274 The Book of Woodcraft cutting into a standing dead tree, or on the under side of down timber that is not entirely on the ground. On the prairies and plains, since buiJalo chips are no more, we use horse and cow chips, kindled with dry grass and roots of sage-brush, etc. To keep a fire alive all night, bank the coals: i. e., bury them in ashes. Always put out the fire on leaving camp. It is a crime to leave a burning fire. Use buckets of water if need be. COUNCIL-FIRE The Council-fire is a very different thing from the cooking fire or the so-called bonfire. And there are just as many ways of making it wrong. These are the essentials: It must be easily started. It must give a steady, bright light. It must have as little heat as possible, for it is mostly used in the summer. Therefore, it must be small. It is best built as in (c), about two and one half feet high; the bottom stick about three feet long; the rest shorter and smaller. The small wood and chips to light it can be put either under or on top of the second layer. It should be drawn in toward the top, so as to bum with- out falling apart. It must contain a large proportion of dry, winter-seasoned wood, if it is to blaze brightly. The readiest seasoned wood is usually old lumber.
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