Birch Bark Roll (proof) 1916 (kniha)

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3) 4)



Founded 1902


Mark Sullivan, Secretary           Elon Huntington Hooker, Treasurer
Philip D. Fagans, Executive Secretary


John L. Alexander      Carl E. Ekstrand      Grace Parker      Grace Gallatin Seton      Grace Cotton      Anne S. Grumman      May Folwell Hoisington      Harvey C. Went      Hamlin Garland, Historian      Jean W. Miller, Asst. Secretary      and the officers


John Burroughs

Irving Bacheller

Neltje Blanchan

E. C. Bishop

Stephen A. Breed

Dr. Frank M. Chapman

Roland Ray Conklin

Natalie Curtis

Hon. Frank I. Cohen

William C. Demorest

Frank N. Doubleday

Mrs. C. Tarbell Dudley

Ivan P. Flood

W. H. Folwell

Dr. Wm. Byron Forbush

Frederic R. Hoisington

Madison Grant

Mrs. Elon H. Hooker

Mrs. T. Charlton Hudson

James L. Hughes

Joseph Howland Hunt

Mrs. Charles D. Lanier

Enos Mills

Preston G. Orwig

Rev. Perry Edwards Powell

Prof. W. H. Scherzer

Bernard Sexton

Hugh Smiley

William H. Thompson

Dr. Henry van Duke

Prof. Charles D. Walcott

John J. Watson, Jr.

George L. White

and the Council of Guidance

The Woodcraft Movement, which was founded in April, 1902, was announced as a “character-making movement with a blue sky method, for all ages and both sexes”.

It is primaríly an educational movement with outdoor activities.

It utilizes character-building forces in the form of recreation.

It works primarily with Woodcraft in its widest sense, which includes swimming, boating, camping, forestry, nature-study, scouting, photography, etc.

It counts enormously on the magic of the camp-fire.

It establishes self-government with adult guidance.

It sums up training as perfect development with perfect self-control.

It recognizes the beauty of Common Things.

It never forgets the power of poetry, ceremony, romance, and the appeal to the ímagination.

It aims to fix in the mind of our youth with reproductive cleamess an ideal figure, physically strong, a trained athlete, dignified, courteous, self-controlled, happy in helping, equipped for emergencies, wise in the ways of the Woods, in touch with the world of men and affairs, not specialized, but of such all-round development that he can quickly be made a specialist in any needy place, and filled with a religion that consists not of mere observances, but a well-considered plan of life that makes him desired and helpful here to-day. 5) Birch Bark Roll


Big Lodge



Proof Copy

Copyright, Ernest Thompson Seton

Prepared. by the Girls Manual Committee









13 W. 29th St., New York City, N.Y. 6)

Copyright, 1916


All right: reserved, including that of
translation into foreign languages,
including the Scandinavian



8) ii Contents IV. Councils . . . . V. The Rulers of the Tribe VI. Changes of the Law VII. Dues . . . . . VIII. Conñdential . . IX. Laws and Punishments Tma BAND . THE INBRINGING or A Nawcomx . INSTALLATION 0:5* THE HIGHER RANKS THE CONFERRING or HONORS AND DEGREES The Ceremonial Name of Honor . HONORS m WOODCRAFT . Badges for Coups The Badges for a Degree Additional List of Coups Bird Sharp Degree of Hostess Laundry Expert . Housekeeper . Hunter in Town . Needlewoman . . Canner and Jelly Maker Colonial Housekeeper Home Cook . STANDARDS or HONORS . . . Class I. Red Honors-Heroism Riding . . . . General Athletics . Water-Sports and Travel . Mountain-Climbing (all Afoot) . Coup . . . . 38 45 46 46 9) Contents Grand Coup . . . . . . Target-Shooting Eyesíght . . . . Big-Game Hunting . . . . . Class II. Campercraft and Scouting Archery . . . Long Range, Clout, or Flight Sllooting. Fishing Bait-Casting . . . . . Class III. Nature Study-Vertebrates Nature Study-Lower Forms of Life Geology, etc. . . Photography Tma DEGREES IN Wooncxur . Camper Camp Cook . Camp Craftsman Camp Doctor Canoeman Fisherman Forester Frontier Scout . Gleeman or Camp Conjurer Herald or Crier . Horseman. Hunter Mountaineer . . . Pathfmder or Scout . Scout Runner Sharpshooter . Star Wiseman Swimmer . Traveler. . . . . . .. Village Scout or Big Village Scout. White Man's Woodcraft xrxrxrxrxrxrxroxooxoxoxoxoxoxoxcxoxoxcnmcn uxcncncn UlUILA-Ď-F mwnr-cv-Ioooooxrxroxmm-Iăwnł-Ioxoxoox Oxmm-lät-łçwmnxooo 10) iv Contents Wise Woodman . The Storm Cloud Dance . . . The Hopi Spring Corn Dances. . . . The Spring Dance, or the Planting of the Cern Corn Dance (The Fall Dance). ?A GE 11) Bitch Bark Roll THE MANUAL OF THE GIRLS OF THE Big Lodge WOODCRAFT LEAGUE 1916 12)13) THE WOODCRAFT GIRLS HOW TO FORM A TRIBE THE TWELVE SECRETS OF THE WOODS Do you know the twelve secrets of the woods? Do you know the umbrella that stands up spread to show that there is a restaurant in the cellar? Do you know the "manna-food" that grows on the rocks, summer and winter, and holds up its hands in the Indian sign of "innocencece" so all who need may know how good it is? Do you know the vine that climbs above the sedge to whisper on the wind "There are coconuts in my basement?" Can you tell why the rabbit puts his hind feet down ahead of his front ones as he runs? Can you tell why the squirrel buríes every other nut and who it was that planted those shag-barks all along the fence? Can you tell what the woodchuck does in midwinter and on what day? Have you learned to know the pale villain of the open woods - the deadly amanita, for whose fearful poison no remedy is known? Have you learned to overcome the poison ivy that was once so feared-now so lightly held by those who know? Have you proved the balsam fir in all its fourfold gifts-as Christmas tree, as healing balm, as consecrated bed. as wood of friction fire? Can you read the story on the Council Robe? Have you tasted the bread of Wisdom, the treasure that cures much ignorance, that is buried in the aisle of Jack-o-Pulpit's Church? Can you tell what walked around your tent on the thirtieth night of your camp-out? Then are you wise. You have learned the twelve secrets of the woods. But if you have not, come and let us teach you. 14) HOW TO FORM A TRIBE OF WOODCRAFT GIRLS The Tribe is the unit of organization. It consists of not less than ten members, all over twelve years of age, and an adult guide. These ten members must be in two Bands, five being the minimum and ten the maximum of a Band. The Tribe must have a Guide for every ten members enrolled and at least one, the Head Guide, must be over twenty-one years of age. A Tribe should receive a. Scroll of Authority (or Charter) which empowers its Council of Leaders (i. e., the Guides, the Tribal Chief, the Shamans, Sagamores, and Sachems) to confer honors according to the strict laws of the Birch Bark Roll. They may confer these on their own members or on the members of attached Bands of other chartered Tribes. To form a Tribe, get together not less than ten young people who wish to join, and who are qualified, or will at once qualify in the following: Over twelve years of age. Know the twelve laws of the Lodge. Take one of the initiations. Be voted in unanimously by the rest of the group. With them there must be at least one woman over twenty-one years old who is willing to act as Guide. There must be one Guide for every ten members. Select a name for the Tribe, usually it is some Indian name, preferably of historic or special interest, and Totem or Symbol. Then apply for a Charter, i. e.; send to the Great Central Camp (Headquarters) for an application form, ñll it out and return it promptly. When properly filled out and forwarded with $3.00, the Charter is sent and with it is given the following necessary outfit. The $3.OO Charter Outfit:
1 Charter . . . . . . . . $1.00
11 Badges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.10
1 Birch Bark Roll . . . . . . . . . . . .25
2 Grand Coups (for costume). . . . . . . . .20
5 Coups (for costume) . . . . . . . . . .25
1 Pad of Honor Claims . . . . . . . . . .15
Postage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Tally Book . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
1 Guide's Commission . . . . . . . . . . .50
Circulars, etc., . . . . . . . . .
Total list price . . $4.05
But given as above for $3.00
15) The $4.00 Charter Outfit is the same but has added:– The “Book of Woodcraft”, $1.75, published by Doubleday, Page & Company. It is strongly recommended as an essential part of the equipment of a Tribe. For the convenience and economy of the local work Headquarters is arranging a method of leasing to a local Guide in good Standing a rubber stamp which may be used on Coup and Grand Coup badges made by members of the Tribe to make them official. In this case the material may be purchased at Headquarters or locally in bulk and the badges made at home. Meanwhile, elect from the enrolled members (for one year or until their successors are appointed) a Chief. There should also be a Tally Keeper (or Secretary) and a Wampum Keeper (or Treasurer). Decide what dues are to be paid into the Tribal funds (about five cents a week is usual.) The Tribe should now divide up into Bands of not less than five or more than ten. Each selects a name, although that can come later when a good name is suggested by some interesting circumstance, or some special interest. Each Band has its own elected Chief, also its Tally Keeper and Wampum Keeper, though these are not much needed if the members are always with the Tribe, and in any case, they rank below the Tribal officers. For each Band in the Tribe there must be a Guide. That is, a Tribe of five Bands should have five Guides, one of whom acts as Head Guide. With the Scroll of Authority will come Members’ Badges, Honor Blanks, Coup Badges, and a Tally (Record Book). On the first pages of the Tally are blanks for the Guides to sign, showing the acceptance of the constitution: and later, places for every enrolled member to sign. When these things are done, the Tribe may be considered founded. One of the Guides should learn the Ritual of the Council, and should as soon as possible conduct a Council where the members can sit in a circle around a Wood Fire. The circle should have at least twenty feet and not more than thirty feet clear space inside. (See Council Ring, p. 266, “Book of Woodcraft”.) Until some one has learned to light the fire with the rubbing sticks, it may be necessary to use matches, and that part of the Ritual relating to the Sacred Fire is omitted. In any case, the full Ritual is used only on special occasions or Grand Council. In case the Council is indoors, substitute the Shrine of 16) the Fourfold Hope instead of the Wood Fire. This consists of a flat centre 18 x 18 inches, with Zuni sand paintings representíng the four corners of the earth. Around the central fire; at each of the corners is a candle in a pottery socket, and in the centre a fire bowl to hold the fire after it is made by the rubbing sticks. The candles are named Fortitude, Beauty, Truth, and Love. The candles are long enough to burn two hours. The centre fire is allowed to die after the candles are lighted. At each side of the Shrine is a flap that may be folded up to protect the candles from drafts or flying skirts. The first thing to interest the newcomer is usually the honors and decorations. Let each member study the Birch Bark Roll to see which are within reach, and having performed the exploit, present a properly witnessed Honor Claim at the next Council. (See Honor Claim Blanks.) In time each will have a Ceremonial Dress and Council Robe, but these come later. THE LAWS The laws for the Woodcraft Girls (and for the leaders as far as possible) are: 1. Be brave. Courage is the noblest of all gifts. 2. Be silent, while your elders are speaking and otherwise show them deference. 3. Obey. Obedience is the first duty of the Woodcraft Girl. 4. Be clean. Both yourself and the place you live in. 5. No smoking and na drug habits. 6. Protect all harmless wild-life conserve the woodsand flowers, and especially be ready to fight wild-fire in forest or in town. 7. Word of honor is sacred. 8. Play fair. Foul play is treachery. 9. Respect all worship of the Great Spirit. 10. Be kind. Do at least one act of unbargaining kindness every day. 11. Be helpful. Do your share of the work. 12. Be joyful. Seek the joy of being alive. THE INITIATION TRIALS 'The Trial to be Selected by the Guide or the Council of Leaders 1. Silence. Keep absolute silence for six hours during the daytime in camp while freely mixing with the life of the Camp. 17) In the city keep silence from after school till bed time for three days. 2. Keep good-natured. Keep absolutely unruffied, for one day of twelve hours, giving a smiling answer to all, no matter what they say or do; but physical violence is forbidden. 3. Keep a straight face for one hour, in spite of all attempts of others to make the candidate laugh. They may even tickle her face with a feather – but do nothing to cause pain or distress. 4. Exact obedience. For one week give prompt, smiling obedience to parents, teachers, and those who have authority over you. This must be certified to by those in question. 5. Show a useful woodcraft article made by herself, as a basket, a bed, a lamp, a bow, a set of fire-sticks, etc. 6. She must take five coups according to the standard of her age. 7. Sleep out, without a built roof overhead for three consecutive nights, or ten, not consecutive. 8. Fast far twenty-four hours. Summary of Requirements in the BIG LODGE Wayseeker To qualify for a Big Lodge Tribe, that is, to enter as a Wayseeker one must: Be over twelve years of age. Know the twelve laws. Take one of the initiations. Be voted in unanimously by the other members of the group. Having passed this, the candidate becomes a Wayseeker and receives the Big Lodge Badge of the lowest rank, that is, with two green tassels on it. The next higher rank is that of Pathfinder. Pathfinder To win the rank of Pathfinder, at least fifteen of the following tests must be taken: 1. Walk six miles in two hours and write a satisfactory account of it. 2. Swim fifty yards. 3. Understand and demonstrate the use of hatchet and whittling knife. 18) 4. Tie five of the following standard knots: slip, double bow, running noose, halter, square, timber hitch, bowline, hard loop. 5. Light ten successive camp-fires with ten matches, wildwood materials only. 6. Know the Pole Star, the Two Dippers, and at least five of the other constellations. 7. Know twenty forest trees, fruit, leaf, trunk, and qualities of wood. 8. Know ten native birds and something about their habits. 9. Know five edible wild plants. 10. Must have one month’s honorable service without stain on record in Big Lodge as Wayseeker. 11. Have planted successfully four kinds of forest trees. 12. Follow a trail accurately a quarter of a mile in one hour without snow. 13. Enlist a new member in one of the Lodges. 14. Must have slept out thirty nights. 15. Keep silence unbroken for twelve hours in camp or town during daytime. 16. Must have abstained from any kind of chewing gum for three months. 17. Make and place six successful bird boxes. 18. Have cooked nine digestible meals by the camp-fire for not less than five others. 19. Know ready help for sick or hurt. (See “Book of Woodcraft”, pp. 309-318.) 20. Must have done at least one act of kindness each day for three months without a break. 21. Have taught another to swim. 22. Know two hundred signs of the Indian Sign Language. 23. Have made a beaded Head-band and have Ceremonial Costume made by self. When at least fifteen of these tests have been satisfactorily passed the member is called out in Council, the Guide in charge tells of it in as much detail as is needed. Then taking a pair of scissors or a knife, announces: “Now, therefore, acting for the Council, I clip from this member’s badge, the first emblem of inexperience. the tassel of green, and consign it to the flames.” Then shaking hands with the candidate says: “I now declare complete your installation as a Pathfinder.” 19) Winyan (That is, a Woman Tried and Proven) T0 become a Winyan, the Pathfinder must take at least twenty of the following tests: 1. Walk seven miles in two hours and write an account of it. 2. Swim one hundred yards in three minutes. 3. Single paddle a canoe one mile in twenty minutes. 4. Know how to splice a rope, and lash a rope end. 5. Make a rubbing-stick fire with tools made by self. 6. Make a stick bed; or else a serviceable bow and arrow. 7. Set up a tepee, or a two-man tent, single-handed. 8. Be able to make a comfortable, rainproof shelter, and a dry comfortable bed, also light a fire and cook a meal, with no tools or utensils but a hatchet and what one can make with it. 9. Know twenty-five native wild birds. 10. Know ten native wild quadrupeds. 11. Know thirty forest trees or shrubs, show appropriate camp articles made from five kinds of the same. 12. Know twenty wild flowers. 13. Know and show use of five medicinal herbs. 14. Plant successfully ten desirable trees or ten wild flowers or plants. 15. Organize a clean-up, covering at least one block in town. 16. Must have successfully run a camp not less than seven for at least a week, or if not in camp must have led a Band for a month. 17. Show by examination and practice a good acquaintance with all the essentials of modern etiquette: Forms of address, salutation, introduction, calling, etc. 18. Advanced first aid: Know the methods for panic prevention: what to do in case of fire, ice, electric, and gas accidents; how to help in case of runaway horses, mad dog or snake bite, treatment for dislocations, unconsciousness, poisoning, fainting, apoplexy, sunstroke, heat exhaustion and freezing; know treatment for sunburn, ivy poisoning, bites, and stings, nosebleed, earache, toothache, inflammation or grit in eye, cramp or stomach-ache and chills; demonstrate artificial respiration. 19. Know how to make and run a latrine. 20. Dance any good camp-fire dance and teach it to a group. 21. Run the Council, including singing the Omaha and any acceptable “Good-night Song”. 22. Have done a daily good turn for six moons. 20) 23. Must have kept good temper, quite unruffied for seven suns. 24. Must have abstained from besetting sin one moon (thirty days). 25. Have spoken no evil of any one for one moon. 26. Have read any one of the great books that are religious guides of her people and written a digest of the same. (One of the Gospels, for example, not the whole Bible, would be reckoned a book.) Now, as before, the Guide testifies in Council, the Pathfinder has the last green tassel cut from her Badge and is installed as a Winyan of the Big Lodge. Titles and Officers Guide – one twenty-one years of age, of good character, associated with some Woodcraft Tribe and actually giving time to leading in Woodcraft Work. Also qualified or willing to qualify within a year as Gleeman or Council Leader. Is responsible to Headquarters for work of Tribe. Assistant Guide – one eighteen years of age of good character, willing to give time to leading a Band in Woodcraft Work. Shaman – a Guide who has qualified as Camper, Camp Doctor, Camp Cook, and Council Leader. Chief – a member of one of the Bands or Tribes appointed as Leader by the Guide or elected by the members of the Tribe with the Guide’s approval. She acts as the representative of the members, and coöperates with the Guide in conducting the work of the Tribe. Tally-Keeper – a member of a Band or Tribe appointed by the Guide, or by the Chief with the approval of the Guide, to act as Secretary and keep the Tally. Wampum-Keeper – a member of the Band or Tribe appointed by the Guide or by the Chief with the Guide’s approval to act as Treasurer. Sometimes it may be wise to have one member hold both this and the preceding office. Wayseeker – the lowest rank in the Big Lodge. Pathfinder – the next or second rank in the Big Lodge. Winyan – the highest rank in the Big Lodge. Sagamore – a member who has won twenty-four Coups or Honors. Grand Sagamore – a member who has won twenty-four Grand Coups or High Honors. 21)Sachem – a member who has won forty-eight Coups or Honors. Grand Sachem – a member who has won forty-eight Grand Coups or High Honors. Fire-Keeper – a member of the Band or Tribe appointed by the Chief to attend to the Council Fire for any given period. Chief or the Dog Soldiers – chief of a small body of police appointed by the Chief. Band – a group of not less than five or more than ten members under a Chief and a Guide. The Band cannot bestow honors, but must receive them from the Tribal Council. Tribe – a group of not less than two Bands, that is at least ten members, chartered from Headquarters, and empowered to bestow honors and degrees according to the laws of the Birch Bark Roll. The maximum number in a Tribe is fifty members. RITUAL OF THE COUNCIL When all are assembled and seated, give a short roll of the drum. Then let the Guide or the appointed Chief of the Council call out: “My friends, give ear – we hold a Council”; or if using the Indian words, “Yo-hay-y-y-y, Yo-hay-y-y-y! Meetah Kola Nahoonpo Omnee-chee-yay nee-chopi”. The Chief still standing now says in a loud clear voice: “Now light we the Council Fire after the manner of the Forest children, not in the way of the white man, but – even as Wakonda himself doth light his fire – by the rubbing together of two trees in the storm-wind, so cometh forth the sacred fire from the wood of the forest.” (He uses the drill; the smoke comes, the flame bursts forth.) “Now know we that Wakonda, whose dwelling is above the Thunder-bird, whose messenger is the Thunder-bird, hath been pleased to smile on His children, hath sent down the sacred fire. By this we know He will be present at our Council, that His wisdom will be with us. (The firewood is ready prepared and the blazing tinder is thrust into it. As it catches and grows, the Chief calls out): “This is our Fire of Council in which we every one have part, so let each come now and add her fuel portion to the flame.” All the first rank of the Council stand, go forth, holding up in one hand a dry fire-stick or fuzz-stick, carefully selected and prepared before hand. (Very small if for indoor Council.) Holding this stick high in the air, they look up, match once around the fire singing the “Payyo” or Hither Thunder: “Oh, 22) Thou, who rumblest in the Heavens, we reverently salute Thee”. (If indoors stand without marching holding one hand with the stick toward the fire and one hand straight up.) Music From “The Indians’ Book” by Natalie Curtis; pub. Harper Bros., by special permission. Then they cast each their stick into the flames or fire-pot, and retire to their seats. Chief calls out: “Thus, since all have lent their help the Council-fire becomes the Council-fire of all. Now as incense to the Great Spirit, burn we of the red willow bark, the sacred tree, the Kinnikinik, that grows in the earth with its feet in the water, its hands to the sky and its fruit to the four Winds.” He puts a handful of the red Kinnikinik or a local substitute mixed with White Cedar Wood in the little fire pot, then lifts it, swings it, so the smoke and its fragrance are diffused and says, “As the smoke of this, the Four-Fold Plant goes up to Heaven so let the prayer of our Four-Fold Hope ascend to the Great Spirit, and because the power of smell to stir and hold the memory is greater than the other senses’ power, we know that henceforth ye who smell this smoke will ever after conjure up the pleasant thought and reverent mood of this our Council Ring.” “As the great Central Fire of all, reaches out to the Four Corners 23) of the earth and kindles blazing lights, so at our sacred symbol fire, light we our lamps, one each for Fortitude, Beauty, Truth and Love. And while these lights are blazing bright, we know that we shall grow.” “Four candles are there on the Shrine of this our Four-Fold Hope. And from them reach twelve rays – twelve golden strands of this, the Law, we hold. From the Lamp of Fortitude are These:Be Brave, for fear is in the foundation of all ill; unflinchingness is strength. Be Silent. It is harder to keep silence than to speak in the hour of trial, but in the end it is stronger. Obey, for obedience means self-control, which is the sum of the law. And These are the Rays from Beauty’s Lamp:Be clean, for there is no perfect beauty without cleanliness of body, soul and estate. The body is the sacred temple of the spirit, therefore reverence your body. Cleanliness helps first yourself, then those around, and those who keep this law are truly in their country’s loving service. Let not the poison of the daily drug make you its slave, for without health can neither strength nor beauty be. Protect all harmless wild-life, for the joy its beauty gives. And These are the Rays from the Lamp of Truth:Word of honor is sacred. This is the law of truth, and anyone not bound by this, cannot be bound; and truth is wisdom. Play Fair, for fair play is truth and foul play is treachery. Reverence all Worship of the Great Spirit, for none have all the truth, and all who reverently worship have claims on our respect. And These are in the Blazing Lamp of Love:Be kind. Do at least one act of unbargaining kindness every day, even as ye would enlarge the crevice whence a spring runs forth to make its blessings more. Be helpful. Do your share of the work for the glory that the service brings, for the strength one gets in serving. Be joyful. Seek the joy of being alive – for every reasonable gladness you can get or give is treasure that can never be destroyed 24) and like the springtime gladness doubles, every time with others it is shared.

Chief: What will ye do that these our candles four
Shall symbolize our hopes, and more and more

All: We will be brave, be silent and obey,
Protect wild life, be clean and seek fair play;
Be helpful, kind, rejoice, our word keep true,
And reverence give where reverence is due.

The Guide (or Chief) now speaks from the Council Rock: “Let the Keeper of the Tally call the roll.” (In large meetings this is done by Bands. Each leader stands as his Band is called by name, salutes the Chief and says: “Ten of our Band – all here”, or “Three here”, as the case may be.

After this is done, the regular order of parliamentary business is followed as below:

(For assent or approval, we say “How”; for “No” – “Wah”; for strong disapproval with some scorn – “Seecha”; the Chief at the Council Rock is addressed “O Chief” and speaks, not from the Chair but from “the Council Rock”. Anyone wishing to speak arises, salutes, says “O Chief” and waits until the Chief recognizes her by name or gesture, thus giving the sole right of speech for the time.)

Order of Doíngs in Council:

Roll Call

Tally of last Council or Report of Tally Keeper.

Tally of Wampum Keeper.

Business arising out of Tally.

Scouts report, also oñicers of the Day.

Left-over business.

For the good of the Tribe.

Honors claimed and awarded (previously passed in Committee).

New members.


Challenges, etc.


Songs, Dances, Stories.

Closing the Council with the Omaha Prayer as all stand about the fire with hands and faces upraised. 25) Birch Bark Roll for Girls 15 THE OMAHA TRIBAL 'PRAÍÉÍČ Harmonłzed by PROF. J. C. FILLHOIIJ Slow. Grave. Salewa. "p »a m ta lh IS á 1- -í :m- Wa-kon-da dhe - dhu Wa-pa dhin a. - ton obe. Can Pad. *i ľA !A lh fă HK fh í Wa-komda dhe - dhu Wa-pa-dhín a, - ten-he. th Pad. ale (By permission from Alice C. Fletcheťs " Indian Story and Song.") Translation: F ather a needy one stands before thee; I that sing am he. At the ñnal bars the hands and faces are lowered to the ñre. Then the Chief announces: “Our Council is ended, but our Council Fire burns; now, therefore, because there are hostile powers that would come when no man watches, and make of this blessed fire an evil thing to rob us of our heritage, it is the duty of our Fire Keeper to utterly quench our Council Fire or hedge it about with an impassable barrier so that the evil thing we hate come not upon us while we sleep." End Sometimes the Council is closed with another song such as the Zuni Sunset, or Bark Canoe, in which case the “0maha" is sung after the Burning of the Incense. 26) r6 Bitch Bark Roll for Girls THE CANOEISTS LOVE SONG' O] IBWAY läłñ ardar. mrkev' slowly I Chtel-bay t: bič on z n-day-alm, (Řłěűň - bay ft~ ' 1 Through-out the night I k a-wake, Through-out thenight z In my bircb cz-noe I see for ylou, ln. my birch ca-noe I

  • Where canstthoube, O mysweet- cart? Where canst !hou be, O

an l I zö-z j! 3 m!! | ě ü ' ~ 75"*: 7 *- ::tg- danoddy-alzn, al: - gak-malt .rx -bz m: - darbday-ahn. .ä-p Reg a-wake, Up - on a riv-er I keeť a-wake. se -for ion. U - on a riv-er I see for you. mysweet- cart? wake andseek thee,O (Omít . . . .) my sweet-heart. _ 9 r--n-v-F; J w-:äeuełär H C*-.P i* -5 'a -jí/a By permission from Frederick R. Burton's "American Primitíve Music," with adaptation by Wm. Brewster Humphrey. Decorum of Council Inthe Council noone maycross or remain within the open space, except the Chief presiding, the members speaking or performing, and the Keeper of the Fire when attending to the duties. Never- theless, the Fire Keeper must not tend the fire at a time when it will interfere with any performance or distract attention at an important moment. The oñicer in the chair is addressed, "O Chief." Those who would speak arise and salute, say "O Chief," then remain silent until recognized by the Chief, and bidden to speak. It is not proper to whisper in Council or laugh when a serious matter is being presented, or look around much, or heed not the speaker, nor should one make noise or tap with 0ne's feet or hands, or with a stick, or chew or eat or lounge about, or lie down, nor turn to look when some one arrives late, but in all wise act as though each speaker Were great and important, however much they may be otherwise. For this is good manners. 27) Bírch Bark Roll for Girls 17 CONSTITUTION OR THE LAWS FOR THE RULING OF THE TRIBE I. Name This Tribe shall be called "The --- Tribe of the Big Lodge.of the Woodcraft League” II. Purpose T0 learn the ways of the Woodwise for their own sakes, and the worth of what they offer to those who hear: the understanding eye, " the thinking hand," the mind controlled, the body trained and fortiñed, so that one's lot wherever cast, in town or farm, in high or low estate, shall never lack the chiefest joy of life, the pleasant sense of some small triumph every day. III. Who May Enter Those who are twelve years of age, who know the law, who are acceptable to the Band and who can show themselves worthy, according to an established inítiation. All begin at the lowest rank. Those who would enter must be admitted to a Band which is already part of a. Tribe, or is afterward made such. IV. Councils A Council of the Tribe should be held in the first part of each moon or oftener. Each Band at least should hold a weekly meeting. The yearly Council for the election of oñäcers shall be held on the first sun of the Crow Moon (March) or as soon after as possible. The moons are: Snow (Jan), Hunger (Feb.), Crow or Waken- ing (March), Grass (April), Planting (May), Rose (June), Thunder (July), Red (Aug.), Hunting (Sept.), Leaf-falling (Oct), Mad (N0v.), Long-night (Dec.). Special Council may be called by the Chief with the approval of the Guide, and must be called by her upon the written request of one fourth of the Council or one third of the Tribe. A quarter of the whole number shall be a quorum of the Council or Tribe. 28) 18 Birch Bark Roll for Girls V. The Rulers of the Tribe The Head Guide, responsible to Headquarters is chief ruler, next the Assistant Guides, then the Head Chief, elected by the whole Tribe: this oíñcer should be strong and acceptable, for the Chief _ is the leader, must enforce the laws, has charge of the standard which bears the totem of the Tribe and is the representative of the members. The Second Chief takes the Head Chieťs place in case the latter is absent; otherwise, is merely a Councillor; is elected by the whole Tribe. S0, also, the elected Third Chief is leader only when the other two are away. Wamýum Keeper, not elected, but appointed for one year by the Guide or Chief, and is charged with keeping the money and public property of the Tribe, except the records. Should have a lock-box or small trunk to keep valuables in. Keeýer of the Tally. Is not elected, but appointed by the Guide or Chief. Keeps the Tribal records, including the Book of the Laws, the Roster or Roll, the Winter Count, or Record of Camps and Seasons, and the Feather Tally, or Record of Honors and Exploits. Enters nothing except as commanded by the Council; should be an artist. Sometimes one member holds more than one of these ofñces. The Guides appointed by Headquarters, the Tribal and Band Chiefs, and the Sachems and Sagamores by right of their Honors, together form the High Council or Governing Body of the Tribe. All disputes, etc., are settled by the Guide, the Chief and Council. The Council makes the laws and ñxes the dues. The Chief enforces the laws with the support of the Guide. All rulers are elected or appointed for one year, or until their successors are chosen. The election to take place on, or as soon as possible after, Spring Day, which is the first Sun of the Crow Moon (March Ist). Honorary or Life Members have been elected by some Tribes as marks of distinction or añection. (Whenever in doubt, follow the National Constitution.) Vow of the Head Chief. (To be signed with name and totem, if any, in the Tally Book.) I give my word of honor that I will maintain the Laws, see fair play in aH the doings of the Tribe, and protect the weak, and I Will not ask any one to do what I am not willing to do myself. 29) Birch Bark Roll for Girls 19 V020 of each member. (T0 be signed with the name and totem of each in the Tally Book.) I give my word of honor that in the matters of Woodcraft, I will obey the Chief and Council of my Tribe, and if I fail in my duty, I will appear before the Council when ordered, and submit without murmuring to their decision. VI. Changes of the Law Changes of this code, in harmony with the National Laws may be made at any Council by a two-thirds vote of all the Tribe, if due notice of the proposed change is given to all members seven suns before. VII. Dues Dues shall be. ñrst . . . . . . . . a year, second, all assessments made by the Council for Tribal property; and third, when necessary, the Council shall assess those taking part in camp. The initiation fee for newcomers shall be . . . . . . .. which shall include the ñrst year's dues, but shall not include the as- sessments. Out of the Tribal funds must be paid the annual dues to Headquarters of 50 cents per member and the Charter fees. VIII. Confídential It is charged that all keep secret the conñdential discussions of the Council. IX. Laws and Puníshments The laws are as already given (p. 6). Punishments are meted out by the Chief and Council, after a hearing of the case. They consist of: Renewal of initiations. Exclusion from the games, meetings or if in Camp, from the boats for a time, or of ñnes, etc. 'Ighe extreme penalty is "death;" that is, banishment from the Tri e. The Band Each Band of not less than ñve or more than ten members elects its Chief for one year, or until the successor is elected. 30) 20 Birch Bark Roll for Girls The Chief appoints the Second Chief, to act in absence of the Chief and also a Tally Keeper, who should be an artist, for it is her office to keep the records, the Winter Count, and the Tally Robe of the Band, and these should be embellished in all ways. A Wampum Keeper, also, is needed, and may be appointed by the Chief, though the Chief may ñll the ofñce unless otherwise arranged. The other members, even those of lowest rank sit in the Council of the Band without election. Two or more Bands unite to form a Tribe. Every member of the Band is a member of the Tribe, and uses the Totem and call. But the Band has also a Totem and a call of its own. The Band keeps its own Tally, and raises what dues it pleases. But it also pays dues to the Tribe and is represented in Tribal Council by its Chief and Nobles (if any) and such Tribal ofñcers as it can elect. THE INBRINGING OF A NEWCOMER Those who would learn the life, and take the vows, of Wood- craft, must enter by the lowest stage of the Lodge. And before being admitted must as already set forth (p. 4): 1. Be of right age (i. e., twelve for Big Lodge). 2. Know the laws of the Lodge, also the hand sign and the salute. 3. Must be proposed, seconded, and have name posted for seven suns on the totem-pole. (bulletin board) 4. Must have taken one of the initiation trials of fortitude, as set forth in the initiations (p. 6) and if found worthy may take the vow in this wise: Should be brought into the Council by two backers. Then the Guide, or whoever is conducting the ceremony, will say at the time appointed for the inbringing, “There is a new member to be taken in at this Council, by name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Let the would-be member stand up. This candidate, I am told, has duly qualiñed in the four tests of fitness, being of right age, knowing the laws of the Lodge, having been duly posted for seven suns, having faced the initiation of . . . . .. It now remains to vote for or against the admission of this member, and to the end that there may be no hindrance to freedom of speech the candidate is asked to leave the Council 31) Birch Bark Roll for Girls ' 21 and roam in the distant woods, till this matter shall have been decided." In the discussion all the Tribe may take part, but only the Band interested may vote; for the member enters the order by joining a Band. In the voting one blackball is enough to ex- clude. If the candidate is voted down it is wiser to defer the announcement till a later Council and meanwhile let the un- lucky one know privately of the decision. In case the favorable unanimous vote is given the two backers 00 out into the woods and return with the successful candidate. Standing before the Guide in open Council she shall be ques- tioned and instructed, so she shall know more fully of the Sacred purpose of the League. Then the Guide shall say: “Is it your serious wish to become a. member of the Wood- Craft League?" Answer: “It is." "We have already learned that you have fully qualiñed in the four proofs of fitness by being over twelve years of age, by learn- ing the law of the Lodge, by (here name the initiation taken), by being found acceptable to the Band you wish to join. Is it not so?" Answer: (by the oñicer who knows): "Yes, O Chief, I can vouch for the candidate." "You know our laws; we shall take them one by one. "(1) D0 you promise obedience to the Council?" Answer: "I do." (And so, through the twelve laws, whereby the member is bound to obedience, courage, cleanliness, abstinence from fire- water, tobacco; and to cherish the great Spiriťs gifts; and to service kindness, fair-play, joy, silence, reverence, honor.) "And what are the four lights on our Shrine from which these laws do emanate? " Answer: “They are Fortitude, Beauty, Truth, and Love. “And whence did these four receive their light? " Answer: “From the Light of the Central Fire which is the emblem of the Great Mystery by which we symbolize that all Good comes from the one Great Source." The Guide then says: “Raise your hand and say after me: " I give my word of honor that in all matters of the League, I will v obey the Chief and Council and the laws of my Tribe, and if at any time I fail in my duty I will appear before the Council, when, ordered, and submit without murmuring to its deci- S1011. “I receive you into our Order, and by this badge I formally 32) 22 Birch Bark Roll for Girls signify the same." (Now the Guide pins the badge over the candidatďs heart, or on her arm, shaking hands and says): “Now I declare your installation complete as a Wayseeker inthe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Bandofthe . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Tribe, which is of the Big Lodge in the Woodcraft Nation." „ Thus one enters the Tribe and the League by joining a Band. Installation of the Higher Ranks Whenever a member has won the right to promotion the evi- dences are ñrst submitted to the High Council or the Committee they appoint, and if quite satisfactory the installation is made at the next Council or Grand Council, whichever, is most con- venient or desirable. - When the programme has gone as far as "honors to be claimed," the Chief of the applicanťs Tribe or Band shall an- nounce the claim. The Committee who have examined the evidence now stand up to support the claim. The Guide or Chief at the Council Rock (in the chair) asks "if any do chal- lenge the claim," and if none, brieíly describes the qualiñcations and their value in our work, then says: “Acting for the Council, therefore, I now cut from the Horned Shield the green tassel, the badge of the rank this member is leaving, and announce that her installation is complete as a . . . . . . . . . . of the . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Lodge. Then clips off the green tassel, casts it into the ñre and shakes hands with the successful one, who retíres to her seat amid loud applause. THE CONFERRING OF HONORS AND DEGREES When in the Council, the Guide or Chief on the Council Rock, announces that now is the time to claim I-Ionors, each who is pre- pared with a properly ñlled out blank (got from Headquarters) stands up till bidden to speak, then steps forward and says: "Oh Chief. I claim a Coup (Grand Coup or Degree as it may be) for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and here is the testimony of my wit- nesses," handing over the Record. The Chief of the Council calls out loudly, " Here . . . . . . . . . . Claims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and here is the evidence fully witnessed by . . . . . . . . . . . . .. and . . . . . . . . . . . . . „all persons of good standing and able to speak with authority in this matter. The 33) Birch Bark Roll for Girls 23 Committee has already looked into the case and endorsed the application. What is the pleasure of the Council?" Someone rises and says, “Oh Chief, there can be no question of the justice of this claim. I move that it be allowed." Another says: “I second that, Oh Chief". The Chief says: “Moved and seconded: aH in favor say 'E020,' contrary say 'Wahf The 'Hows' have it, the claim is allowed. "In which of the three forms do you desire this, the feather for the warbonnet, the badge for the costume, or the symbol for the robe?" The claimant makes choice and receives it at once. The un- derstanding being that the Tribe supplies one badge; if the win- ner desires all three the other two must be paid for by the one who is to wear them, although the right to wear all three is conveyed by the Honor Claim when ofñcially allowed. This paper is now signed by the Chief in the chair and becomes the property of the applicant; a record of it in the Tally Book is all that the Tribe nee . The Ceremonial Name of Honor The bestowal of the ceremonial name is a serious matter, and the highest honor within the gift of the Council. Certain Tribes that began by giving Indian names to all the members, have failed to understand the seriousness of their act. In a tribe of 50 not more than two or three ceremonial names could possibly be won in faimess during a year. Any one apply- ing for a ceremonial or honor name is thereby proven unworthy of it. The suggestion should come from those around him or her, after the life and conduct of the member shows that they have attained to a certain high measure of power and self- restraint, or especial achievement that manifests the excellence of the spirit within. The name is almost never given for a single exploit, but rather for a Career of fortitude or much high achievement in some department. When the Council, ever watchful, have decided that such an one, by his or her steady and Sterling gifts is entitled to a name, the best way is to ñnd out privately if this person Wishes for the honor, next what particular name or idea is appropriate and acceptable to all concemed. Then the Council should commu- nicate with headquarters. At one time we published lists of names to be selected from, but now we keep at Headquarters a long list and we make the selection. The subject is too serious for general publication. 34)


These are of two classes: 1st. Coups and Grand Coups, each for a single exploit as listed; and 2nd. Degrees for general proficiency in several branches of a given subject.

Badges for Coups

These are of four kinds, the 1st of red felt for Coup or Low Honor, to which a Wampum Medal is added for Grand Coup or High Honor. These are used chiefly on the clothing, either Council cape, skirt, or sweater.

The Feather for the head-dress repeats, but does not replace these honors. In this the Grand Coup is distinguished by the tuft on top of the feather.

The Feather Badge repeats the honor on the Council Robe, and finally there is

The Target Badge for the skirt. Thus one Coup or Grand Coup may appear in three places, on the Council Robe, on the Council Skirt and on the Head-dress. But only one of these badges is provided out of Tribal funds, the rest must be bought or made by the wearer.

The Badges for a Degree

These are of two kinds. One a Crescent for the dress (usually on the arm). The other the Zuni Coil, for the robe. Both may be used for one exploit as noted above.

These Badges are conferred in Council after application has been made on a properly filled form which sets forth the claim with sufiicient witnesses to prove legally that the test was fairly taken.

The Honor Claim is certified by the Chief or Tally Keeper of the Council conferríng it, and returned to the applicant but record is kept in the Tribal Tally.

None but Chartered Tribes in good standing have power to confer honors.

Additional List of Coups


1. Tramp 50 miles anywhere, divided up in ten consecutive days and each day make a note and sketch (or photograph) of some interesting scene.

2. Paddle or row or pole five miles a day for five successive 35) days; and each day make a note and sketch (or photograph) of some interesting scene.


3. Dance twelve good folk Dances.

4. Make a successful clam-bake for at least six people.


5. Have successful perennial vegetable garden for two years. Garden must contain eight of the following: asparagus, swiss chard, sorrel (rumex), parsley, leeks, onions, rhubarb, chive, sage, thyme, mint, horse radish, New Zealand spinach, cornsalad. Grand Coup for 12 [1](L. L. half number).


6. Four ways shown in tomato preserve and pickle (canned ripe and green) 2 dozen quarts (L. L. half quantity). Grand Coup for six ways.

Exhibit Coup:

7. Exhibition card of 25 or 50 knots mounted and named. Coup or Grand Coup.


Photograph and negative of a Woodcraft Council of exceptional merit and that can be used as lantern slide and accepted by National Headquarters. Headquarters to have use of same.

8. Blue prints direct from flowers – in a collection, named and identified as to locality and season. Coup for 25; Grand Coup 50.

Craft Coup – Needlework:

9. Make a Sleeping bag for out-door winter sleeping.

10. Appliqué quilt, colonial design suggested.

11. Artist or Garden Smock (with smocking on wrists and back and fronts of yoke of standard English smocking designs).

Craft Coup, Carpentry and Metal Worker:

12. Four poster for willow-bed.

13. Set of tracking irons for use in Deer Hunt Game.

Nature Coups:

14. Bird Records-fourteen records of different birds: when first seen; nesting broods hatched, flying, etc., in one year. Grand Coup for 15 records. (L. L. 5 for Coup, 8 for Grand Coup).

15. Taking Prize at any County, State or National Fair for chickens, geese, ducks, turkeys, guineas, bees, silk-worms or fur animals. 36)

Salt Water Fishing:

16. Catching and preparing for Cooking 100 lbs. dressed weight – fish must be used and not wasted. Must catch or dig own bait. Grand Coup for in addition Cooking the whole.


17. Recite the Declaration of Independence and Lincoln’s Gettysburg Speech.

Colonial Herbalist.

18. Make salve from self-heal, with haze and marigold (Calendula).

Colonial Coup:

19. To have planned, made and established a Council Ring. Coup or Grand Coup according to merit. Show photo and give description and dimensions and describe decoration of seats, etc., and state locality and what Tribe or Tribes use the Council Place.

Bird Sharp


This degree may be conferred on those who take eight (LL. 6) of these tests.

1. Identify 25 native birds in a collection. (When the sexes differ greatly, they count each as a bird.)

2. Identify 50 native birds in the field.

3. Identify 25 native birds by note.

4. Make a local list of 25 birds with remarks on arrival, departure, abundance, etc. 37)

5. Mention 20 birds of great value to agriculture and say why.

6. Name ten birds that work in the orchard destroying the bark lice and other such pests.

7. Keep a journal with daily notes on the nesting of a pair of birds from setting to fledging.

8. Make and set up two successful bird-boxes.

9. Make and set up a successful lunch counter.

10. Make and set up a successful bird bath.

11. Tell what bird sanctuaries are, and why they are being established.

12. Write an original essay of 500 words giving the life history of some native bird that you know well, telling when it arrives in the Spring, how the male differs from the female, what its song is like, what are its haunts, where it nests, what its nests and eggs are like, when the young are raised and fly, what they are like at first plumage, how many broods are raised each season, what are its foods, its enemies and its peculiarities.

Degree of Hostess


May be conferred on those who take ten (LL. 8) of these tests.

1. Know the ordinary rules of courtesy, precedence, introduction, salutation, toasting, etc.

2. Have written correct notes of invitation, acceptance, declination, sympathy, congratulations.

3. Have been host at a formal luncheon, dinner or party of some kind, to at least six people for which the invitations were self-written, and menus supervised.

4. Have planned and carried out an out-door picnic or entertainment for a dozen or more guests at which refreshments were served.

5. Can state the reciprocal duties of host and guest during a visit of a week, meeting trains, punctuality, consideration of servants.

6. Has cooked a chafing-dish supper for four people which was digestible and sufficient in quantity.

7. Can tell stories and keep the guests interested, can suggest congenial amusements, seeing to it that no one person is left out of things, can also listen appreciatively and stimulate the entertainment powers of others.

8. Have risen to emergencies and take charge of party or 38) entertainment during absence of master of ceremonies, and carried same to successful finish.

9. Can preside at a Council of Woodcraft Indians or Girls, opening and leading the Council.

10. Can conduct initiations with discretion and kindness.

11. Is known as a dependable helper in entertainments of various kinds – not only in the amusement making, but in the work of preparation and cleaning up and general quite usefulness.

12. Knows how to prepare 10 cooling drinks, 10 salads, 10 candies, 10 sandwiches, tea and coffee.

13. Can arrange flowers artistically, and table and house decorations for different seasons and occasions, making use of material available out of doors and not from florists.

14. Has arranged special home entertainments for holidays, etc., knowing the history and games and foods and drinks proper to each occasion.

15. Know how to give and receive a toast – to a person or an occasion.

16. Know the rules of visiting and card leaving, P. P. C. cards, and bread-and-butter letters.

Laundry Expert


May be conferred on any who take 14 (LL. 10) of these tests.

1. Do a family washing of mixed white and colored goods. Modern machinery.

2. Do ironing for a total time of eight hours in two months.

3. Wash and launder satisfactorily a shirt waist and a skirt, using starch suitable to material.

4. Ditto a lingerie dress, using starch suitable to material.

5. Press a suit for father, brother or son, four times a year.

6. Press a skirt and a coat, and teach some one else how to do it.

7. Remove three common stains (such as coffee, tea, wine, rust, oil, etc.), from wash material.

8. Remove four different kinds of spots from non-washable material.

9. Use two means for softening water and two soaps to demonstrate their different respective uses.

10. Prepare and use two kinds of starch to demonstrate their different uses; also two methods of blueing. 39)

11. Use successfully two household methods of bleaching and explaining proper use of Javelle water.

12. Wash and launder a dozen dress ties for men.

13. Wash and iron, 2 negligée (collar and cuffs attached) shirts for father, brother or son.

14. Wash and launder six short-sleeve sport shirts for brother.

15. Where would you hang your white wash and your colored things if you had free choice and why.

16. What is iron mould? How does it come? and How do you cure it?

17. What is blue mould? How does it come? and What cures it.

18. What is the advantage of dry cleaning and how is it done?

19. State how blankets (wool) should be washed to remain soft and unshrunken. Other woolens.

20. How should silk be washed.

21. Cover two ironing-boards and one table ready for use.

22. Wash the family stockings for a week. Tell how silk, wool, cotton should be washed and treated.



This degree may be conferred on any who take 15 (LL. 12) of these tests.

1. Understand the care of hardwood floors, also walls, carpets, rugs, hardwood and upholstered furniture, as they should be cared for in regular housecleaning and how these things should be cared for weekly.

2. Sweep and dust, using two kinds of sweeping or dusting compounds, moist cloths, dust absorbing cloths, and a Vacuum cleaner; stating why walls should be wiped down every week and why carpets are not sanitary.

3. Properly dispose of waste and garbage from the home for one week and know its proper disposal by the city, and the proper way of disposal in the country.

4. Make up a bed for a baby, a bed with a draw sheet for a very sick patient, and know the proper airing and changing of bed, and the way to take care of bedding from out-door sleeping rooms.

5. Air and make one bed every day for two months (to include changing of position of mattress, cleaning of springs and sunning of pillows). 40)

6. Wash and Wipe dishes, and leave dining room in order after one meal a day, for one month, and open windows in dining room, and air after each meal.

7. Take the entire care of one room for one month, to include sweeping, dusting, washing of windows, care of flowers or plants, and what may be desirable for attractiveness of the room, and its proper ventilation.

8. Put away clothing, rugs, furs, blankets, for the summer in proper manner, so they will not be moth-eaten or wrinkled.

9. Take care of a cat, dog, bird or a tame animal for six months.

10. Know what harm they do, what diseases each may carry, and how these should be treated.

11. Know how to get rid of moths; stating seasons at which the larvae eat.

12. Know how to get rid of rats, including the modern germ inoculation method.

13. Ditto – Mice.

14. Ditto – Roaches.

15. Ditto – Blackbeetles or Cockroaches.

16. Ditto – Bedbugs.

17. Learn the care of plates, silver, glass, pots, pans, aluminum ware, copper, lamps.

18. Scrub a wooden floor once a week for 2 months, or linoleum for 4 months.

19. Take entire charge of a pantry for one month, seeing that all shelves are absolutely clean and dishes spotless.

20. Clean ice-chest thoroughly twice a week for two months during the summer, and state how meats and foods should be arranged in the ice-chest.

21. Keep bureau drawers in order for three months and dust shelves of book case, wiping off books.

22. Care for at least 2 kerosene lamps every day for a month, leaving no oil to smell, and trimming wicks so lamps do not smoke.

23. Take care of the milk and cream from at least one cow, and see that the pails and pans, or bottles, are properly cleaned for two months; state method.

24. Repack a faucet, mend temporarily with plaster-paris a hole or leak in wash-basin; mend temporarily a leak in waterpipe.

25. Install an electric bell, and care for it for a year.

26. Build a furnace fire, and care for it two days in extremely cold weather. 41)

27. Take care of a linen closet for a month, that is take care of four laundry bundles; return and check up with list, putting things away in order, and making out lists for following week’s wash.

28. Have growing plants in house in winter, planted and taken care of by self.

29. Plan outdoor work for household of five (3 children) so that two servants may do the work. What should be eliminated, and what insisted upon in such a household?

30. Make fire in coal range, and cook with it, at least ten times per year.

31. Make a year’s supply for a family, of fruits and vegetables canned, preserved, dried or jellied.

32. Can, preserve or dry, meats or fish.

33. Know how to prepare 10 cooling drinks, 10 sandwiches, 10 candies, 10 salads, and tea and coffee.

34. See that the family sleep with open windows all the year round, arranging for screens, and proper position of beds.

35. Understand gas range, and how to economize gas, by use of lids and asbestos covering on top.

Hunter in Town


This degree may be conferred on those who take eight (LL 6) of these tests.

1. Find and sketch twenty-five blazes in town and say where you found them. A blaze is a mark that conveys information without using words or letters.

2. Find twenty-five totems in town. A totem is the emblem of a man, group of men, company, or idea. It is not formed of words or letters, and letters are not an essential part even if they are associated. Some trade marks are of this class.

3. Indicate the distinguishing marks of policemen, park policemen, trafiic squad, strong arm squad, etc.

4. Swat twenty-flve flies a day for two weeks.

5. Catch fourteen rats in two weeks.

6. Catch thirty mice in a month.

7. Trap or otherwise secure thirty English sparrows in a month.

8. In cities where they are outlawed, trap or otherwise secure fifteen English starlings in a month.

9. Draw life-size, recognizable tracks of a man, woman, child, dog, cat, and mouse. 42)

10. Draw life-size, recognizable tracks of a rat, rabbit, gray squirrel, sparrow, crow, chicken. All of these can be secured in and about the city, especially in the large parks, and are easiest when the snow is on the ground, but possible in mud or even with wet tracks on dry pavements.

11. Make and set up and operate gíant size fly-trap (on the screen-cone principle) by the side of your garbage-box, stable, etc. Weigh flies or measure them and report at end of summer.

12. Know gypsy-moth and report finding of any to State Entomologist.

13. When muzzling laws are passed report all infractions to police.



This degree may be conferred on any who take fifteen (LL 10) of these tests. Stitches, etc. as in sewing class:

1. Make two articles of plain white underwear.

2. Hem a dozen handkerchiefs and embroider with monogram (hemstitch or French roll).

3. Make a shirt waist.

4. Make a dress (must be shown to Council).

5. Make a set of baby clothes, six pieces; Gertrude patterns preferred.

6. Make a man’s shirt.

7. Make a Council Dress (worn or shown in Council to complete test).

8. Decorate with applique design a Ceremonial Blanket – blanket must be shown in Council.

9. Trim a hat – must include facing and lining.

10. Make a hat shape of sewn straw, braid or wire, covered with net or lace.

11. Design and work a monogram on six articles of household linen.

12. Embroider one shirtwaist, handkerchief, etc., with original design.

13. Repair neatly a tear in any dress goods.

14. Run a sewing machine and keep it in order for three months, doing all stitches.

15. Discuss six different kinds of lace, machine or hand, and give idea of price.

16. Describe and give approximate price of six different kinds of cotton goods distinguished by the weave – ditto six woolen. 43)

17. Ditto linen and ditto silk.

18. Dress a doll in Woodcraft Camp Suit or Ceremonial Suit. Doll must be ten inches high or more, and shown at Council.

19. Make a cloth or velvet tam-o’-shanter and some other article to match as belt, muff, or neckpiece.

20. What is cotton – where is it found? Tell something about it. Ditto wool.

21. Ditto linen, and ditto silk.

22. Hem tablecloth and dozen napkins by hand.

23. Show samples of stitches, hemming, felling, overcasting, gathering, shirring, rolling, darning, buttonhole stitch, blanket stitch, slip stitch, etc.

24. How is satin woven to give it shine?

25. Darn stockings for three people for a month.

26. Make a satisfactory darn in table linen.

27. Mend a three-cornered tear in woolen goods.

28. Put in a patch.

29. Make twelve buttonholes of three sizes.

30. Make a sleeping bag for outdoor winter sleeping.

31. Embroider three initials on one dozen towels – French embroidery or cross stitch.

32. Make Irish crochet insets of three initials to six towels.

33. Make an artist smock or garden smock or child’s smocked dress – in linen or silk.

34. Make a Ceremonial Cape with decorations for self or child.

35. Make a complete suit for outdoor sleeping in Winter.

36. Make a complete set of pajamas and bath gown – machine made or hand made.

37. Embroider or appliqué two pillow cases. Must be artistic.

38. Make a bed spread in appliqué work or woven by hand.

Canner and Jelly Maker


May be conferred on any who take eight (LL 6) of these tests:

1. Gather and can twelve pints of strawberries or other small fruit so that six months later they have lost neither color nor flavor.

2. Ditto for other fruit, such as peaches, quinces. 44)

3. Ditto for vegetables, as green corn, asparagus, mushrooms, etc.

4. Preserve or jam or marmalade, twelve pints fruit.

5. Make three dozen glasses of jelly (without any artificial jelly maker).

6. Three quarts of two kínds of fruit canned uncooked in cold water.

7. Can successfully three kinds of fish (such as salmon, clams, mussels).

8. Can successfully a chicken.

9. Can successfully three pounds of beef.

10. Be a member of a Corn and Tomato Canning Club, canning a dozen quart jars of food stuff – raised by yourself.

11. Win a prize for canning, jelly making or preserving at any important fair.

12. Three pounds (any kind) glacé or candied fruit (fruit boiled and then dríed in syrup), cherries, cranberries, pineapple, orange, etc.

13. Make four kinds of tomato preserve and pickle (two ripe and two green).

Colonial Housekeeper


May be conferred on any who take fifteen (LL. 10) of these tests:

1. Bayberry Candle. Gather Bayberries and make half a dozen candles dipped or moulded, each six inches long.

2. Maple Sugar. Gather the sap and make of it a pound of Sugar, either from sugar maple or ash-leaved maple.

3. Soap. Leach the ashes and make a pint of soft soap.

4. Dyeing. Dye evenly four pieces of dress goods not less than half a yard each of four different colors or four skeíns of yarn. Dyes may be bought.

5. Wild Dyes. Dye twelve squares of felt or White flannel each about 4 x 4 inches, each a diiferent color with stuff found in the woods such as butternut bark, golden oak, sassafras, goldenrod tops, pokeberries, etc.

6. Lavender. Make a lavender box, i. e., grow, gather, dry and use the lavender in a. clothes Chest. Same for lemon verbena (tripolium).

7. Cherry Balm. Make Cherry Balm of Black Cherry Bark.

8. Gumbo. Gather sassafras leaves and make a gumbo soup.

9. Knit or Crochet, stockings, sweater, or leggings. 45)

10. Rag Carpet. Cut, select, sew, ball, and arrange for the making of, a good rag carpet.

11. Rug. Make single-handed a rag rug – braíded or hooked.

12. Quilt. Make appliqué quilt or patchwork quilt.

13. Sampler. Make a grandmother’s sampler.

14. Cushion. Make, decorate and stuff a pine cushion.

I4a. Ditto, hop pillow.

15. Spinning. Spin enough cotton, flax, wool or hemp to make ten yards of stuff or a dozen pairs of socks.

16. Weave. Ten yards of cloth or rag carpet, or rug or bedspread.

17. Make two pounds of lemon or orange sugar.

18. Candied Fruit. Make two quarts of lemon, citron, or orange-peel or glacé fruit.

19. Rose Jar. Pot-pourri – make two quarts when dried and spiced.

20. Make four quarts of mince meat.

21. Ditto four quarts preserves, pickles, and jellies.

22. Dry, com, spice, salt, or otherwise preserve three kinds of meat for household larder.

23. Dry ten quarts of fruit, or vegetables, for winter use.

24. Make one pint of elder-flower water or one pint cucumber juice toilet wash, or one pint of hazel extract.

25. Brew sage-tea, mullein-tea, boneset-tea, camomile-tea, ginger-tea.

26. Make marigold salve (calendula) and prunella salve (self-heal) and witchhazel salve.

27. Make candied sweet flag (calamus), mint leaves, rose leaves, violets.

28. Tutti frutti. Make one gallon of tutti frutti (N. B. Use no bananas or pineapples).

29. State what fruits can be preserved in clear cold water alone uncooked – and why.

Home Cook


May be conferred on any who take 14 (L. L. 10) of these tests.

1. Make 3 batches of good light bread (yeast raised) and state the importance of thorough baking. Hot breads not unhealthful but underdone starchy foods are bad.

2. Ditto soda-raised, snow raised or other than yeast raised.

3. Make four kinds of wholesome sweet cakes (one cookie, one gingerbread). 46)

4. Cook meat in 4 ways: Roast, broil, fricassee, boil, state the kind of meats and cuts suitable for each way.

5. Cook left-over meats in four acceptable ways, croquettes and rissoles included.

6. Cook potatoes and two other vegetables in 3 different ways each, and state how best to retain natural salts.

7. Make two kinds of soup with milk (one tomato bisque.)

8. Make two kinds of meat soup (one clear soup).

9. Make two kinds of vegetable soup (one puree).

10. Prepare 8 salads, making at least two kinds of dressing (3 fruits, 2 vegetables, 2 meat, 1 plain lettuce).

11. Prepare eggs in 6 different ways (including poached and omelet, two kinds).

12. Prepare 8 desserts; one gelatine, two boiled, two baked, and two frozen and one fruit dessert in tasteful manner.

13. Demonstrate fireless cooker successfully on cereals, meat and vegetables.

14. Demonstrate paper bag Cooking on 4 different foods.

15. Chafing dish; Prepare 4 appetizing dishes that are digestible.

16. Write an appetizing satisfactory vegetarian diet for a week.

17. Prepare satisfactorily menus and superintend, cooking for one month at home, helping in preparation of at least one meal a day.

18. Make a Welsh Rarebit that is short and digestible.

19. Make pastry that will digest.

20. Make butter scotch, fudge, peanut brittle, pulled molasses candy.

21. Do all the Cooking at home, 3 meals a day, for one week.

22. Wash all the dishes of a household indicating what special methods are needed for tin, glass, china, aluminum, copper or iron.

23. Indicate the place and value of flowers and foliage on the dinner table.

24. Can prepare 4 cooling drinks, 4 salads, 10 sandwiches, 2 candies, tea and coffee.

25. Understand proper hydration of cereals.

26. Make veal loaf, chicken jelly, or other meat foods known as delicatessen specialties.

27. Have prepared and packed properly a dainty and satisfying lunch for four persons. 47)


These exploits are intended to distinguish those who are first-class in their department, and those who are so good that they may be considered in the record-making class. They may be called Honors and High Honors, but the Plains Indians speak of their exploits as Coup (pronounced coo) and Grand Coup. The Sioux, I am informed, use the French word coup, but call them "Justee-na coo", and "Tonka coo", the "Little Deed", and the "Big Deed".

No one can count both Coup and Grand Coup, or repeat their honor in the same department, except for heroism, mountain climbing, and others that are specified as "repeaters", in which each honor is added to that previously worn.

No honors are conferred unless the exploit has been properly witnessed or proven, and approved by a careful committee. When it is a question of time under one minute, only stop-watches are allowed.

Honors are allowed according to the standard of the year in which the application was made.

An honor, once fairly won, can never be lost for subsequent failure to reach the standard.

Except when otherwise stated, the exploits are meant for all ages.

Any one counting coup, according to the class above him may count it a grand coup in his own class, unless otherwise provided.

This list is made by the High Council of Guidance. The exploits are founded on world-wide standards, and with the help of the best experts. The Council will gladly considerany suggestion, but it must be understood that no local group has any power to add to or vary the exploits in any way whatsoever.


Honors are allowed for saving a human life at risk of one's own; it is a coup or a grand coup, at the discretion of the Council.

A soldiers war medals count for a grand coup each.

Courage. (The measure of courage has not yet been discovered.)


To ride a horse 1 mile in 3 minutes, clearing a 4-foot hurdle and an 8-foot water jump, counts honor; to do it in 2 minutes, 48) clearing a 5-foot hurdle and a 12-foot water jump, high honor.

Trick-riding. T0 pick up one's hat from the ground while at full gallop on a horse of not less than 13 hands, counts honor.

To do it 3 times without failure, from each side, with horse of at least 15 hands counts high honor.

General Athletics

(Advisers – J. E. Sullivan, secretary of Amateur Athletic Union; Dr. Luther H. Gulick of Russell Sage Foundation, New York.)

Those under 10 are children; those over 10 and under 16 are boys; those over 16 and under 18 are lads; those over 18 are men.

Girls take the standards according to their ages up to 18, but for athletics are never over that. No matter what their age, henceforth they continue in the "lad class", and in filing the claim need only mention their class.

Men over 70 return to the lad class.

The records are given according to Spalding's Almanac, where will be found the names of those who made them, with date and place.

A dash ( – ) means "not open". 49) GENERAL ATHLETICS (Continued) cmmnEN novs novs BOYS uns MEN „E003„ Le., umu-m :o ummx u 'KINDER 14, UNDER 16 'KINDER 18 ovn 18 Wałking coup. g. c. coup. g. c. coup. g. c. - -- coup. g. c. coup. g. c. 50 yards 16 s; 15 14; 13 13; 12 - - - - - - 100 yards 31 s; 29 27; 25 22; 20 - - - - - - 220 yards 70 s; 65 60; 56 50; 45 - -- - - - - 36% s 440 yards 4 m; sł 3; zł 2; 1.45 - - - - - - 1 m 23 s 88° yards 6% m, 6 sł; s 4%; 4% - - - - - - 3 m 2% s 1 mile 14 m, 13 13; 12 12; u 11; 10 10; 9% 8% 7% 6 m 29% s in one hour - - - - gäm. 4 m 4% mi; 5 mi yłnlřółmi 7 mi; 1318 yds 12 hours - - - - 3omi 25m 4; 4% 3omi;35mi4o1ni; 45 mi Running so yards 7ł s; 7 7; 6% 6%; 6% - - - - - - sł 1°° Yaľd5 - - - "' 14% S; 13% 13%; Is 12%; IIł Ioł; I°§ 9% 22° Yaľds - - - - - - 34 s; 32 29; 27 26; 24 Hłłu 440 yards - - - - - - 80 s; 70 63; 58 56; 52 47 s 830,37*** - - - - - - 3 m; 2% 2% m; 2% zł; 2% I m ssł s Imłle - - - - - - - - - - sł m;4§ 4mrsřs 5 mxles - - -- - _ -- - - - -- 35 m; 30 25 m 23; s Running backward 50 yards 14 s; 13 13; 12 12; 11 u; 10 10; 9 g; 8 7łs 100 yards 23 s; 22 21; 20 20; 19 19; 18 18; 17 17; 16 14 s Standing highjumý _ mthout wetghts 2% ft; 2% 3. sł si; 3% si; 4 4; 4% 4%; 4% 5 ft sł m Running highjump _ m! wnghłs 3 ft; sł sł; sł si; 4 4; 4ł 4%; 4% să; sł 6 ft s! m 59 511K) 301 IIOH 31138 U938 50) GENERAL ATHLETICS (Continued) i. :o uxŠŽĚS :a 13:31:15 14 011325516 UNIĎäS 18 ovlänxs !mon Standing broad jumý without ' weights s ft; 5% sł; 6% 6; 6% 6%; 7 7; 8 9; ro u ft sł in Running broad jump without weights u ft; 13 13; 14 14; Is Is; 15% 15%; 16% 17%; 19 24 ft 7ł in Hop, step, and jump 'zuithout ueighłs or run 13%; 15 15; 16 16; 18 18; 20 20; 22 23; 26 30 ft 3 in Hopping on one leg 50 yards -- - - - 13; 12 12; u II; IO 9; 8 7ł s 100 yards - - - - - - - - 20 s; 18 17; 16 I3§s Hammer thrown 3ł-ft. handle from (12 lb (16 lb 7-ft. Circle, both hammer) hammer) hands - -- - - - - - - 60 ft; 70 65; 75 100 ft. 5 in Shot-pul (16 lb shot) 7-ft. circle (12 lb. 6 shot) - - 20 ft; 2: 21; 23 24; 26 28; 30 36; 40 47 ft Discm 7-ft. circle (4ł lbs.) - - - - - - - -- 7o;ft;85 go; :oo 128 ft Ioł in o? 51119 105 IIOŘI X138 U948 51) GENERAL ATHLETICS (Continueď) 'I CEILDREN BOYS BOYS BOYS !ADS XEN i. ąummn xo tmmzn u :mnm: 14 umu 16 mnm 18 ovn :8 “C93” Thrtrw baseball (regulation) 50 yds; 55 60; 65 65; 70 70; 75 75; 95 100; no x27 yds złín Editing baseball 45 yds; 50 55; 60 60; 65 65; 70 70; 90 95; 105 118 yds :o in Thrawing lacrosse ball with stick 70 yds; 80 80; 90 90; mo x00; no no; 130 130; 150 165 yds. Football kick a 2 ft 7* m dropgoal zo yds; 25 29; 30 30; 35 35; 40 4a; 45 50; 55 63 yds uín Football ' may try g. c.: Put two Rugby footballs in middle of Rugby ñeld Football and kick a Place kick counted right and to where ball ñrst left goal strikes ground 25 yds; 30 30; 35 35; 40 40; 45 45; 50 55; 60 66 yds2ft8ín Running high kick 5% ft; 6 6; ół ół; ół ół; 7 7; 7% 8; 8ł 9 ft 8 in Cľmb ropa 18 ft.; hands only used 15 s; 14 13; u u; :o IO; 9 9; 7 6; 5 głsecs Cbin the bar 3 tims;4 6; 8 8; 9 9; xo ro; 12 13; 15 39 tímu I? S1110 m; nou !tma Ilona 52) GENERAL ATHLETICS (Continued) CHILDREN BOYS BOYS BOYS LADS MEN i. e., !mnm 10 :mnm 12 mnm 14 mnm 16 KINDER 18 ovn: 18 nmom Chin bar with right hand once for g. c. the same the same " left hand once for g. c. the same the same 12 times Hand walk on hands, heels up 5 ft; 10 15; 20 20; 25 25; 30 30; 50 75; 100 Parallel bar 3 successive arm jumpswith swings 10 ft; 11 11; 12 12; 13 13; 14 14; 15 16; 18 19 ft 9 in Push up without swing 10 times; 12 14; 16 16; 18 18; 20 20; 25 30; 40 58 times Dumb-bell Put up 5-pounder with one hand ta (10- (10- (m- full aľľľľs length pounder) pounder) pounder) aĎOVC Shouľdeľs- 50 times; 100-150 150; 200 40; 60 75-150 200-300 8,341 times 100 Skating _ _ 100 yards 17 s; 16 16; 15 15; 14 14; 13 13; 12 11%; 10g g s (with wmd) 440 yards - - 75 s; 70 70; 68 68; 65 65; 60 50; 45 35; secs 880_yatds - - 160 s; 155 15;; 150 150; 145 145; 140 135; 130 1 m 20; s I mlle - - 4 m; 3% 3 ; 3% 3% 3% s.; 3% 3; 2% 2%% mms 5 miles - - -- - -- -- 25m; 23 23 m; 21 19; 17 14 m 24. s 10 miles - - - - - - 55m; 50 50 m; 48 42; 36 31 m nłs z# 511K) JOJ IWH !IWH KNIH 53) GENERAL ATHLETICS (Continued) LADS MEN i. găăg xo Uułäzăs u UNĚJOE? 14 vuliaązf 16 'KINDER 18 OVER 18 BEGO” Skatíng-Cont. 15 miles - -- - - - - 90m; 85 85 m; 80 70, 60 49 m 17% s 20 miles -- - - - - - zł-hr; 2.10 2.I0hr; 2 3, xš _1 hr. 6 m 36% s 25 mlles -- - - - - - 3hr; 2% 1%hr;2% 2 z 1 hr. 31 m 29 s Rotoíng (single sculls) 1 míle 13 m; 12 12; n: II; 10 Io; 9 9; 8 7%; 6§8 Paqdle _ (single) I nule 16 m; 15 15; 14 14; 13 13; 12 12; n 10; 9 Swim _ 100 yards any time any time any time any time any time any time caup couý am# C014? 001412 muj: 58 s 200 ya_rds 6 m, g. c. 5 m, g. c. 4% 4 gäm, g. c. 3 m, g. c. 2 m 20 s Imlle - - - - - - - - 5om;4s 45; 35 24m46łs Medley Race (400 yards) rowing 100 swirąming 100 walkgng Ioo - - - - - - 7; 6 6 m; s 4%; 4 running 100 Bicycle_ z mile - - - - - - 4; si sł m; 3 2%; 28% 9*' S1110 m; nou ma tma 54) Weight-throwing. Throw the 56-lb. Weight from a 7 ft. Bitch Bark Roll for Girls

  • a

(Í H Il (l d o m., Recor h H MH HH Ňxjľłlcłă HUl©IU|-Ď(g QHŇNŇGNOJ NH 44 GENERAL ATHLETICS (Continued) ATHLETIC SPECIALTIES (Open to those only who are over 21.) Run :o míles, coup. 80 m., g. coup. 7 (l IC N 2 (l Il I u 20 u u 3 u zł H (K lt (l KI 4 Cl Íl (Í (C (K 6 (l (l (C (lv (C 8 (l Il (l (Í (I (K CÍ (Í lí (Í Walk 10 miles, coup. 1% hrs. g. coup. 1 f; 15 u 3 u u 2 (l (l (l 4 (Í IC 3 u 25 u u s u u 4% u 30 u u 7% u u 6% (l (ť (l [Í (I 40 10 9 u 50 u u 13 u u Iz (l (í [l (l IK u Ioo u u 30 u u 25 Skateso u u s u u 4 u 75 a n 7% u u 6 l( Ioo (l (t (Í (l s u u 4 u u " 10 " " in any time. “ 15 " grand coup in any time Bicycle IOO míles in 24 hrs , coup " 200 " in 24 hrs., grand wap (Acc. to L. A. W. rules) Circle: coup 22 ft.; grand conp 28 ft.; Rec. 38 ft. 7% in. Dumb-bell. times, grand couý; Rec. 94 times. Ditto with Ioo-lb. dumb-bell: 5 times, coup; 10 times, grand muj); Rec. 20 times. Ditto with two Ioo-lb. dumb-bells once; one in each hand, same time, grand coup. T0 turn a wheel, coup. Handspríng. T0 throw a. tumbler or 4-legged handspring; wap; to throw a clean handspring, grand coup. Back handspring. A clean back handspring, grand coup. 52 m. 38ł a. h. 27 " n§ " N 13 N 5 (Í

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N 3 (í 65 33 12;; i: g; i“. li o M (l

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„ :g „ 33:5.; (l II U ssłlľ u (l oł“ Pushing up one 5o-lb. dumb-bell with one hand to full arm length above the shoulder: 15 times for wap; 30 55)

Water-Sports and Travel

(For swimming, rowing, etc., see classified athletics on a previous page.)

Bathing. A coup for having bathed out of doors in water of natural temperature anywhere north of N. Lat. 30, or south of S. Lat. 30, for 300 days in the year; a grand coup for 365 days.

Sailing. To have sailed any two-man Craft for 30 successive days, 12 hours a day at the wheel – the other man not a professional sailor – coup.

Sixty days of the same in salt water, grand coup.

Log-riding. Tread a sawlog 100 yards in any time, without going overboard, for coup; do it 100 yards and back in 30 minutes, for grand coup.

Canoeman. A coup is allowed to those who can paddle (single) a canoe on dead water, make their paddling coup (see p. 62), spill the canoe and get into her again, and bale her alone.

A grand coup, when they make their paddling coup, spill, right, and bale the canoe alone, three times in succession, and have run a rapid that falls 6 feet in 200 yards.

Canoe-camper. To have made a continuous canoe trip of 500 miles, Sleeping out every night, coup; 1,000 miles of the same, grand coup.

Saddle-camper. To have made a continuous saddle trip of 500 miles, Sleeping out every night, coup; 1,000 miles, grand coup.

Camper. A coup, for passing 30 successive nights out of doors, never once sleeping under shingles, but in tent, teepee, or bivouac, every night. A grand coup, for 60 nights of the same.

Lone-tramper. A coup, for traveling alone, on foot, 100 miles, carrying one’s outfit, sleeping out every night; a grand coup, for 200 miles.

Gang-tramper. A coup, for traveling 150 miles on foot with a party, carrying one’s own outfit. Sleeping out every night; a grand coup, for 250 miles.

Ski-man. To have traveled 6 miles in an hour, 40 miles in one day, covered 40 feet in a jump, and traveled 500 miles all told, counts a coup.

To have traveled 7 miles in an hour, 50 miles in one day, made a 50-foot jump, and traveled 1,000 miles all told, counts a grand coup.

Arctic Traveler. A coup, for entering the Arctic Circle by sea; a grand coup, by land. 56)

Tropic Traveler. A coup, for crossing the Equator by sea or rail; a grand coup, on foot.

Motoring. To have covered 1,000 miles within 30 days, acting as your own chauffeur and mechanic, coup. To have covered 1,000 miles in 4 days, 100 miles in 2 hours, acting as your own chauffeur and mechanic, grand coup.

(In both cases garage privileges allowed.)

Mountain-Climbing (all Afoot)

(Not open to boys, i.e., those under 14.)

By Sir Martin Conway, ex-President of the Alpine Club.

The exploits in this class are repeaters.

The first one to clímb a standard peak gets double honors; one for climb, one for first climb.

<mall>For lads (i.e., over 14 and under 18.)


In Great Britain – Ben Macdhuie, Ben Nevis, Ben Lomond, Ben Cruachan, Snowdon, Scarfell.

In Europe – Vesuvius, Breithorn.

In North America – Mt. Washington; Electric Peak, Wyo.

Grand Coup

In Europe – Mt. Blanc, Monte Viso, Etna, Monte Rosa.

In North America – Pike’s Peak, Shasta, Adams.

In Asia – Fujiyama; Tabor.

Add to this all the honor list of next.

For men (i.e., all over 18.)


In Europa – Mt. Blanc, Monte Rosa, Monte Viso, Ecrins, Grand Paradis, Jungfrau, Finsteraarhorn, Wetterhorn, Bernina, Ortler, Gross Glockner, Matterhorn from Zermatt.

In North America – St. Helen’s, Adams, Shasta, Hood, Rainier, Mt. Shaughnessy, Mt. Stephen, Popocatepetl; Orizaba.

Grand Coup

In Europe – Meije, Aig. du Grépon, Aig. du Géant, Aig. du Dru, Matterhorn (by Italian or Stockje ridges), Dent Blanche, 57) Mischabelhörner from Seas, Schreckhorn, Monte di Scerscen, Fünfänger Sp., Kleine Zinne.

In North America – Mt. Sir Donald, Mt. Logan, Mt. Assiniboine, Mt. Fairweather, Mt. St. Elias, Grand Teton, Mt. McKinley. Any peak in Alaska over 13,000 feet high.

In South America – Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, Illimani, Aconcagua.

In Asia – Any peak 19,000 feet high.

In Africa – Any peak over 15,000 feet high.


Everything that can be said in favor of firearms for use in general sport applies to the rifle only (and its understudy the revolver). The scatter-gun has no official existence for us. It is ruination to the marksman’s power and should be abolished. A rifle range is a desirable adjunct to all grown-up camps. Honors awarded according to the army standards.

Revolver-shot. Target 4 x 4 ft. Bull’s eye 8 inches (counts 4 points). Inner ring 2 feet (3 points). Outer, the rest of target (2 points). Distance, 30 yards.

Ninety-six shots divided in any number up to six days, one hand, standing:

250 points count coup; 300, grand coup.

Half With left hand only; half with right only:

230 points, coup; 260, grand coup.

Rífleman. T0 be a marksman of the highest rank but one, according to militia standards, a coup; to be an expert rifleman of the highest rank, a grand coup.


To spot the Rabbit three times out of five at 60 yards, also to distinguish and map out correctly six Pleiades and see clearly the “Pappoose (Alcor) on the Squaw's (Mizar) back” counts a coup; to spot the Rabbit three times out of five at 70 yards and seven Pleiades and the Pappoose, counts a far-sight grand coup. (Those who habitually wear glasses may use them in this test.) (See "Far-sight," among the games in Book of Woodcraft.)

To make a 75 score in ten tries in the game of Quick-sight, with ten counters, counts coup; a 95 score counts a grand coup. (See “Quick-sight”, among the games.) 58)

Big Game Hunting

Inasmuch as Hunting Big Game must be recognized in our list of national outdoor sports, it should be elevated to a higher plane by the adoption of these rules, because they tend to give the utmost prorninence to the many admirable features of the Chase, and at the same time reduce the total sum of destruc- tion. T0 have gone alone into the haunts of big game, that is to say, without professional guide, and by fair hunting, unaided by traps or poison, or dogs (except where marked “d"), have killed and saved for good purposes, in absolute accordance with the game laws, any of the following kinds of game (or others of a corresponding Character), counts honors as below: Each species counts one coup; that is, one Tiger would count one coup, ten Tigers would not count any more, and when he gets his Tiger, his Moose, etc., the sportsman is supposed to stop so far as that species is concerned. The presence of a professional hunter reduces a grand coup to a coup, and if he took any part in the actual killing it does not count at all. A native gun-bearer is not necessarily a professional guide. Coup Black Bear (d) Water-buck Puma d Deer Gray Wolf (d) Moose, Wapiti, etc. Wild Boar, otherwise than with Tiger (from elephant-back or spear „ _(d) Machan) Caribou j r4-ioot Crocodile or Alligator lx Grand Coup Elephant i Hippopotamus Lion Moose (by stalking) Tiger (without help of ele- Mountain Goat phants) Mountain Sheep, adult ram Jaguar Chamois Leopard Himalayan Tahr, adult male Puma Gray Wolf Rhinoceros x» Grizzly Bear Indian Bison Spectacled Bear African Buñalo Wild Boar, with spear, etc. Gorilla Sword ñsh, 15 feet long, from Okapi small boat 59)


Campercraft and Scouting

Bee-line. Come to Camp through strange woods from a point one mile oñ and return in 30 minutes, for conp; in 20, for grand coup. M atch-Jire. Light r 5 campñres in succession with 15 matches, all in different places, all with stuff found in the woods by himself, one at least to be on a wet day, for coup; if all I 5 are done on wet days, or if he does 30, of which two are on wet days, it counts grand conp. F línt and Steel Fire. To light 15 campñres in succession With wildwood timber, one at least on a wet day, and none to take over a minute from striking the flint to having the blazes, coup; if all 15 are done on one day, or if he does 30 ñres ' in unbroken succession, two at least on wet days, and in no case more than half a minute from strike to blaze, grand caup. Rubbing-stick Fire. Light a ñre with a ñre-drill or rubbing- sticks, with material of one's own gathering, counts conp; to do it in one minute counts grand coup. Water Boilíng. Boil one quart of water in a 2-quart pail in u minutes for coup; in 9 minutes for grand coup. Allowed one log, one match, one axe or hatchet. The water is boiling when jumping and bubbling all over the surface. Axeman. To chop down three 6-inch trees in succession in 60 seconds each, throwing them to drive each a. given stake, coup; in 45 seconds each, grand coup. Knots. To make 30 different standard knots in a rope, for couý; 50 for grand coup. Lassa. To catch 10 horses or cattle in corral, with 10 throws of the lasso, counts coup; to catch 10 on the range in 10 throws counts a grand coup. Lassa. To catch a horse or beef by each of his four feet in four successive throws, grand coup. Lassa. To catch, throw, and "hog-tie" a. beef or horse in 2% minutes for eonp, in 1% minutes for grand canp. The record is said to be 40 seconds. Diamond Hitch. Pack a horse with not less than 100 pounds of stuff, with diamond hitch, to hold during 8 hours of travel, caup. Ten days in succession, a grand wap. Size Guessing. To guess one inch, one foot, one yard, one rod, one acre, 100 yards, 200 yards, one quarter mile, one half 60) mile, and a mile, within 20 per cent. of average error, for coup; ro per cent. for grand conp. Height and Weight Guessing. T0 guess the height of 10 trees or other high things, and the weight of 10 stones or other things ranging from one ounce to 100 pounds, within 10 per cent. of average error, for conp; 5 per cent. for grand coup. Gauging F arness. To measure the height of ro trees without climbing, or 10 distances across a river, etc., without Crossing, within 10 per cent. of average error, for coup; 5 per cent. for grand conp. Tools: an axe and a pocket rule only. Star Gazing. Know and name 15 star groups, for coup; know 20 star groups and tell the names and something about at least one star in each, for grand caup. Latitude. Take the latitude from the stars at night with a cart wheel, or some home-made instrument, ro times from different points, within one degree of average error, for coup; one half degree for grand conp. Traveler. A conp for being able to take correct latitude, longitude, and local time. A grand coup for having passed the Royal Geographical Society's examination of “expert traveler." Red Cross. A grand conp for having passed the Red Cross examination of ñrst aid to the wounded. Life Saving. For passing the U. S. Vol. Life Saving Corps diploma test for life saving in the water, a coup. For the same and an actual rescue, grand conp. - Throwing Life Bnoy. For those under 18: To throw it 40 feet within 10 feet of the mark, is wap; the same but 45 feet within 5 feet of the mark is grand conp. In each case 3 out of 5. For those over 18: To throw it 55 feet within 10 feet of the mark is conp; 60 feet within 5 feet of the mark is grand coup. In each case 3 times out of 5. Boat-builder. Build a boat that will carry two men and that can be paddled, rowed, or sailed by them 6 miles an hour, coup; 7 miles an hour, grand conp. Bírch Canoe. To have made a birch canoe that has traveled, with at least one man aboard, 100 miles or more in safety, grand coup. In Signrtalking to know and use correctly 200 signs for caup; 400 signs, grand conp. Wigwag or M yer Signaling. To know this code and signal, as well as receive a message a quarter míle off, at the rate of ro words a minute, for conp. 61)

The same, at a mile, 24 words a minute, for grand wap. M 0rse Code. The same. Trading. Know and clearly discriminate the tracks of 25 of our common wild quadrupeds, also trail one for a mile and secure it, without aid of snow, wap. Similarly discriminate 50 tracks, and follow 3 tracks a mile as before, but for 3 different animals, grand wap. Indian Bed. Make an Indian bed of at least 60 rods, all tied tight for wap. Make one of 80 or more rods with 4 cords all straight, and bound at the edges, for grand wap. Cooking. Cook 12 digestible meals for at least three persons, using Ordinary Camp outfit, wap. Or 2I meals and in addition make good bread each day for grand wap. Wilderness Cooking. Make and bake bread, fry ñsh or meat and boil potatoes or ñsh without pots or pans. Coap or grand wap, according to merit. Cabín. Build a habitable log cabin not less than 6 x 8, With wind-tight Walls and waterproof roof. Coap or grand wap, according to merit. T ent ar T eepee. Make a two-man tent or an 8-foot teepee, or better, single handed and set them up; for wap or grand wap, according to merit. Latríne. To have made and run for three days a perfect latrine in Army fashion, wap or grand wap, according to merit. Basket. To have made a serviceable basket of wildwood materials and not less than 5 inches across; for wap or grand wap, according to merit. Weaving. To have woven a good grass or rush rug, square and even, not less than 2 x 5 feet, wap or grand coap, according to merit. Blazes and Signs. Make the 4 usual Indian Signs or Blazes on tree trunk, in twigs, grass, stones, give the smoke signals, and add 25 other signs or pictographs used by the Indians. Coap or grand wap, according to merit. Herald. Open and lead the Council, light the sacred fire, performing the Peace Pipe ceremony and the Naming ceremony. Know three Indian dances, songs and the Omaha Invocation. Coap or grand wap, according to merit. Dancer. Know three Indian dancing songs and be able' to dance and teach the Snake dance, the War dance, the Caribou dance and the Scalp dance, for wap. Add the New Sun dance, the Seneca War dance and the Dog dance for grand wap. Peace Messenger. Know 100 signs of the Sign Language and translate into English from any other language sentences 62) amounting to 300 words, conp. Know 200 signs and translate from two languages, grand 001412. Indian Clock. Make an Indian Clock, that is, a sun-dial, that works. Conp or grand conp, according to merit. M ap. Make a correct map of a region one mile long, ž mile wide, such as a mile of highway, taking in š of a mile on each side, marking every house, fence, hill, and prominent tree, etc. When there is a stream, indicate the size, speed, gallons it runs per hour and bridges. Conp or grand coup, according to merit. Sweat Lodge. Make and use properly a Sweat Lodge three times in one week, in two of the times it may be given to an- other person for conp. Run a Sweat Lodge successfully for one month, treating at least a dozen patients, grand conp. Bow and Arrows. Make a bow and 6 arrows that will carry 100 yards, map; 1 50 yards, grand wap. Tomtom. Make and decorate a tomtom; conp or grand coup, according to merit.


(Revised by Will H. Thompson, of Seattle, Wash.) Make a total score of 300 with 60 shots (in one or two meets), 4-foot target at 40 yards (or 3-foot target at 30 yards), for conp; make 400 for grand conp. Shoot so fast and far as to have 6 arrows in the air at once, for 301412; 7, for grand conp. (According to Catlin, the record is 8. For children (under ro), to send an arrow 90 yards, conp; II 5 yards, grand conp. For boys (ro to 14), to send an arrow 125 yards, wap; 150, grand conp. For lads (14 to 18), to send an arrow 175 yards, conp; 200, grand cauý. For men (over 18), to send an arrow 250 yards, wap; 275, grand coup. To hit the Burlap Deer in the heart, first shot: For Boys at 45 yards, conp; 55 yards, grand conp (i H H H KC C6 (i [í lť H (Š (Č GC (Š (The heart is 9 inches across.) To cover a mile: Children in 19 shots for canp; 15 shots for grand canp Boys u 14 u u u II u u (u u (í Cl (l (6 9 H (6 (Š (Í (l 8 (Š (Š (C 7 (Š [ť (Í C5 63)

Long Range, Clout, or Flight Shooting

Lads. Three-foot target at 130 yards, if possible on a steep hillside. In the target is a. bulľs eye, and counts Within 3 feet of outside of target “ l l 6 (Š (l (l (l í (ť (Š 9 IČ (C (Š (l (l (l (l (G (Š (4 (l H (í I2 Coup is for 300 at 60 consecutive shots. Grand coup is for 400 at 60 consecutive shots. (In one or two meets.) M en. Four-foot target at 180 yards, if possible on a steep hillside. Hana-two In the target is a bulľs eye, and counts 9 Within 6 feet of outside of target “ 7 Cl (l (l (í ŠC (l CC 5 H (l (ť (š H (t lt 3 (í (l tl (Í (l (l (C I Coup for 300 at 60 consecutive shots. Grand coup for 400 at 60 consecutive shots. (In one or two meets.)


(By Dr. Henry van Dyke, Author of "Little Rivers," "Fish- erman's Luc ," etc.) (Boys are those under 14; lads 14 to 18; men 18 and over.) Tackle-makíng. Boys: To make a ó-foot leader of clean gut, with smooth knots to stand a. strain of 5 lbs., coup. To tie 6 different ñies, of regular patterns, on number 8-12 hooks, and take trout With each of them, by daylight casting in clear Water, grand coup. Lads: To make a bait rod of 3 joints, Straight and sound, 14 oz. or less in weight, 10 feet or less in length, to stand a Strain of 1% lbs. at the tip, r 3 lbs, at the grip, coup. T0 make a jointed fly-rod 8-Io feet long, 4-6 ozs. in weight, capable of casting a fly 60 feet, grand coup. Fly-Jíshing. Boys and lads: T0 take with the ñy, unassisted a 3-lb. trout or black bass, on a rod not more than 5 oz. in weight, coup. To take a 5-lb. trout or black bass or a 4-lb. landlocked salmon under the same conditions, grand coup. Men: To hook and land with the ñy, unassisted, without net or gaff, a trout or landlocked salmon over 4 lbs., or a salmon 64) over 12 lbs., couý. To take, under the same conditions, a, sahnon over 25 lbs., grand conp. General Fishing. Boys, lads, and men. T0 take on a rod, without assistance in booking, playing, or landing, a trout, black bass, pike, muscallonge, grayling, salmon, blueñsh, weakñsh, striped bass, kingñsh, sheepshead, or other game fish, whose weight in pounds equals or exceeds that of the rod in ounces, coup. To take under the same conditions a game fish that is double in pounds the ounces of the rod, grand conp. Indoor Fly-casting. Boys: To cast a fly with a rod of 5 oz. or less, not over 10 feet long, 40 feet, wap; 55 feet grand conp. Lads: 65 feet, coup; 80 feet, grand wap. Men: 80 feet, coný; 95 feet, grand conp. "Every fish caught and kept, but not used, is a rotten spot in the anglerls record" (H. v. D.).


(Revised by Lou S. Darling, of New York. Author of "Tournament Casting and the Proper Equipmentľ) t With ž-ocz. tdtlimmy frog, 5-ft rod, indoors, overhead casting, ournamen s y e: Child class, 40 feet for conp; 50 feet for grand conp. (Í H (C (l CG U M (Š (Š (l (f H ŠK CC lš (l (Í (Š (C M (6 M (Š Cl If out of doors add ro per cent. to each of the distances, if cast is made With the wind. If a wooden lu is used instead of the dummy fro , add p g_ g 30 per cent. to each distance.


Nature Study-Vertebrates

(Revised by Frank M. Chapman, of the American Museum of Natural History, New York City.) Know and name correctly 25 native wild quadrupeds, for coup; know and name correctly 50, and tell something about each, for grand coup. Know and draw unmistakable pictures of 25 tracks of our four-foot animals, for conp; of 50 for grand coup. Know and name correctly 100 of our native birds as seen 65) mounted in a museum, the female and young to count separately, when they are wholly different from the male. This counts coup; 200 birds for grand conp. _ _ Know and name correctly 50 wild birds m the ííeld; thlS counts conp; 100, grand conp. Recognize 50 wild birds by note, for wap; 100 for grand coný. Know and name 10 turtles for muj); 20 for grand conp, With something interesting about each. Know and name 10 different Snakes, tell which are poisonous, for coup; 20 snakes for grand wap. Know and name correctly 10 Batrachians for coup; 20 for grand conp. Know and name 2 5 fish for canp; 50 ñsh for grand conp.

Nature Study – Lower Forms of Life

(Revised by John Burroughs.) Know and name 25 native land and fresh-water shells, for conp; 50 for grand conp. Know and name 25 moths, for conp; 50 for grand map. Know and name 25 butterñies, for conp; 50 for grand coup. Know and name 50 other insects for muj); 100 for grand conp. Know and name correctly, i. e., with the accepted English names, according to any standard authority, 25 trees, and tell something interesting about them, counts conp; 50 for grand conp. Know and name correctly 50 of our wild flowers, for conp; 100 for grand couý. Know and name correctly 25 of our wild ferns, for conp; 50 for grand conp. Know and name correctly 25 of our native mosses, for conp; 50 for grand conjz. Know and name 50 common toadstools or mushrooms, for conp; 100 for grand coný.

Geology, etc.

(Revised by Prof. Charles D. Walcott, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution.) Paleontology. Know and name, referring to their proper strata, 50 native fossils, for conp; 100 for grand wap. 66)

Mineralogy. Know and name 50 minerals, for conp; or roo for grand conp. Geology. Know and name and descríbe the 14 great divisions of the earth's crust, according to Geikíe, also deñne watershed, delta, drift, fault, glacier, terrace, stratum, dip, and identify 10 diñerent kinds of rock, for conp. In addition to the ñrst, deñne sediment metamorphic, anticlinal, synclinal, moraine, coal, metal, mineral, petroleum, and identify in all 20 kinds of rock, for grand coup.


(Revísed by A. Radclyñe Dugmore, of C oznziry Lryb in America, New York.) Make a good recognizable photograph of any wild bird larger than a robin, while on its nest, for conp. With image 3 inches long for grand wap. Make a good photograph of a Ruffed Grouse drumming, a Prairie Chicken dancing, a Woodcock, or a Wild Turkey strut- ting, for grand coup. Make a good recognizable photograph of a wild animal in the air, for conp or grand conp, according to merit. Ditto for a fish. Get a good photograph of any large wild animal in its native surroundings, and not looking at you, for coup or grand coup, according to merit. (As these are tests of woodcraft, menagerie animals do not count.)


With standards for the Big Lodge (Kitchi Wigwam). And with the standards for the Little Lodge (Pangi Wig- wam) added in parenthesis. Those for the Medicine Lodge (Mashkiki Wigwam) would be the same as for the Big Lodge, if any are desired. i The form of the badges is shown on pages 27 and 71. The badges may be worn across the arm in the fashion of the white man; or in a band across the breast or down the breast from the shoulders after the manner of the Indian. These are the same for all lodges. Events marked * are not optional. 67) Bitch Bark Roll for Girls 57 Athlete Camp Cook Camp Craftsman ' 1mm A „nam Camp Doctor Canoeman Físherman IIIHHIIIIIIIII ' ' vumulq Íłunumuł młłlłłuű IIÍÍIIIWW a lllllllllllllllll HJIIHV” _ HIIIIIIIII MA WW Sharpshooter Star Wíseman Swímmer «„".'.!!;J'.'.';uł Village Scout White Woodcraft Wíse Woodman Thšee Years' ervxce 68)



The Degree of Athlete is coníerred on those who can make 12 out of the events for the Little Lodge and 15 out of those for the Big Lodge. -means "not open." LITTLE LODGE BIG LODGE EVENT mnm 10 UNDER 12 UNDEx 14 'KINDER 16 UNDER 18 ovn 18 Walk I mile in 14 min. 13 12 11 10 9 Run Iooyards - - - 13 12g 11,1; “ " 7: sec- 7% 7 - - - Skate 100 " 1 " 16 15 14 13 ng Swím “ “ any time any time any time any time any time any time Paddle 1 mile 15 min. 14 13 12 II 10 Row 1 " 14 13 12 10 9 8 Running bgoad jump 10 feet 11 12 13 14 I 5 'i high _ " 3ft.8 3.11 4.1 4.4 4.7 4.10 Stangmg b10ad Jump 6 feet 6% 7 7% 8 8% _ high 3 _" 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 3.10 Chm the bar 3 times 7 9 II 13 Push up from ñoor (no swing) - 9 times 11 13 15 17 Rope climb (hands only) - 16 sec. 14 12 10 8 Shot put 8 lbs. _ - - - 30 ft. 35 40 Potatqrace 8 p's, _2yds apart, 5 yd ñmsh 47 sec. 45 43 41 39 37 Throwmg regulatlon baseball 50 yds. 60 70 80 90 100 Battmg baseball 45 " 50 55 70 80 95 Throyvmg lacrosse ball 70 " 80 go mo 115 130 ft. Kickmg football (place kick) f 20 " 25 30 35 40 50 Put up 51b. dumb-bel] - - - 70 90 110 times gS S1119 JOJ IWH 11198 11938 69)



The Degree of Camper may be conferred on those who take 10 of these tests:

  • L Can light r 5 ñres in succession with 15 matches, at dif-

ferent places, one, at least, on a Wet day. (10 for L. L.) 2. Have put up a 2-man tent alone, ten times, for actual service, ready for storms. (5 times for L. L.) 3. Can make the ñre with rubbing-sticks of own preparation. 4. Can boil water in 10 minutes with 1 match, r log, 1 axe; 1 quart of water in a. 2-quart pail. (15 min. for L. L.)

  • 5. Have made a willow bed, or a rush mat, or an equally

good one of wild material. 6. Have made a waterproof roof of wildwood materials. 7. Have cooked 21 digestible meals with ordinary camp outñts, for at least three persons. 12 meals for L. L.) 8. Know how to make a raft.

  • 9. Know how to choose a camp site and how to prepare for


  • 1o. Know how to build a latrine (toilet).
  • IL Know how to dispose of the camp garbage and refuse.
  • 12. Have slept out Ioo nights (no roof but Canvas); not

necessarily consecutive nights. (50 for L. L.) 13. Have traveled 500 miles, all told, in canoe, on foot, or in saddle, while sleeping out. (250 for L. L.) 14. Have had charge of a camp of ñve or more for seven suns (one week) and kept all going in good shape.

Camp Cook


The Degree of Camp Cook is conferred on those who take 6 of these tests: I. Can make a good ñreplace of wood, of stone, sod, or earth.

  • 2. Light 15 ñres with 15 successive matches, one on a Wet day.

(ro flres and 10 matches for L. L.)

  • 3.)Cook 5 batches of good bread in a Dutch oven. (3 for

L. L. 4. Cook 5 batches of good bread without any utensils but a hatchet. (3 for L. L.) 70) 60 Bitch Bark Roll for Girls

  • 5. Cook 21 digestible meals over campñre for a party of two

or more. (12 for L. L.)

  • 6. Boil a quart of water in a z-quart pail in 10 minutes.

(15 for L. L. given I match, 1 log, I axe.) 7. Cook a meal consisting of baked bread, fried meat or ñsh, roast meat or boiled pota-toes without any utensils or tools but a hatchet. 8. Have trained a class in Cooking; showing and making them do it properly.

Camp Craftsman


The Degree of Camp Craftsman may be conferred on those who take 15 out of these tests: I. Have a knowledge of tanning and curíng.

  • 2. Can sole and heel a pair of boots, sewed or nailed, and

generally repair boots and shoes. 3. Can dress a saddle, repair traces, stirrup leathers, etc., and know the various parts of harness. 4. Can patch a garment.

  • 5. Can make a lace or a button of a leather patch.

6. Make set of 6 camp chairs and a camp table. 7. Make a waterproof vessel of birch bark.

  • 8. Repair a broken boat or canoe.

9. Repair a tent cover so it will not leak. 10. Make an axe helve or a hoe handle. II. Can repair a leaky kettle or pot. 12. Can solder a tin. 13. Make a basket of wildwood materials.

  • I4. Make an Indian bed.

15. Make a grass mat. 16. Can fell a 6-inch tree in 60 seconds and drive with it a given stake. 17. Cut down a 6-inch tree, and chop and split it into stove wood, using axe only. 18. Cut and ñat with 2 true surfaces a railway tie 8 feet long, g-inch face and 6 inches thick using axe only.

  • I9. Distinguish between rip saw, crosscut, keyhole saw, 2-

handed crosscut and show how they are used.

  • 20. Show the right and wrong way of putting nails into

two boards, one of which is to be fastened across the other. 21. Make a boat or a birch canoe. 22. Build a log cabin. 71)

Camp Doctor


The Degree of Camp Doctor is conferred on those who take 20 out of these tests:

  • L Can demonstrate the Schaefer method of resuscitation.

2. Carry a person down a ladder. 3. Bandage head and ankle.

  • 4. Demonstrate treatment of wound of the neck with severe

arterial hemorrhage. 5. Treat mangled injury of the leg without severe hem- orrhage. 6. Demonstrate treatment for rupture of varicose veins of the leg with severe hemorrhage. 7. Show treatment for bite of ñnger by mad dog. 8. Demonstrate rescue of person in contact with electric wxre. 9. Apply tourniquet to a princípal artery. IO. State chief diñerence between carbolic poisoning and intoxication.

  • I I. Pass ñrst-aid tests of American Red Cross Society.

12. Write a statement on the care of the teeth. 13. State a principle to govern in eating, and state in the order of their importance, ñve rules to govern the care of his health. 14. Be able to tell the diiference in effect of a cold and hot bath.

  • r 5. Describe the eñect of alcohol and tobacco on the growing

16. Tell how to care for the feet on a march. 17. Describe the effect of walking as an exercise. 18. Know how to treat sprains. 19. Tell how athletics may be overdone.

  • 2o. State what the chief causes of each of the following

diseases are: tuberculosis, typhoid, malaria. 21. Tell what should be done to a house which has been. occupied by a person who has had a contagious disease. 22. Tell how they may coöperate with the board of health in preventing disease. 23. Describe the method used in their community in dis- posing of garbage and the evil effect of ñies.

  • 24. Know how to treat for bad sunburn.

25. Tell how a city should protect its foods; milk, meat, and exposed foods. 72)

26. Tell how to plan the sanitary care of a Camp. 27. State the reason why school children should undergo a medical examination. 28. Must know what wood herbs, etc., or Camp staples will produce Sweat, purge, vomit, or warmth; what will make a quick poultice which will check diarrhoea, etc.

  • 29. Know poíson ivy, sumac, oak, etc., and the proper treat-

ment for cases of poisoning by these. 30. Make, use, and teach others to use, the Indian Sweat Lodge. 31. Have taught a class in ñrst aid. (The Little Lodge can scarcely expect to take this.)



The Degree of Canoeman may be conferred on those who take 15 of these tests:

  • I. Can tie rapidly 6 different useful knots. (4 in L. L.)

2. Splice ropes. 3. Can ñnd, collect, prepare and use “wattapľ that is spruce roots for canoe binding, etc. 4. Can ñnd, collect, prepare and use gum for canoe gumming. 5. Use a palm and needle. 6. Fling a rope coil.

  • 7. Row, pole, scuH, and steer a boat; also bring a canoe or

boat properly alongside and make fast. 8. Can build a boat or built canoe. 9. Can make a paddle and paínt it Indian fashion.

  • Io. Repair a boat or canoe.

11. Repair a birch-bark or canvas canoe. 12. Must know the laws of mooring, beaching, caching, or portaging a canoe, also how to sit in it and how to change seats with another when añoa t.

  • I3. Can swim roo yards.

14. Can swim 50 feet with boots, pants and shirt on. (For L. L. 25 feet.) 15. Have sailed any z-man Craft for 30 successive days, 12 hotlirs a day at the wheel-the other man not a professional sa: or.

  • Io. Have paddled (single) a canoe on dead water, r mile in

12 min. (15 min. L. L.) 17. Have spilled the canoe and got into her again, and baled her without help. 73)

18. Have taken canoe campeťs honor, that is made a con- tinuous canoe or rowboat trip of at least 500 miles, Sleeping out every night. (100 miles for L. L.) 19. Have a knowledge of weather-Wisdom and tides. 20. Can state direction by the stars and sun. 21. Can steer by compass. 22. Have taught a class to handle a canoe.



The Degree of Fisherman may be conferred on those who take g of these tests:

  • L Catch and name 10 diñerent species of fish: salmon or

trout to be taken with ñies; bass, pickerel, or pike to be caught with rod or reel, muskallonge to be caught by trolling. (7 for L. L.) 2. Make a bait rod of 3 joints, Straight and sound, 14 oz. or less in weight, 10 feet or less in length, to stand a strain of 1% lbs. at the tip, 13 lbs. at the grip. Or else make a jointed ñy-rod 8-10 feet long, 4-8 ozs. in weight, capable of casting a ñy 60 feet. 3. Name and describe 25 diñerent species of fish found in North American Waters, and give a complete list of the ñshes ascertained by himself to inhabit a given body of water. (15 for L. L.) 4. Give the history of the young of any species of wild fish from the time of hatching until the adult stage is reached. 5. Make a net and catch a ñsh in it. 6. Make a turtle trap and catch a turtle in it.

  • 7. Make a 6-foot leader of clean gut, with smooth knots

to stand a strain of 5 lbs.

  • 8. Take With the fly, unassisted, a 3-lb. trout, landlocked

salmon, or bass, or a 12 lb. salmon, on a rod not more than 5 oz. in weight. 9. Or else take on a rod, without assistance in hooking, playing, or landing a trout, black bass, pike (muscallonge), grayling, salmon, blueñsh, weakfish, striped bass, kingñsh, sheepshead, or other game fish, whose weight in pounds equals or exceeds that of the rod in ounces 10. Cast a fly with a rod of 5 oz. or less, not over 10 feet long, 65 feet. Or, with ž-oz. dummy frog, 5-fo0t rod, outdoors overhead casting, tournament style, send it 80 feet if under 18, 110 if over. 74)

11. Swim a hundred yards. 12. Paddle (single) a canoe 1 mile in 12 minutes. (15 for L. L.) 13. Row without help r mile in 10 minutes. (14 for L. L.)



The Degree of Forester may be conferred on those who take 18 of these tests:

  • I. Can identify 25 kinds of trees when in leaf, or 15 kinds

of deciduous (broad leaf) trees in Winter, and tell some of the uses of each. (15 for L. L.) 2. Identify 12 kinds of shrubs. (8 for L. L.) 3. Collect and ídentify samples of 30 kinds of wood and be able to tell some of their uses and peculiar properties. (12 for L. L.) 4. Determine the height, and estimate the amount of timber, approximately, in 5 trees of different sizes.

  • 5. Can state the laws for transplanting, grafting, spraying,

and protecting trees. 6. Make a collection of 60 species of wild ñowers, ferns, or grasses dried and mounted in a book and correctly named. (30 for L. L.)

  • 7. Can recognize in the forest all important commercial

trees in his neighborhood. 8. Can distinguish the Iumber from each and tell for what purpose each is best suited. 9. Can tell the age of old blazes on trees which mark a boundary or trail.

  • Io. Can recognize the difference in the forest between good

and bad logging, giving reasons why one is good and another bad. II. Can tell whether a tree is dyíng from injury by ñre, by insects, by disease or by a combination of these causes. 12. Knows what tools to use in lumbering.

  • I 3. Knows how to fight ñres in hilly or in flat country.

14. Knows the effect upon stream-How of the destruction of forests at head waters. r 5. Knows what are the 4 great uses of water in streams. 16. Knows what causes the pollution of streams, and how it can best be stopped. 17. Knows how, in general, water-power is developed. 75)

18. Can tell, for a given piece of farm land, whether it is best suited for use as a farm or forest, and why. 19. Can point out examples of erosion, and tell how to stop it. ' 20. Can estimate closely how much timber and how much cordwood is in a given acre of woods. 21. Name 6 trees that will ñoat when green, and 6 that Will not. '

  • 22. Know something of the relation of birds and quadrupeds

to forest trees. 2 3. Can fell a 6-inch tree in 60 seconds, driving with it a given Stake. (2 min., and to fall within 2 feet of a Stake, for L. L.) 24. Have made 100 trees grow where none grew heretofore. (25 for L. L.) 25. Have camped in the Woods for 30 nights. 26. Have taught a class the rudiments in forestry.

Frontier Scout


The Degree of Frontier Scout may be conferred on those who take 8 out of these tests:

  • L Milk a cow.
  • 2. Interpret from any one language into English.

3. Fell a tree in a given place. 4. Weld an iron. 5. Temper a knife. 6. Solder a tin. 7. Shoot to win honors with a riñe. 8. Tie 6 kinds of knots. 9. Make a thread lashing. 10. Use an axe correctly.

Gleeman or Camp Conjurer


The Degree of Gleeman is conferred on those who take 8 of these tests:

  • L Can open and lead the Council. _
  • 2. Light the Sacred Fire with rubbing-sticks.
  • 3. Know the Peace Pipe Ceremony.

4. Know the ceremony of giving names. __ _

  • 5. Can sing many songs, including the MudJl-mukasm,

Omaha, Zonzimondi, Bark Canoe, alone or as a leader. 76)

6. Can dance the Caribou dance, the Scalp dance, the Snake dance. 7. Can tell many stories. 8. And know the art of "making medicine," which is the making of goodfellowship by seeking out talent, selecting and leading it and stopping without oñending those who are not helpful. 9. Know how to conduct in initiations and have the Wis- dom to stop them in decent season. 10. As well as to sing the Good-mght song when good-night time has come.

  • IL Have camped out 30 nights.

12. Teach some one else to run the Council. 13. Teach a dance to a suñicient number to give it.

Herald or Crier


The Degree of Herald is conferred on those who take 10 of these tests: I. Can walk 1 mile in 11 min. (15 for L. L.) . “ " 30 “ “ 12 hrs. (Not open to L. L.) . Can run 100 yds. in 13 sec. (14 for L. L.) " “ 1 mile in 5% min. (Not open to L. L.) . " swim 100 yards. . Have slept out 30 nights. . Can send and receive a message in one of the following systems of signaling: Semaphore, Morse, or Myer, not fewer than 24 letters per minute. (12 letters for L. L.) 8. Make correct smoke signals meaning "Camp is here," “I am Lost," “All well," "All come to Council."

  • 9. Can talk Sign Talk, knowing at least 400 signs. (200

for L. L.) -

ni Iřršow the 25 Signs and blazes of the Indian code. (15

or . .

  • I r. Can read and translate into his own language a page or

Conversation from some other language.

  • 12. Can conduct a Council.

d*I3. Know the ordinary rules of courtesy, precedence, intro- uction, salutation, etc. 14. Know the history of the National Flag and the proper way of saluting, etc. 15. Have taught half a dozen fellows to qualify. QONIl-FC» k) 77)



The Degree of Horseman may be conferred on those who take ro of these tests:

  • L Show that they are at home in a saddle and can ride at

a walk, trot, and gallop.

  • 2. Know how to saddle and bridle a horse correctly.

3. Can catch 6 horses in corral or on range with 12 throws of the lasso. 4. Know how to water and feed and to what amount, and how to groom a horse properly. 5. Know how to harness a horse correctly in single or double harness and to drive.

  • 6. Can pack 100 lbs. of stuff with diamond hitch, to stay

during 4 hours of travel or 2 miles of trotting. (2 hours or r mile for L. L.) 7. Have a knowledge of the power of endurance of horses at work and know the local regulations concerning driving. 8. Know the management and care of horses.

  • 9. Can identify unsoundness and blemishes.

ro, Know the evils of bearing or check reins and of ill-íitting harness or saddlery. rr. Know two common causes of, and proper remedies for, lameness, and know to whom he should refer cases of cruelty and abuse. 12. Are able to judge as to the weight, height, and age of horses. 13. Know 3 breeds and their general characteristics. 14. Are able to treat a horse for colic. r 5. Describe symptoms and give treatment for the following: wounds, fractures and sprains, exhaustion, Choking, lameness. 16. Understand horseshoeing.

  • I 7. Can clear a 4-f0ot hurdle and an 8-foot water jump.

18. Pick up their hat from the ground going at full gallop on a horse not less than 13 hands high. (rr hands for L. L.)



The Degree of Hunter may be conferred on those who take 14 of these tests: I. Can walk 1 mile in rr minutes. (14 in L. L.) 2. " “ 30 “ “ 12 hours. (Not open to L. L.) 78)

3. Can run roo yards in 13 Secs. (15 in L. L.) 4. “ run 1 mile in 5% minutes. (Not open to L. L.) 5. " swim roo yards. 6 “ spot the Rabbit (see Games) 3 times out of 5 at 60 yards. 7. " see and map out 6 Pleiades. 8. “ see the Pappoose on the Squaw's back (spectacles allowed if habitually worn.) (See p. 2o4.)*

  • 9. Have killed according to the Campñre Law (p. ro6),*

any one big game animal.

  • ro. Have got a good photograph of a big game animal wild

in its native surroundings.

  • IL Know and name correctly 25 native wild quadrupeds.

(15 for L. L.) 12. Know and name correctly 50 wild birds in the ñeld and their nests. (30 for L, L.)

  • I3. Know and clearly discriminate the tracks of 25 of our

common wild quadrupeds. (r 5 for L. L.) 14. Can trail an animal or else iron track prints for half a mile without aid of snow. (Snow allowed in L. L.) 15. Have won honors with riñe. That is, be a marksman according to the rules of the National Riñe Association. 16. With bow make a total score of 300 points at 60 yards, standard target (see p. 112).* (25 points for L. L.)

  • r7. Have caught alive and uninjured with his own make of

trap one wild quadruped and one wild bird.

  • I8. K)now the Pole Star and 15 star groups. (ro star groups

in L. L. 19. Have taught any one of these out the ñrst 9 to some other brave.



The Degree of Mountaineer may be conferred on those who take 8 of these tests:

  • r. Take two honors at least in the list of mountain-climbing

(see p. 103). (One in L. L.) 2. Have camped out at least 30 nights in the mountains. 3. Know, name and describe the 14 great divisions of the earth's crust (according to Geikie). (Any 8 for L. L.)

  • 4. Know and name 25 different kinds of rock. (ro in L. L.)
  • 5. Deñne watershed, delta, drift, fault, glacier, terrace,

stratum, dip. (Any 5 of these in L. L.) '

  • See Book of Woodcraft.


6. Know at least 20 mammals that live in the mountains. (12 for L. L.) 7. " " " 50 mountain birds. (25 in L. L.) 8. " “ " 25 mountain trees. (15 in L. L.) 9. Have made a journey alone on foot through the mountains of at least 100 miles, Sleeping out every night. (Companion and horse allowed in L. L.) 10. Can swim 100 yards.

Pathfinder or Scout


The Degree of Pathfinder is conferred on those who take 12 of these tests: 1. Know every land bypath and short cut for a distance of at least 2 miles in every direction around your local head- quarters in the country. (r mile in L. L.)

  • 2. Have a general knowledge of the district within a 5-mile

radius of his local headquarters, so as to be able to guide people at any time, by day or night. (2 miles for L. L.) 3. Know the general direction and population of the 5 principal neighboring towns and be able to give Strangers correct directions how to reach them. (3 towns in L. L.) 4. Know the country in 2-mile radius, or in a town must know in a š-míle radius what livery stables, garages, and black- smiths there are. (I mile in L. L.) 5. Know the location of the nearest meat markets, bakeries, groceries, and drug Stores.

  • 6. Know where the nearest police station, hospital, doctor,

ñre alarm, ñre hydrant, telegraph, and telephone oůces, and railroad stations are.

  • 7. Know something of the history of the place, its principal

public buildings, such as town or city hall, post-oñice, schools, and churches. 8. As much as possible of the above information should be entered on a large scale map. g. F ell a 6-inch tree or pole in a prescribed direction so as to fall between two stakes 2 feet apart, within 60 seconds. (4 feet and 2 minutes for L. L.) 10. Tie 6 kinds of knots quickly. (4 for L. L.) n. Lash spars properly together for scaffolding.

  • 12. Build a modern bridge or derrick.

13. Make a camp kitchen. 80)

14. Build a shack or cabin of one kind or another suitable for three occupants. 15. Walk 1 mile in 11 minutes. (15 for L. L.) 16. Run 100 yards in 13 seconds. (Not open to L. L.) 17. Run 50 yards in 7% seconds. (Not open to L. L.) 18. Swim 100 yards.

Scout Runner


The Degree of Scout Runner is conferred on those who take g of these tests:

  • L Can walk 1 mile in 11 minutes. (14 in L. L.)
  • 2. “ " 30 miles in 12 hours. (Not open to L. L.)

3. run 100 yards in 13 seconds. (Not open to L. L.) 4. " “ 50 “ “ 7§ " (Not open to L. L.)

  • 5. “ " 1 mile in 5% minutes. (Not open to L. L.)
  • 6. " swim 100 yards.
  • 7 “ paddle a canoe 1 mile in 12 minutes. (15 in L. L.)

8. Know the Semaphore or Wigwag or Myer code and take as well as receive a message at the rate of at least 24 letters a minute.

  • 9. Know 200 Signs of the Sign Language. (100 in L. L.)

10. Know the 25 secret signs and blazes of the Indian code (15 in L. L.)

  • r 1. Have slept out 30 nights.

12. Know and can clearly discriminate the track of 25 of our common wild quadrupeds; also trail for a mile without snow, till near enough to photograph or bag it. (Snow allowed in L. L. 13. Must have carried a letter 3 times over a mile of enemy's country with at least 20 hostiles out against him, of his own class.



,The Degree of Sharpshooter is conferred on those who take 7 of these tests:

  • L Qualify as in "marksman" with the riñe 'in accordance

with the regulations of the National Ríñe Association.

  • 2. Make a bow and arrow which will shoot a distance of

100 feet with fair precision. 3. Make a regulation archery target-a, feet across, with the 9-inch centre and 4 rings, each 4% inches wide. 81)

4. Make a total score of 3 50 with 60 shots of bow and arrow in one or two meets, using standard 4-foot target at 40 yards or 3-foot target at 30 yards. (300 in L. L.) 5. Make a total score of 300 with 72 arrows, using standard 4-foot target at a distance of 50 yards, or 3-foot target at 36 yards. (250 for L. L.) 6. Shoot so far and fast as to have six arrows in the air at once. (5 in L. L.) 7. See and map out 6 Pleiades. 8. See the Pappoose on the Squaw's back in the Dipper Handle. 9. Spot the Rabbit 3 times at 60 yards.

Star Wiseman


The Degree of Star Wiseman may be conferred on those who take 7 of these tests:

  • L Have a general knowledge of the nature and movements

of the stars.

  • 2.) Point out and name 10 principal constellations. (6 in

L. L.

  • 3. Can ñnd the North by means of other stars than the

Pole Star in case of that star being obscured by clouds. 4. Can tell the hour of the night by the stars and moon. 5. Know and can name 20 of the chief stars. (I 5 in L. L.) 6. Know, name and can point out 3 of the planets. (I in L. L.) 7. Have a general knowledge of the positions and move- ments of the earth, sun, and moon. 8. Have a general knowledge of tides, eclipses, meteors, comets, sun-spots, and planets.

  • 9. Take the latitude from the stars with home-made instru-

ments, within I degree of error. (2 degrees in L. L.)

  • 1o. Make a sun-dial that works.



The Degree of Swimmer may be conferred on those who take 8 of these tests:

  • L Can swim 100 yards.


. Swim on the back 50 feet. (25 for L. L.) . Swim 50 feet with shoes and clothes on. (2 5 for L. L.) Demonstrate breast, crawl, and side stroke. Dive properly from the surface of the water. . Can dive into from 7 to 10 feet of water and bring from bottom to surface a loose bag of sand Weighing 5 lb. (4 to 7 feet and 3 lb. for L. L.)

  • 7. Demonstrate on land five methods of release from a.

drowning person who clutches you. 8. Demonstrate in the water two methods of release. 9. Demonstrate the Schaefer method of resuscitation (prone pressure). ro. Demonstrate safely Crossing thin or rotten ice. 11. Have a knowledge of weather Wisdom and tides. 12. Teach 3 fellows to swim. (1 for L. L.) ł* owew»



The Degree of Traveler may be conferred on those who take 11 of these tests: 1. Have walked 1 mile in II minutes. (14 in L. L.)

  • 2. Have tramped 30 miles a day. (Not open to L. L.)

3. Have climbed 1 of the standard peaks (p. 103).* 4. Knows at least 15 star groups, including the Dipper and the Little Bear. (Io in L. L.)

  • 5. Have camped out in at least ro different States or coun-

tries. 6. Have entered the Arctic or Antarctic circles. 7. Have crossed the Equator. 8. Can take exact latitude and longitude with instruments.

  • o. Can take latitude within 2 degrees of error, with home-

made instruments. 10. Have made a Compass survey of 100 miles of country. 11. Have traveled at least 100,000 miles by rail or steamship or other means.

  • 12. Have traveled 500 miles on foot, by bicycle, by canoe, or

in saddle, camping out. 13. Know 200 signs of the Sign Language. (100 for L. L.) 14. Can make himself comfortable in the woods with only wildwood material. 15. Can swim 100 yards. 16. Have slept out 30 nights.

  • See Book of Woodcraft.


Village Scout or Big Village Scout


The Degree of Village Scout may be conferred on those who take 14 of these tests:

  • L Know how to turn in an alarm for ñre.

2. Know how to enter burning buildings.

  • 3. Know how to prevent the spread of ñre.

4. Understand the use of hose; unrolling, joining up, con- necting two hydrants, use of nozzles, etc. 5. Understand the use of escapes, ladders, and chutes. 6. Know how to improvise ropes and nets.

  • 7. Know what to do in case of panic.

8. Understand the ñremaďs lift and drag. 9. How to work in fumes. 10. Understand the use of ñre-extingujshers. n. How to rescue animals. 12. How to save property. 13. How to organize a bucket brígade. 14. How to aid the police in keeping back crowds. I 5. How to ride a wheel.

  • 16. Repair a puncture.
  • 17. Walk 4 miles in one hour.

18. Know the signs: /NFPB ä9+-~:-X=IIJ_ o > < AL ::Janu-e 6 S? O Meaning respectively: Oñicial mark, fire-plug 8 feet out, please remove dust, add, subtract, divide, multiply, equals, parallel, plumb, circle, more than, less than, triangle, right-angle, square, because, therefore, this directíon, male, female, young.

White Man’s Woodcraft


The Degree of White Woodcraftsman may be conferred on those who take 9 of the following tests: 1. Take, develop, and print photographs of 12 separate Subjects, 3 interiors, 3 portraits, 3 landscapes, and 3 instan- taneous “action photos." v _ 84)

2.* Make a recognizable photograph of any wild bird larger than a robin, while on its nest.

3.* Make a recognizable photograph of a wild animal in its native haunts.

4. Make a recognizable photograph of a fish in the water.

5.* Map correctly from the country itself the main features of half a mile of road, with 440 yards each side to a scale of 2 feet to the mile, and afterward draw same map from memory.

6.* Measure the height of a tree, telegraph pole, and church steeple without climbing.

7. Measure width of a river without crossing.

8. Estimate distance apart of two objects a known distance away and unapproachable, within an average of 10 per cent, of error in 10 different trials.

9. Can measure a gradient.

10. Can estimate the speed of a stream.

11. Can tell the number of gallons of water going over a fall or down a stream.

12. Can estimate the horsepower of a given fall.

13. Teach the last seven to some one else.

(The Little Lodge may take three of the first six and three of the second – that is, six in all.)

Wise Woodman


The Degree of Wise Woodman may be conferred on those who take 12 of these tests:

1.* Have a list of 100 different kinds of birds personally observed on exploration in the field. (50 for L. L.)

2. Have identified beyond question, by appearance or by note, 45 different kinds of birds in one day. (25 for L. L.)

3. Have made a good clear photograph of some wild bird, the bird image to be over ½ inch in length on the negative. (Any size image for L. L.)

4. Have secured at least two tenants in bird boxes erected by himself. (1 for L. L.)

5. Have daily notes on the nesting of a pair of wild birds from the time the first egg is laid until the young have left the nest. (Daily notes 20 to the month for L. L.)

6. Have attracted at least 3 kinds of birds, exclusive of the English Sparrow, to a “lunch counter” which he has supplied. (Include English sparrow for L. L.) 85)

  • 7. Have a knowledge of the game laws of the state in which

he lives.

  • 8. Preserve and mount the skin of a game bird, or animal,

killed in season. (Preserve only for L. L.) 9. Mount for a rug the pelt of some fur animal.

  • Io. Know 25 different kinds of trees. (15 for L. L.)
  • IL Know 30 different wild ñowers. (20 for L. L.)

12. Know 10 diñerent snakes. (5 for L. L.) 13. Know ro different fungi. (5 for L. L.) 14. Know the signs of weather. 15. Make ñre with the rubbing-sticks.

The Storm Cloud Dance

This is an Indian dance widely used in the West. It is danced by one girl (or boy) using a. white drape for the cloud. For a child this should be of cheesecloth or veiling about two yards long and a yard wide. For a stronger person a heavier drape even a white blanket is sometimes used. This dance needs a. large Circle and should not be attempted in a small room. It portrays the strong and rising wind playing with a cloud, beginning slowly but ending in a Cyclone when the dancer spins and shrieking falls flat, while the cloud settles on her face. The music is chiefly drum, sometimes only drum. Trailer means the hands raised high and wide apart holding the cloud so that it ñoats behind. The Díp consists in bending low to one side so that one hand points straight up, and one straight down, it is given ñrst on one side then the other, the cloud ñoating behind. . The Eagle Swoop is given every six beats and it takes three beats to do it beginning with the hands raised in the trailer, lower the left hand to near the chest raise the right straight up but forward, swing both down to left, then by swinging the right hand round the head and both hands into trailing position the cloud swings clear. After six more beats repeat at other side. The Flying Soud or Drivíng Cloud thus, hold one end of the drape in left hand tight against the right shoulder, the other end in the right hand with arm fully extended and level the drape tight between the two hands, then running very fast once around wave the right hand up and down so that the cloud undulates. The Double Swoop is much like the Eagle Swoop but the dancer turns face to the right when the left hand swings over, then 86) turns and faces the left as the hands change so that the right is u . pI n the Spin the cloud is held tight to the shoulder as in Flying Scud once around is enough for each spin except the ñnal. In the jínal, three or four spins will do with grand crescendo time, etc., then with a scream the dancer drops, jerks the cloud toward her feet, back over her head, then slightly back so it settles over her face and body. While the drum is sufñcient for the dance the effect is better if a low humming chant in correct time is kept up by the drum- mer. This should increase in volume and in the Climax all should give a high pitched prolonged shout while the drum beats a heavy tattoo. Then all is still. Sometimes when necessary to shorten it some of the ñgures i are left out but it always begins with the Walking Trailer and ends with the Spin. The exact and full scenario is as follows: (Each ñgure goes once around) rst. Walking Trailer . . . . . . brisk march time 2nd. “ " with side dip . . “ “ “ 3rd. Running Trailer . . double quick " K 4th. “ with side dip Í Í “ “ “ 5th. Eagle Swoop, six beats to the trailer pause and 3 beats to the dip. 6th. Flying Scud. 7th. Trailer and Double Eagle Swoop, 6 beats trailer and 3 beats for each swoop. 8th. Flying Scud, with a spin for each of the four Winds. 9th. Double Eagle Swoop Without trailer. Ioth. Spin in center, wind screams as the dancer drops Hat, then dies.

Dead Calm.

The Hopi Spring Corn Dances

The ñrst of these attractive dances symbolizes the planting of com and the second its gathering, husking and shelling. Each dance is complete in itself, but they are often given in sequence. The dancers should be in ceremonial costume, or all in white, and any number from four to twelve or more can take part, according to the size of the Council Ring. Eight is perhaps best. The "grain of com" and the "car of com" are imaginary. 87)

The "Sun and shímmer sign" indicates the Sunshine pouring down by holding up high the outside hand, usually the right, with fore-fmger and thumb forming an “Of” at the same time moving the other hand with the ñngers Straight and a little spread to and fro in a direct line from the "O" to the earth, gentle waving or quivering the ñngers of the second hand to symbolize the shimmering beam of sunlight. The "min sign" is made by holding up both hands high in front, palms down, and allowing the ñngers to slightly spread out, hanging down, and in time with the music the ñngers are raised and quickly and sharply dropped again, as if sprinkling water from the tips. The hop-step is the principal step in these Indian dances. It is a step and a hop on each foot, that is two beats. The hop is very slight. Sometimes only the heel is raised and the knee action is emphatic to jingle the bells or rattles that are often used attached to the knee, much as Morris Dances. The side-step is done very slowly, the right foot taking a long sidewise step on the heavy beat of the drum, and then the left foot slides slowly up to the right foot on the light beat of the drum; then repeat. Note the ankles are never crossed. In the Com Dance when the dancers sit down they must all sit at the same moment and in the same fashion, the same foot must be in front and the same hand used to support each in rising. A good plan is to have the right foot over the left and use the left hand as support in getting up. The dancers go the opposite way of the sun, or to the right. They form a complete circle with equal distance between each. The one who comes in first is the leader. This one always goes out ñrst, and, in fact, di- rects the dance, although, it is done in unison. The leader should be the best dancer and should also be tall and well cos- turned. The usual accompaniment needed is the regular beat in double- time of a drum. The “wind murmur" is a continuous soft sound made by pro- longing the "oo" of “whoo" in unison and softly, rising and falling a little in intensity. . The I ndian whoop is made by singing the sound of “Oh" and at the same time rapidly tapping the lips with Hat right hand fmger tips. 88)

The Spring Dance, or the Planting of the Corn =


Tzlgua. Transcribed and harmonizaci .by Pnor. JoHN COMFORT FrLLMoRn. H13. - chi d . nin, hla - chi dai- . nin, i-beh ma kun whi niweh, da win gu ba hin ah.

By permission from "Indian Story and Song", by Alice C. Fletcher.

1. Enter marching to drum, holding up grain of corn in one hand. 2. Hop-step (as above) once around, stop equal distances apart, forming complete circle around ñre. Kneel on left knee. Plant corn (make hole, drop in grain and cover with two motions as though scraping the soil with the hands from four points of Compass, i. e., right and left hands approach each other from east and west and then from north and south in covering hole). 3. Rise, from circle facing the ñre, and sing Rain Song, making the rain sign (as noted). 4. Hop-step to the right, making sun sign with outer or right hand, and the shimmer sign with the left. Go around once. 5. Rain song, making rain sign. Then all kneel on left knee, facing fire, put back of right hand on the ground with fmgers closed except index, which points up, raise it in four jerks at four beats of the drum, to make the corn grow knee-high. 6. Rise, take four steps in, spin in four steps, then take four steps backward. 7. Rain song, making rain sign. Kneel, make corn grow . from knee to waist in four beats. 8. Rise, take four steps in, take four steps around self, i. e., spin in four steps then take four steps. 9. Rain song, rain sign. Grow corn from waist to head high in four beats. ro. The hands high weaving corn, sway forward, backward, 89) left and right, twice each four beats each, uttering Wind Mur- mur. II. All face in, step sidewise in circle with side-step, and every four steps give the Indian yell or whoop. Repeat four times and hop-step out, with head bent downward on folded arms in sign of Night.

Corn Dance. (The Fall Dance)

(NOTE: For this use the Corn Grinding Song, page I, "Songs of Ancient America," by Natalie Curtis, published by G. Schirmer, New York, or the Zuni Sunrise Call, Carlos Troyer, at the same place, price 50 cents. 1. Enter marching holding up com-cob in one hand. Fonn complete circle facing ñre. «  2. Stop, ra.ise both hands and sing the Invocation. 3. Hop-step around twice, corn in hand. i 4. Face ñre-four steps in, four steps around self to right and four steps back. (Indian yell.) 5. Backs to ñre repeat No. 4. After Indian yell face fire. 6. Odd numbers dance four steps to fire, holding up com. Bend, oñeríng corn to fire in four beats-four steps back. 7. Even numbers repeat No. 6. 8. Sit, husking corn to Singing of Chek ah bay tebik (Bark Canoe) then shelling corn to same song. They throw husks into fire and rise. g. Hold up corn in hands and sing Wah! Taho! G0 once around in match step and march out.

<amall>The Invocation mentioned is from Alice C. Fletcher’s Indian Games and Dances, 1915. 90) THE COUNTRY LEE PRESS


  1. L. L. means Little Lodge.

The Twelve Secrets of the Woods


How to Form a Tribe of Woodcraft Girls


The Laws

The Initiation Trials:
The Trial to be Selected by the Guide or the Council of Leaders
Summary of Requirements in the Big Lodge:
Titles and Officers

Ritual of the Council

From the Lamp of Fortitude Are These
And These Are the Rays From Beauty's Lamp
And These Are the Rays From the Lamp of Truth
And These Are in the Blazing Lamp of Love
Order of Doings in Council
Decorum of Council

Constitution or the Laws for the Ruling of the Tribe

I. Name
II. Purpose
III. Who May Enter