Handicrafts 257 the way of founding a swallow bank; for modern influence was making these things as scarce as hollow trees. ‘Without detailing’ my various failures or the causes, I give in brief the methods which led to success. On the bank of my lake, I selected a site that looked south- ward. On a rocky ledge for foundation, I built a stone wall that enclosed a space 12 feet long x 4 feet deep and 6 feet high, leaving some drainage holes at the bottom. This I filled with loose stone. Leaving the front at the 6-foot level, I raised the two sides and the bank 3 feet higher. I fastened some heavy plank temporarily across the front, then pro- ceeded to build my bank. First I laid down a 6-inch stratum of sandy clay, well wetted and hammered down over the whole area ” enclosed j in the stone walls. Over this I laid one inch of concrete. Next, a layer of clay, 3 inches thick, and again an inch of concrete ; then a layer of clay 4 inches, and concrete; so on, varying the thickness of clay till the top was reached, and the last layer of concrete, tilted backward, formed the roof, “After leaving all for a month to set, I removed the boards and put up a sign “To Let.” It was too late in the season for large results; but before many months, I had 2 pairs of sand swallows, a pair of kingfishers, and’a pair of pheebes, availing themselves of my hospitable offer.: Making a Hollow Tree IU IV ; 3 By Ernest THOMPSON SETON Many years ago I realized that the modern foresters were destroying all the hollow trees,—which meant robbing a quar- ter of our woodland birds and animals of their home sites. To offset this on my own land, I built one or two artificial hollow trees, and urged my friends to do the same. The reward was immediate and ample. My first effort was a huge trunk, 35 feet high and 6 feet through. It had ladders and stories inside, so I could climb up unseen, and observe the tenants. (See Country Life im America, Nov., 1908.) But it was very expensive, and I found that a less commodious tree did as well. For the guidance of those who wish to try this new style of bird box, I give instructions that are the result of my own experience. .
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