inverted frog kick, spiral kick or combination frog-scissors kick for next 50 yards. (c) Side stroke for last 50 yards.

6. Swim 50 yards using legs only, crawl kick debarred; swim 50 yards, using arms only, and tread water for 3 min- utes with both hands above water.

7. Swim 50 yards in camp costume, undress without support in at least 7 feet of water, then swim 50 yards more. Also, break following holds of swimming instructor, or other well-qualified assistant : (a) Wrist hold, single and double, each against one or both hands of opponent, by means of legs. (b) Front neck hold. (c) Back strangle hold. 67)

(Each hold must be broken at least 5 times in correct form, and against real opposition. )

8. Perform surface dive in at least 7 feet of water and bring up human subject from bottom in side stroke carry. Demonstrate unconscious or slightly resisting subject carry, also tired swimmer or cramp carry, swimming 25 yards, subject lying on back with arms straight and hands on car- rier’s shoulders and legs spread around carrier’s hips, carrier using breast stroke.

VV — Target Shooting

Revolver shot. Target 4 x 4 feet. Bull’s-eye 8 inches (counts 4 points). Inner ring 2 feet (3 points). Outer, the rest of the target (2 points). Distance 30 yards.

1. 96 shots divided in any number up to 6 days, one hand, standing, 250 points, for coup. 300 points for grand coup.

2. Half with left hand only, half with right only, 230 points for coup. 260 points for grand coup.

3. Using the National Rifle Association target at 50 feet, with a 22 rifle, pump or bolt actiori, in the following posi- tions, make a score of 280, for coup; 320 for grand coup: 10 shots standing 10 shots kneeling 10 shots sitting 10 shots prone

4. Medals of accomplishment, won in accordance with the National Rifle Association standards, or in military serv- ice such as National Guards, or in the U. S. Army or Navy, may be submitted to the National Honors Committee for recognition as coup or grand coup.

WW — Thong Plaiting

1. (a) Make, mount, and label for exhibition (1) a 3- strand 2-bight knot; (2) a 5-strand 2-bight knot; (3) a 9-strand 2-bight knot. (b) Make, mount, and label for exhibition (1) a 7-bight 5-strand single thong knot; (2) a 3-bight knot; (3) a 4-bight knot. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 68)

2. (a) Make a 4-plait round hat band, finishing both ends with terminal Turk’s head, and a sliding knot. (b) Make a plaited watch fob, well finished. Either for coup, both for grand coup.

3. (a) Make, mount, and label for exhibition (1) a 4-plait round, rolled; (2) a spiral design; (3) a 4-plait crown; (4+) a terminal Turks head; (5) a crown-on-crown terminal; (6) a sliding knot. (b) Make, mount, and label for exhibition flat plaits of 7, 9, 11, and 13 thongs; also a 6-plait round and an 8-plait round. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

4. (a) Make a plaited quirt. (b) Make a rawhide lariat with honda. Either for coup; both for grand coup. (c) Make a plaited bridle. complete. and well made, grand coup.

XX — Tin-candicraft

1. Make 10 useful articles of tin cans, for coup. Make 10 articles like the Navaho silver out of tin cans, for grand coup.

YY — Towneraft

1. Plan a correct council ring according to the latest edition of the BIRCH BARK ROLL; supervise and help in the work of preparing the ground and building it, for coup. Plan the ring, and do all the work by self, for grand coup.

ZZ — Travel

1. Lay out a trail through new territory for 2 miles, marking the same with blazes or monuments, so that others can easily follow from either direction, for coup; for 5 miles, for grand coup.

2. Make a compass, and travel by it over a tract of wild land for 2 miles, for coup; for 5 miles, for grand coup.

3. Travel on foot for 50 miles with not more than 2 companions, neither of whom is a_ professional guide, through strange territory, carrying outfit, and sleeping out every night, each person planning and cooking meals for at least 1 day, for coup. 100 miles for grand coup. 69)

4. Travel 100 miles on foot with a party which may be guided, carrying own outfit, and sleeping out every night, for coup. 200 miles, for grand coup.

5. Make a continuous canoe trip of 100 miles with not more than 2 companions, neither of whom is a guide, through strange waters, sleeping out every night, for coup. 200 miles, for grand coup.

6. Make a continuous canoe trip of 150 miles, with a party which may be guided, sleeping out every night, for coup. 300 miles, for grand coup.

7. Make a continuous saddle trip of 100 miles, with not more than 2 companions, neither of whom is a guide, through strange territory, sleeping out every night, for coup. 200 miles, for grand coup.

8. Make a continuous saddle trip of 150 miles with a party which may be guided, sleeping out every night, for coup. 300 miles, for grand coup.

9. Sail a boat without expert help for 50 miles in 1 season. for coup. 100 miles, for grand coup.

10. Follow a trail alone, or as leader of a party, through a wilderness for 2 days, without losing the trail, for coup. Same for 7 days, part of which travel has been through woods and part through open territory, for grand coup.

11. Travel without a trail through a wilderness without getting lost for 8 hours of travel, for coup. For 20 hours of travel, and through various kinds of country, for grand coup.

12. Follow an established trail in the mountains for 2 days, carrying all personal equipment, without going to or near any restaurant or hotel or resort of any kind, or tra- versing trails previously covered by coup claimant, sleeping out in the open both nights, for coup. Do same for 5 days, for grand coup.

13. Enter the Arctic Circle as captain or leader of expedi- tion by sea, for coup. By land, for grand coup.

14. Cross the Equator by sea or rail as captain or en- gineer, for coup. On foot, for grand coup.

15. Take a country hike of at least 5 miles, prepared with case or press for specimens. Unmistakably identify 25 speci- mens of different species, on this hike. for coup. Grand coup, for 50 specimens, comprising 15 animal, 30 vegetable, and 5 mineral. 70)

16. Go in a canoe, rowboat or sail boat, on stream, pond, or sea, and collect, mount and identify, or make accurate drawings to scale, 25 specimens of aquatic life, either animal or vegetable, for coup. 50 specimens, mounted, identified or drawn as above, part to be animal and part vegetable, for grand coup.

17. (L.L.) After having gone over a strange route (through city or country) once with a guide, be able to re- trace exactly the journey taken, distance to cover at least 1 mile, for coup. 2 miles, for grand coup.

18. (L.L.) Without assistance, follow a blazed trail over which you have not been before, for 1 mile, for coup. 2 miles, for grand coup.

AAA — Walking

1. Walk 1 unbroken mile a day, outdoors (not track walking) for 60 successive days, for coup. 120 days, for grand coup.

2. Take a hike of not less than + miles once a week for 20 consecutive weeks, for coup. Same for 40 weeks, for grand coup.

3. Walk 5 miles a day for 5 successive days, and make a sketch or photograph of some interesting natural object or view each day, for coup. Walk 5 miles a day for 10 suc- cessive days, making sketch or photograph as above, for grand coup.

4. Take 12 hikes in 12 months (1 in each month), cov- ering in all not less than 60 miles, minimum of 2 miles on 1 hike, and learning or knowing to identify unquestionably a total of 25 specimens from nature, for coup. 50 specimens. for grand coup.

5. (L.L.) Take a 3-mile hike at least 3 times; learning to know and identify 10 different specimens in the world of nature, for coup. Take a 3-mile hike at least 6 times; learn- ing to identify 15 specimens, 5 from each of the 3 kingdoms, for grand coup.

6. (L.L.) Walk 1 unbroken mile a day, outdoors, for 30 successive days, for coup. 60 days, for grand coup.

7. (L.L.) Walk 2 miles a day for 5 successive days, and sketch or photograph some interesting natural object or view seen on each trip, for coup. 10 successive days, for grand coup. 71) 8. (L.L.) Walk not less than 2 unbroken miles a week for 5 weeks, for coup. 10 weeks, for grand coup.

BBB — Water Skill

1. Build, single-handed, without help, a canoe or boat which will carry a man safely, for coup. If the same can be paddled, rowed or sailed by one person 2 miles an hour on dead water, grand coup.

2. Build, single-handed, without help, a birch bark canoe which will carry a man in safety, for coup. If same has traveled 10 miles without a leak, grand coup.

3. Build, single-handed, without help, a raft which will carry safely 300 pounds, for coup. Add support for keeping baggage dry, and paddle or pole the raft for 5 miles contin- uously, for grand coup.

4. Build, single-handed, without help, across a stream or gully, a safe foot-bridge with piers, or a safe suspension bridge, or a safe pontoon bridge, 15 feet or more long, for coup. Build any 2 of these for grand coup.

5. Build, single-handed, without help, a good dam at least 3 feet high in center, across a stream at least 6 feet wide, of wildwood material, for coup. If it be thoroughly watertight, grand coup.

6. Bathe out of doors in water of natural temperature anywhere north of N. latitude 30 degrees, or south of S. latitude 30 degrees, for 300 days in any one year, for coup. 365 days, for grand coup.

7. Measure 10 distances across a river without crossing, averaging within 10 per cent of accuracy, for coup. Within 5 per cent of accuracy, for grand coup. Only axe and pocket rule or tape line permitted.

8. Log-riding. Tread a saw-log 100 yards in any time, without going overboard, for coup. Do it 100 yards and back in 30 minutes, grand coup. This means standing. A pole may be used to balance, but not to be rested on shore or another log.

CCC — Weaving

1. (a) Card, spin, and dye enough cotton, wool, flax, or hemp to make 5 yards of goods. 72)

(b) Weave 1 square yard of cloth (or equivalent), half to contain a design. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

2. (a) Make a rug, at least 2x5 feet, or equivalent, woven, knitted, crocheted, braided or hooked. (b) Cut, select, sew, ball, and arrange rags for mak- ing 1 yard of rag carpet. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. (a) Weave, knit or crochet scarfs containing at least 10 square feet, or a bedspread. (b) Arrange warp in a loom for weaving, with 2 harnesses and 2 treadles. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

4. Weave a hammock or fish-net, knots not to be more than 2 inches apart, for coup. With knots 1 inch apart or less, for grand coup.

5. (a) Make a Navaho loom for blanket weaving; and on same make a rag, grass or yarn mat, not less than 2x5 feet, or its equivalent in smaller mats, to be used for 3 months and remain intact. (b) Make a hand loom for weaving braid or tape, half an inch wide, and use it successfully, making at least 1 yard of braid or tape on it. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

6. (L.L.) Cut, sew, ball, and braid rags enough to make a rug 1 yard square, for coup. Make the rug, in addition, for grand coup.

DDD—Wood Carving

1. (a) Carve a relief totem, and color same. (b) Carve an Indian totem pole of at least 14 inches in height, and finished in three colors. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

2. (a) Carve a chain out of a solid piece of wood, of 5 links, all to be intact. (b) Carve a peace pipe. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. (a) Make a picture frame, at least 8x 10 inches, with back and inset for glass, out of a single piece of wood, and decorate same with carving. 73)

(b) Make 2 picture frames out of wildwood material, each to be not less than 8 x 10 inches, or equiva- lent. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. (a) Make 3 useful articles, such as spoon, fork, fire- socket, bowls, etc., and decorate same with Indian designs. . (b) Carve a relief design of the Woodcraft emblem, at least 8x10 inches, and color same. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

5. Carve a motto or sign board, of at least 15 letters, for coup. One of 30 letters, or 2 such as above, for grand coup.

6. (L.L.) Make and decorate a totem for Tribe or Band, for coup. I{ such totem is carved, grand coup.


* Repeater if all new material is offered.



74)

THE WAY OF THE SECOND LAMP

The Second Lamp includes exploits principally in the mental realm, as far as is possible to differentiate. Many handicraft coups are here inserted, if they seem to require thought and study as well as finger dexterity. 75)

A — AERONAUTICS

1. (a) Make an airplane flying model that will fly 200 feet, with a wing-spread 24 to 48 inches, either mono or bi-plane type; rubber band motor only.
(b) Make a model plane that will fly 100 feet with a motor other than rubber band. Either for coup; both for grand coup. (These must take off from the ground, and, after flying the distance, must land in good form.)


2. (a) Draw plans for the construction of an airplane, approved by competent authority.
(b) Use these plans, or have some other member use them, to construct a plane, the finished plane to fly 200 feet. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. (a) Construct a model parachute, at least 2 feet across, of china silk, with cover of muslin or light canvas, and having all the main features of a commercial chute.
(b) Make a flying stick that will fly 200 feet. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

4. Know and give the distinctive features of three different types of airplane motors, for coup. Hold a license as pilot, for grand coup.

B — Binding

1. Bind a tally or coup book, containing at least 48 pages, with a decorative cover, painted, beaded or tooled, etc., for coup. Decorate the pages of a coup book, not less than 48 pages, with designs appropriate for each honor claim, for grand coup.

2. Bind a book, not less than 100 pages, with stiff covers, properly stitched, and hinged, for coup. If with tooled leather, grand coup. 76)

C — Camp Cooking

1. Do all the cooking for a week-end camp of not less than 10 people for 2 days. Prepare the menu, select the material, and do the buying for such a camp. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

2.* Identify 25 wild plants having edible roots, shoots, leaves, fruit, seeds or nuts, and describe the method of preparing each for eating, for coup. Identify 50 such plants, submit recipes for cooking 10 of them, and actually prepare 5, for grand coup.

D — Campercraft

1. Guess 1 inch, 1 foot, 1 yard, 1 rod, 1 acre, 100 yards, 200 yards, ¼ mile, ½ mile, and 1 mile, for coup, total average within 20% of accuracy; within 10% for grand coup.

2. Guess the height of 10 trees or other high things, and the weight of 10 stones or other things ranging from 1 ounce to 50 pounds, total average within 10% of accuracy, for coup, within 5% for grand coup.

3. Measure the height of 10 trees without climbing, or 10 distances across a river without crossing, total average within 10% of accuracy, for coup; within 5% for grand coup. Tools: an axe and a pocket rule or tape line only.

E — Collections

1. (L.L.) Make a collection, properly mounted and listed, for preservation and exhibition, of one of the following:

Postage Stamps Coup, 100 sorts Grand coup, 200 sorts
Coins Coup, 25 sorts Grand coup, 40 sorts
Indian Relics Coup, 10 sorts Grand coup, 20 sorts

Note: Any other collections may count, if approved by the Head Guide and National Office. (Repeater.)

F — Communication

1. Sign talking. Know and use correctly 200 signs, for coup; 400 for grand coup. 77)

2. Peace messenger. Know 100 signs in sign language; and translate into English from some other language, sentences amounting to 300 words, for coup. Know 200 signs and translate from 2 languages for grand coup.

3. Wigwag or Myer signalling. now this code and signal as well as receive a message from 4 mile away, at the rate of 5 words a minute, for coup. Do the same for a mile, at the rate of 15 words a minute, for grand coup.

4. Morse code, same as above.

5. Semaphore code, same as above.

6. Heliograph, as above.

7. Make a small working telegraph, and send messages with it, for coup. Both receive and send messages on such a telegraph at the rate of 5 words per minute, for grand coup.

8. (L.L.) Know fifty signs of the sign language, for coup. 795 signs, including at least 15 Indian signs, for grand coup. (Repeater.)

G — Conservation

1. Know the life cycle of, and take part in the actual campaign to destroy any one of the following pests: mealy bug, nematode, aphis, cut worms, wire worms, boll weevil, Mediterranean fly, red spider, or any other pest that is subject to quarantine, and has been quarantined in your State, for coup. As above for any 3 of the pests, for grand coup.

2. (L.L.) Destroy 500 of any one species of insect known to be injurious to crops, for coup. 1000 of any one species, or 500 of any 2 species, for grand coup.

H — Entertaining

1. On 5 different occasions, do all the planning of program, training of entertainment, and presiding over a grand council of not less than 25 people, to take at least 2 hours, entertainment on each occasion to be entirely different; and council to include business, song, dance, challenges, etc., for coup. On 10 occasions as above, for grand coup.

2. (a) Recite the Battle Hymn of the Republic, first 2 and last 2 paragraphs of the Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, and Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address.

78)

(b) Recite 5 poems or prose selections, relating to the outdoors or other eminently Woodcraft subjects, aggregating in all 200 lines. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. (a) Tell entertainingly a different story on each of 10 different occasions, to take not less than 10 minutes each.
(b) Write an original story of not less than 2000 words, and read it to a group which declares it interesting. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

4. (a) Write an original play, based on a folk legend, to include at least 1 dance; to take not less than 15 minutes to present.
(b) Write an original pantomime, based on some historical or legendary story, and train it so it can be presented, same to take not less than 5 minutes to present. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

5. (a) Organize and take part in some pageant or other outdoor function, to take at least 1 hour to present.
(b) Write and direct, or write and take part, in some play indoors, of not less than an hour’s duration. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

6. (a) Tell a story, or take principal part in the acting of an episode whose scene is laid in one of the following early civilizations, such story or act to be not less than 15 minutes: Sumerian, Akkadian, Elamite, Kassite, Babylonian, Assyrian, Chaldean, ancient Egyptian, Indian, Chinese, Mayan.
(b) As above, relating to the first sailors, or to life in the Cretan civilization. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

7. (a) Write a poem in Psalm form, dealing with modern affairs, and recite it to your group, such poem to be not less than 200 words.
(b) Tell a story, or take principal part in the acting of an episode from the Bible, such story or act to be not less than 15 minutes. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

79)

8. (a) Relate parts of one of the early sagas, —_Beowulf, Iliad, Odyssey, Mahrabatta, etc., — to your group, or take principal part in the acting of an incident from one of these, same to take not less than 15 minutes to perform.
(b) Compose verses (not less than 500 words), dealing with modern exploits, in the style of one of the early sagas. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

9. (a) Tell a story, or take principal part in the acting of an episode from Herodotus, Marathon, Thermopylæ, Croesus, Homer, Greek or Roman mythology, such story or act to take not less than 15 minutes.
(b) As above for story of Mohammed or Omar, or episodes taken from the Arabian Nights. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

10. (a) As above for the story of Buddha.
(b) As above, for story of Yuan Chwang, or other episodes bearing on that period. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

11. (a) As above for episodes from life of Robin Hood, King Arthur, or other romances of the period.
(b) As above for episodes from travels of Marco Polo. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

12. (a) As above, for episodes from lives of Indian heroes, like Hiawatha, Tecumseh, etc.
(b) Write a play, dealing with such characters. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

13. As above, for War of Independence, Revolution, Civil War, for coup. Any 2 of these wars, for grand coup.

14. Write a play, dealing with modern affairs, in the style of a Greek comedy or tragedy, not less than 15 minutes to perform, for coup. In addition, produce it, for grand coup.

15. Recite from memory 6 nature songs of the Shakespearean period, for coup. 10 for grand coup.

16. (L.L.) Do either of the following for coup; both for grand coup: Tell entertainingly a different story, not including Indian legends, on each of 5 different occasions, to take not less than 5 minutes each. Tell at least 5 Indian legends. They need not all be told at the same meeting, but must be passed upon by the Council and approved by the Guide. 80)

17. (L.L.) Recite well from memory, before the Tribe, 2 standard poems of at least 20 lines each, or 1 poem of forty lines, for coup. Double the number of lines, for grand coup.

18. (L.L.) Tell the history of your flag, for coup. In addition, tell the proper methods of showing respect for it, for grand coup.

19. (L.L.) Take a speaking part in some public dramatic entertainment, speaking at least 40 words, for coup. 2 such entertainments, for grand coup.

20. (L.L.) Train a group to present well a pantomime based on a myth, fable, or equally short tale, for coup, 3 such pantomimes, for grand coup.

I — Eyesight

1. Make a 75 score in 10 tries in the game of Quicksight, with 10 counters, for coup. A 95 score, for grand coup.

2. (L.L.) Make a score of 60 in 10 tries, with 10 counters, for coup. Make a score of 75, for grand coup.

J — Farming

1. Make a seed tester, and test the germination of 3 kinds of seeds, 100 of each kind, and report results, for coup. Make 2 different kinds of testers, and test 6 kinds of seeds, 100 of each, for grand coup.

2. Identify 10 common weeds, and tell how to get rid of them, or identify 10 harmful insect pests, tell what they do, and how to destroy them. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. Make a complete drawing or lay-out for modern farm plant, according to approved sanitary engineering, and landscape methods, for coup. In addition, make blue print of same, properly labelled with legend, for grand coup.

4. (a) Describe in full when and how to plant peas, lima beans, string beans, turnips, carrots, potatoes, parsnips, kohlrabi, and beets, and successfully raise 5 of these.
(b) Tell when and how to sow and reap wheat, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, red clover, white clover, alfalfa, timothy, and 2 other kinds of grasses, and successfully raise 5 of these. Either for coup, both for grand coup.

81)

K — Forestry

1. (a) Know the Forest Service regulations governing building of camp fires in your own region.
(b) Know 3 different types of forest fires, and tell how to combat each. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

L — Geology

1. Identify 30 minerals, for coup. In addition, make a properly classified and labelled collection of same, for grand coup.

2. Know, name, and describe the great divisions of the earth’s crust (not less than 10) according to any established authority; also define watershed, delta, drift, fault, glacier, terrace, stratum, dip, and identify 10 different kinds of rock, for coup. In addition, define sediment, metamorphic, anticlinal, synclinal, moraine, coal, metal, mineral, petroleum, and identify in all 20 kinds of rock, for grand coup.

3. Note in person, and locate so that others may find them, the following: 10 geological formations, such as lava beds, granite cliffs, dikes, sills, faults, landslides, outcrops of various kinds of rocks denoting sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous formations, evidences of erosion by wind or water, for coup, 20 for grand coup.

4. Identify 10 ores of your region. Identify 10 minerals of your region. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

5. Identify 20 fossils, for coup. In addition, make a properly labelled collection of same, for grand coup.

6. (L.L.) Identify 10 rocks and minerals, for coup; 20 for grand coup.

M — Health

(The following coups are to be all according to the standards of the American Red Cross.)

1. Describe in detail the treatments for the bites of a poisonous snake, dog, or other animal with septic possibilities; and for a severe hemorrhage; and apply correctly a tourniquet to an arm or a leg, for coup. Grand coup for the successful treatment of an actual case of either.

2. Demonstrate the treatment for 3 varieties of fracture, and apply a good bandage to each of 5 different parts of the body, for coup. Demonstrate treatment for 6 varieties of 82) fracture, and apply good bandage to 10 different parts of body, for grand coup.

3. Pass the Red Cross or other standard Life Saving Test for life saving in the water, for coup. For an actual rescue, even though the victim die after or during the rescue, grand coup.

4. Make a sweat lodge, and use it properly for 3 times a week (in 2 of which it may be used by another person), for coup. Run a sweat lodge successfully for a month, giving at least 12 treatments, for grand coup.

5. Make and run for 7 days a flyless and practically odorless latrine, for coup; 30 days, for grand coup.

6. Demonstrate the Schaefer method of resuscitation from drowning, and describe in detail the whole treatment of a drowned person from the time of taking from the water until he can be left alone, for coup. In addition, describe in detail first aid treatment for 8 of the following: sunburn, sunstroke, chill from exposure, colic, diarrhea, toothache, earache, poison ivy or oak, insect bites, hiccough, eating poisonous plants, burns or scalds, nose bleed, bruises, sprains, foreign bodies in the eye, for grand coup.

7. Throwing life buoy. For those under 18: throw it 40 feet within 10 feet of the mark, for coup. Throw it 45 feet within 5 feet of the mark, for grand coup. In each case, 3 times out of 5.

For those over 18: throw it 55 feet within 10 feet of the mark, for coup. Throw it 60 feet within 5 feet of the mark, for grand coup. In each case, 3 times out of 5.

8. Soldiers’ war medals, grand coup each.

N — Indian Handicraft

1. Make a pair of leather or skin moccasins of Ojibway pattern, for coup. Bead a design by the parallel row method, on these, for grand coup.

2. Make a pair of leather or skin moccasins of Plains pattern, for coup. In addition, bead a design on these, for grand coup.

3. Make a pair of Navaho moccasins, for coup. If the silver buttons are made by self, grand coup.

4. (a) Make buckskin from a green hide, without the use of any bought chemicals.

83)

(b) Prepare the skin of some other animal from the green state until ready for use in some form of clothing. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

5. Make an Indian war shirt, for coup. Decorate it with a symbolic pattern, for grand coup.

6. Do 20 square inches of porcupine quill work by the method of sewing with 2 needles, for coup. Add 20 square inches by the wrapping method, and have a pattern worked in 2 colors in either one, quills to be dyed by self, for grand coup.

7. Make a war bonnet of at least 24 feathers, with fluffed bases and tips, horsehair tufts at ends of feathers, for coup. As above, with beaded brow band, rosettes at ears, ear pendants made by self (not ribbons), for grand coup.

8. Make 6 dancing rattles of various materials, each decorated with Indian design for coup. In addition, dance a solo Indian dance, or the principal part in a group dance, using one of these, for grand coup.

9. Make 2 parfleche bags or boxes, 6 x 12 inches each, or equivalent, of rawhide, for coup. If decorated with authentic Indian designs in colors, grand coup.

10. (a) Make a pair of leggings of leather or buckskin, with decoration of Indian method.
(b) Make a dancing bustle, of at least 12-inch diameter, and at least 3 concentric rows of feathers. Either for coup, both for grand coup.

11. Make an Indian woman’s costume, in 1 or 2 pieces, of leather or buckskin, for coup. Decorate it with beading, quill work, applique, or other method, to the extent of at least 100 square inches, for grand coup.

12. (a) Make a medicine bag of buckskin or leather, at least 14 inches long, exclusive of fringe, 5 inches wide, decorated in some standard Indian fashion.
(b) Make an altar cloth, and 4 prayer rugs of any strong material, representing the Sand Painting and the 4 Torches. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

13. Make a headdress for the Devil Dance, headdress to be at least 18 inches high, and 18 inches at widest points, after the manner of the Apaches. (See Rhythm of the Redman.) Also, make the wands, devil rattle, and bell strings for the warrior, and take part in the dance, for grand coup. 84)

14. (a) Make a totem pole, at least 15 feet high, 8 inches thick at butt, carved and painted in authentic Indian manner.
(b) Make a shield with the Horns of the High Hikers, shield to be at least 12 inches in diameter, horns each at least 6 inches long, and emblazoned with the tribal or other totem. Either for coup, both for grand coup.

15. Make and decorate a tom tom, for coup. If log is burned or hollowed out, and skin prepared from green state by self, grand coup.

O — Knots and Ropes

1. Tie from memory, know the name and use of 20 different standard knots, mounted and tagged for exhibition, for coup. 40 for grand coup.

2. Know and demonstrate from memory the following: short splice, long splice, chain splice, back splice, eye splice, cut splice, loop splice, and cringle, for coup. In addition, know and demonstrate wall and crown, double wall, double crown, shroud knot, Mathew Walker, and rosebud; also 3- and 4-strand plaiting, for grand coup.

3. (L.L.) Tie from memory, know the name and use of, 1 standard knot for each year of your age, for coup. 2 knots for each year of age, for grand coup.

4. Make 10 feet of rope, ½ inch thick, from bark, vine, grass, root or horsehair, which will in actual demonstration support 100 pounds, for coup. Make 15 feet of such rope from materials all gathered and prepared by self, for grand coup.

5. Make 15 feet of rawhide riata, preparing the necessary hide from which to make this riata, as well as making the riata itself, for coup. Make a rawhide lasso, not less than 25 feet long, equipped with rawhide hondu, all fit and strong for service, for grand coup.

6. (L.L.) Make 3 feet of rope from bark, grass, root, horsehair, or natural material, which will by actual demonstration, support 50 pounds, for coup. 6 feet of such rope. for grand coup. 85)

P — Models

1. Make a model bridge, of wood, stone, or concrete, properly timbered or reinforced, with good parapets, the span to be at least 1 foot in length, and sufficiently detailed so it could be used to guide a builder, for coup. Make 2, of different materials, for grand coup.

2. Make a miniature tepee, at least 1 foot high, with correct poles, smoke flaps, lacing, decoration, etc., for coup. Make a model Indian village, at least 2 feet square, with not less than 5 painted tepees, smoke house, long house, 2 bunk houses, 2 toilets, council ring, sweat lodge, diving board, totem pole, all embellished in Indian fashion, for grand coup.

3. (a) Make a miniature council ring, not less than 15 inches across, with 3 rows of seats, council rock, tribal robe, tribal shields, and standards, sand painting, fire, etc.
(b) Make a model sail boat, with 1 or more masts, correct spars, and orthodox sails and rigging. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

4. Make correct models of different specimens relating to any of the following cultures: Sumerian, Akkadian, Elamite, Kassite, Babylonian, Assyrian, Chaldean, ancient Egyptian, East Indian, Chinese, Mayan, — 2 for coup, 4 for grand coup.

5. Make correct models of the Ark, Temple, or other subject out of the Hebrew Scriptures, — 2 for coup; 4 for grand coup.

6. Make correct models of Greek statuary or temples, etc. — 2 for coup; 4 for grand coup.

7. (a) Make a correct model of a stone-throwing catapult.
(b) Of a war chariot. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

8. Make correct models of subjects in Roman art or life, such as galleys with banks of oars, etc., – 2 for coup; 4 for grand coup.

9. Make a correct model of a pagoda, and other subjects illustrating Eastern culture, — 2 for coup; 4 for grand coup.

10. Make 2 models illustrative of Mohammedan art or life, for coup; 4 for grand coup. 86)

11. (a) Make a model of a Viking long-ship.
(b) Make a correct model of a ship of the type used by Columbus. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

12. (a) Make a model of a wind mill that works.
(b) Make a model of a water mill that works. Either for coup, both for grand coup.

Q — *Nature (Amphibians)

1. Make a careful record from observation of the development of an amphibian from an egg to adult, for coup. Add careful observations upon the habits of the adult, for grand coup.

2. Identify when seen alive 10 species of amphibian, for coup; 15 for grand coup.

3. (L.L.) Identify, when seen alive 5 species of amphibian, for coup; 8, giving life cycle of 1, for grand coup.

R — Nature (Birds)

1. Make a record of at least 25 birds, identified and observed in the field, recording name, date, where seen, and what doing, for coup. 50 for grand coup.

2. Identify in the field 35 wild birds, for coup. 75 for grand coup.

3. Identify in the field 25 wild birds by note, for coup. 50 for grand coup.

4, Make careful observations and records of the building of a bird’s nest. Records should include description of location of nest, date when started, materials used, how the work was done, and date of completion, for coup. In addition, observe the feeding of the young of a pair of birds for 8 continuous hours. Record the time of beginning of observations, time of visit of each parent bird, whether made by male or female, if distinguishable; character of food if possible; location of feeding ground, for grand coup.

5. Identify 100 native birds as seen mounted in a museum, the female and young to count separately when they are wholly different from the male, for coup. 200 for grand coup.

  • Nature coups may be repeaters if entirely new material be of-

fered, and if the first grand coup be claimed before the second coup. 87)

6. (a) Identify in the museum the nests of 25 species of wild birds. (b) After the nesting season, collect 25 nests of wild birds, and correctly label. Either for coup, both for grand coup. 7. (L.L.) Make a good collection of 6 different kinds ot birds’ nests, collected in winter, for coup; 10 for grand coup. They must be properly labelled with the name of the bird to which it belonged. 8. Identify in the museum the eggs of 25 species of wild birds, for coup. 50 for grand coup. 9. Make and maintain for a season a bird bath. Record the visits of at least 10 species, including the dates when seen, for coup. Maintain the bath for 6 months, and record visits of at least 15 species. Tell about 10 methods of bath- ing, and the birds that do them, for grand coup. 10. Build and put up a birds’ nesting box which is used by a pair of birds, and keep a record of its tenants for one season, for coup. 5 such boxes and records, for grand coup. 11. Build 5 bird boxes or shelters, and set them up, to be tenanted by at least 3 different species of birds, for coup; 10 boxes or shelters, tenanted by 6 different species, for grand coup. 12. (L.L.) Identify 2 native birds in museum or zoo for each year of your age, for coup. Three, for grand coup. 13. (L.L.) Identify in the field, by note, 6 wild birds, for coup; 12 for grand coup. 14. (L.L.) Identify and make a record of 10 wild birds seen in the field, telling what they were doing, and give their distinguishing marks, for coup. 15 birds, and describe the nest of one, for grand coup.

S — Nature (Fish)

1. Catch and identify 8 species of fish, and give an ac- count of where and how each was caught. Know the main provisions of the game laws of your State, concerning fish, for coup. As above, with 16 species of fish, for grand coup. 2. Identify 25 species of fish seen alive or in the market, for coup. 40 for grand coup. 3. (L.L.) Identify 10 species of fish, alive or in the market, for coup. 15 for grand coup. 88)

4. (L.L.) Catch, without assistance, and identify 3 species of fish, for coup. 5 species, and give life history of one of them, for grand coup.

T — Nature (Flowers, Etc.)

1. Find in the field 40 wild flowers and record for each species, the name, date when seen, place where seen, char- acter of habitat, abundance, and know what wild flowers need protection, for coup. 80 for grand coup. 2. Identify 40 garden flowers for coup. 60 for grand coup. 3. Collect and identify 20 weeds found in garden or cul- tivated crops, for coup. 40 for grand coup. 4. Collect and identify 8 grasses, for coup. 16 for grand coup. 5. Make blue prints of 30 wild flowers which have been identified, for coup. 50 for grand coup. 6. (L.L.) Identify 2 wild flowers for each year of your age, for coup. 4 for grand coup. 7. (L.L.) Identify 12 garden flowers for coup. 25 for grand coup. 8. (L.L.) Make blueprints of flowers, all properly named; 15 coup. 25 for grand coup. 9. Collect and identify 8 rushes, for coup. 16 for grand coup. 10. Collect and identify 8 sedges, for coup. 16 for grand coup.

U — Nature (Fruits and Seeds)

1. Collect and identify the seeds of 40 plants including the fruit where possible, for coup. 75 for grand coup. 2. (L.L.) Make a collection of plant seeds; 2 kinds of seeds for each year of your age, for coup. 4 for grand coup. V—Nature (General) 1, Make 25 drawings from life of wild flowers, birds, fishes, moths, butterflies, insects, etc., properly labelled, for coup. 50 such for grand coup. 2. Keep a nature calendar in diary form, writing down one natural history observation for each day of a year, for 89) coup. Also illustrate with at least 100 pictures, original or otherwise, for grand coup. 3. Make a nature trail of not less than 100 yards, properly and clearly labelling 10 species of the animal world, 10 of the vegetable, and 5 of the mineral, for coup. Maintain this trail for 2 months, changing the labels when- ever necessary because of deterioration of labels, of progress of season, for grand coup.

W — Nature (Insects)

1. Make a Lubbock’s ant nest, install a colony of ants, and keep under observation for 2 months, making a record of what was observed, for coup. Of 2 species of ants, for 2 months, for grand coup. 2. Identify 15 butterflies in the field, for coup. 25 for grand coup. 3. Identify 25 butterflies in the museum for coup. 40 for grand coup. 4. Identify 25 moths for coup. 50 for grand coup. 5. Identify 50 insects other than those included in the above coups, for coup. 100 for grand coup. 6. Collect and mount for comparison the cocoons of 4 well-known species of moth, and give life cycle, for coup. Also same for caterpillar and moth of each, for grand coup. 7. Take full charge of a swarm of bees for 2 months, and record habits of bees observed, amount of honey made, condition of swarm at close of period, for coup. 6 months for grand coup. 8. Trail (not casually discover) a colony of honeybees to a bee tree, for coup. Transfer the bees to a modern hive acceptable to the bees, for grand coup. 9, (L.L.) Identify 8 moths for coup. 15 for grand coup. 10. (L.L.) Identify 8 butterflies for coup. 12 for grand coup. 11. (L.L.) Identify 12 other insects, for coup. 20 for grand coup. 12. (L.L.) Collect and identify 3 cocoons or chrysalids of different kinds, for coup. Keep them and successfully hatch 3 different kinds of moths or butterflies, for grand coup. 90)


X — Nature (Lower Animals)

1. Identify 8 crustaceans observed alive in nature, for coup. 12 for grand coup, with a description of the habits and economic importance of 2 of them. 2. Find in the field and identify 25 salt water shells for coup. 40 for grand coup. 3. Identify 10 other sea animals observed alive and give an account of 2 of them, for coup. 20 for grand coup. Lists must not contain any animals for which credit has been received elsewhere. 4. Make and maintain successfully for 8 weeks a salt or fresh water aquarium containing not less than 3 gallons of water and not less than 5 forms of animal life. Keep a careful record of how the aquarium was cared for and of the habits of the animals, for coup. 1 year’s success for grand coup. 5. Mount, in dust-proof cases, 25 salt water shells, prop- erly labelled with technical name and common name of the field in which it is found, for coup. 40 for grand coup. 6. (L.L.) Care for a proper aquarium or vivarium con- taining at least 2 fish or amphibians, for 3 months, for coup. 6 months for grand coup.

Y — Nature (Mammals)

1. Identify 25 wild or domesticated mammals which have been observed in the field, for coup. 45 for grand coup. 2. Identify 50 mammals observed in museum or zoo, for coup. 100 for grand coup. 3. Identify 25 fur-bearing animals used commercially, observed in field, museum or fur market, for coup. 40 for grand coup. 4. Know the following items about 10 of our wild ani- mals, for coup. 25 for grand coup. General color, average size and weight, range, haunts, den, food, enemies, voice, mating habits, character and number of young, home life of the animal, and its use to man. 5. (L.L.) Identify 1 wild animal for each year of your age, for coup. 2 for each year of your age, for grand coup. (“Squirrel” will not do; it must be Red Squirrel or Gray Squirrel, etc.) 91)


Z — Nature (Non-flowering Plants)

1. Identify from living plants 18 ferns, for coup. 35 for grand coup. 2. Identify from living plants, 15 mosses and lichens, for coup. 30, including at least 4 club mosses, for grand coup. 3. Dry and mount 25 ferns, properly identified, for coup. 50 for grand coup. 4. Identify 25 mushrooms, stating which are poisonous. Identify 10 species of tnder-water plant. Either for coup; both for grand coup. - 5. (L.L.) Identify from living plants, 8 ferns, for coup. 15 for grand coup. 6. (L.L.) Make blueprints of ferns, all correctly labelled with names, 8 for coup. 15 for grand coup. 7. (L.L.) Identify from living plants 4 mosses or lichens, for coup. 8, including 2 club mosses, for grand coup.

AA — Nature (Reptiles)

1. Identify 7 species of snake found in the field and know which are poisonous, for coup. 15 for grand coup. 2. Identify 15 species of snake seen living in field or zoological park, for coup. 25 for grand coup. 3. Identify 7 species of turtle found in field, for coup. 15 in field, museum or aquarium, for grand coup. 4, Identify 5 species of lizard found in field or museum, for coup. 10 for grand coup. 5. (L.L.) Identify, when seen living in the field or zoo, 7 species of reptile, for coup. 10 for grand coup.

BB — Nature (Spiders)

1. Identify 8 species of spiders and observe and record the steps in the spinning of a spider’s web. The record should contain the name of the spider observed, dates of record, location of web, exact time each observation was made and sketch of the appearance of the web at each obser- vation, for coup. Study and record the web building of 5 species, for grand coup. 92)


CC — Nature (Stars)

1. Know and name 15 star groups, for coup. 20 star groups, and tell something about at least 1 star in each group, for grand coup. . 2. (L.L.) Know 5 constellations, for coup. In addition, tell a legend about 2 of these, for grand coup. 3. (L.L.) Know 5 stars, (including planets), for coup. 6 stars and 2 plants, for grand coup.

DD — Nature (Taxidermy)

1. Make good skins, properly labelled, of 5 birds and 5 mammals, for coup. In addition, skin and mount, according to accepted standards of taxidermy, 1 specimen of birds, 1 of mammals, and 1 of fish, for grand coup. 2. Tana skin of some wild animal, smaller than a fox, so that the leather is soft and the fur will not slip, for coup. Of 4 animals, as large or larger than a fox, also sewing them together for a robe, for grand coup.

EE — Nature (Tracks)

1. Draw from observation made in the field, and identify the tracks of 15 wild or domesticated animals, for coup. 25 for grand coup. 2. Make black tracks of 15 wild or domesticated animals, for coup. 25 for grand coup. 3. As above for plaster casts of tracks.

FF — Nature (Trees and Shrubs)

1. Identify by leaf or fruit, or both, according to any standard authority, 25 trees and tell something interesting about each, for coup. In addition, identify by twigs and bark in winter 20 trees, for grand coup. 2. Identify, according to any standard authority, 20 shrubs, for coup. In addition, identify by twigs and bark in winter 15 shrubs, for grand coup. List must not contain any species for which credit has been given in tree coup. 3. Make a set of blue prints, ink prints or smoke prints of the leaves of 25 species of trees and correctly label. Make a set of blue prints, ink prints or smoke prints of 25 shrubs 93) and correctly label. Either ‘for coup; both for grand coup. This coup may be taken instead of the first one in this de- partment, but both may not be counted by the same person for Sagamoreship or lower degree. +. Make a collection of the woods of 20 native trees, samples to be not less than 2 inches in diameter, and of uniform length, for coup. In addition, make an exhibit of 10 different forest trees, mounting in permanent form, leaf, flower, fruit, bark, twigs, to show the method of branching and specimen of wood of each species, for grand coup. 5. Collect, identify, and mount, the blossoms (with twigs), of 15 different forest trees, for coup. 25 for grand coup. (Do not include any included in the following coups.) 6. Collect, identify, and mount the blossoms (with twigs), of 7 different varieties of oaks, for coup. 12 for grand coup. 7. As above for maples. 8. Collect, identify, and mount the seed pods of 15 forest trees, for coup. 25 tor grand coup. (Do not include any used in the following.) 9. Collect, identify, and mount 10 varieties of evergreens by twigs and needles. Collect, identify, and mount 12 varie- ties of evergreens by blossoms or fruit. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 10. Identify 10 trees, and tell the advantages and disad- vantages of the wood from each, to the camper, for coup. 20 for grand coup. 11. (L.L.) Identify 1 native forest tree for each year of your age, for coup. 2 for grand coup. (“Oak” will not do; it must be White Oak, Black Oak, etc.) 12. (L.L.) Make smoke prints, blue prints, ink prints, or photos of leaves of trees or shrubs, 10 for coup. 18 for grand coup.

GG — Observation

1. (L.L.) After looking at the contents of a show win- dow or a group of objects laid out on a table or the ground, for 2 minutes, name correctly 12 objects seen, for coup. 20 objects, for grand coup. 2. (L.L.) Be able to take exact directions as to an errand, covering at least 5 points, and to perform the errand exactly as directed, for coup. Directions covering 8 points, for grand coup. (Written directions not permitted.) 94)


HH — Photography

(All photos must be submitted to Headquarters or the regional Field Council before coup can be granted. ) 1. Make a good, sharp, recognizable photograph of a ruffed grouse (partridge) drumming, a prairie chicken danc- ing, a woodcock, sage cock or wild turkey strutting, a white crane dancing, or anything of similar nature or value. 5 such, if captive, for coup. 1, if wild, for grand coup. 2. Make 10 clear, recognizable photographs of our dif- ferent native adult wild animals not in captivity, for coup. 20 for grand coup. . 3. Make 10 good, recognizable photographs of birds’ nests, either with young or eggs showing, for coup. 20 for grand coup. 4. Make a series of 5 photographs of any wild bird, showing a habitat view, nest, egg or eggs, and development of the young, for coup. As above for each of 5 birds for grand coup. 5. Ditto for wild animals. 6. Make a good, recognizable photograph of a wild animal in the air, that is, jumping clear off the ground, for coup. With 2-inch image, for grand coup. 7. Ditto for a fish. 8. Make 10 good photographs of any wild animal in its native surroundings, for coup. If the animal is not looking at you, grand coup, 9. Make 15 clear, recognizable photographs of insects, butterflies, moths, etc., in natural surroundings, for coup. 25 for grand coup. 10. Make 10 good, recognizable photographs of different kinds of adult birds, for coup. 20 for grand coup. 11. Make 5 good, recognizable photographs of different kinds of snakes in natural surroundings, for coup. 10 for grand coup. 12. Make 5 good, recognizable photographs showing wild creatures of at least 2 different species in 1 picture, as turtle and wild duck, frog and snake, muskrat and heron, fish and osprey, for coup. 10 for grand coup. Same combination not to be repeated in 2 pictures. 13. Make photographs of the life history of any insect, showing the food plant, larva, pupa, male and female, for coup. 5 such series for grand coup. 95)

14. Make a series of not less than 3 photographs illustrat- ing Council or Woodcraft activities that can be used as lantern slide, for coup. As above for descriptive dances. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 15. Make 6 photographs outlining the peaks of mountains of at least 6000 feet elevation, which are made as a result of separate hikes to the mountains, for coup. 10 for grand coup. 16. Make 20 photos of flowers that can be identified from the pictures, for coup. 30 for grand coup. 17. Make 10 pictures of obnoxious weeds that will serve to identify them, for coup. 20 for grand coup. 18. Make 3 photos each of 5 field crops, showing seed bed in preparation, the growing crop, and the harvested product, for coup. 10 crops for grand coup. 19. Make 2 photos each of 5 of the following varieties or breeds: horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, mules, rabbits, and chickens, for coup. 10 for grand coup. 20. Make 3 photos, clear and recognizable, of 5 varieties of nut or fruit bearing trees, showing the following stages: in winter, with foliage and blossoms, or singly as the case may be, and with the mature crop, for cowp. 10 varieties, for grand coup. 21. (a) Make at least 5 clear photos, showing the evo- lution of the tilling processes, as: the use of the sharpened stick, the hoe, the rude one-shovel plow, the horse-drawn gang, the modern tractor gang plow. (b) Make at least 5 clear photos, as above, for trans- portation methods or vehicles, as the rude sled, the two-wheeled cart, the horse-drawn wagon, the modern tractor or truck train. (Electric and steam may be included.) Either for coup, both for grand coup. 22. Make 10 charts of trees, all on the same scale, each chart to contain photo of tree in summer, tree in winter, leaf, flower, seed, and trunk, for coup. 20 for grand coup. 23. (a) Make a set of 8 photos, clear and recognizable, showing automobile road signs, with their mean- ing. (b) As above, for the Forest Service trail signs. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 96)

24. Make a set of 4 photos, showing different distinct styles of architecture of established use in North America, as Mayan, Spanish Colonial, Pueblo, New England Colonial, adapted Gothic, Dixie Colonial, West Coast, adapted Tudor, reinforced concrete, etc. for coup. 8 different types, for grand coup. 25. (L.L.) Make 1 clear, recognizable photograph of a native wild animal not in captivity, for coup. Photos of 2 different animals, for grand coup. 26. (L.L.) Make 2 clear, recognizable photos of 2 dif- ferent wild animals in captivity, for coup. 4 photos of 4 such animals, for grand coup. 27. (L.L.) Make 1 good, recognizable photo of an adult wild bird, for coup. Of 3 different kinds of birds, for grand coup.

II — Pottery, Cement Work, Etc.

1. (a) Make and decorate 4 clay pieces, 1 a bowl and the others optional, clay to be gathered and dishes fired by self. (b) Make by coil process + bowls, each decorated with a different authentic Indian design, such as Zuni, Acoma, Santo Domingo, Hopi, etc. (c) Make a practicable potter’s wheel, and with this wheel make 12 different pieces of pottery. Do 1 of the above, for coup; 2 for grand coup. (a) Make a practicable potter’s kiln, and in this kiln fire successfully 12 pieces of pottery. (b) Make a rectangular shallow dish for ferns, glazed to prevent leakage, and at least 1Ox6x2 inches, and decorated with original design. (c) Make a set of 4 candlesticks and fire bowl, for the altar fire. 1 of these for coup; 2 for grand coup. 3. Make a bowl or vase with lip or handle, for coup. In addition, describe the principal varieties of native clays, tell where they are found, and what colors they take when baked. Tell how ancient and prehistoric pottery of America may be distinguished from that made today, and describe the Pueblo method of firing, for grand coup. 4. (a) Paint “overglaze” a set of 6 china dishes, using a native American design. 97)

(b) Ditto for “underglaze” painting. Either for coup; both for grand coup. (a) Make a bird bath, at least 12 inches in diameter, which is used by birds. (b) Make a cement flower box, at least 6x 8 x 20, waterproofed and rained. Either for coup; both for grand coup. Make 5 pieces of pottery, with some commercial clay, decorating each with an authentic Indian or Mexican design, for coup. 10 pieces, 5 with American Indian and 5 with Mexican, for grand coup. 7. (a) Make 500 adobe bricks, 9x15x4 inches or equivalent. (b) Construct with adobe bricks a 2-roomed house, not less than 12x 18 feet, with rainproof roof. Either for coup; both for grand coup. (a) Model and fire a piece of pottery decorated in Greek fashion. (b) Model and fire a piece of pottery decorated in Chinese fashion. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

JJ — Radio

(a) Make a simple crystal radio set, and log at least 6 stations. (b) Make a regenerative tube set (1 or more tubes), and log 12 stations. Either for coup; both for grand coup. (a) Make a multi-tube set (4 or more), using radio frequency amplification. (b) Wind the coils for any of the above sets con- structed. Either for coup; both for grand coup. (a) Know and be able to explain at least 24 common symbols used in radio construction. Make a chart, and explain. (b) Draw a diagram, and use it in building a suc- cessful crystal set. Either for coup; both for grand coup. (a) Construct a workable speaker unit of magnetic e. (b) Construct a successful unit for cone type. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 98)

(a) Build a complete radio cabinet with built-in horn of exponential type. (b) Build a complete radio cabinet, and mount a dynamic speaker in same. Either for coup; both for grand coup. (a) Build a successful B battery eliminator. (b) Build a successful A battery charger. Either for coup; both for grand coup. (a) Build a spark coil transmitter for C.W. trans- mission. Know the Morse or international code for use with the same. (b) Obtain an amateur license to operate a trans- mitting station. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

KK — Self-Reliance

(Open only to those under 8 years old.) Know and say the following in substance, for coup. Teach someone else your age to say it, for grand coup. 1. 1. (L.L.) My name is ..........-.---------- My father’s name is -..........---..--..-- We live at ooo... In the town of 02... My father’s business is .............--.----..-- We are in the —...0..0020.. Telephone book. If I get lost, I shall go to the first policeman I see, and tell him my name and address. I know that he will take care of me. If I cannot find a policeman, I shall go into the nearest drug store and ask the clerk to help me. Ii I cannot find a drug store, I shall go into any store I can find and ask the man behind the counter to help me. Ii I can find a telephone, I shall telephone home or to the police station and tell where I am, then wait until they come for me.

LL — Small Stock Farming

(a) Identify 6 kinds of chickens and domestic ducks, giving treatment for roup, lice, and diarrhoea. 99)

(b) Same for geese and turkeys (may include swans), giving treatment for any 2 diseases com- mon among these. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

MM — Stock Farming

1. (a) Identify 4 varieties of cattle commonly known as beef type, and 4 of dairy type; give points and characteristics of each type. (b) Identify 3 breeds of draft horses, and 3 of harness or road horses, giving points and charac- teristics of each. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 2. (a) Identify 5 breeds of swine, tell which are lard and which are bacon type. (b) Identify 3 varieties of sheep, and tell differences in their wool. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

NN — Towncraft

1. City Hunter. Find and sketch 25 blazes and totems in town, and tell where you found them; add the distinguish- ing marks of policemen as used in your town, for coup. Find and sketch 50 such totems, and include a short history of totems in general (not less than 300 words), for grand coup. 2. (L.L.) Know totems used in daily life, 1 for each year of your age, for coup. 2 for each year of your age for grand coup.

OO — Travel

1. Draw and know 25 of the conventional signs on maps, as listed by the Topographical Survey of the United States, for coup. 50 for grand coup. 2. Enter the Arctic Circle as captain or leader of expe- dition by sea, for coup. By land, for grand coup. 3. Cross the Equator by sea or rail as captain or en- gineer, for coup. On foot, for grand coup. 4. Take a latitude from the stars at night with a cart wheel or some home made instrument, 10 times from different points of the compass, averaging within 1 degree of accuracy, for coup. Within 14 degree of accuracy, for grand coup. 100)

5. Take correct latitude, longitude and local time with instruments, for coup. Have passed the Royal Geographical Society’s examination for “expert traveler” for grand coup. 6. Make the 4 usual Indian signs and blazes on tree trunks, in twigs, grasses, and with stones, and give smoke signals. Add 25 other signs or pictographs used by the Indians, for coup. Mark a path or road with these (except- ing smoke signals) for 2 miles, so that a party can follow the path marked, for grand coup. 7. Make a correct map of a region 14 mile long by 4 mile wide (such as half a mile of highway with an eighth of a mile on each side) ; marking each house, fence, hill, prominent tree, stream and bridge, for coup. Map in such a way a territory 1 mile long by 14 mile wide, map to be drawn approximately to scale, for grand coup. 8. (L.L.) Know the + usual Indian blazes, as used on tree trunks, and with twigs, grasses and stones, for coup. Mark a trail with these for %4 mile, so that a party can follow it, for grand coup. (Do not blaze living trees, or unneces- sarily break shrubbery and branches. ) 9. Take a country hike of at least 5 miles, prepared with case or press for specimens. Unmistakably identify 25 specimens of different species on this hike, for coup. (These may be animal, vegetable or mineral.) Grand coup for 50 specimens, composed of 15 animal, 30 vegetable and 5 min- eral, all identified and found on such a hike. 10. Go in a canoe, rowboat or sail boat, on stream, pond or sea, and collect, mount and identify, or make accurate drawings to scale, 25 specimens of aquatic life, either animal or vegetable, for coup. 50 specimens of aquatic life, mounted, identified or drawn as above, part to be animal and part vegetable, for grand coup. ll. (L.L.) Do either of the following for coup; both for grand coup: Know the 16 principal points of the compass; and given North, be able to point out any other direction as required. Know how to find North by three different methods. 12. (L.L.) Know the nearest fire-alarm box, mail box, police station, postoffice, fire hydrant, drug store, doctor, and taxi office, for coup. In addition, know the names and loca- tions of at least 10 of the streets nearest to your home, for grand coup. 101)

PP — Truth Seeker

1. Read the Talmud, and make a digest of it, in not less than 2000 words for coup. Not less than 5000 words, for grand coup. As above for Old Testament. As above for New Testament. As above for Apocrypha. As above for Koran. As above for Zoroaster. As above for Confucius. As above for the Three Vedas. As above for Barclay’s “Apology.” 10. As above for Edwin Arnold’s “Life of Buddha.” 11. As above for Papini’s “Christ,” or equivalent. 12. Make a digest, in 2000 words of either of the follow- ing, for coup; both for grand coup: James’ “Psychology.” Hall’s “Youth.” 13. As above for the following: “Hanna Thomson’s “Brain and Personality,” Richard Crane’s “Right & Wrong Thinking.” ’ 14, As above for Ingalese’s “History and Power of the Mind,” the Gospel according to John. 15. As above for 2 of the following for coup; 3 for grand coup. (a) Plato’s “Dialogues.” (b) “Golden Sayings of Epictetus.” (c) “Meditations” of Marcus Aurelius: 16. As above for either of the following groups for coup; both groups for grand coup: (a) Iliad, Odyssey, and Aeneid. (b) Ecologues and Bucolics. 17. As above for either of the following for coup; both for grand coup: (a) Gilbert White’s “Natural History of Selborne.” (b) Izaak Walton’s “Complete Angler.” 18. Make a digest of Plutarch’s “Lives,” giving a sum- mary of 20 of the lives, for coup. Of 40 of the lives, for grand coup. 19. Write, in not less than 1000 words each, a summary of what was done for natural science by 5 of the following men, for coup. 10 for grand coup: Linnaeus, Nuttall, 102) Audubon, Brehm, Darwin, Russell Wallace, Charles Water- ton, Sir John Richardson, Alexander Humboldt, Dr. Elliott Coues, Fabre. 20. Name the 10 Bible characters whom you consider greatest; tell briefly of their lives and work, for coup. 20 for grand coup. 21. As above for spiritual leaders of the world, other than Biblical. 22. Make a digest of some American Indian study given in any volume of the Annual Reports of the Bureau of Eth- nology, in 5000 words, for coup. With an adequate index, approved by Headquarters, for grand coup. 23. Name 10 Americans whom you consider greatest in our history, and tell why you consider them great. Tell briefly of their lives and work, for coup. 20 for grand coup. (Do not include living people.) 24, (a) Submit 25 careful drawings which have been made to illustrate a theme concerning anthro- pology, ethnology, or archaeology of the prim- itive of your country, or any allied subject of special interest to Woodcrafters. (b) Submit thesis on subject as above, of at least 5000 words. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

QQ — Walking

1. Take 12 hikes in 12 months (1 in each month), cov- ering in all not less than 60 miles, minimum of 2 miles on one hike, and learn or know to identify unquestionably a total of 25 specimens of natural history, for coup. 50 for grand coup. 2. (L.L.) Take a 3-mile hike at least 3 times; learning to know and identify 10 different specimens in the world of nature, for coup. Take a 3-mile hike at least 6 times; learn- ing to identify 15 specimens, 5 from each of the 3 kingdoms, for grand coup.

RR — Water Skill

1. Measure 10 distances across a river without crossing, averaging within 10% of accuracy, for coup. Within 5% of accuracy, for grand coup. (Only axe and pocket rule or tape line permitted.)



103)

THE WAY OF THE THIRD LAMP

In this, we include all things which develop the imagination, the fine arts, the aesthetic and the spiritual sense, all of one’s relation to the world of things unseen, to the land of dreams and ideals, and that help in the domination of the spirit. 104)

A — BASKETRY, ETC.

1. (a) Make 2 baskets of different designs and shapes (each large enough to hold 2 quarts) of rope, raffia, grass, rattan, splits, pine needle, or willow. (b) Weave a hat of straw or corn husks. Either for coup, both for grand coup.

2. (a) Make a broom from broom corn, raised and pre- pared by self. (b) Make a “Boonder broom” (scouring brush), in floor-scrubbing size, with a l-piece handle, total length of handle and broom, 4 feet. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. (a) Make a rush seat of rushes gathered and pre- pared by self. (b) Canea chair seat. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

4. (L.L.) Make a mat or basket of reed, raffia, bark, pine needles, or other natural material, symmetrical and well made, for coup. 2 such articles. of different materials, for grand coup.

B — Bone

1. Make 6 small handicraft articles of bone or horn, such as ring, bracelet, napkin ring, belt buckle, ete., for coup. If engraved and colored, grand coup.

C — Celluloid

1. Make 6 handicraft articles of celluloid, such as shade pulls, napkin rings, pendants, paper knives, book marks, etc., for coup. If engraved or painted, and at least 2 are bent into required shape, grand coup.

D — Colonial Crafts

1. (a) Make 4 bayberry candles, each not less than 6 inches long and ¥% inch thick, from material gathered and prepared by self. (b) Grow, gather, dry and use % pound of lavender flowers or of lemon verbena (tripolium). Either for coup; both for grand coup. 105)

2. (a) Make 1 pound of hard and 1 pound of soft soap, from material prepared by self. (For hard soap, lye may be bought.)
(b) Construct a lye gum or leach tub with properly constructed filter, of wildwood material, and with this lye gum, make enough lye from wood ashes to make 1 gallon of soft soap. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. (a) Make 1 pint each of 6 different dyes from wildwood material, coup.
(b) Dye 6 squares of white woolen material, each not less than 4 x 4 inches, or 6 bunches of porcupine quills (20 quills in each bundle), each a different color, and use a mordant, all to be found in the woods, for grand coup.

4. (a) Make 3 pounds of any 3 of the following : butter, cheese, sausage, head cheese, lard, tallow, neatsfoot oil.
(b) Dry 3 pounds (weight when dried) of some fruit or vegetable, to include at least 3 varieties. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

5. (L.L.) Make 3 kinds of vegetable dyes, dying blotting paper or other stuff to show samples, for coup. 5 for grand coup.

E — Dancing

All of the following dances, except the European folk dances, must be of not less than 2 minutes’ duration, and all must be presented on some public occasion.

1. Dance correctly 10 European folk dances, for coup. In addition, dance the Virginia Reel, and another barn dance; also teach all of these to at least 1 other person, so they are correctly performed, for grand coup.

2.* Do 5 of the following, for coup. 10, for grand coup:
(a) The quadrille
(b) The lancers
(c) The gavotte and the schottische
(d) The polka mazurka and the varsovienne
(e) A good cake walk
(f) The minuet
(g) A Spanish dance
(h) A Japanese dance

106)

(i) A Scottish dance
(j) An Irish dance
(k) An Egyptian dance
(l) A Russian dance
(m) A Javanese dance
(n) A Hawaiian dance
(o) An Argentine tango
(p) A solo American Indian dance
(q) A Greek dance (includes Natural dancing)
(r) An Italian dance
(s) A ballet dance
(t) A toe dance
(u) A musical comedy dance
(v) An exhibition ballroom dance
(w) A gypsy dance
(x) A Chinese dance
(y) A character dance
(z) A tap or clog dance

3.* (a) Act as leader in 8 different dances, and teach a class of at least 6 pupils 8 dances, representing at least 4 of the departments mentioned above.
(b) Compose, teach and present publicly a dance for a group of not less than 6, to take at least 3 minutes, Either for coup; both for grand coup.

4.* (a) Write and present a dance drama, to take not less than 15 minutes to present.
(b) Compose, and dance publicly 4 different solo dances. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

5. Record a new Indian dance (one not in the BIRCH BARK ROLL) from actual Indians, and write it out so it can be followed by others, for coup. As above for 2 Indian dances, and teach them so they are presented, for grand coup.

6. Perform 5 authentic Indian dance steps, and do 3 solo Indian dances, or principal part in group dances, for coup. Teach the above to at least 6 others, so they perform it creditably in public, for grand coup.

7.* Dance a different solo dance on each of 8 public occasions, without pay. Teach another 8 solo dances, performed on 8 public occasions. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 107)

8.* (L.L.) Do either of the following for coup, both for grand coup: Sing and take part in at least 5 singing games. Dance correctly 5 simple, European folk dances, not necessarily solo.

9.* (L.L.) Do either of the following for coup, both for grand coup: Dance 1 Indian dance for each 3 years of your age, not necessarily solo, Take leader’s part satisfactorily in a group Indian dance.

10. (L.L.) Make shield and spear for the Lone Scout Dance, for coup. Dance this dance with this shield and spear, for grand coup.

F — Decoration

1. (a) Decorate a tally book, containing at least 48 pages, with designs appropriate for each honor claim (not less than 48).
(b) Hand bind such a book, with cover decorated with beading, paint, tooling, or similar method. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

2. (a) Make wash drawings in color of an indoor council and of an outdoor council.
(b) Make working drawings of original designs for 5 of the following: Totem pole, bench, Chief’s seat, chair, window box, bird house, vivarium, magazine rack, or other practical Woodcraft article. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. (L.L.) Make a scrap or tally book of pictures or clippings on some one phase of nature, containing at least 25 different items, for coup. For 2 phases of nature, each represented by 40 different items, for grand coup.

4. (L.L.) Make a cardboard or bark box with hinged cover, decorated and neat, for coup. Make both, for grand coup.

5. (L.L.) Decorate a book cover with block or stick printing — if stick printing, using at least 5 different shapes or sizes — for coup. 2 covers of different designs, or if stick printing, using 10 different shapes or sizes of sticks, for grand coup. 108)

G — Entertaining

1. On 5 different occasions, do all the planning of program, training of entertainment, and presiding over a grand council of not less than 25 people, to take at least 2 hours, entertainment on each occasion to be entirely different ; and council to include business, song, dance, challenges, etc., for coup. On 10 occasions as above, for grand coup.

2. (a) Recite the Battle Hymn of the Republic, first 2 and last 2 paragraphs of the Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, and Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address.
(b) Recite 5 poems or prose selections, relating to the outdoors or other eminently Woodcraft subjects, aggregating in all 200 lines. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. (a) Tell entertainingly a different story on each of 10 different occasions, to take not less than 10 minutes each.
(b) Write an original story of not less than 2000 words, and read it to a group which declares it interesting. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

4.* (a) Write an original play, based on a folk legend, to include at least 1 dance, to take not less than 15 minutes to present.
(b) Write an original pantomime, based on some historical or legendary story, and train it so it can be presented, same to take not less than 5 minutes to present. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

5.* (a) Organize and take part in some pageant or other outdoor function, to take at least 1 hour to present.
(b) Write and direct, or write and take part, in some play indoors, of not less than an hour’s duration. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

6. (a) Tell a story, or take principal part in the acting of an episode whose scene is laid in one of the following early civilizations, such story or act to be not less than 15 minutes : Sumerian, Akkadian, Elamite, Kassite, Babylonian, Assyrian, Chaldean, ancient Egyptian, Indian, Chinese, Mayan.

109)

(b) As above, relating to the first sailors, or to life in the Cretan civilization. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

7. (a) Write a poem in Psalm form, dealing with modern affairs, and recite it to your group, such poem to be not less than 200 words.
(b) Tell a story, or take principal part in the acting of an episode from the Bible, such story or act to be not less than 15 minutes. Either for coup, both for grand coup.

8. (a) Recite parts of one of the early sagas, — Beowulf, Iliad, Odyssey, Mahrabatta, Tain, — to your group, or take principal part in the acting of an incident from one of these, same to take not less than 15 minutes to perform.
(b) Compose verses (not less than 500 words), dealing with modern exploits, in the style of one of the early sagas. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

9. (a) Tell a story, or take principal part in the acting of an episode from Herodotus, Marathon, Thermopyle, Croesus, Homer, Greek or Roman mythology, such story or act to take not less than 15 minutes.
(b) As above for story of Mohammed or Omar, or episodes taken from the Arabian Nights. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

10. (a) As above for the story of Buddha.
(b) As above, for story of Yuan Chwang, or other episodes bearing on that period. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

11. (a) As above for episodes from life of Robin Hood, King Arthur, or other romances of the period.
(b) As above for episodes from travels of Marco Polo. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

12. (a) As above, for episodes from lives of Indian heroes, like Hiawatha, Tecumseh, etc.
(b) Write a play, dealing with such characters. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

110)

13. As above, for War of Independence, Revolution, Civil War, for coup. Any 2 of these wars, for grand coup.

14. Write a play dealing with modern affairs, in the style of a Greek comedy or tragedy, not less than 15 minutes to perform, for coup. In addition, produce it, for grand coup.

15. Recite from memory 6 nature songs of the Shakespearean period, for coup. 10 for grand coup.

16. (L.L.) Do either of the following for coup; both for grand coup.
(a) Tell entertainingly a different story, not including Indian legends, on each of five different occasions, to take not less than 5 minutes each.
(b) Know and tell at least 5 Indian legends. They need not all be told at the same meeting, but must be passed upon by the Council and approved by the Guide.

17. (L.L.) Recite well from memory, before the Tribe, 2 standard poems of at least 20 lines each; or 1 poem of 40 lines, for coup. Double the amount of lines, for grand coup.

18. (L.L.) Tell the history of your flag, for coup. In addition, tell the proper methods of showing respect to it, for grand coup.

19. (L.L.) Take a speaking part in some public dramatic entertainment, speaking at least 40 words for coup. 2 such entertainments, for grand coup.

20. (L.L.) Train a group to present well a pantomime based on a myth, fable or equally short tale, for coup. 3 such pantomimes, for grand coup.

H — Fire Making

1. Make a set of fire sticks from material of one’s own gathering (except that thong may be bought), and get with it a fire, for coup. Get a fire in 1 minute from such a set, and tell the story of the first fire, for grand coup.

2. Make a fire set for lighting a fire without the use of a bow, and get a fire with it, for coup. Get a fire in 2 minutes with such a set, for grand coup.

3. Make a fire bow of ivory or bone, such as a rib, polished, engraved, and painted with a symbolic design, for coup. Make a fire in 1 minute with such a bow, for grand coup. 111)

4. (L.L.) Build 5 camp fires, each with 1 match, each in a different spot, and all made with material gathered in the woods by self, for coup. If 2 fires out of the 5 are on wet days, grand coup.

I — Health

1. Within 1 year, pass 30 nights out of doors (at least 14 of which must be successive), never once sleeping under a roof, but in tent, tepee, or open, for coup. 60 nights of same (30 of which must be successive), and tell the story of the Angel of the Night, for grand coup.

2. (L.L.) Camp out for at least 2 weeks, for coup. 4 weeks, for grand coup. (Repeater. )

J — Music

1.

(a) Play a different instrumental solo on each of 8

public occasions, or act as accompanist at least 8 times for some public event, without pay.

(b) Take part on 8 or more occasions as a member

of a quartette, glee club, choir, etc., or as a mem- ber of an orchestra, band, etc., without pay. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

2.

(a) Sing solo, and from memory, 5 different Amer-

ican folk songs and 5 non-American folk songs. (A folk song is a song which was evolved by the people,—not by a person,—expressing the genius or life of the people. Thus, Old Black Joe is not a folk song. The non-American songs must be sung with words in the original language, and all the verses given.)

(b) Write an original song with words and music,

not less than 16 lines, or equivalent. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. (a) Sing solo, and from memory, 10 songs of the Civil War period. (b) Sing solo, and from memory, 10 cowboy songs. Either for coup, both for grand coup.

4. Sing 10 authentic Indian songs (not adaptations), with correct music and Indian words, for coup. In addition, tell the story connected with each of these songs, for grand coup. 112)

5. (a) Write new words to an old tune (not less than 24 lines), teach it to a group so It Is successful. (b) Write a new tune to old words (not less than 24 lines), teach it so it is successful. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

6. (L.L.)Take lessons on some musical instrument, at least 1 lesson a week, for 3 months, missing no lesson and being obliged to repeat no assignment in toto, for coup. 6 months, for grand coup.

7. (L.L.) Sing solo from memory some approved song, not including folk songs, containing at least 2 stanzas of not less than 6 lines each, or equivalent, for coup. 2 such songs, or equivalent, for grand coup.

8. (L.L.) Sing 1 folk song of any country for each 3 years of your age, for coup. 1 song for each year of your age, for grand coup.

K — Nature (General)

1. Train some wild bird or animal so it will come when called, and eat from your hand, for coup. Both a bird and an animal, for grand coup.

L — Primitive Civilization

1. (a) Chip a flint or bone scraper, and dress the skin of an animal with it. (b) Make a fishbone needle, and use it to sew skin or bark into a costume or vessel, such as used by primitive man. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

2. (a) Make a small clay statuette (human figure or animal), like those made by primitive man, care- fully finished, detailed, and recognizable. (b) On a piece of bone, scratch a series of animal drawings, depicting a hunt, not less than 6 fig- ures, sufficiently detailed for recognition. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

3. Get a handful of wheat or other grain, and plant it. Tend it till it grows, grind it between stones to make flour, for coup. Also bake it in the camp fire to make biscuit. for grand coup. 113)

4. Do 1 of following for coup; 2 for grand coup: (a) Make a harp, by stretching strings across a bent stick, reed pipes, a bone whistle, and a tom tom, using nothing but what you can find in the woods. (b) Spend a day in company without speaking or writing a word, communicating only by sign language or by making rough sketches. (c) Copy 10 animal paintings made by primitive man, using the same sort of paint that he used,—red clay and charcoal mixed with grease. Copy them on skins, or material resembling skin, and use them for decoration of your camp.

5. (a) Make a Sumerian seal, and roll off a design on wax. (b) Make a composite bow of the Parthian type. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

6. (a) Copy a cuneiform inscription on a piece of clay, and bake it in an oven. (b) As above with Egyptian hieroglyphs, or hieratic script. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

7. Make a painting in Egyptian style, of some adventure in the life of yourself or your group, for coup. (Such paint- ing to be not less than 4 feet square or equivalent, and not less than 6 figures.) Keep a record in this way for entire camp period (not Jess than 2 weeks), with at least 1 inci- dent for each day, for grand coup.

8. (a) Learn the Greek and Runic alphabets, be able to write them in both small letters and capitals. (b) Write from memory 25 signs each of cuneiform writing and Egyptian hieroglyphs. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

9. Build a hut of wattle and mud, not less than 6x 8 x 4, for coup. In addition, sleep in it for 30 nights, not neces- sarily successive, for grand coup.

10. (a) Make 4 javelins, each with an ownership mark of some kind. ; (b) Make a dummy bear, for game of Hunting the Big Bear. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

11. (a) Paint an illuminated manuscript in the medieval fashion, dealing with some modern event, or epi- sode in your life, to contain not less than 6 figures. 114)

(b) As above, in the manner of the Bayeux tapestry. Either for coup; both for grand coup.

M — Spiritual Life

1. (a) Give 10 illustrations, scriptural or otherwise, of men getting closer to God, by prayer, fasting and vigil, alone in the wilderness. . (b) Give an account of the annual camp-out insti- tuted by Moses as the Feast of Tabernacles. De- scribe its social and hygienic significance. (Not less than 1000 words.) Either for coup; both for grand coup.

2. Wholly abstain for 3 months from your besetting sin, for coup. 6 months, for grand coup. (You need not tell what it is, but be able to give word of honor to those in charge. )

3. Speak no sullen, impatient, angry or unkind word, for 1 month, for coup. 3 months for grand coup.

4. Cheerfully perform some unpleasant duty each day for 3 months, for coup. 6 months, for grand coup.

5. Deny one’s self some material thing which is much liked but not needed, for 3 months, for coup. 6 months, for grand coup.

6. The following is open only to those over 15; grand coup open only to those over 18: Watch and wait alone, preferably in some high sheltered place in the wilderness, by a fire, without reading, smoking, eating or drinking (except water), from sunset to sunrise, for coup. As above for 36 hours, comprising 2 nights and 1 day, for grand coup.

7. The following coup is open only to those over 18, and under the advice of a physician: Fast alone, and in a high place if possible, for 48 hours, for coup. 3 days and nights, for grand coup. May read and sleep; water permitted.

N — Towncraft

1. Herald. Open and lead council, light the sacred fire with rubbing sticks, make the sand painting, recite the cere- monial (Grand Council) form of the laws, know the Omaha Tribal Prayer, and 3 Woodcraft songs, for coup. In addi- tion, perform 3 Indian dances, and know well the Pathfinder, Sagamore, Naming, Installation, Fire Maiden, and Peace Pipe Ceremonies, for grand coup. 115)

2. Plan a correct Council Ring, according to this edition of the Birch Bark Roll, and supervise and help in the work of preparing the ground and building the seats, for coup. Plan the Ring, and do all the work of building the seats by self, for grand coup.

3. (L.L.) Show a record of perfect attendance at the regular meetings of your Tribe, for a period of 4 months, for coup. 6 months for grand coup.

4. (L.L.) Show a record of dues paid in full and at the proper time, for a period of 3 months, for coup. 6 months, for grand coup.

5. (L.L.) Enlist a new member, and teach him (or her) to qualify; for coup. (This is not to be counted until new member has been a member in good standing for at least 2 months.) 2 such members for grand coup.

6. (L.L.) Preside as Chief at 10 or more councils of Tribe of not less than 15 members, for coup. 20 councils, for grand coup.

7, (L.L.) Keep a good accepted tally of council, for 8 councils, for coup. 16 councils, for grand coup.

O — Travel

1. Enter the Arctic Circle by sea, for coup. By land, for grand coup.

2. Cross the Equator by sea or rail, as seaman or pas- senger, for coup. On foot, grand coup.

3. Travel on foot for 50 miles with not more than 2 companions, neither of whom is a professional guide, through strange territory, carrying outfit, and sleeping out every night, each person planning and cooking meals for at least 1 day, for coup. 100 miles for grand coup.

4, Travel 100 miles on foot with a party which may be guided, carrying own outfit, and sleeping out every night, for coup. 200 miles, for grand coup.

5. Make a continuous canoe trip of 100 miles with not more than 2 companions, neither of whom is a guide, through strange waters, sleeping out every night, for coup. 200 miles for grand coup. ;

6. Makea continuous canoe trip of 150 miles with a party which may be guided, sleeping out every night, for coup. 300 miles for grand coup. 116)

7. Make a continuous saddle trip of 100 miles with not more than 2 companions, neither of whom is a guide, through strange territory, sleeping out every night, for coup. 200 miles of same for grand coup.

8. Make a continuous saddle trip of 150 miles with a party which may be guided, sleeping out every night, for coup. 300 miles for grand coup.

9. Follow a trail alone, or as leader of a party, through a wilderness for 2 days without losing the same, for coup. Do same for 7 days, part of which travel has been through woods and part through open territory, for grand coup.

10. Travel without a trail through a wilderness without getting lost for 8 hours of travel, for coup. For 20 hours of travel and through various kinds of country, for grand coup.

11. Follow an established trail in the mountains for 2 days, carrying all personal equipment, without going to or near any restaurant or hotel or resort of any kind, or tra- versing trails previously covered by coup claimant, sleeping out in the open both nights, for coup. Do same for 5 days and nights, for grand coup.

12. (L.L.) After having gone over a strange route once with a guide, be able to retrace exactly the journey taken through the streets of your city or town, distance to cover at least 1 mile, for coup. 2 miles, for grand coup,

13. (L.L.) Without assistance, follow a blazed trail over which you have not been before, for 1 mile, for coup. 2 miles, for grand coup.

P — Truth Seeker

1. Read the Talmud, and make a digest of it, in not less than 2000 words, for coup. Not less than 5000 words, for grand coup.

2. Asabove for Old Testament.

As above for New Testament

As above for Apocrypha,

As above for Koran.

As above for Zoroaster.

As above for Confucius.

As above for the Three Vedas.

As above for Barclay’s “Apology.” 117)

10. As above for Edwin Arnold’s “Life of Buddha.”

11. As above for Papini’s “Christ,” or equivalent.

12. As above for the following: Hanna Thomson’s “Brain and Personality.”” Richard Crane’s “Right & Wrong Thinking.”

13. As above for Ingalese’s “History and Power of the Mind.” The Gospel according to John.

14. As above for 2 of the following for coup. 3 for grand coup: (a) Plato’s “Dialogues.” (b) “Golden Sayings of Epictetus.” (c) “Meditations” of Marcus Aurelius.

15. As above for either of the following groups for coup. Both groups for grand coup: (a) Iliad, Odyssey, and Aeneid. (b) Eclogues and Bucolics.

16. As above for either of the following for coup. Both for grand coup: (a) Gilbert White’s “Natural History of Selborne.” (b) Izaak Walton’s “Complete Angler.”

17. Make a digest, in 2000 words of either of the follow- ing for coup; both for grand coup: James’ “Psychology.” Haill’s “Youth.”

18. Make a digest of Plutarch’s “Lives,” giving a sum- mary of 20 of the lives, for coup. Of 40 of the lives, for grand coup.

19. Write, in not less than 1000 words each, a summary of what was done for natural science by 5 of the following men, for coup. 10 for grand coup: Linnaeus, Nuttall, Audubon, Brehm, Darwin, Russell Wallace, Charles Water- ton, Sir John Richardson, Alexander Humboldt, Dr. Elhott Coues, Fabre.

20. Name the 10 Bible characters whom you consider greatest; tell briefly of their lives and work, for coup. 20 for grand coup.

21. As above for spiritual leaders of the world, other than Biblical.

22.* Make a digest of some American Indian study given in any volume of the Annual Reports of the Bureau of Eth- nology, in 5000 words, for coup. With an adequate index, approved by Headquarters, for grand coup.

  • Repeater if entirely new material be offered.

118)

23. Name 10 Americans whom you consider greatest in our history, and tell why you consider them great. Tell briefly of their lives and work, for coup. 20 for grand coup. (Do not include living people).

24. (a) Submit 25 careful drawings which have been made to illustrate a theme concerning anthro- pology, ethnology, or archaeology of the primitive of your country, or any allied subject of special interest to Woodcrafters. (b) Submit thesis on subject as above, of at least 5000 words. Either for coup; both for grand coup. (The Teacher or Principal must certify such tests as may be claimed in this department, before the honor can be allowed.)

25. (L.L.) Show a perfect record of attendance and punctuality for a period of 3 months in day school, for coup. 6 months for grand coup.

26. (L.L.) Show an excellent record for deportment for a period of 3 months in day school, for coup. 6 months, for grand coup.

27. (L.L.) Make a passing grade in all subjects, for the half-year in day school, for coup. Make all grades equiv- alent to 90% for grand coup.

28. (L.L.) Show a record of perfect attendance at some weekly class for religious instruction, for 3 months, for coup. 6 months for grand coup.

29. (L.L.) Show a record of perfect attendance upon at least 1 weekly service of worship, for a period of 3 months, for coup. 6 months, for grand coup.

30. (L.L.) Read some standard book, suitable for your age, and make a brief review before the Tribe, either written (of not less than 300 words) or oral (of not less than 5 minutes) of some scene or event occurring in the story, for coup, 2 such books, for grand coup.


* Repeater if entirely new material is offered.



119)

THE WAY OF THE FOURTH LAMP

This Lamp takes care of the coups which are of service to others. 120)

A — AXEMANSHIP

1.

(a) Cut (and split if need be) sufficient rails to

enclose an adequate horse corral 60 feet across.

(b) Build the corral. Either for coup; both for

grand coup.

2. Chop down 3 six-inch trees in succession in 60 sec- onds each, throwing them to drive each a given stake, for coup. In 45 seconds each, for grand coup.

3. In accordance with forestry laws, fell a dead tree in the forest, of at least 1 foot diameter, and cut same into fire wood of approved lengths, for coup. 6 such trees, and cut up into fire wood, for grand coup.

B — Backwoods Handicraft

1.* Do 1 of the following for coup. 2, for grand coup.

(a) Make solid “four-poster” for a willow bed, and make a stout bench from split logs, with driven legs (no nails).

(b) Build a useful foot bridge, by felling a tree whose log shall span a stream or chasm at least 25 feet between the two natural abutments on which the log rests. (The stump may form one abutment, provided the foot bridge may be made readily accessible by means of a dirt fill, stone approach or gangplank of natural material.)

(c) From a log, hew a plank (not a slab), not mog than 3 inches thick in any part, and not less than 10 feet long.

(d) Split from a log, ready for use, 200 shingles. (e)

(f) The use of a saw and plane not permitted for either this or the preceding. An augur may be used.

(e) Make an old-fashioned lanthorn with horn sides.

(f) Make a set of wooden hinges and a latch, and fit these to a door so that it hangs true and latches well.

  • Repeater if entirely new material be offered, and if the first grand coup be claimed before the second coup. 114

121) Coups and Degrees 115 C—Basketry, Etc. 1. (a) Make 2 baskets of different designs and shapes (each large enough to hold 2 quarts), of rope, raffa, grass, rattan, splits, pine needles, or willow, (b) Weave a hat of straw or corn husks. Either for coup; both for grand coup 2. (a) Make a broom from broom corn, raised and pre- pared by self. (b) Make a “Boonder broom” (scouring brush) in floor-scrubbing size, with a 1-piece handle, total length of handle and broom, 4 feet. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 3. (a) Make a rush seat of rushes gathered and pre- pared by self. (b) Cane a chair seat. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 4. (L.L.) Make a mat or basket of reed, raffia, bark, pine needles, or other natural material, symmetrical and well made, for coup. 2 such articles of different material, for grand coup. D—Camp Cooking 1. Build out of doors, a clay, stone or brick oven which will bake good bread, for cowp. Make and bake good, diges- tible bread in such an oven after building it, for grand coup. 2. (a) Make 1 pint of edible acorn flour, and prepare same for eating. (b) Grind 1 pound of corn meal in a self-made mor- tar, prepare for cooking, and cook into good eatable cakes. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 3. Make for actual use 5 pounds of jerky, or 5 pounds of pemmican, for coup. Make 5 pounds of each, all to be used, for grand coup. 4. Make an “Indian well,” and get clean water from a swamp or other place where the water is undrinkable, for coup. Build 6 such wells, each in a different swamp, for grand coup. 5. Collect maple juice, and make 1 quart of maple syrup and 1 pound of maple sugar, for coup. In addition, make 122) 116 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 1 pint of syrup from box elders, birches, or hickory trees. or from honey locust pods, for grand coup. 6. (a) Do all the cooking for a week-end camp of not less than 10 people for 2 days. (b) Prepare the menu, select the material, and do the buying for such a camp. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 7. Identify 25 wild plants having edible roots, shoots, leaves, fruit, seeds or nuts, and describe the method of pre- paring each for eating, for coup. Identify 50 such plants, submit recipes for cooking 10 of them, and actually prepare 5, for grand coup. 8. Boil 1 quart of water without a kettle or other metal or bought vessel, for coup. Do this in 2 different ways, for grand coup. 9. Boil 1 quart of water in a 2-quart, uncovered pail in 12 minutes, for coup, or in 9 minutes, for grand coup. Allowed, 1 unsplit log and one axe or hatchet; fire to be made by self, and time to be counted from the beginning of the wood cutting until the water boils. The water is boiling when it is bubbling all over the surface. All work must be done by self. 10. Cook 12 digestible meals using ordinary camp equip- ment, of various menus to serve 2 or more persons, properly disposing of waste, for coup; 24 such. meals, for grand coup. 11. Without pots or cans, cook a digestible meal includ- ing fish or meat, potatoes or some other vegetable, and bread, for coup. Cook 3 such meals with different menu each time, for grand coup. 12. Mix and bake 12 batches of good bread by a camp fire in a Dutch oven, frying pan or reflector, for coup. 12 such batches, including all 3 methods, for grand coup. Patent flour not to be used. : E—Camp Tools and Furniture 1. Build a strong, serviceable table at least 4x8 feet, and a solid bench to use with it, both of wildwood material, for coup. If no nails are used, grand coup. 2. Make a serviceable watertight bucket or wash basin of wildwood material, at least 5 x 8 inches, for coup. Make both, each to be at least 7 x 10, for grand coup. 123) Coups and Degrees 117 3. Make a serviceable basket of wildwood material, not less than 6 inches in diameter, for coup. If made with a handle, is not less than 10 inches in diameter, and will carry 25 pounds, grand coup. . 4. (a) Unless forbidden by forestry laws, make a com- fortable bough bed, properly laid. (b) Make a grass rug, at least 2x 5 feet, on a string camp loom. Both to be made of material gath- ered by self. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 5. Make an Indian bed of at least 60 rods, all tied tight, for coup. Make one of 80 or more rods, with 4 cords all tied tight and straight, and with a decorated head, for grand coup. 6. (a) Make a good, serviceable camp chair, pictur- esque and decorated, entirely- from wildwood material. (b) Make a serviceable hammock or bed of wild- wood material. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 7. Make a hunter’s lamp, a set of tilting spears, and a totem for tribe or band, all of wildwood material, except oil for lamp and colors for painting, for coup. If entirely of wildwood material, grand coup. 8. (a) Make a noggin out of a tree boll, and decorate it. (b) Make a wooden kneading trough, of smooth inte- rior surface, not less than 6x 12 inches, or make a waterproof vessel of wildwood material to hold at least 2 quarts, and attach handle to same (spruce gum allowed). Either for coup; both for grand coup. 9. Make from a cow’s horn, by one’s self, a huntsman’s horn that will sound, for coup. If engraved with personal record, grand coup. 10. Make a horn cup with a handle, and decorated, or with feet and decorated, for coup. In addition, make a hunter’s lamp or a torch, entirely of wildwood material, that will burn steadily for an hour, for grand coup. 11. Make a canoe paddle, for coup. If decorated with Indian design, grand coup. 12. (a) Make a pair of snowshoes. 124) 118 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll (b) Make a pair of skis, including bending. Either for coup, both for grand coup. ; 13. (a) Make a pair of tilting stools, according to de- scription in BIRCH BARK ROLL. (b) Construct a burlap deer, or a burlap bear, accord- ing to BOOK OF WOODCRAFT. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 14. (L.L.) Make a hunter’s lamp of wildwood material, except that the oil may be purchased, that will burn for an hour, for coup. Make 2 different kinds of such lamps, for grand coup. 15* (L.L.) Make 1 of the following for coup; 2 for grand coup: A usable twine or worsted baseball. A whistle from willow or other wood. A waterwheel of at least 5 paddles, that works. A kite thaf will fly. An elder or bamboo pop or water gun. A good pair of barrel stave skis. A snow scooter (barrel stave runner, nailed to bottom of upright, across the top of which is board seat). A game board, demonstrating its use before the Tribe. F—Carpenter 1. Demonstrate the use of the square, level, plumb line, mitre, chalk line, plane, brace and bit, saw, hammer, chisel, draw-knife, and driving nails, for coup. In addition, lay out a right angle by the 3, 4, 5 plan, and orient a foundation, for grand coup. 2. Build a cabin at least 12x 18x 7 feet, to be used in camp as bunk house, kitchen, long house, store house, or similar purpose, for coup. In addition, furnish it with shelves, bunks, or whatever is necessary for its purpose, for grand coup. , 3. (L.L.) Make a box or tray, glass on one side, for a collection of 4 or more butterflies or moths, for coup. Make 3 such boxes or trays, for grand coup. 4. (L.L.) Make some article of woodwork, requiring the use of at least 4 different tools, for coup. 2 such articles, requiring the use of 6 different tools, for grand coup.

  • Repeater if entirely new material be offered, and if the first

grand coup be claimed before the second coup. 125) Coups and Degrees 119 G—Colonial Crafts 1. (a) Make 4 bayberry candles, each not less than 6 inches long and 14 inch thick, from material gathered and prepared by self. (b) Grow, gather, dry and use ¥% pound of lavender flowers, or of lemon verbena (tripolium). Either for coup; both for grand coup. 2. (a) Make 1 pound of hard and 1 pound of soft soap, from material prepared by self. (For hard soap, lye may be bought.) (b) Construct a lye gum or leach tub with properly constructed filter of wildwood material, and with this lye gum, make enough lye from wood ashes to make 1 gallon of soft soap. Either for coup ; both for grand coup. 3. Make 1 pint each of 6 different dyes from wildwood material, for coup. Dye 6 squares of white woolen material, each not less than 4x4 inches, or 6 bunches of porcupine quills (20 quills in each bundle), each a different color, and a mordant, using stuff found in the woods, for grand coup. 4. (a) Make 3 pounds of any 3 of the following: butter, cheese, sausage, head cheese, lard, tallow, neats- foot oil. (b) Dry 3 pounds (weight when dried) of some fruit or vegetable, to include at least 3 varieties. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 5. (a) Make an applique or patchwork cover for a quilt, at least 60 x 84 inches, and quilt the same in de- signs or in rectangles not less than 2 inches square, (b) Make a sampler with 2 sets of letters (capitals and small), also the numerals, the maker’s name, date, and a text or proverb. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 6. (L.L.) Make 3 kinds of vegetable dyes, dyeing blot- ting paper or other stuff to show samples, for coup. 5 for grand coup. . H—Conservation 1. Know the life cycle, and take part in the actual cam- paign to destroy any one of the following pests: mealy worm, 126) 120 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll nematode, aphis, cut worm, wire worm, boll weevil, Medi- terranean fly, narcissus fly, red spider, or any other pest that is subject to quarantine, and has been quarantined in your State, for coup. As above for any 3 pests, for grand coup. 2. Save trees by destroying 500 of the tents or 1000 egg clusters of the Tent caterpillar, for coup. Double the num- ber for grand coup. (100 separate worms or 25 of the moths may be counted as 1 tent.) 3. As above for Gypsy Moth. 4. As above for Browntail Moth. 5. (L.L.) Destroy 500 of any one species of insect known to be injurious to crops, for coup. ° 1000 of anv one species, or 500 of any 2 species, for grand coup. I—Farming 1. Work 8 hours a day for 1 month, a helper on com- mercial ranch producing commercial crop of fruit, grain, vegetables, dairy or floricultural products, for coup. 2 months, for grand coup. 2. (a) Seed 5 acres of land, or weed 5 acres with cul- tivator. (b) Cut, rake, and bunch 3 acres of hay, or haul and store hay from 3 acres, either in mow or in stack. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 3. (a) Describe in full when and how to plant peas, lima beans, string beans, turnips, carrots, pota- toes, parsnips, kohlrabi, and beets: and success- fully raise any 5 of these. (b) Tell when and how to sow and reap wheat, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, red clover, white clover, alfalfa, timothy, and 2 other kinds of grasses, and successfully raise 5 of these. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 4. Grow, harvest, and market any 5 of the following: cherries, prunes, peaches, pears, apricots, oranges, lemons, grapefruit, asparagus, lettuce, onions, gladiolus bulbs, nar- cissus bulbs, freesias, peppers, artichokes, rhubarb, celery, walnuts, almonds, for coup. 10 for grand coup. 5. (a) Identify 10 common weeds, and tell how to get rid of them. : 127) Coups and Degrees 121 (b) Identify 10 harmful insect pests, and tell how to destroy them. Either for coup; both for grand coup, J—Forestry 1. (a) Plant successfully, and tend for two seasons, 15 different species of wild flowers in a new locality. (b) 10 different species of tree. Either for coup, both for grand coup. 2. Establish a bird sanctuary, with dog-proof fence if necessary, at least 20 bird houses used by not less than 10 different kinds of birds, and equipped with water (at least a bird bath), for coup. With 40 bird boxes, and the place used for nesting by at least 20 species of birds, for grand coup. 3. Make a successful swallow bank, not less than 10 feet long and 4 feet high, for coup. It is successful when 3 pairs of swallows or other birds have used it. Twice the size, with 6 pairs of swallows or other birds, or 2 such as above, for grand coup. 4, Build an artificial hollow tree, with nesting places for various kinds of wild creatures, to be used by 6 different species of animals (not counting insects), either for nesting or for winter shelter, for coup. As above, to be used by 12 species; to be at least 15 feet high, and big enough -for observer to go inside, for grand coup. (See Bird Lore, Jan., 1909.) 5. Establish a wild rice or water celery bed, of not less than 34 acre, in a new region, to be visited as a feeding ground by at least 6 kinds of wild ducks or geese, for coup. ¥% acre, or 2 such as above, with 12 kinds of wild ducks or geese, for grand coup. 6. Establish and maintain for 3 months a feeding station, to be visited by at least 6 species of bird, noting the first appearance of each species, for coup. As above for 6 months, including 3 winter months, to be used by at least 10 species, for grand coup. 7. (a) Know the Forest Service regulations governing building of camp fires in your own region. (b) Know 3 different types of forest fires, and tell how to combat each. Either for coup, both for grand coup. 128) 122 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 8. (L.L.) Plant from seed, successfully, not less than 5 square feet each of 2 different kinds of wild flowers in a new locality, not necessarily on one occasion, for coup. Of 5 different kinds, for grand coup. 9, (L.L.) Plant 2 kinds of trees successfully, for coup. 4, for grand coup. K—Health (The following coups are to be all according to the stand- ards of the American Red Cross.) 1. Describe in detail the treatments for the bite of a poisonous snake, dog, or any other animal with septic possi- bilities, and for a severe hemorrhage, and apply correctly a tourniquet to an arm or a leg, for coup. Grand coup for the successful treatment of an actual case of either. 2. Demonstrate the treatment for 3 varieties of fracture, and apply a good bandage to each of 5 different parts of the body, for coup. Demonstrate treatment for 6 varieties of fracture, and apply good bandages to 10 different parts of the body, for grand coup. 3. Pass the Red Cross or other standard Life Saving Test for life saving in the water, for coup. For an actual rescue, even though the victim die after or during the rescue, grand coup. 4. Make a sweat lodge and use it properly for 3 times a week (in 2 of which it may be used by another person), for coup. Run a sweat lodge successfully for a month, giving at least 12 treatments, for grand coup. 5. Make and run for 7 days a flyless and practically odorless latrine, for coup. 30 days for grand coup. 6. Demonstrate the Schaefer method of resuscitation from drowning and describe in detail the whole treatment of a drowned person from the time of taking from the water until he can be left alone, for coup. In addition, describe in detail first aid treatment for 8 of the following: Sunburn, sunstroke, chill from exposure, colic, diarrhea, toothache, earache, poison ivy, insect bites, hiccough, eating poisonous plants, burns or scalds, nose bleed, bruises, sprains, foreign bodies in the eye, for grand coup. 7. Throwing Life Buoy. For those under 18: To throw it 40 feet within 10 feet of the mark, for coup. To throw it 45 feet within 5 feet of the mark for grand coup. In each case, 3 times out of 5. 129) Coups and Degrees 123 8. For those over 18: To throw it 55 feet within 10 feet of the mark, for coup. To throw it 60 feet within 5 feet of the mark, for grand coup. In each case, 3 times out of 5. 9. Soldiers’ war medals, a grand coup each. L—Housckeeping _ 1. In person (not over the telephone) do all the market- ing for 1 week, keeping account of things bought and things used from supply on hand, for coup. For 1 month, keeping a budget of all finances for a family of at least 3, for grand coup. 2. (a) Make 2 different kinds of bread with yeast. (b) Make 2 different kinds of baking powder gems or muffins. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 3. Do all cooking at home for 3 meals a day for not less than 4 persons for 1 week, or its equivalent, for coup. For a month, for grand coup. 4. Cook and serve 7 dinners, including soup, salad, meat or fish, vegetable, and dessert, for at least 4 people, for coup. If all buying has been done by self, and kitchen cleaned afterwards, grand coup. 5. Plan menus for 1 week, choosing at least 5 dishes that can be made from left-overs, for coup. Jt all prepared by self also, grand coup. 6. Using no canned ingredients, make 6 different nour- ishing soups, for coup. Make 9 as above, but using in each some left-over of a previous meal, for grand coup. 7. Buy, prepare, and cook 2 different cuts each of beef, pork, lamb, and veal, for coup. In addition, buy, prepare and cook properly a fowl and a fish, each in 3 different ways, for grand coup. 8. Prepare and serve 6 different salads, for coup. 10, including 2 vegetable, 2 fruit, 2 meat, 2 fish, and 2 optional, for grand coup. 9. (a) Prepare and cook wholesomely 10 different kinds of vegetables. (b) Prepare and cook wholesomely 10 different kinds of fruits, not to include jellies or jams. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 130) 124 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 10. Prepare and serve 6 different desserts, for coup. 9 as above, including pie, cake, custard, and frozen dessert, for grand coup. 11. (a) Make 1 pound each of 4 different kinds of candy, submitting samples to your Guide. (b) Make 1 quart each of 4 different cold drinks, submitting samples to your Guide. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 12. Glace or candy 1 pound each of any 3 kinds of fruit, for coup. If the fruit is grown and collected by self, grand coup. 13. Collect the fruit and can 6 quarts each of 4 different kinds of fruit, for coup. If the fruit is grown by self also, grand coup. 14. Collect and prepare 3 kinds of fruit and make jelly to the amount of 10 quarts, for coup. 20 quarts, including 6 kinds of fruit, for grand coup. 15. Can 1 dozen quarts of produce raised by self, for coup. 3 dozen, including 4+ different kinds of produce, for grand coup. 16. Prepare and can 6 quarts each of 4 different vege- tables, for coup. If vegetables are grown and collected also by self, grand coup. 17. Prepare and can 6 quarts each of 4 different kinds of pickles or relish, for coup. If main ingredients are grown and collected by self, grand coup. 18. Take honorable mention or 2nd or 3rd prize for ex- hibit of canned goods or preserves, at any fair or exhibit, for coup. First prize, grand coup. _ (Daily tasks are to be performed promptly and cheerfully in order to receive honors.) 19. (L.L.) Make at least 1 bed every day for 1 month, for coup. 2 months, for grand coup. 20. (L.L.) Wash and dry dishes once every day for a week, for coup. 3 weeks, for grand coup. 21. (L.L.) Set table twice a day for 2 weeks, consecu- tively, for coup, 4 weeks, for grand coup. 22. (L.L.) Take out, or otherwise ‘care for a child not over 5 years old, at least 1 hour each day for 2 weeks, for coup. + weeks for grand coup. (Care shall include some- thing more than merely watching.) 131) Coups and Degrees 125 23. (L.L.) Keep your room, or some other regularly oc- cupied room of the house, in good order for at least 1 month, sweeping and dusting at least once each week, for coup. 2 months, for grand coup. 24. (L.L.) Mow, and otherwise keep a lawn in order, such lawn to contain at least 300 square feet, 3 months, for coup. 6 months, for grand coup. 25. (L.L.) Keep a sidewalk of at least 60 square feet, free from snow for a period of at least 1 month, involving cleaning the walk at least 10 times, for coup. Twice the area for at least 1 month, cleaning it at least 10 times; or the same area for at least 2 months, cleaning it twenty times, for grand coup. 26. (L.L.)Empty the ashes from at least 1 stove once a day, and fill the coal hod at least twice each day, for 1 month, for coup. 2 months, for grand coup. 27. (L.L.) For wood-burning stoves, keep the wood-box filled and the necessary kindling split for 1 month, for coup. 2 months, for grand coup. 28. (L.L.) Go on an errand for someone every day, for 2 weeks, for coup. 4 weeks, for grand coup. M—Knuitting, Crocheting 1. Knit a pair of socks or stockings for someone other than self, for coup. With tops in a design of more than one color, grand coup. 2. Knit or crochet a sweater with sleeves, for someone other than self, for coup. If at least half is in a fancy stitch, grand coup. , N—Nature 1. Make and maintain for a season a bird bath. Record the visits of at least 10 species, including the dates when seen, for coup. Maintain the bath for 6 months and record visits of at least 15 species. Tell about 10 methods of bath- ing and the birds that do them, for grand coup. 2. Build and put up a birds’ nesting box which is used by a pair of birds, and keep a record of its tenants for 1 season, for coup. 5 such boxes and records, for grand coup. 3. Build 5 bird boxes or shelters and set them up, to be tenanted by at least 3 different species of birds, for coup. 132) 126 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 10 boxes or shelters tenanted by 6 different species, for grand coup. 4. Make a nature trail of not less than 100 yards, prop- erly and clearly labelling 10 specimens of the animal world, 10 of the vegetable, and 5 of the mineral, for coup. Main- tain this trail for 2 months, changing the labels whenever necessary because of deterioration of labels, or progress of season, for grand coup. O—Sewing 1. Make a costume for each of 5 different Council activ- ities, costumes to be the property of the Tribe, for coup. For each of 10 as above, grand coup. These need not be made entirely by hand. 2. Cut and make a dress, middy blouse or smock for someone other than self, for coup. If entirely by hand, and embroidered or appliqued, grand coup. P—Shelter 1. Without breaking forestry laws, build a useable log cabin, with walls plumb and true and rainproof, at least 6x8 feet in size, for coup. In addition, build a fireplace that will draw, opening to be not less than 24x 24 inches and 16 inches deep, for grand coup. 2. Make a rainproof shelter other than the above, of wildwood material, at least 6x8 feet in size, 3 times for actual service, for coup. If equipped with windproof walls and wildwood bed, suitable for 2 or more campers, grand coup. 3. Make a 2-man tent or an 8-foot teepee or better, from cloth dyed and waterproofed by self, for coup. In addition, set up alone a 2-man tent with walls taut, sides true, bottom pegged and trenches dug, 20 times, for grand coup. 4. (L.L.) Know the requirements of a good campsite, and have a general knowledge of outfit necessary to a camp- ing trip, for coup. In addition, choose such a campsite, and aid in setting up camp twice, for grand coup. 5. (L.L.) Demonstrate correct packing of blanket roll or packsack, and how to carry it, for coup. In addition, make a good blanket bed on the ground at least twice, and spend the night thereon, for grand coup. 133) Coups and Degrees 127 Q—Small Stock Farming 1. Build a correct beehive and an approved rabbit hutch, for coup. In addition, raise a swarm of bees and a pair of rabbits, using same, for grand coup. 2. Hatch and raise a brood of a dozen chickens, turkeys, ducks or geese. Coup for any 2; grand coup for 4. R—Stock Farming 1. Care for a team of horses or mules for 3 months, in- cluding bedding, currying, feeding, watering, etc., every day, for coup. Same for 6 months for both horses and mules, for grand coup. 2, Raise at least 4 beeves, hogs or sheep for market or for home consumption, for coup. Any 2 of these for grand coup. 3. Successfully raise one animal, such as pig, lamb, or calf, from 3 days to 3 months, without its mother, for coup. For 3 different kinds of animals, for grand coup. 4. (L.L.) For a period of at least 3 months, properly care for any domestic or wild animal which might be classed as a pet, such care to include feeding, watering, cleaning, care of quarters, and any other personal attention needed, for coup. For 6 months, for grand coup. , S—Towncraft 1. Plan a correct Council Ring according to this Birch Bark Roll, and supervise and help in the work of preparing the ground and building the seats, for coup. Plan the Ring and do all the work of building the seats by self, for grand coup. The two following are alternates—may not be taken both by the same person: 2. Charter a tribe and act as its guide for 2 years (not less than 12 regular meetings a year, or equivalent), for coup. Same for 4 years, for grand coup. 3. Charter a tribe and act as its guide for 2 camping seasons (not less than 7 weeks each year, or equivalent), with correct Council Ring and successful councils at least once a week, for coup. Same for 4 years, for grand coup. 134) 128 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll T—Travel 1. Lay out a trail through new territory for 2 miles, marking the same with blazes or monuments, so that others can easily follow from either direction, for coup. For 5 miles, for grand coup. U—Water Skill 1. Build single-handed, without help, a canoe or boat which will carry one man safely, for coup. If the same can be paddled, rowed or sailed by 1 person 2 miles an hour on dead water, grand coup. 2. Build single-handed, without help, a birch bark canoe which will carry one man in safety, for coup. If same has traveled 10 miles without a leak, a grand coup. | 3. Build single-handed, without help, a raft which will carry safely 300 pounds, for coup. Add support for keeping — baggage dry, and paddle or pole the raft for 5 miles con- tinuously, for grand coup. 4. Build single-handed, without help, across a stream or gully a safe foot bridge with piers, or a safe suspension bridge, or a safe pontoon bridge, 15 feet or more long, for coup. Build any 2 of these for grand coup. 5. Build single-handed, without help, a good dam at least 3 feet high in center, across a stream at least 6 feet wide, of wildwood material, for coup. If it be thoroughly water- tight, grand coup. 6. Bathe out of doors in water of natural temperature anywhere north of N. latitude 30 degrees or south of S. lati- tude 30 degrees for 300 days in the year, for coup. 365 days for grand coup. tS pe lho - a! LA =~/ 135)

DEGREES IN WOODCRAFT

The Degrees in Woodcraft are given because of general all-around proficiency. They cover all phases of Woodcraft and enable Woodcrafters to work along lines which arouse the most interest and give the greatest pleasure. Some subjects are of interest to only one sex, but all are open to both sexes.

This list is made by the Manual Committee. The degrees are founded on world-wide standards, and with the help of the best experts. The Council will gladly consider any suggestion but it must be understood that no local group has any power to add to or vary the degrees in any way whatever.

LW} IN xe Animal man Art Craftsman Athlete Backwoods Bird Sharp Handicraft a? Q gio ty a 3 Bug man Camper Camp Cook Camp Craftsman Camp Doctor Canoeman Colonial Dancer Entertainer Farmer Housekeeper ae Forester Friend of the Friend of Fisherman Fooderaft Little Brothers Wild Life 129 -e>



136) 130 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll =} [4] (0) Gleeman Herald Horseman dé Ed Hunter Dedicated to in Town Wade Dudley Indian Craft Indian Lore Little Planter 120) & 5 o ao a a Mountaineer wit ee 52 BS £2. "5 © Planter Potter Seamanship Sharpshooter > <>| {AAA ]>| fat 3tar Wiseman Swimmer Teacher Three Years’ Traveler Service Dedicated to Carl E. Ekstrand 6 OQ) i& Village Scout Whiteman’s Wise Woodman Wood Music Woodcraft es a Claiming Degrees A Degree may be claimed at Council after application has been made on a properly filled form which sets forth the claim with sufficient witnesses to prove legally that the test was fairly taken. The Degree Claim is certified by the Chief and Tally Keeper of the Council conferring it, and returned to the ap- plicant, but record is kept in the Tribal Tally. None but Chartered Tribes in good standing have power to award either Coup or Degree Badges. 137)

Animal Man

(Wamakaskan)

The degree of Animal Man may be conferred upon any one who takes 10 of these tests.

1. Draw from observation and identify the tracks of ten species of mammals.

2. Make a black track of four mammals (see Totem Board, January, 1925).

3. Follow the track of an animal or person (snow or mud allowed) for a mile and identify the species trailed.

4. Mount a mammal, according to the accepted standards of taxidermy.

5. Tan the pelt of some animal larger than a fox, so that the fur will not slip.

6. As above for a fox or a smaller animal.

7. Take a good recognizable photo of some wild animal in the field.

8. Take 10 good recognizable photos of ten species of wild mammals in captivity.

9. Tame some free wild animal so that it will come when called.

10. Identify 20 wild or domesticated mammals which have been observed in the field.

11. Identify 50 mammals in a Museum.

12. Identify and give the life history of five species of mammals which spend most of their time in the water.

13. Identify 20 fur bearing animals used commercially, observed in the field, museum or fur market.

14. Identify the horns from 10 species of wild animals and tell the distinguishing marks of each (antlers included).

15. Observe and study carefully the habits of some wild animals for two or more years, and write a record of your observations.

Art Craftsman

(Moninieio)

The Degree of Art Craftsman may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests:

1. Make a ceremonial belt of beadwork telling a story.

2. Make a costume for some Woodcraft activity. 138)

3. Embroider a ceremonial dress, symbolic or Indian design.

4. Make a head band or shoulder strap or equivalent work in quill work.

5. Make and decorate a pair of Indian leggings or moccasins.

6. Make a leather cushion cover with beadwork, or appliqué one of linen, or a woven cover.

7. Weave a rug, Indian design preferred.

8. Make a box for coup feathers of leather or of birchbark.

9. Make an attractive box or bag for rubbing sticks and tinder.

10. Decorate a Sagamore or Tribal robe or blanket.

11. Make three useful articles with burnt work decorations.

12. Carve three useful articles such as spoons, forks, bowls, fire socket, and ornament with Indian designs.

13. Make a frame for picture out of a single piece of wood at least eight inches by ten inches.

14. Make a tray in basketry complete with glass mounting.

15. Make three pieces of silver work of good design.

16. Make three pieces of brass work of good design.

17. Make and decorate a brass or copper bowl, vase, or plaque.

18. Make two hanging basket vases of willow or raffia suitable for porch decoration, fitted with holder of glass or tin.

19. Make a frame complete with glass and back, for Woodcraft charter.

20. Tell the symbolism of ten beadwork designs used by American Indians such as rain, star, etc.

21. Make set of three metal dies or hubs or punches for stamping in the designs in metal (such punches or hubs or dies as the Pueblo Indians use).

22. Make candlesticks and firebowl for the Four Fires. 139) 133 Coups and Degrees ATHLETE, OR STRONGMAN (Song-adis) The Degree of Athlete is conferred on those who pass 13 of these tests. EVENT UNDER 14 UNDER 16 | UNnER 18 | OVER 18 © ovER 45 Walk 1 mile in 14 min. 13 11 | 9 10 Run 100 yards _— 1424 1324 1134 _ Run 50 yards 8 sec. 734% 71% _ — Skate 100 yards 15 sec. 14 13 Ws | 12 Swim 100 yards any time any time | any time any time any time Paddle 1 mile 13 min. 12 | 11 10 11 Row 1 mile 11 min. 10 9 8 8 Running broad jump 8 ft. 9% 11 13 | — Running high jump 3 ft. 34% 3% | 4% — Standing broad jump 6 ft. 61% 7 | 7% 8 Chin the bar 4 times 6 1 8 | 9 10 Push up from floor (no swing) 16 times 18 20 25 25 Rope climb (hands only) 12 ft. 13 14 | 15 15 Shot put — _— *26 ft +26 +30 Potato race 8 p’s,2 yds. apart, 5 yd. finish} 43 sec. 41 39 | 37 — Throwing regulation baseball 120 ft. 150 180 210 | 180 Batting baseball 60 yds. 65 70 | 80 80 Throwing lacrosse ball 70 yds. 85 ' 100 115 | 100 Kicking football (place kick) 30 yds. 35 | 40 45 45 -——means “not open.”

  • 8 Ibs.

+12 Ibs. 140)

Backwoods Handicraftsman

(Shaginapi)

The Degree of Backwoods Handicraftsman may be conferred on any one who takes seven of these tests:

1. Make a birch or hickory broom.

2. Make a hunter’s lamp.

3. Make an Indian or willow bed.

4. Make a four-poster to carry the willow bed.

5. Make a wooden kneading trough.

6. Make a noggin or wooden drinking cup of a tree burl.

7. Make a basket to hold at least a quart using raffia, spruce roots, rattan, or other strong material.

8. Make a box or vessel of birch bark tight enough to hold any ordinary grain.

9. Build a cabin.

10. Temper a knife.

11. Build a boat to carry one or more.

12. Make a Navajo loom.

13. Build a stone or brick bake oven.

14. Tan a pelt with the fur on.

15. Remove the hair from a calfskin without using a knife or injuring the skin.

16. Repair a boot with a patch.

17. Make a pair of moccasins.

18. Use an axe correctly.

19. Weave a rug or mat.

Bird Sharp

(Bineshi)

The Degree of Bird Sharp may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests:

1. Identify fifty native birds in a collection. (When the sexes differ greatly, they count each as a bird.)

2. Identify twenty-five native birds in the field.

3. Identify twenty-five native birds by note.

4. Make a local list of twenty-five birds with remarks on arrival, departure, abundance, etc.

5. Mention twenty birds of great value to agriculture and say why. 141)

6. Name ten birds that work in the orchard destroying the bark lice and other such pests.

7. Keep a journal with daily notes on the nesting of a pair of birds from setting to fledging.

8. Make and set up two successful bird boxes.

9. Make and set up a successful lunch counter.

10. Make and set up a successful bird bath.

11. Tell what bird sanctuaries are, and why they are being established.

12. Write an essay of at least 500 words giving the life history of some native bird that you know well, telling when it arrives in the spring, how the male differs from the female, what its song is like, what are its haunts, where it nests, what its nest and eggs are like, when the young are raised and fly, what they are like at first plumage, how many broods are raised each season, what are its foods, its enemies, and its peculiarities.

Bug Man

(Tapopuska)

The Degree of Bug Man may be conferred upon any one who accomplishes 14 of these tests.

1. What is an insect? Is a spider an insect? Give a reason for your answer. How about a centipede? Milliped? “Sow-bug”? In each case, why? What is meant by an “order”?

2. Tell how you would distinguish any eight of the following from each other and from other insects: Butterfly, moth, beetle, wasp, bee, ant, grasshopper, cricket, roach, dragon-fly, a true fly, a true bug; a spider.

3. Collect, preserve, mount and correctly identify at least five species in each of at least three orders of insects. Label each specimen as to locality and date of capture. Describe in a general way the sort of places in which each of these species lives.

4. Describe the life history of an insect which is injurious to man or to man’s property. Of an insect which is beneficial to man. Of one that is not decidedly either injurious or beneficial.

5. Describe at least five different things insects make, telling what kind of insect made each, but not counting cocoons. 142)

(Examples: nests of paper, mud, leaves or silk; traps to catch prey; burrows in wood, leaves or earth that have some character distinguishing them from other burrows; galls; special protection of eggs, etc.) Present one specimen of each.

6. Insects grow and many, but not all, change greatly just before they become adult. Rear at least three different species of insect from the stage preceding the adult one to that stage. Preserve the cast nymphal skin or pupal shell as well as the adult.

7. Make a Lubbock ant’s nest, install a colony of ants and record observations for one month.

8. Take full charge of a swarm of bees for one season.

9. Identify 8 species of bees, wasps or ants and describe the distinguishing characteristics of each.

10. Make good recognizable photos of five species of spider nests.

11. Record the steps in the spinning of a spider’s web, giving date, name of spider, location of web and description of the various steps.

12. Identify eight species of spiders.

13. Identify 10 species of butterflies.

14. Identify 20 species of moths.

15. Collect a moth cocoon and take entire charge of the product of this cocoon through its entire life history until another cocoon is produced.

16. As above for a butterfly.

17. Make three serviceable six foot leaders for a fish line from gut raised by self.

18. Make good recognizable photos of 10 species of moths or butterflies.

19. Make a series of good recognizable photos showing the life history of a butterfly or moth; including its emergence from the cocoon.

20. Identify 3 species of mosquitoes: describe the life history of one, and tell how best to rid a place of mosquitoes.

21. Identify 20 species of insects not included in the above.

Camper

(Gabeshiked)

The Degree of Camper may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests (the first four being required): 143)

1. Choose a one night camp site, preparing for rain and Protection from insects. See Totem Board.

2. Describe in detail how to build a latrine (toilet).

3. Describe in detail how to dispose of the camp garbage and refuse.

4. Light fifteen fires in succession with fifteen matches, at different places, one at least, on a wet day.

5. Put up a two-man tent alone, ten times, for actual service, ready for storms.

6. Make a fire with rubbing-sticks of own preparation.

7. Boil water in fifteen minutes with one match, one log, one axe; one quart of water in a two-quart pail. All work to be done alone.

8. Make a rod bed, or a mat, of wild material.

9. Make a rainproof roof of wildwood materials.

10. Cook twenty-one digestible meals with ordinary camp outfit, for at least three persons, or equivalent.

11. Describe in detail how to make a raft.

12. Sleep out 100 nights (no roof but canvas, not necessarily consecutive nights), or 30 consecutive nights.

13. Travel 500 miles, all told, in canoe, on foot, or in saddle, sleeping out.

14. Have charge of a camp of five or more for seven suns {one week) and keep all going in good shape.

Camp Cook

(Chabakwed)

The Degree of Camp Cook may be conferred on any one who takes six of these tests:

1. Make a good fireplace of wood, of stone, or earth.

2. Light fifteen fires with fifteen successive matches, one on a wet day.

3. Bake five batches of good bread in a Dutch oven.

4. Bake five batches of good bread in a frying pan before the open fire.

5. Cook twenty-one digestible meals over campfire for a party of two or more, or equivalent.

6. Boil a quart of water in a two-quart pail in ten minutes, without help. 144)

7. Cook a meal consisting of baked bread, boiled fish, or fried or roast meat, vegetable, without any utensils or tools but a hatchet.

8. Train a class in camp cooking, showing and making them do it properly.

Camp Craftsman

(Eokid)

The Degree of Camp Craftsman may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen out of these tests:

1. Demonstrate a knowledge of tanning and curing.

2. Sole and heel a pair of boots, or shoes, sewed or nailed, and generally repair footwear with ordinary camp outfit.

3. Keep in repair a saddle, traces, stirrup leathers, etc., and know the various parts of harness.

4. Patch a garment.

5. Make a lace or a button of a leather patch.

6. Make set of six camp chairs and a camp table.

7. Make a waterproof vessel of birch bark.

8. Repair a broken boat or canoe.

9, Repair a tent cover so it will not leak.

10. Make an axe helve or a hoe handle.

11. Repair a leaky kettle or pot.

12. Solder a tin.

13. Make a basket of wildwood materials.

14. Make an Indian bed of not less than 60 rods.

15. Make a grass mat not less than 2 x 5.

16. Fell a six-inch tree in sixty seconds and drive with it a given stake.

17. Cut down a six-inch tree, and chop and split it into stove wood, using axe only.

18. Cut and flat with two true surfaces a log like a railway tie, eight feet long, nine-inch face, and six inches thick, using axe only.

19. Distinguish between rip saw, crosscut, keyhole saw, two-handed crosscut, bucksaw and show how they are used.

20. Show the right and wrong way of putting nails into two boards, one of which is to be fastened across the other.

21. Make a boat or a birch canoe.

22. Build a log cabin. 145)

Camp Doctor

(Mashkiki)

The Degree of Camp Docter may be conferred on any one who takes eighteen out of these tests (the first four being required):

1. Demonstrate the Schaefer method of resuscitation.

2. Pass first-aid tests of Red Cross Society, or other standard.

3. Know how to treat for bad sunburn.

4. Know poison ivy, sumac, oak, etc., and the proper treatment for cases of poisoning by these.

5. Carry a person down a ladder.

6. Bandage head and ankle.

7. Tell the best remedy for skunk smell and bee stings.

8. Describe treatment for body lice and fleas.

9. Describe the treatment for hives and ringworm.

10. Show treatment for bite by mad dog or poisonous snake.

11. Demonstrate rescue of person in contact with electric wire.

12. Apply tourniquet to a principal artery.

13. Describe in detail the proper care of the teeth,

14. What medical outfit would you take for a month’s sojourn in the wilderness? Why was each article chosen?

15. Be able to tell the difference in effect of a cold and hot bath.

16. Tell how to care for the feet on a march.

17. Describe the effect of walking as an exercise.

18. Know how to treat sprains.

19. Tell the effect of over-exercise.

20. State the chief causes of tuberculosis, typhoid and malaria.

21. Tell what should be done to a house which has been occupied by a person who has had a contagious disease.

22. Describe the best methods of disposing of garbage, and the evil effect of flies.

23. Tell how a camp should protect its foods: milk, meat and exposed foods.

24. Tell how to plan the sanitary care of a camp. 146)

25. Know what wood herbs, etc., or camp staples will produce sweat, purge, vomit, or warmth; what will make a quick poultice, which will check diarrhcea.

26. Make, use, and teach others to use, the Indian Sweat Lodge.

Canoeman

(Chemaunigan)

The Degree of Canoeman may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests:

1. Tie rapidly six different useful knots.

2. Splice ropes.

3. Find, collect, prepare, and use “watap,” that is spruce roots, for canoe binding, etc.

4. Find, collect, prepare, and use gum for canoe gumming.

5. Use a palm and needle.

6. Fling a rope coil.

7. Row, pole, scull, and steer a boat; also bring a canoe or boat properly alongside and make fast.

8. Build a boat or canoe to carry at least one person.

9. Make a serviceable paddle and paint it Indian fashion.

10. Repair hole in the side, below water line, of a boat or canoe.

11. Know the laws of beaching, caching, or portaging a canoe, also how to sit in it and how to change seats with another when afloat.

12. Swim 100 yards.

13. Swim fifty feet with shoes, pants or skirt, and shirt on.

14. Sail any two-man craft for 200 miles in a season — the other man not a professional sailor.

15. Paddle (single) a canoe on dead water one mile in fourteen minutes.

16. Spill a canoe, get in again and bale it out without help.

17. Take canoe camper’s honor, that is, make a continuous canoe or rowboat trip of at least 100 miles, sleeping out every night.

18. Be able to tell direction by the stars and sun.

19. Steer by compass.

20. Teach a class to handle a canoe. 147)

Colonial Housekeeper

(Gaiat)

The Degree of Colonial Housekeeper may be conferred on any one who takes twelve of these tests:

1. Gather bayberries and make four candles dipped or moulded, each six inches long, for the Four Fires.

2. Leach the ashes and make a pint of soft soap.

3. Dye evenly four pieces of material not less than half a yard each of four different colors, or four skeins of yarn. Dyes may be bought.

4. Dye twelve squares of felt or white flannel each about 4 x 4 inches, each a different color with stuf found in the woods, such as butternut bark, golden oak, sassafras, golden-rod tops, pokeberries, etc. (Tea and coffee allowed.)

5. Make a lavender box, i. e., grow, gather, dry and use the lavender in a clothes chest. Same for lemon verbena (tripolium.)

6. Gather and make marigold salve (calendula) or prunella salve (self-heal) or witchhazel salve.

7. Gather sassafras leaves and make a gumbo soup.

8. Gather the sap and make of it a pound of sugar, either from maple or other sugar trees.

9. Brew sage tea, mullein tea, boneset tea, catnip tea, camomile tea, and ginger tea.

10. Dry, corn, spice, salt, or otherwise preserve three kinds of meat or fish for household larder.

11. Dry five quarts of fruit, or vegetables for winter use.

12. Knit or crochet any usable article of wearing apparel.

13. Spin enough cotton, flax, wool, or hemp to make five yards of stuff or half a dozen pair of socks.

14. Weave 2½ yards of cloth or rag carpet, rug or bed-spread.

15. Cut, select, sew, ball, and arrange for the making of a good rag carpet 2½ yards long.

16. Make single-handed a rag rug, braided or hooked.

17. Make appliqué quilt or patchwork quilt.

18. Make a grandmother’s sampler. 148)

Dancer

(Namid)

The Degree of Dancer may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests:

1. Dance four folk dances such as beansetter, ox-dance, Morris dance, Maypole, ribbon dance, etc.

2. Dance a good cakewalk.

3. Dance two gypsy dances. (Spanish or Hungarian gypsy.)

4. Dance one standard Scottish dance, such as Highland fling, Scottish reel, sword dance, and fire dance, or dance two Irish dances, as jig, reel, hornpipe, double shuffle, clog, etc.

5. Dance two standard Indian dances—as Lone Scout, Solo Snake, Storm Cloud, Caribou dance, Zuni spring dance, etc.

6. Dance two Greek dances.

7. Dance the minuet.

8. Dance the quadrille, lancers, and Virginia reel.

9, Lead in five children’s dances such as Sally Waters, chair dance, Mulberry Bush, A Hunting We Will Go.

10. Teach a class at least four dances representing four different departments as above.

11. Dance two Japanese dances. (One posture dance and one spear dance.)

12. Dance the dance of the Golden Sari, and a fire dance.

Note: Music of folk dances and Indian dances can be had on Victor and Columbia records, Education Department list.

Entertainer

(Tchessakid)

The Degree of Entertainer may be conferred on any one who takes thirteen of these tests:

1. Tell entertainingly a good story, of not less than ten minutes, to a group of young people five different times.

2. Tell standard Indian stories to a group of not less than five one hour a week for two months, or equivalent.

3. Recite well five poems, orations, or stories which are in keeping with the occasions and entertaining.

4. Sing alone from memory five American folk songs.

5. Ditto for five English folk songs. 149) Coups and Degrees 143 6. Ditto for five Scotch folk songs. 7. Ditto for five Irish folk songs. 8. Ditto for five folk songs of any other nation. 9. Act as accompanist at least six times for some public event in school, church, etc. 10. Take part on three or more occasions as a member of a quartet, glee club, chorus, or as a member of an orchestra, band, etc. 11. Play an instrumental solo at three public occasions. 12. Give a party, arranging program of entertainment and refreshments, the latter not to cost more than fifteen cents per person, and for at least six people. 13. Entertain younger people on five different occasions —introducing song, story, dance, or manual training. 14. Write a play which is used for public performance. 15. Do ten recognizable bird or animal imitations. 16. Do successfully six moving pictures of given subjects such as Sleeping Beauty, Red Riding Hood, Old Mother Hubbard, etc. (acting the story or rhyme out in pantomime). 17. Put on shadow charades in camp or shadow moving pictures with sheet and lantern. 18. Take part in folk dancing at three public events. Farmer (Kitigewin) The Degree of Farmer may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests: 1. Explain the nature of soil, its texture and need of water and air. 2. State how to decide what fertilizer is needed in given soil. 3. Plow, harrow and seed down two acres of land. 4. Weed and harvest two acres of land. 5. Cut. make and harvest five acres of hay. 6. Make a seed tester and test the germination of three kinds of crop seeds, one hundred seeds of each kind. “Rag- baby” tester for corn. 7. Identify ten common weeds and tell how to get rid of them. 8. Identify ten bad bugs and tell what they do and how to get rid of them. 150) 144 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 9. Have inoculated seeds of clovers, cowpeas, etc., and grown demonstration strips and compare the increase of nodules on roots of inoculated plants. 10. Do all the work in a successful flower, or fruit and vegetable garden, not less than twenty feet by twenty feet. 11. Raise half a dozen each of five of the following plants : cucumber, tomato, egg plant, pumpkin, melon, pepper, cab- bage, cauliflower, celery. 12. Have four window boxes, at least 24 x 8 inches, or equivalent, of successful growing plants, planted and cared for by self, for four months. 13. Make a garden calendar, stating the order of bloom, so that from April to September there is a flower for each week, 14, Have a successful perennial vegetable garden—rhu- barb, asparagus, mint, horseradish, etc. 15. Send a bouquet a week to hospital or “shut-in” or Flower Guild, from own flower-beds for six months. 16. Keep a garden in good shape, clean and trim all summer. Fisherman (Gagoiked) The Degree of Fisherman may be conferred on any one who takes nine of these tests: 1, Catch and name ten different species of fish: salmon or trout to be taken with flies; bass, pickerel, or pike to be caught with rod or reel, muskallonge to be caught by trolling. 2. Make a bait rod of three joints, straight and sound, fourteen ounces or less in weight, ten feet or less in length, to stand a strain of one and a half pounds at the tip, 13 pounds at the grip; or else make a jointed fly-rod 8 to 10 feet long, 4 to 8 ounces in weight, capable of casting a fly sixty feet. ; 3. Name and describe twenty-five different species of fish found in North American waters, and give a list of at least five of the fishes ascertained to inhabit a given body of water. 4. Give the history of the young of any species of wild fish from the time of hatching until the adult stage is reached. 151) Coups and Degrees 145 5. Make a net and catch a fish in it. 6. Make a turtle trap and catch a turtle in it. 7. Make a six-foot leader of clean gut, with smooth knots to stand a strain of five pounds. 8. Take with the fly, unassisted, a three-pound trout, land- locked salmon, or bass, or a twelve-pound salmon, on a rod not more than eight ounces in weight. 9. Take on a rod, without assistance in hooking, play- ing, or landing a trout, black bass, pike (muskallonge ), grayling, salmon, bluefish, weakfish, striped bass, kingfish, sheepshead, or other game fish, whose weight in pounds equals or exceeds half that of the rod in ounces. 10. Cast a fly with a rod of five ounces, or less, not over ten feet long, sixty-five feet. Or, with one quarter of an ounce dummy frog, five-foot rod, outdoors overhead casting, tournament style, send it eighty feet if under eighteen, one hundred and ten if over. 11. Swim a hundred yards. 12. Paddle (single) a canoe one mile in fourteen minutes. 13. Row without help one mile in ten minutes. Food Craft (Midjim) The Degree of Foodcraft may be conferred on any one who takes nine of these tests: 1. Know a balanced diet for daily living that will meet requirements of the body. 2. Know the value of cereals and the proper preparation of corn, wheat, rice, barley, and rye for bread and porridges, etc. 3. Cook in camp for a week for four people. 4. Understand the terms proteids, carbohydrates, and tell which foods contain them, in what proportion, and whether available for the human body and whether easily assimilated. 5. Know a balanced vegetarian diet and prepare menus of same for a week at camp. 6. Know the local wild plants available for salads and prepare a salad of same. 7. Dry sweet green corn for camp use, either in sun or in oven. Other vegetable may be substituted, if dried in same way. 152) 146 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 8. Dry any fruits for camp use—apples, peaches, cher- ries, etc. 9. Know 25 edible mushrooms. 10. Know how to prepare “cottage cheese.” 11. Bake five batches of good bread, one to be in reflector baker ; one to be in frying pan. ; 12. Train a class in camp cooking, showing and making them do it properly. . 13. Tell how a camp should protect its foods, milk, meat, and exposed foods. Forester (Mitigwakid) The Degree of Forester may be conferred on any one who takes eighteen of these tests: 1. Identify twenty-five kinds of trees when in leaf, or fifteen kinds of deciduous (broad leaf) trees in winter, and tell some of the uses of each. 2. Identify twelve kinds of shrubs. 3. Collect and identify samples of 20 kinds of wood and be able to tell some of their uses and peculiar properties. 4. Determine the height, and estimate the amount of tim- ber, approximately, in five trees of different sizes. 5. State the laws for transplanting, grafting, spraying, | and protecting a tree. 6. Make a collection of smoke or blue prints of sixty species of wild flowers, ferns, or grasses dried and mounted in a book and correctly named. 7. Recognize in the forest all important commercial trees in one’s neighborhood. 8. Distinguish the lumber from each and tell for what purpose each is best suited. 9. Recognize the difference in the forest between good and bad logging, giving reasons why one is good and another ad, 10. Tell whether a tree is dying from injury by fire, by in- sects, by disease, or by a combination of these causes. 11. Know what tools to use in lumbering. 12. Know how to fight fires in hilly or in flat country. 13. Know the effect upon stream-flow of the destruction of forests at head waters. 153) Coups and Degrees 147 14. Know what are the four great uses of water in streams. _ 15. Know what causes the pollution of streams, and how it can best be stopped. 16. Know how, in general, water-power is developed. 17, Tell, for a given piece of farm land, whether it is best suited for use as a farm or forest, and why. 18. Point out examples of erosion, and tell how to stop it. 19. Estimate closely how much timber and how much cord-wood is in a given acre of woods. 20. Name six trees that will float when green, and six that will not. 21. Know something of the relation of birds and quad- rupeds to forest trees. 22. Fell a six-inch tree in sixty seconds, driving with it a given stake. 23. Make 100 trees grow where none grew heretofore. 24. Camp in the woods for thirty nights. 25. Perform the Tree Planting Ceremony. 26. Perform the Flower Planting Ceremony. Friend of the Little Brothers (Watutka) The degree of Friend of Little Brothers may be conferred upon any one who accomplishes 13 of these tests. 1. Find in the field and identify five species of snakes. 2. Identify 15 species of snakes in a zoo or museum and tell which are poisonous. 3. Join an organization for the protection of snakes and help educate others as to the economic value of non-poison- ous snakes. 4. Find and identify 10 species of turtles. 5. Find and identify 8 species of lizards or salamanders. 6. Make a careful record from observation of the devel- opment of an amphibian from the egg to the adult stage. 7. Observe and record the habits of some adult amphibian and tell of its economic value, 8. Identify five species of frogs. ; 9. Identify five species of toads (may be in museum). 10. Make good recognizable photos of any five of the fol- lowing found in the field: Turtle, snake, lizard, salamander, frog, toad, fish, crab. 154) 148 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 11. Identify 20 species of fish either alive or in the market. 12. Catch 8 species of fish and give an account of how and where each was caught. 13. Make a fish pond, and in it raise at least two species of fish for two seasons. 14. Make a spawning bed for fish and have it used by them. 15. Find and identify 20 species of salt water shells. 16. Identify four species of crabs found alive. 17. Identify 8 other species of crustaceans, and describe the habits and food value of two of them. 18. Identify 10 other species of water animals, observed alive, not included in abowe. 19. Make and maintain successfully for three months a fresh water aquarium, containing at least three forms of animal life. 20. As above for a salt water aquarium. Friend of Wild Life (Ganamenima) The Degree of Friend of Wild Life may be conferred on any one who takes eleven of these tests: 1. Name and distinguish the three most important lum- ber trees of your state. 2. Name three trees that have neither lumber nor fire- wood value but are useful as shade trees, bird food, or bank binders. 3. Know the twenty-five principal song birds of your state. 4. Know the twelve principal game birds of your state. 5. Know the twelve principal four-foots of your state. 6. Mention three animals that serve no commercial pur- pose but which ought to be preserved because they are harm- less and give pleasure to all who see them. 7. Be a member of the Audubon Society, or Agassiz Association. 8. Be a member of the local bird club. 9. Support such local societies as aim to preserve or re-introduce wild birds or desirable plants. 10. Make and put up ten bird boxes at least one of which must be nested in. 155) Coups and Degrees 149 11. Make and run a bird’s lunch counter all winter, feeding at least four kinds of birds not counting the Engtish sparrow. 12. Make and run a bird bath successfully. 13. Write a 500-word essay on the value of birds to crops (See Bulletin of Department of griculture). 14. Write a 500-word essay on value of forests to insure water supply (See Forestry Bulletins). 15. Mention the four chief natural resources of your state. 16. Mention and give figures on the four chief natural resources of the United States. 17. Describe the Sanctuary Scheme of which the Yellow- stone Park was the first great example, and tell how it has succeeded, and how far it has been copied. Gleeman, or Camp Conjurer (Nagamed ) The Degree of Gleeman may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests: Open and lead the Council. Light the Sacred Fire with rubbing-sticks. Know the Indoor and Outdoor Council Ceremony. Know the ceremony of giving names. Sing ten Woodcraft songs, alone or as a leader. Dance five standard Indian or other folk dances. Tell five stories of not less than five minutes each. . Know the art of “making medicine,” which is the making of goodfellowship by seeking out talent, selecting and leading it and stopping without offending those who are not helpful. 9. Know how to conduct initiations and have the wisdom to stop them in decent season. 10. Take the leading part (medicine man) in the Peace Pipe Ceremony. 11. Camp out thirty nights. 12. Teach some one else to run the Council. 13. Teach a dance to a sufficient number to give it. ONAWRONE 156) 150 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll Herald, or Crier (Bibaged) The Degree of Herald may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests: . Walk one mile in twelve minutes. . Walk thirty miles in twelve hours. Run 100 yards in fourteen seconds. Run one mile in five and one-third minutes. Swim 100 yards. Sleep out thirty nights. . Send and receive a message in one of the following systems of signaling: Semaphore, Morse, or Myer, not fewer than twenty-four letters per minute. 8. Make correct smoke signals meaning “Camp is here,” “YT am Lost,” “All well,” “All come to Council.” 9. Talk Sign Talk, knowing at least 200 signs. 10. Know twenty-five signs and blazes of the Indian code. 11. Read and translate into one’s own language a page or conversation from some other language. 12. Conduct a Council. NAW RON Horseman (Cowboy) (Bebamomigod) This degree is dedicated to the memory of Wahdaga (Wade Dudley of Wabanaki School, Greenwich, Conn.), who, under the careful guidance of his mother and in spite of physical handicaps, attained high excellence in the Horse- man (Cowboy) Degree and found in it a world of happiness that never failed him. The Degree of Horseman may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests: 1. Show that you are at home in a saddle and can ride at a walk, trot, and gallop. 2. Know how to saddle and bridle a horse correctly. 3. Catch six horses in corral or on range with twelve throws of the lasso. 157) Coups and Deprees 151 4. Show how to water and feed and to what amount, and how to groom a horse properly. 5. Show how to harness a horse correctly in singie or double harness and to drive. 6. Pack 100 Ibs. of stuff with a diamond hitch, to stay during four hours of travel. 7. Havea knowledge of the power of endurance of horses at work and know the local regulations concerning driving. 8. Identify unsoundness and blemishes, 9. Know the evils of bearing or check reins and of ill- fitting harness or saddlery. 10. Know two common causes of, and proper remedies for lameness, and know to whom cases of cruelty and abuse should be referred. 11. Be able to judge as to the weight, height, and age of horses. 12. Know three breeds and their general characteristics. 13. Be-able to treat a horse for colic. 14. Describe symptoms and give treatment of horses for the following: wounds, fractures and sprains, exhaustion, choking, lameness. 15. Understand horseshoeing. 16. Clear a four-foot hurdle and an eight-foot water jump. 17. Pick up hat from the ground going at full gallop on a horse not less than thirteen hands high. Hunter (Gaossed) The Degree of Hunter may be conferred on any one who takes fourteen of these tests: 1. Walk one mile in twelve minutes. 2. Walk thirty miles in twelve hours. 3. Run 100 yards in fourteen seconds. 4. Run one mile in five and one-third minutes. 5. Swim 100 yards. 6. Spot the rabbit (see Games) three times out of five at thirty yards. ; 7. See and map out six Pleiades. 158) 152 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 8. See the Pappoose on the Squaw’s back (spectacles al- lowed if habitually worn). (See “Stars as Test of Eye- sight.” ) . 9. Get a good photograph of a big game animal wild in its native surroundings. 10. Know and name correctly twenty-five native wild quadrupeds. 11. Know and name correctly fifty wild birds in the field and their nests. 12. Know and clearly discriminate the tracks of twenty- five of our common wild quadrupeds. 13. Trail an animal or else iron track prints for half a mile without aid of snow. 14. Win honors with rifle. That is, be a marksman ac- cording to the rules of the National Rifle Association. 15. With bow make a total score of 300 points at forty yards, standard target. 16. Catch alive and uninjured with own make of trap one wild quadruped and one wild bird. 17. Know the Pole Star and fifteen star groups. 18. Teach any one of these but the first nine to some other person. Hunter in Town (Odena-Gaossed) The Degree of Hunter in Town may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests: 1. Find and sketch twenty-five blazes in town and say where you found them. A blaze is a mark that conveys information without using words or letters. 2. Find twenty-five totems in town. A totem is the em- blem of a man, group of men, company, or idea. It is not formed. of words or letters and letters are not an essential part, even if they are associated. Some trademarks are of this class. 3. Indicate the distinguishing marks of policemen, park policemen, traffic squad, strong arm squad, etc. 4. Rid a house of flies for one month, 5. Rid a house of rats for one month. 6. Rid a house of mice for one month. 7. Rid the house of cockroaches for one month. 159) Coups and Degrees 153 8. Rid the premises of mosquito breeding pools for a season, 9. Draw life-size, recognizable tracks of a man, woman, child, dog, cat, and mouse. 10. Draw life-size, recognizable tracks of a rat, rabbit, gray squirrel, sparrow, crow, chicken. All of these can be secured in and about the city, especially in the large parks, and are easiest when the snow is on the ground, but possible in mud or with even wet tracks on dry pavements. 11. Make and set up at some suitable place and operate for at least a week a flytrap. (On the screen-cone prin- ciple.) 12. Know gypsy moth and report finding of any to state entomologist, also browntail moth, 13. When muzzling laws are passed report all infractions to police. 14. Provide satisfactory records of the tracks of three animals, according to the following method: cover a stiff sheet of paper with black ink and so place it that the animal Tuns over it and on to a fresh sheet of paper, which receives the tracks. 15. Know 100 signs of the Sign Language, including 10 traffic signals. Indian Craftsman (Inanokiwin) The Degree of Indian Craftsman may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests: 1. Follow a track one mile without help. Snow or track- ing irons allowed. Know 100 signs of the sign language. Know six standard blazes. Know the four stone signs. Demonstrate in Council. Know the four twig signs. Demonstrate in Council. Know the four grass signs. Demonstrate in Council. Know two standard tests of eyesight used by Indians. . Make a bead band at least eight inches long and twelve beads wide. 9. Make a piece of porcupine quillwork at least one inch by eight. 10. Make and paint an Indian four-post bed. 11. Carve and paint a totem pole, Chief’s seat, or Tally Keeper’s table. ON AMA WIH 160) 154 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 12. Make and decorate a bench for Council Ring. 13. Make and decorate an Indian teepee. Full size. 14. Make and use a willow bed. ; 15. Make a pair of leggings decorated in good design. 16. Make a shield and spear for the Lone Hunter dance. 17, Make an Indian drum with decorations and stick com- lete. P 18. Make a Navajo loom and weave a rug on it (grass woof with thirty warp strings is allowed). . 19. Be responsible for locating, planning, and completing a Council Ring. 20. Make a dry painting for “Four Fires.” Demonstrate at Council. 21. Construct a burlap deer according to “Book of Wood- craft.” 22. Construct a burlap bear according to “Book of Wood- craft.” Indian Lore (Anishanabe) The Degree of Indian Lore may be conferred on any one who takes twenty of these tests: 1. Outline the religion of the high-class Indian. (See “Book of Woodcraft,” page 21.) 2. State what were the Indian’s special virtues. 3. State what were his special vices. 4. State what was the great mistake of his creed. 5. State why William Penn was peculiar in having no trouble with Indians. 6. Be the possessor of three genuine articles of old style Indian make, such as basket, beadwork, quillwork, silver work, pottery, stone work, blankets, war club, bow, quiver, arrows, peace pipe, etc.; and know to what tribe the makers belong, what materials were used in their construction, and how they were made. These may be got from the Mohonk Lodge Colony, Oklahoma, and so help the Indians, 7. Know the original hunting grounds, and give an out- line of the history and present condition of one tribe of Indians. 8. Know the uses and meaning of the design or symbols on some Indian article, or something of the ceremony in which it is used. 161) Coups and Degrees 155 9. Sing six genuine Indian songs in Council. 10. Tell six Indian legends at the Council. 11. Draw ten genuine Indian symbols and explain them. 12. Name the Indian tribes that originally inhabited your state. Give their present numbers and location, also their economic and religious condition. 13. Give brief sketch of the lives, aims, and achievements of four great or well-known Indian chiefs. 14. Give brief sketch of the lives, aims, and achievements of four great or well-known Indian women. 15. Be able to distinguish from each other four types of baskets characteristic of four different tribes. 16. Distinguish in general the pottery of four different tribes. 17. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Navajo blankets. 18. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Balleta. 19. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Chimayo. 20. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Hopi. 21. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Chilkat. 22. Be able to indicate and discuss the Germantown. 23. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Serape. 24. Tell approximately the age of a blanket. 25. Distinguish the three or four general styles of bead- work and the regions of which they were characteristic. 26. Visit in person and stay at least a week with some tribe that is not scattered. 27. Name the Six Nations, the Plains Indians, the differ- ent tribes of Pueblo Indians, the coast (California ) tribes, the Alaskan Tribes, or the Central American Tribes. ’ 28. Know fifty signs of the sign language. Little Planter (Watokpana) The Degree of Little Planter may be conferred upon any one who accomplishes nine of these tests: 1. Demonstrate by specimens the characteristic differ- ences between mosses, lichens and liverworts. 2. Identify ten species of mosses. 3. Identify five species of lichens or liverworts. 162) 156 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 4. Describe in detail the life history of a slime mold, and identify five species. 5. Identify five species of poisonous mushrooms, and tell how they may be recognized. 6. Identify 15 species of edible mushrooms, 7. Identify ten species of non-edible, non-poisonous mushrooms. 8. Make spore prints of ten species of mushrooms or ferns. 9. Identify fifteen species of ferns. 10. Make blue or ink prints of ten species of ferns. 11. Describe in detail the life history of some fern, and discover and identify a protrallium. 12. Find and identify four species of horse-tails. 13. Find and identify four species of club-mosses. 14, Identify five species of sea weeds. 15. Make a mushroom bed and raise at least a half bushel of edible mushrooms. Moccasin Runner (Kee-mo-sah’bee) The Degree of Moccasin Runner may be conferred on any one who takes nine of these tests: Walk one mile in eleven minutes. Walk thirty miles in twelve hours. Run 100 yards in fourteen seconds. Run fifty yards in seven and four-fifth seconds. Run one mile in five and one-third minutes. Swim 100 yards. Paddle a canoe one mile in twelve minutes in dead NOUR WN water. 8. Know the Semaphore or Wigwag or Myer code and take as well as receive a message at the rate of at least twenty-four letters a minute. 9. Know 200 signs of the Sign Language. io Know twenty-five secret signs and blazes of the Indian _ code. 11. Have slept out thirty nights. 12. Know and clearly discriminate the tracks of twenty- five of our common wild quadrupeds; also trail for a mile without snow, till near enough to photograph or bag one. 163) Coups and Degrees 157 13. Must have carried a letter three times over a mile of enemy’s country with at least twenty hostiles out against him, of his own class. Mountaineer (Wadjiwed) The Degree of Mountaineer may be conferred on any one who takes seven of these tests: 1. Take two honors at least in the list of mountain climbing. 2. Camp out at least thirty nights in the mountains. 3. Know, name, and describe the fourteen great divi- sions of the earth’s crust (according to some standard authority). 4. Know and name twenty-five different kinds of rock. 5. Define watershed, delta, drift, fault, glacier, ter- race, stratum, dip. 6. Know at least twenty mammals that live in the mountains. 7. Know at least fifty mountain birds. 8. Know at least twenty-five mountain trees. 9. Make a journey on foot through the mountains of at least 100 miles, sleeping out every night. 10. Swim 100 yards. Planter (Wozutt) The Degree of Planter may be conferred upon any one who accomplishes 12 of these tests: ; 1. Find in the field and identify 40 species of wild flowers. 2. Collect and identify 20 species of weeds. 3. Collect, press, mount and identify eight species of rass. 4. Make five square yards of wild flowers grow where none grew before, including at least five species. 5. Plant successfully five trees. 6. Identify by leaf or fruit, 20 species of deciduous trees. 7. Identify 10 species of evergreen trees. 8. Identify by leaf or fruit, 20 species of shrubs. 164) 158 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 9. Identify by bark or twigs in winter, 20 species of trees. 10. As above for 20 species of shrubs. . 11. Make an exhibit of 10 species of trees, mounting in permanent form leaf, flower, fruit, bark and twigs to show method of branching. 12. As above for 10 species of shrubs. ; . (Shrub lists are not to include any species included in tree lists.) 13. Collect and identify fruits or seeds from 40 species of wild plants. 14. Identify specimens of wood from 15 species of trees. 15. Make blue prints or ink prints of the leaves from 30 species of trees or shrubs. 16. As above for 30 species of wild flowers. 17. Find and identify 20 species of wild plants with edible leaves or shoots. 18. Find and identify 20 species of plants with edible seeds, or fruits. 19. Plant at least 6 species of shrubs which will bear seeds or fruits for birds during the winter. 20. Perform the Tree Planting Ceremony. 21. Perform the Flower Planting Ceremony. Potter , (Nampeyo, Famous Pueblo Indian Potter) The Degree of Potter may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests: 1. Make bird’s drinking fountain or basin, twelve or more inches across. 2. Make set of four bowls: decoration in Zuni style, Hopi style, Acoma and Santo Domingo styles. 3. Make jardiniére at least ten inches across. 4. Make hanging vase to hold pint or more of water, Jap- anese design. 5. Make set of six plain cooking dishes of clay dug and prepared by self. _ 6. Make rectangular shallow dish for holding Japanese miniature garden 10 x 6 x 2 inches. Must be glazed to pre- vent leakage. . 7. Make, dry, and bake eight little plain bowls all the same 165) Coups and Degrees 159 or of various shapes, hard enough to hold water, and without flaw that would prevent their being of practical use. 8. Make with coil process, dry and bake, four pots of Zuni shape with Zuni decorations, each large enough to hold two quarts, and close enough to hold water, without flaw that would prevent its practical use. 9. Make a potter’s wheel and turn out eight pieces of pottery on the same. (See “Chambers’s Encyclopedia.”) 10. Make a potter’s kiln and demonstrate it. (See “Cham- bers’s” or “American Encyclopedia.”) 11. Paint a set of eight china dishes using native American designs. 12. Paint a set of eight china dishes using any standard design. 13. Describe and fully distinguish six great types of Old World pottery. 14. Describe and fully distinguish four types of native American pottery. 15. Tell how the ancient and prehistoric pottery of Amer- ica may be distinguished from that made to-day. 16. Make a set of candlesticks and firebow! for Four Fires, 17. Describe the principal varieties of native clays and tell what colors they bake; describe the Zuni method of firing. Scout (Mikan) The Degree of Scout may be conferred on any one who takes twelve of these tests: 1. Know two miles of bypaths in and around your local headquarters in the country. 2. Have a general knowledge of the district within a five- mile radius of local headquarters, so as to be able to guide people at any time, by day or night. 3. Know the general direction and population of the five principal neighboring towns and be able to give strangers correct directions how to reach them. 4. Know the country in two-mile radius, or in a town know in a half-mile radius what livery stables, garages, and blacksmiths there are. 166) 160 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 5. Know the location of the nearest meat markets, bak- eries, groceries, and drug stores. ; 6. Know where the nearest police station, hospital, doc- tor, fire alarm, fire hydrant, telegraph, and telephone offices, and railroad stations are. ; 7. Know something of the history of the place, its prin- cipal public buildings, such as town or city hall, post-office, schools, and churches. 8. As much as possible of the above information should be entered on a large scale map. ; 9. Fell a six-inch tree or pole in a prescribed direction so as to fall between two stakes two feet apart, within sixty seconds. 10. Tie six kinds of knots quickly. 11. Lash spars properly together for scaffolding. 12. Build a bridge or derrick. 13. Make a camp kitchen. 14. Build a shack or cabin of one kind or another suitable for three occupants. 15. Walk one mile in eleven minutes. 16. Run 100 yards in 14 seconds. 17. Run fifty yards in seven and four-fifth seconds. 18. Swim 100 yards. Seamanship (Nabikwa-Ninint) The Degree of Seaman may be conferred on any one wno takes eighteen of these tests (17 and 22 compulsory) : 1. Tie ten different standard knots. 2. Make a finish knot at the end of a rope. 3. Make long and short splices and demonstrate covering an eye splice. 4. Use palm and needle. 5. Fling a rope coil. 6. Fling a life buoy. 7. Demonstrate that you can row and steer a boat. 8. Pole and scull a boat and demonstrate bringing it alongside safely, then make fast. 9. Box the compass. 10. Read a chart. 11. Show a knowledge cf weather wisdom and tides. 167) Coups and Degrees 161 12. Show how sun and stars are of service as guides. 13. Swim fifty yards with clothes on. _ 14. Sail a two-man boat for 100 miles without a profes- sional sailor for companion, but yourself holding the tiller and directing its sail adjustment, etc. This need not be in one trip. 15. Demonstrate by description and sketch or actually demonstrate correct method of reefing a fore and aft sail including sequence of passing the tack lashing, earing and knotting reef points, and turning out the reef. 16. Describe the proper method of coming to anchor so as not to foul anchor; state proper amount of rope to be paid out in proportion to depth of water. Also show methed of stopping anchor line down to flukes and ring to anchor on rocky bottom. 17. Know the rules of the road; proper action to be taken on approach of other vessel of any character. 18. Show that you have won first, second, or third place in a race of any of the recognized yacht clubs-or associations, with yourself as skipper. 19. Make a model of a sloop or schooner yacht or other vessel fully rigged. 20. Tell the bells and watches kept on board ship. 21. Know usual flag signals for owner and crew, location of owner’s and club signal and night pennant. Also proper method of displaying the yacht ensign when at anchor and under way. .?2. Describe signal lights used at night on barges, sailing power and steam vessels according to United States Reg- ulations. Also tell what lights are used by yachts showing fleet officers, meals, owner’s absence, etc. 23. Name and describe ten different sailing rigs: ship, bark, barkentine, brig, brigantine, schooner, topsail schooner, sloop, yawl, ketch, knockabout, sharpie, buckeye, catboat, lateen rig. Sharpshooter (Gadaakwed) The Degree of Sharpshooter may be conferred on any one who takes six of these tests: a. 1. Qualify as “marksman” with the rifle in accordance with the regulations of the National Rifle Association. 168) 162 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 2. Make a bow and arrow which will shoot a distance of 100 feet with fair precision. 3. Make a regulation archery target—four feet across, with the nine-inch centre and four rings, each four and three- quarter inches wide. 4. Make a total score of 350 with sixty shots of bow and arrow in one or two meets, using standard four-foot target at forty yards or three-foot target at thirty yards. 5. Make a total score of 300 with seventy-two arrows, using standard four-foot target at a distance of fifty yards, or three-foot target at thirty-six yards. 6. Shoot so far and fast as to have four arrows in the air at once. 7. See and map out six Pleiades with naked eye. 8. See the Pappoose on the Squaw’s back in the Dipper Handle. 9. Spot the rabbit three times at thirty yards. Star Wiseman (Gijiged ) The Degree of Star Wiseman may be conferred on any one who takes seven of these tests: 1. Have a general knowledge of the nature and move- ments of the stars. 2. Point out and name ten principal constellations. < 3. Find the north by means of other stars than the Pole tar. 4. Tell the hour of the night by the stars and moon. 5. Know and name twenty of the chief stars. 6. Know, name, and can point out three of the planets. 7. Have a general knowledge of the positions and move- ments of the earth, sun, and moon. 8. Have a general knowledge of tides, eclipses, meteors, comets, sun-spots, and planets. 9. Take the latitude from the stars with homemade in- struments, within one degree of error. 10. Make a sundial that works, 169) Coups and Degrees 163 Swimmer (Shingebis) The Degree of Swimmer may be conferred on any one who takes twelve of these tests: 1. Perform running plain front dive from springboard, or racing dive in at least fair form, and swim in good form 150 yards using: a. Breast stroke for first 50 yards. b. Back stroke with inverted frog kick, spiral kick or combination frog-scissors kick for next 50 yards. c. Side stroke for last 50 yards. 2. Swim 50 yards using legs only, crawl kick debarred. 3. Swim 50 yards using arms only. 4. Tread water 3 minutes with both hands above water. 5. Swim 50 yards in camp costume and undress without support in at least 7 feet of water, then swim 50 yards more. 6. Break following holds of swimming instructor, or other well-qualified assistant: a. Wrist hold, single and double, each against one or both hands of opponent, by means of legs. b. Front neck hold. c. Back strangle hold. Each hold must be broken at least five times in cor- rect form and against real opposition. 7. Perform surface dive in at least seven feet of water and bring up human subject, or equivalent, from bottom in side-stroke carry. 8. Unconscious or slightly resisting subject carry. 9, Tired swimmer or cramp carry: swimming 25 yards, subject lying on back with arms straight and hands on car- rier’s shoulders, and legs spread around carrier’s hips, car- rier using breast stroke. 10. Struggling subject carry, swimming 10 yards on back towing subject with double arm lock, using frog kick or combination frog-scissors kick or spiral kick, resorting to full arm lock each time until subject ceases struggle, sub- ject struggling violently at least three times. 11. Demonstrate for three minutes in correct rhythm the Schaefer method of artificial respiration, and explain the process of resuscitation from time subject is removed from water until consciousness is restored. 170) 164 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 12. Pass satisfactorily an oral examination on Schaefer method of artificial respiration and after-treatment of the apparently drowned, or on any other phase of life-saving. 13. Distance swim without time limit at least 440 yards, using at least one speed swimming stroke in good form for one-fourth distance. 14. Warding off with arms and legs when attacked a. From front. b. From rear, each 2 minutes. 15. Swim 100 yards. 16. Demonstrate safely crossing thin or rotten tce. 17. Teach three persons to swim. Teacher (Arkinowina ) The Degree of Teacher may be conferred on any one who takes seven of these tests: 1. Teach at least five stories of merit to younger member so that the child can in turn tell them. 2. Teach a class of children to sing, dance, or act for some patriotic, school, or charitable entertainment. 3. Teach a class of children in athletics for three months —dancing, swimming, riding, fencing, boxing, hiking, row- ing or paddling. 4. Lead an outdoor nature class of four or more children for three months. 5. Teach any child to make a basket, a bird box, a clay pot, a grass rug, a bead head band or other useful handicraft article. 6. Teach six or more young people two Indian dances so that they can perform them at request. 7. Teach six or more children three folk dances, 8. Organize and lead a Tribe in Woodcraft for a year. 9. Lead an outdoor nature study class of four or more children for a year, so that class has collected twenty-five butterflies or moths, twenty-five wild flowers, ten ferns: knows fifteen trees by leaf and bark, 10. Have a class of four or more in popular astronomy for a winter or a summer, so that class can pass test for knowing Pole Star and fifteen star-groups 171) Coups and Degrees 165 11. Teach a handicraft class such as beadwork, baskets, quillwork, metal work, pottery, woodcarving, etc. 12. Teach two or more children to sing without accom- paniment any three ballads (solos or duets) of known merit, such as folk songs or standard songs. 13. Bring group of children trained by self to entertain Council by dancing, singing, talk-fest, or acting. Three Years’ Service (Nisso-bibon) This degree is dedicated to the memory or Carl E. Ekstrand, the first Treasurer of the Woodcraft League, and the first Woodcrafter to give his life in the World War. The Degree of Three Years’ Service may be conferred on any one who has been a member of a Woodcraft Tribe for three years, never missing a tribal campout in that time, at- tending at least half of the tribal meetings at other times, and having a clear record for law and order. Traveler (Bebamadisid ) The Degree of Traveler may be conferred on any one who takes nine of these tests: 1. Walk one mile in eleven minutes, 2. Tramp twenty miles a day. 3. Climb one of the standard peaks. (See mountain climb- ing. ay Know at least fifteen star groups, including the Dip- per and the Little Bear. 5. Camp out in at least ten different states or countries. 6. Enter the Arctic or Antarctic circles. 7. Cross the equator. 8. Take exact latitude and longitude with instruments. 9. Take latitude within two degrees of error, with home- made instruments. 10. Make a compass survey of 100 miles of country. 11. Travel at least 100,000 miles by rail or steamship or other means. 172) 166 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll 12. Travel 500 miles on foot, by bicycle, by canoe, or in saddle, camping out. 13. Know 200 signs of the Sign Language. ; 14. Make one’s self comfortable in the woods over night without tent or bedding. 15. Swim 100 yards. 16. Sleep out thirty nights. Village Scout ( Odena-winint) The Degree of Village Scout may be conferred on any one who takes fourteen of these tests: 1. Know how to turn in an alarm for fire. 2. Know how to enter burning buildings. 3. Know how to prevent the spread of fire. 4. Understand the use of hose: unrolling, joining up, connecting two hydrants, use of nozzles, etc. 5. Understand the use of escapes, ladders, and chutes. 6. Know how to improvise ropes and nets. 7. Know what to do in case of panic. 8. Understand the fireman’s lift and drag. 9. Know how to work in fumes. 10. Understand the use of fire-extinguishers. 11. Know how to rescue animals from fire. 12. Know how to prevent a running fire on the ground. 13. Know how to organize a bucket brigade. 14. Describe and give history of the seal of your State. 15. Know how to ride a wheel. 16. Repair a puncture. 17. Walk four miles in one hour. 18. Know the signs: AN FP8 B® t-te X HH L O>->< ALO’... CQO Meaning respectively : Official mark, fire-plug 8 feet out, please remove dust, add, sub- tract, divide, multiply, equals, parallel, plumb, circle, more than, less than, triangle, right-angle, squarc, because, therefore, this direction, male, female, young. 173) Coups and Degrees 167 Whiteman’s Woodcraft (Dibaakid) The Degree of White Man’s Woodcraft may be conferred on any one who takes nine of the following tests: 1. Take, develop, and print photographs of twelve sepa- rate subjects, three interiors, three portraits, three land- scapes, and three insfantaneous “action photos.” 2. Make a recognizable photograph of any wild bird while on its nest. 3. Make a recognizable photograph of a wild animal in its native haunts. 4. Make a recognizable photograph of a fish in the water. 5. Map correctly from the country itself the main features of half a mile of road, with 440 yards each side, to a scale of two feet to the mile, and afterward draw same map from memory. 6. Measure the height of a tree, telegraph pole, and church steeple without climbing. 7. Measure width of a river without crossing. 8. Estimate distance apart of two objects a known dis- tance away and without approaching, within an average of 10 per cent. of error in ten different trials. 9, Measure a gradient. 10. Gauge accurately the speed of a stream. 11. Tell the number of gallons of water going over a fall or down a stream. 12. Gauge the horsepower of a given fall. 13. Teach the last seven to someone else. Wise Woodman (Nikwaka-winint) The Degree of Wise Woodman may be conferred on any one who takes twelve of these tests: 1. Have a list of 100 different kinds of birds personally observed on exploration in the field. 2. Have identified beyond question in the field by appear- ance or by note, 30 different kinds of wild birds in one day. 3. Have made a good clear photograph of some wild bird as in coup. , 4. Have secured at least two tenants in bird boxes erected by self. i.e., 2 species, excluding English sparrow and starling. 174)

5. Have daily notes on the nesting. of a pair of wild birds from the time the first egg is laid until the young have left the nest.

6. Have attracted at least three kinds of birds, exclusive of the English sparrow, to a “lunch counter.”

7. Have a knowledge of the game laws of the state in which you live.

8. Preserve and mount the skin of a game bird, or animal, killed in season.

9. Mount for a rug the pelt of some fur animal.

10. Know twenty-five different kinds of trees.

11. Know thirty different wild flowers.

12. Know ten different snakes.

13. Know ten different fungi.

14. Know not less than 6 observational weather signs of local application.

15. Know 5 weather signals of U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.

16. Make fire with the rubbing-sticks.

Wood Music

(Chibiabos)

The Degree of Wood Music will be conferred on any one qualifying in ten of the following:

1. Qualify as song-leader in Council by leading on at least 15 occasions.

2. Tell the difference between a poem, a ballad, a lyric, a round, and a song, giving examples, and show why a true song is best for the camp.

3. Describe the negro spiritual and show why it is a true song, however crude.

4. What is the musical place and value of the college and camp yell?

5. What is the psychological valye and place of the tom-tom?

6. Explain honor chants and shame rhymes and give examples.

7. Give one or more musical calls to Council.

8. What is the value and place of rousers?

9. Distinguish 25 birds by their song.

10. Distinguish 5 kinds of frogs and toads by their song. 175)

11. Name 4 wild creatures that use a drum.

12. Name 2 animals, other than birds, that whistle.

13. What wild creatures use a fiddle and what a rattle?

14. Be a bugler.

15. Use the lumberman’s horn for camp calls. 176) 177) Coups and Degrees 171 INDEX Acorn flour ........... seaeecne 30 Adobe oc cc cece eee e cece 53, 91 Aeronautics ........... se aeenes 69 Airplane making .............. 69 Altar cloth ...... wane nee 43, 77 American, greatest ......... 96, 112 Amphibians ..............000ee 80 Andirons ..... ccc cess eee eens 46 Animal identifying ..........84, 93 Animal Man Degree........... 131 Animal raising ...... «+59, 127 Animals, Lower, Degree. se eeneee 147 Ant mest co... ccc e eee eee eee 83 Applique quilt ............,.6- 119 Aquarium ........ Sera 84 Archery... c ccc cece cece eee 25 Arctic Circle, travel into. .63, 93, 109 Arrowheads ............. 000 ee 25 Art Craftsman Degree 131 Astronomy .......... 86 Athlete Degree 133 Athletics ........ . 22 Athletic specialties ....... - 26 Attainment of the Shield........ 15 Attendance .............5. 109, 112 Axemanship ..........00-4. 27, 114 Backwoods handicraft ..28, 114, 134 Badges (ill.) ..... sce e eee eee 17 Badges, meaning of ............ 13 Bag, medicine ...... ev eeeee vene 43 Bag, parfleche ..............00e 42 Bag, rubbing stick. eee ee eee r cee 44 Baking wee e eens 0, 54, 106, 116, 123 Ball making ............... 32, 118 Barrel treading .............-.. 27 Baseball ........ cece eeeeees 32, 118 Basin ...... bere e een eeeeeeeeee 116 Basketry ........28, 31, 98, 115, 117 Bath, bird ........... 50, 53, 81, 125 Bathing .............-6. 41, 65, 128 Bayberry candles .. - 34, 98, 119 Bayeux tapestry . Beading .........cceceeenes 29 Bear, dummy -Bed, bough ....... «31, 117 Bed, celery or rices.... wee 40, 121 Bed, early... ce eee eee ee eee eee 41 Bee raising ............- + .59, 83 Beehive .......0cseeneees wecee 59 Belt oo... cece eee eee eens 44, 45 Bench ........... +o. 28, 114, ‘116 Besetting sin ..........0+e0eeee 8 Bible characters ....... 96, 108, it Bicycling .......c ce ccc eee ees - 29 Binding book .........- 30, 69, 101 Bird bath .......... 50, 53, 81, 125 Bird box ....... ccc cece e er eeee 50 Bird feeding station .. were 40 Bird lunch counter.. Bird sanctuary ... Bird Sharp Degree : .134 Bird shelter .........5ceseeeee 50 Bird identifying .............-- 80 Blanket rojl ....... eeneee - 59, 126 Blazes... ce ec eee eee eee 93,94 Blossoms ........ecceeeeee cece 87 Blue prints .............. 82, 86, OF Board, game ........cc. cece eee Boat building eek eee eee nee 65, 128 Bone bow .......ccceeeeeee 38, 104 Bone decoration .............5. 106 Bone work .........00.- 30, 38, 104 Bonnet, war .....ceeeee eee aes 42 Book binding pecan eee 30, 69, 101 Books to be read............95, 110 Boonder broom ......... 28, 98, 115 Bough bed .............00-: 31,117 Bow, ivory or bone......... 38, 104 Bow, Parthian .............005 107 Bow and arrow...........0.005 25 Box making .............. Box, parfleche . Braid weaving .. Bread baking Breast plate Bridge model . Bridge building Bridle ...... Broom ...... tebe ences Brownie rank .........ee eee eee 10 Bucket making ............. Buckskin making Bug Man Degree Burlap bear .........00--e eee ee Burlap deer .........000- Bustle, dancing ........-.06. 42,77 Butter so... cece eee eee Butterflies .. 0... cece ea eee eee Cabin building ...... Cake baking .... Calendar, nature Camp Conjurer Degree......... 149 Camp Cook Degree............. 137 Camp Cooking ...... 30, 70, 115, 116 Camp Craftsman Degree seve cues 138 Camp Doctor Degree........... 139 Camper Degree ...... rn 136 Campercraft ...... ee ee erences 70 Camp furniture ............- 30, 116 Camp fire regulations........... Camp fires ........eeeceeee 108, iat Camping advantages of trees. 8 Campout ...... wee 10 Campsite choosing Camp tools ......-...-.060- 30, 116 Candie making .......... 34, 98, 119 Candlesticks .....--.... «++ +46, 52 Candy ....c cc cccc eee seen eens 124 Candy eating ........6- wees 41 Caning ......... eee eneee 29, 98, 115 Canning ...... tava e ee eeeneeee 124 Canoe building sence eee eeees 65, 128 Canoeing ......e. cece eee ee eee 32 Canoeman Degree ........ eee 140 Canoe paddle sees eee eeneaee 31, 117 Canoe trip .......000- 63, 64, 94, 109 Carding ..... eee e erence seeecee 65 Carpenter ..... sees teeaes 34, 118 Cartwheel 1.2... cece rere eee eee 26 Carving, wood . . Catapult model . Cattle identifying. 178) 172 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll INDEX—Continued Cattle raising ........---+0e eres 59 Degrees ......: cece cece eeeeee Celery bed ........00- eee eee 40,121 Deny oneself . wee : Celluloid ........ eee eee ee eee: 98 Deportment Cement work .........00-0-- 52, 90 Devil dance Centerpiece of macrame......... 45 Digests of books..... 95, 96, 102, 111 Chain carving 66 Diving ...... 22sec eee cere ee 24, 60 Chair caning ........... Doctor, Camp, Degree.......... 139 Chair making ... . : Doll Dressing $8 Chariot model .. Drawing Cheese making Dressing skin . China painting Dressmaking Chinese models Driving Chinese pottery ..........-..- 53,91 Drying fruit or vegetables.35, 99, 119 Chrysalids 2.2... .s cece eee eres 83 Drying lavender or City hunter ....... 6. eee eee eee 93° verbena .......-.--4.. 34, 98,119 City Hunter Degree ..........-- 152 Dyeing .........- 34, 65, 77, 99, 119 Classification chart for athletics.. 21 Dye making ......... 34, 35,99, 119 Climbing the Mountain 4 Clothing making ........-. wae Eagle Sagamore requirements.... 11 Cocoons .......2- eee ee ee ee eee Eagle Sachem requirements...... Mi Codes oo. eee e ee eee eee ee eee ee 71 Eagle Sachem Ipawa requirements 11 Coffee and tea drinking.......... 41 Early culture models......... 47, 79 Coin collection ...........--... 70 Edible plants ............--. 70, 116 Colonial crafts .......... 34, 98, 119 Egg identifying ...........+-.-- 81 Colonia! Housekeeper Degree....141 Embroidery ..........+---+-++- 38 Collections ....70, 75, 84, 86, 87, 118 Engraving on hom...........-. 31 Committee, National Honors....- 10 Entertainer Degree............- 142 Committee, Tribal Honors...... 9 Entertaining ............--5 Communication ........--.05006 Equator travel Compass making Errands Compass points Eyesight Conjurer, Camp, Degree........ 149 Conservation ...........4. 3 Famous Americans ..........-- 96 Constellations ................. Farmer Degree ........-.----+- 143 Cook, Camp, Degree Farming ....-.-.....06. Cooking ........... Fasting .......-.-. ces e nsec eens 08 Corral .. 0... eee ee eee 27 Feeding station ...........- Corn husking ..............-2-- Ferns .....6-- eee eee ee eee ees 85 Corn husking peg ....... sees Fire bow ....-..-- eee eee neces Corn meal grinding... .. Fire keeper rank ..........---.. Costume making .......... . Fire Maiden Ceremony. . Costume, Woman’s Indian.. .42, 77 Fire making .......... Council planning ...71, 102, ‘108,109 Fireplace Council ring ........-.. 62. 109, 127 Fire set ...... Council ring model .......... 47, 79 Fire sticks Coup, definition of..........-... 7 Firewood cutting ............-- 28 Coups not listed................ 10 Fires, camp .......-. 0. eee eee 121 Covers for book............- 44, 45 Fires, forest .......-...0-2-00- 121 Cowboy Degree ...........-..- 150 First aid ...........-.00065 75, 122 Crafts, Colonial ......... 34, 98, 119 First Lamp in general .........- 20 Craftsman, Art, Degree.. ..131 Fish identifying ..........20205 81 Craftsman, Camp, Degree. ..138 Fishbone needle ............... 106 Craftsman, Indian, Degree...-.. 153 Fisherman Degree ........--..- 144 Crier Degree Fishing ....... 2.0... c eee ewes 38 Crocheting Fish net making................ 66 Crustaceans Flag history ............... 74, 104 Cuneiform inscriptions ...... $4, 107 Flint chipping ............. 25, 106 Cup, horn .........0.00 008s 31,117 Flour making .......... 30, 106, 115 a Flower box of cement........... 53 Dam building Flowers identifying ..40, 82, 121, 122 Dancing ......... Flowers, garden ............. 40, 82 Dancing class re Flowers, wild .. : Dancing Degree Flying stick .. Decoration Re. 77,90, 98, 101, 104, iy Folk songs ..............-- Deer, burlap ............... 32, 118 Fooderaft Degree ............-. 145 Degree hadge 2.2... 0... eee eee 13 Forester Degree ..........5-055 146 Degree, definition of............ 7 Forest fires oo... cc eee eee 75,121 179) INDEX — Continued

Forestry 39, 75, 121
Forestry Degree 148
Fossils 75
Foundation 118
Four poster 28, 114
Fourth Lamp in general 113
Fowl identifying 92, 93
Fowl raising 59
Furbearing animals 84
Furniture, camp 30, 116
Frame making 66, 67
Friend of Little Brothers Degree 147
Friend of Wild Life Degree 148
Fruits 82
Fruit drying 35, 99, 119
Game board 32, 118
Games, group 27
Garden flowers 40, 82
Gardening 40
General nature 82, 106
Geology 75
Germination 27, 74
Girls’ athletic standards 21
Gleeman Degree 149
Grain growing 106
Grand coup, definition of 7
Grand Eagle Sachem Requirements 11
Grand Eagle Sachem Ipawa requirements 11
Grand Eagle Sagamore requirements 11
Grand Sachem requirements 11
Grand Sachem Ipawa requirements 11
Grand Sagamore requirements 11
Grasses 82
Grass rug 31
Grass signs 94
Greek alphabet 107
Greek models 47, 79
Greek pottery 91
Grinding 30, 54
Guessing distance, etc. 70, 96
Guide badge 13
Gum, lye 119
Gun, pop or water 32, 118
Gymnasium 27
Hammock making 31, 66, 117
Handbag 45
Handicraft, backwoods 28, 114, 134
Handicraft, Indian 42, 6
Handspring 27
Harness 51
Harp making 54, 107
Hat making 98, 115
Hat band 62
Hay 37, 120
Headcheese 34, 99, 119
Headdress, Devil Dance 43, 77
Headdress, Indian 43, 77
Health 41, 75, 105, 122
Height guessing 70
Heliograph code 71
Herald 108, 150
Hieratic script 107
Hieroglyphics 54, 107
Hiking 63, 64, 94, 96
Hinges 28, 46, 114
History of flag 74, 104
Hollow tree 40, 121
Honor Band, Big Lodge 11
Honor Band, Little Lodge 12
Honors and awards 8
Horn articles 31, 98, 114
Horn cup 31
Horn, huntsman’s 31, 117
Horn lanthorn 114
Horns of High Hikers 43, 78
Horsehair 41
Horsehair strap 38
Horseman Degree 150
Housekeeping 123
Hunter Degree 151
Hunter in Town Degree 152
Hunter’s lamp 31, 32, 117, 118
Huntsman’s horn 31
Hutch for rabbits 59
Hut making 107
Illuminated manuscript 107
Indian bed 31
Indian Craftsman Degree 153
Indian handicraft 42, 76
Indian legends 73
Indian lore Degree 154
Indian relics 70
Indian well 30, 115
Ink prints 86, 87
Insect Degree 135
Insects 83
Installation ceremony 108
Instrumental solo 105
Ivory bow 38, 104
Javelins 55, 107
Jerky 30, 115
Jessup, Stephen M., credit to 21
Jewelry 46
Kite making 32, 118
Kneading trough 31, 117
Knitting 43, 125
Knocker 46
Knots 43, 78
Knots of leather thongs 61
Knots, Macrame 45
Knotting 66
Kyacks 51
Lacing 45
Lamp, hunter’s 117, 118
Lantern 28, 46, 114
Lard 34, 99, 119
Lariat 62
Lasso throwing 51
Latch 28, 114
Latitude from stars 93, 94
Latrine 76, 122
Lavender 34, 98, 119
Leach tub 34, 99, 119
Leather work 44, 69, 77
Leggings 42, 77

180) 174 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll INDEX—Continued Lemon verbena .......-.+ 34, 98, 119 Length guessing ........+-+--+5 70 Liches ....cceececeerseec eens . 85 Life Buoy .....ce ee ee eee eee 76, 122 Linked leather ...---- see e eens 4 Little Lodge coup ruling we eeees 9 Little Lodge graduation......... 15 Little Planter Degree........... 155 Lizards 1... cece eee cee rece e eens 85 Local information ..........+--- Log riding .....-.0e eres een eeee Loom beading .. Loom making Loom weaving Lore, Indian, Degree Lower animals ...... Lower Animals Degree Lye gum tub .......-..-..--- Lye making ............ Macrame .....cee eee ere eeee Mammals ........... Maple juice ......... ccs "30, 11 5 Maple SYTUP wc ccc ceeeneeeereee 30 Mapping ........6.6- beeen ena 94 Marketting etn ween teen eee 37, 120 Mat ...cccence eens 29, 45, 98, 115 Mayan models ........--+.+- 47, 79 Measuring distance, etc. ........ edals oo... cece eee eee eee 76, 123 Medicine bag .........-4.2-- 43, 77 Metal work . Mill models . . 47, Minerals ........ . .» 7S Ming porcelain .........-.--0-5 53 Miniatures, see Models Moccasin making ..........- 42, 76 Moccasin Runner Degree ....... 156 Models 1.2.0... . 0c eee e eee eee 46, 79 Mohammedan models ........ 47, 79 Morse code ......-.. eee eevee 71 Moses cece eee cece eee e ences 108 Mosses 2.0... ccc eee e eee 85 Moths 0.0... cece cece eee eee 83 Motoring 1... cece eee eee wees 48 Motto carving ....... ace wer eee 67 Mountain climbing ............. 48 Mountaineer Degree ............ 157 Mountain travel ........... 63, 110 Mowing ...... cece ee eee ee eens 125 Mushrooms .........-.0 eee eee Music .......0... 000 Music, Wood, Degree Myer signalling ...... Name plate ..........00020000- Naming ceremony ...........-. Napery .... cece cee e eee ee eee National Honors Committee .. 10 Nature ..........006 50, 80, 106, 125 Nature calendar ............... 82 Nature songs ..........0000- 73, 104 Nature trail ............0008 83, 126 Navaho loom ...........000000: 66 Neatsfoot oil ........... 34, 99, 119 Necktie 2.0.2... cee eee eee eee 45 Needle, fishbone ............... 106 Needlepoint ........-.--ee-eee 58 Nesting box .......e+e-ee0> 81, 125 Nests ...... . 80, 81 New member . .109 Noggin .....-+0ee000 -31, 117 Non Rowering plants pee eceaceee 8s Observation ........-eeeeeeees 87 Oil, neatsfoot ........+.- 34,99, 119 Open windows .........+--+055 41 C0 75 Orientation ........e eee ee rece 118 Outdoors sleeping ......41, 105, 107 Oven building .......--.+-- 30, 115 Pack animal ............- eeeeee $1 Packing blanket rolls s....e. 59, 126 Paddle making 31,117 Pageants ..... . Pagoda model . Painting Panniers .... . os Pantomimes .........+ ee neee Parachute making .....-..----- 69 Parchment ......-eeeeeeeceees 52 Parfleche bag .....--2ee-eeee 42, 77 Parthian bow ....--.eeee eee cees 54 Patchwork quilt ....... sees ceee 119 Pathfinder requirements ......-. 10 Pathfinder, granting rank ....... i Pathfinder ceremony ........+-+ 108 Peace messenger ....--+- aeeeee 71 Peace pipe carving .....---.--- 66 Peace pipe ceremony ..........- 108 Pemmican making ......- face eee Pest destroying ..... 74, 119, a Photography 8 Pictographs Picture frames Pillow top .......2-0006 we Pilot license ........-.002 0-0 eee Pipes, reed ........... Plaits of leather thongs ........- 62 Planets 2... cc cece eee wens 86 Plank hewing ..... eee ee aces 28, 114 Plans for farm .........00-005- 74 Planter Degree .........006- 1.157 Planter, Little, Degree......... 155 Planting ......... 37, 40, 54, 74, 120 Plants, edible ....,.-...-.-- 70, 116 Plaster casts .........20- ee eee 86 Playground and Recreation Assn. 24 Plays wv... see eee 72, 74, 102, 104 Pleides oo. eee eee eee eee ee 36 Pocket knife coups ............. 52 Poem reciting Poem writing . Pop gun ..... .72, 74, 102, 104 . 72, 73, 103 «32, 118 Porcelain 22... 0... cece ec eee 53 Porcupine quill work ..... 29,42, 77 Potter Degree ........-....-0-5 158 Pottery ... ccc cee eee eee ee Prayer oo. e cece cee eens 108 Prayer rug ... Preserving Primitive civilizations ...... -53, 106 Printing, block or stick......... 101 181) Coups and Degrees 175 INDEX—Continued Prints ..ccc sce cc eee nescence 86 Promotion .....scceceuconee + 112 Purse, leather ............-.0.-6 44 Quicksight 6... eee eee 37, 74 Quill work ....6...eeeee '29, 42, a tile oo. eee ewe eee ee Levee e vows UITt ccc cece reese eer eccees 2 Rabbit hutch . «. 59 Rabbit raising .. -. 59 Rabbit spotting -36, 37 Radio ....... -55, 91 Raft building .... avenee - 65 Rag rug making ..........++-.-. 66 Rail splitting ............46--.-114 Raising animals ,...........59, 127 Ranch work ...........-055 37, 120 Ranger badge ........seeee0-+- 13 Ranks, Big Lodge ............. 10 Ranks, Little Lodge wees ceseses 10 Rattles ook. ee eee cee eee 42, 77 Rawhide ..........2.22.. 38, $2, 77 Reaping .......- eee eeee 37, 74, 120 RecitationS ..........e eee 71, 102 Red Cross ....... eee e ee ee eee Reed pipes ...........0.46..54, 107 Repeaters, rules for seen cece ene 7 Reptiles oo... cee cee ee eee eee 85 Reviews of books... 98, 96, 102, 111 Revolver shooting ...........65 61 Riata oo... eee eee ee «2-44, 78 Rice, wild 40, 121 iding ... 56 Rifle shooting 61 Robe (ill. cc eee e cece cece e eee 19 Robe making .........200e000e5 57 Robe, Sagamore .......0-00.0008 18 Robe, Tribal .................2. 18 Rocks ......... Ober ec enee 75 Roman life models - eeeeeeee ns 47, 79 Rope making ........... -43, 44, 78 Roping ....... dee e nee reeneeee 56 Rosette beading ..... sac eeecees 29 Rowboat trip ...........0005 64, 94 Rowing ..-... esse e cece cee 24 Rug making ..... 31, 43, 45, 66, 117 Runic alphabet ......... eeeeve 107 Runner, Moccasin, Degree seeeee 156 Rushes ..... ces ceceeeseeeeees Rush seat ..............29, 98, 133 Sachem Ipawa requirements .... 11 Sachem requirements ........... il Saddle trip .............+..-63, 110 Sagamore ceremony ...........108 Sagamore requirements ......... 11 Sagamore robe making ......... $7 Sail boat model .............47, 79 Sail boat trip oo... cece essccees. OF Sailing boat .... Sampler ...... Samples of stitches Sanctuary ....... Sausage making ..... Scrap book ........eee eee enee 101 Scraper... cc eee rece nee ee 53, 106 Scripture characters ..... Scripture subject models .....47, 79 Sea animals ... Seal ...... Sealing wax ... Seamanship Degree Seat, rush ............5 Second Lamp, in general - Sedges ..sseevccccccsceceecces 82 Seeding 6... cece eee eee eee Seed pods ......0c cece cca renee Seeds... csccc cree ener een eenae 82 Seed tester... 0 ccc seene eee 37, 74 Self control ......e. eee e seen 108 Self reliance ......0.c.ceeeeeees 92 Semaphore code ........-...055 71 Sewing ........0..000e 57, 106, 126 Shaman badge .........-.0.006- 13 Sharpshooter Degree ..........- 161 Sheath ........ ence eee eee eens 44 Shells .......... vee cere eens 84 Shelter .. 0... cc eee e eee eee 54, 126 Shield making ........ «.+35, 43, 71 Shingles ....... 2 cece eee 28, 114 Ship models .............5++47, 80 Shirt, war ... wane e 42, 77 Shoe soling ~. 44 Shrubs ....... 86 Side walks clean ..............5 2s Sign language ....... “754, 70, 71, 107 Signs and blazes ......-.....0-- 94 Silver ole ccc eee eee 42,46, 76 Silver button making ........ 42, 76 Sin, besetting .........-. 0000: 108 Singing pete et en eeee +... 105, 106 Skinning ... cece eee eee 50, 86 Skin tanning ......... 51, 53, 86, 106 Skiis ....... ay 31, 118 Sleeping bag eect eee ee neee $7 Sleeping outdoors ....... 41, 105, 107 Small stock farming ..... 59, 92; 127 Smoke prints ....... sete en ane 86, 87 Smoke signals ..........0eeeeee 94 Snakes ...... . 85 Snow scooter . . Snowshoe making . wee e31, 117 Soap making ............ 34, 99, 119 Socks, knitting .........005 seas 43 Somersault ......ce. eee seeeee 27 Songs, folk ...........0005 105, 106 Song writing ...........-6. 105, 106 Spear making ...........31, 35, 117 Spiders ... cc ccseesencescerees 85 Spinning ......... teeeeee sees Spiritual leaders ............ Spirtual life ........c0000e Splicing 2... cece cece e ee eees Spool mat ....-.....ee sees Spot the rabbit . Stamp collection Stars ...c ecw eee eee _ Star Wiseman Degree .......... 162 Statuettes ...........47, 53, 79, 106 Stock farming .........-++.. 3, 93 Stockings, knitting ............. 43 182) 176 Woodcraft Birch Bark Roll INDEX—Continued Stone signs .......eee eee eee Stool, tilting .......--6-e-6- Stop-watch, use of.....--.--+50- Story telling ......-6-+e-05> Story writing se Strongman Degree . Sugar, maple ...... . Sumerian seal ........-- : Sundial .. 0.0.0... cece eee er eee Sun tan... cece cee eee eee Swallow bank ......-..6.--- Sweater making ........6-.0055 Sweat lodge ...... 0.2.2 eens Swimmer Degree ........---0405 Swimming Syrups oe e eee eee Tabernacles, Feast of. Table building ...... Tallow making .........- Tally book ............0..05--5. 101 Tally keeper oo... 0... c eee eee Tally, Tribal ...... 00... eee eee Tankard 2.0... cece cee eee eee Tanning skin ......... Tapestry making .........-- 5, 108 Tape weaving ........... eens Target 0... lice cece ee eee 25 Target shooting ............ 61, 25 Taxidermy oe eee eee eee ee 50, 86 Tea and coffee drinking ......... 41 Teacher Degree ..............5 164 Team, athletic .............-06 27 Tea set co.cc cece cee eee ee eee 46 Tepee ..... 59, 126 Teeth brushing .. -. 41 Telegraph making ............-. 71 Tent making ............00. 59, 126 Tepee model ........-...0.05 47, 79 Thesis 2... 0. ee cece cece ee 96, 112 Third Lamp in general ......... 97 Thong beading ............0005 29 Thong plaiting ................ 61 Thong strap ....... cee eee eee 38 Three Years Service Degree..... 165 Tilting spears .............. 31, 117 Tilting stools ............... 32, 118 Tin candicraft ................ 62 Tinder horn ...............0005 38 Tin jewelry ................00. 62 Tomtom making ..... 43, 54, 78, 107 Tombe or war drum making wane 78 Tools, camp ............... Tools, use of .......... . Topography seen Torch making .. Totem making ... Totem pole making . Totems Towncraft) ......... Tracking irons ................ 46 Tracks oo... eee eee 86 Trail following ............. 68, 110 Trail making .............. 62, 128 Trail marking ................. 94 Trail, mature 2.6... ee 83, 126 Translation from foreign languages .......2---------- Travel .......6..06 62, 93, 109, 128 Traveler Degree ...........-0-. Tray making .........---.-+8: 118 Treading barrel ........- ee eeee 27 Tree chopping ..........-. «-27, 114 Tree planting . 39, 121, 12 Trees Tribal Honors “Committee - Tribe chartering .............-- 127 Tripolium ..........-.-- 34, 98, 119 Trough, kneading ........-. 31, 117 Truth seeker ............-4- 95, 110 Tub for lye gum or leach..... 99,119 Tumbler oo... eee eee eee eee 27 Turtles oo. cece eee eee 85 Twig signs ........--....---55 94 Unpleasant duty ............-.+ 108 Vegetable drying ............-. 35 Verbena drying ......... 34, 98, 119 Vigil 20.02. e eee eens 108 Viking model ............-.. 47, 80 Village Scout Degree ........... 166 Vivarium «1. eee eee eee &4 Walking ..........-.-000-5 64, 96 Warbonnet ...........-.-65- 42, 77 War chariot model .......... 47, 79 War drum or tombe.........-.- 78 War shirt .............000.. Watch fob ............ 0000-0 ee Waterbearer rank . . Water boiling ... Water drinking .. Water gun ..............--. Water mill model Water skill ............. Water wheel ............... 32, 118 Wattle hut ................. Wayseeker requirements ........ 10 Weaving 2.0.0.2... eee eee 65, 66 Weed destroying ............-- 120 Weeds identifying ....... 74, 82, 120 Well Indian ............... 30, 115 Wheat culture .........-..-5 54, 106 Whistle ...........- 32, 54, 107, 118 Whiteman’s Woodcraft Degree. 187 Wigwag oo. eee eee ee eee eee 40, 131 163, 110 39 Wild celery bed .. Wilderness travel ... Wild flower planting Wild flowers Wild rice bed Windmill model ............. “0, 80 Window box ............000505 Witnesses of coups ...........-5 7 Wise Woodman Degree ......-- 167 Woman's costume, Indian ...... 42 Woodcarving .........-00.0005 66 Wood collection ............665 87 Woodman rank .............0-5 10 Woodman, Wise, Degree.......< £167 Wood Music Degree ........... 168 Wood work ..........5..00055 ~118 183) Dar mlad$i dcery L.Th. Sctona TEE SETCY BARBER Seton VYillaze,Santa Fe, Nil. ceji osouni exernplaf,opatte- ny Ex liporis. Serven 1972. tet 184) 185)

Seton Village
Santa Fe – New Mexico
mr. Jan Niebauer
Holesov, Nerudova 320
okres Kromeriz, Czechoslovakia
Dee Beton Barber
Seton Village
Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501
Došlo 20.6.1972

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