The Woodcraft Manual for Boys: The Fifteenth Birch-Bark Roll (kniha)

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9) THE WOODCRAFT MANUAL FOR BOYS

The Fifteenth Birch Bark Roll

BY

ERNEST THOMPSON SETON

CHIEF OF THE WOODCRAFT LEAGUE

Author of "Wild Animals I Have Known," "Two Little Savages," "Life Histories of Northern Animals," "Forester's Manual," etc.

Published for

THE WOODCRAFT LEAGUE OF AMERICA

13 West 29TH Street, New York

Garden City New York

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY

1917 10)

Copyright, 1917, by

Ernest Thompson Seton

All rights reserved including that of translation into foreign languages, including the Scandinavian,

11) MT BOOK AND MY TALLY Band Totem Tribe Totem Name Street, and dty or town address Age Height Stote Weight.. a member of the Band of the of Woodcraft Boys. Guide Initiation test taken Date Received as Wayseeker 191 Became Pathfinder Became Minisino Became Sagamore List of 24 coups won (abbreviate) :


Tribe 12) My Book and My Tally Became Grand Sagamore Date Grand Coups won Became Sachem Date Coups won Became Grand Sachem Date Grand Coups won Degrees received: Name of dqpree When received « « V « «  l> • * Became Shaman Date 13)

Contents

PREFACE

“The Woodcraft Manual for Boys for 1917”, is an official Manual of the Woodcraft League, giving full information as to the carrying on of the work of the Woodcraft Boys. It is also a handbook containing information on outdoor life for the boys of America.

Ernest Thompson Seton, whose life has been a constant inspiration and help to all lovers of outdoor things, is the author. Much of the material appears for the first time, though some of it has been used from other books with the permission, of Mr. Seton and of the publishers.

F. H. Schmidt, J. A. Wolf, John L. Alexander, William Menaker and Hamlin Garland have helped in organizing work, as well as Jean W. Miller, Lina D. Miller, Anne S. Grumman and other members of the Council of Guidance.

Mrs. F. R. Hoisington assisted along several lines, particularly in the shaping up of the Coups and Degrees as found in the fourth section.

Mrs. Grace Gallatin Seton has contributed several articles and has given freely of her time in the working out of the many problems and in the editing of the book.

Philip D. Fagans, in addition to his duties as Executive Secretary, has written several articles and given of his time both in the working out of the organization and in editing the material.

The League acknowledges with hearty thanks the permission of Ernest Thompson Seton and Doubleday, Page & Company to use much of the material from the Book of Woodcraft; for the use of the poems and stories from “Woodmyth and Fable”, by Ernest Thompson Seton, published by the Century Company; to Alice Fletcher for permission to use the songs and music quoted from her “Indian Songs and Stories”; to H. M. Burr and Association Press for the use of stories from “Around the Fire”; to Mrs. S. A. Ward for the use of the hymn “O Beautiful for Spacious Skies”; to McClelland, Goodchild and Stewart, Ltd., for “The Seven White Swans” from “Legends of Vancouver” by E. Pauline Johnson (Tekahionwake); for the use 14) of the “Corn-smut Girl” from “Indian Days of the Long Ago” by Edward S. Curtis.

The League also acknowledges with many thanks the cover medallion by J. F. Kelly and the drawing of the Woodcraft Boy; the article on the “Life Force” by Dr. Valeria Parker; the article “Wireless for Woodcrafters” by A. Frederick Collins; permission of Raymond Ditmars to use material from which the article and drawing of “Snakes, Good and Bad” were made; and the games suggested by a number of friends.

The Committee has attempted to have the Manual contain information on most of the subjects which would come up in group work. Where a subject has not been carefully covered, reference books have been given.

While Woodcraft as founded by Mr. Seton has been carried on for fourteen years, the Woodcraft League in its present form is but a few months old. Owing to the necessity for a Boys’ Manual the present Birch Bark Roll has been produced under pressure and does not include all the material originally planned. But it is given to the public with the thought as expressed in the Preface to “Two Little Savages”.

“Because I have known the torments of thirst,
I would dig a well where others may drink.”

And it is hoped that the spirit of the Manual is the same as has always characterized the work Mr. Seton has done with the boys and girls of the country.

The Manual Committee.

October, 1916. 15)

OFFICERS OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL AND THE COUNCIL OF GUIDANCE

ERNEST THOMPSON SETON, Chief
MARK SULLIVAN,Secretary, ELON HUNTINGTON HOOKER,Treasurer

PHILIP D. FAGANS, Executive Secretary

Council of Guidance
John L. Alexander

Hamlin Garland, Historian

H. W. Gibson

Anne S. Grumman

Herman H. Horne

Jean W. Miller, Asst. Secretary

May Folwell Hoisington

T. Gilbert Pearson

Grace Gallatin Seton, Chairman Business Committee

Judge Wm. H. Wadhams

Harvey C. Went, and the Officers

National Council
Jules Bache

Irving Bacheller

E. C. Bishop

Neltje Blanchan

Stephen A. Breed

Arthur Brisbane

Mrs. Walston Hill Brown

John Burroughs

Dr. Frank M. Chapman

Honorable Frank I. Cohen

Roland Ray Conklin

William Carroll Cornwall

John O'Hara Cosgrave

Natalie Curtis

William Curtis Demorest

Frank N. Doubleday

Mrs. C. Tarbell Dudley

Bertram H. Fancher

Ivan P. Flood

William H. Folwell

Mrs. William H. Folwell

A. R. Forbush

Dr. William Byron Forbush

H. N. Gibson

Madison Grant

Wallace Heckman

Frederic R. Hoisington

Elon Huntington Hooker

Mrs. Elon Huntington Hooker

Mrs. Charlton T. Hudson

James L. Hughes

Herbert Hungerford

Joseph Howland Hunt

Charles L. Hutchinson

Mrs. Marietta Johnson

Mrs. Charles D. Lanier

Adolph Lewisohn

S. Stanwood Menken

Enos Mills

Dr. Robert T. Morris

Preston G. Orwig

Honorable Stephen G. Porter

Reverend P. Edwards Powell

Martin A. Ryerson

Caroline Ruutz-Rees

Dr. Louis Livingston Seaman

Professor W. H. Scherzer

Bernard Sexton

Albert Shaw

Honorable John M. Slaton

Hugh Smiley

Mark Sullivan

Lorado Taft

Ida M. Tarbell

William H. Thompson

Mrs. Charles Edwin Townsend

His Excellency Dr. Henry Vandyke

Professor Charles D. Walcott

John J. Watson, Jr.

George L. White

Jesse Lynch Williams

Ella Wheeler Wilcox

16) 17) A MESSAGE FROM THE WOODCRAFT CHIBF TO THE BOYS OF AMERICA Let me tell you the story of the Frog-boy. He was lying on the baii of a reedy pond the first time that I saw him, eagerly watching to locate the loud call of the spring peepers that werie uttering their shrill "^ee^, peep^ P^P^ from many near parts of the pond. When I spoke to him, he turned quickly, and looked a little ashamed to be caught at such a smaU job as watching peepers. "Did you see one?" I asked. "No; at least, only its tail," was the reply. I smiled and said, "You didn't see its tail, because it hasn't any. "Why, I thought they were lizards; whistling water lizards." "No, it is a frog; a very small one; but he blows out his throat like a bladder as big as himself and through that makes noises like a little steam whistle." He stared at me; so I took out my pond net and soon dipped out one of the little frogs. His eyes were ablaze with interest, and presently his shyness gave way. A large bird flew overhead, swinging through the air in a succession of festoons. He said eagerly, "What is that?" "A flicker," I replied. "See the sheen of his yellow wings like sun rays as he flies? See the white star on his back? and, on his breast, if you could see, you would find a dark moon, so he is in all ways marked for the heavenly • bodies." As we walked along, he darted aside and returned with a yellow flower. "What is it called?" was his question. "The yellow moccasin flower," I answered; "see, it is shaped like a moccasin;" and I showed him how cleyerly it utilizes the bees to make its fertilization successful. I never saw a keener young Woodcraft boy. He drank in all I coidd tell him, and asked questions faster than I could answer .xl ■ . 18) xii A Message them. He was a true naturalist, burning with love for all these things of the woods, but suffering for lack of some guide. He had no books, not even a sympathetic friend; and before our walk was finished he made me his confidant. He told me in his own way how he longed to know all these things and how he wanted to be with them. He carried all the flowers I had named. By the way he spoke of them, I knew that he would never forget those names as long as he lived; and, when I left him, he asked shyly, "Some day soon, will you tell me some more?" Poor lonely, loving child of the woods! My heart went out to him. I wonder if he got as n^uch happiness out of hearing as I did out of telling those things. Afterward, I took him many times for little walks and talks among the birds and flowers, and from these we got on to other things. The chance of a cut finger one day, and his getting poisoned by ivy, led to the whole subject of fijrst-aid, and from that to the duty of being strong in body. Removing some broken glass from a road where it was liable to hurt some one's feet or bicycle, was the beginning of thought for others and duty to the neighbors. He was shy and«distrustf ul of strangers ; in fact, he avoided them and said so. But, when I reminded him that we were strangers that first day, he looked serious and said, "Yes, I know I lose a great deal by wanting to be alone. I'll fight agamst it." When I spoke of the Great Spirit, he was silent, but deeply attentive. These were among his begmnings. He grew up to be a naturalist; and, more than that, to be a fine type of citizen. Shy yet, he always will be; but he is a strong, dean, happy man, holdmg a high government position to-day; a blessing to those about him and a help to all who Uve in the woods. Fortunately for Wm and those about him his kind destiny took him to the true school, the school of Woodcraft, where his body, brain, soul, and social instincts all were trained; and the training was what he had yearned for. Listen, oh, American Boy of to-day! The things that I told him, and found such pleasure in telling, are the things I have written down in this book; for I think that you are a little like him. You want so much to know about wild life; you want to be strong; you are eager to be important in the gang you play with; you want to know and be in the big world ; these are whole- some ambitions, and it is with the hc^ that I may help you as I helped the "Frog-boy" in those long gone woodland days that 19) A Message xiii

I offer you this volume. In this way, with help from other men and women who have been through it all, I volunteer to be your guide; for the Woodcraft Manual is only myself and themselves done into paper and ink.

Ernest Thompson Seton 20) 21) THE WOODCRAFT LEAGUE Our purpose is to leaxn the outdoor life for its worth in the building up of our bodies and the helping and strengthening of our souls; that we may go forth with the seeing eye, and the "thinking hand" to learn the pleasant ways of the woods and of life, that we be made in all wise masters of ourselves; facing life without flinching, ready to take our part among our fellows in all the problems which arise, rejoicing when some trial comes that the Great Spirit finds us the rulers of strong souls in their worthy tabernacles. The Woodcraft League believes that its message comes to the people of America, yoimg and old, rich and poor. The work of the League is divided as follows: The Big Lodge of the Woodcraft Boys, from twelve to eigh- teen, for which group this Woodcraft Manual is the official handbook. The Big Lodge of the Woodcraft League for Girls from twelve to eighteen. (Manual now ready.) The Little Lodge for children under twelve. (Manual to be published later.) The Woodcraft Club for men and women over eighteen. The Sim Lodge for men and women, twenty-one and over, interested in specializing in Woodcraft. Each of these section^ has its own printed matter and badge. The details of the work vary according to the needs of the group. All are members of the Woodcraft League and wear the badge of the League, a white shield with blue horns. The Headquarters are at 13 West 29th Street, New York City. XV 22) TWELVE SECRETS OF THE WOODS Do you know twelve secrets of the woods? Do you know the umbrella that stands up spread to show that there is a restaurant in the cellar? Do you know the "manna-food" that grows on the rocks, sunmier and winter, and holds up its hands in the Indian sign of "innocence," so all who need may know how good it is? Do you know the vine that climbs above the sedge to whisper on the wind " There are coconuts in my basement " ? Can you tell why the rabbit puts his hind feet down ahead of his front ones as he runs? Can you tell why the squirrel buries every other nut and who it was that planted those sliag-barks all along the fence? Can you tell what the woodchuck does in midwinter and on what day? Have you learned to know the pale villain of the open woods — the deadly amanita, for whose fearful poison no remedy is known? Have you learned to overcome the poison ivy that was once so feared — ^now so lightly held by those who know? Have you proved the balsam fir in all its fourfold gifts — ^as Christmas tree, as healing balm, as consecrated bed, as wood of friction fire? Do you know the wonderful medicine that is in the sky? Have you tasted the bitter and dangerous bread of wisdom, the treasure that cures much ignorance, that is buried in the aisle of Jack-o-Pulpit's Church? Can you tell what walked around your tent on the thirtieth night of your camp-out? Then are you wise. You have learned twelve secrets of the woods. But if you have not, come and let us teach you. XVI 23) Twelve Secrets of the Woods

  1. Indian cucumber
  2. Rock tripe
  3. Bog potato
  4. Rabbit
  5. For Future use
  6. Feb 2
  7. Amanita
  8. Poison Ivy
  9. Balsam
  10. (Sun)
  11. Jack-o-Pulpits
  12. (Healing Healing)

24) 25)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

26)27) Contents xxi Fax Sight 49 Home Star 49 Hostile Spy 49 Tree the Coon 50 Rat on Lodge 50 Water-boiUng Contest 51 Medley Scouting 51 Still-hunting the Buck 52 Water Spearing the Great Sturgeon 55 Canoe Tag 57 Tilting in the Water 57 Indoor Odds and Evens 57 Blind Man's Buff 57 My Vacation 58 Names by Topics ' . . 58 Fortune 58 Guessing Game 59 Kingdom 59 Geography 59 Game of Menagerie 59 Menagerie Party 60 A Portrait Party 60 Magic Music 60 Fireside Trick 61 The Lone Star Trick 61 Feather Foot-ball 62 Songs Group Singing 65 America 65 Star-Spangled Banner 66 O Beautiful for Spacious Skies 67 Rouser 69 Alouette 70 Omaha Tribal Prayer 71 Hike Song 72 Good Night 73 Canoeist's Love Song 73 Death Song 74 ZoQ-zi-mon-de 75 Muje Mukesin 76 Hither Thunder 76 28) xxii Contents MOB Dancing Dancing ...,...•..,... 77 Dances Storm Cloud 80 Lone Hunter 81 The Dog Dance 83 Ojibwa Snake Dance 84 Caribou Dance 85 Animal Dance of Nana-bo-jou 87 Plays, Pageants, and Masqxtes The Peace Pipe Ceremony ....... 89
  • Suggested Books 90
Campfire Stories and Poems The Road to Fairyland . 95 The Fairy Lamps 95 The Origin of the Blue Bird 97 Twin Stars 98 Gitche-o-kok-o-hoo 98 The Story of Corn-smut Girl 99 The First Gang 100 The Seven Swans 108 How Men Found the Great Spirit 114 SECTION m Things to Know and Do Chapter I. City Woodcraft Woodcraft in Town .... . , . .. . 121 Wireless for Woodcrafters 123 Totems in Town . , 131 Fire — ^Servant or Master? . . 133 Sleep Outdoors 135 Health 137 Health Hints. 139 The Life Force - . 140 Breathing ^ . 141 Don't Turn Out Your Toes ...... 141 Keen Eyes 141 Dry Footgear 142 Ready Help 142 Patriotism and Citizenship . 145 29) Contents xziii MOE EBking »..••• 146 Sign Language 148 Picture Writing 155 Weather Signals 160 Railroad Signals .......... 161 Roof Camping 163 Individual Tally Book 164 Indian Names for the Months . . . . . . 164 Chapter II. Cahpercraft Camping Out ....... ^. ... • 169 Outfitting 170 Outfit for Six 170 Tents 172 Teepees 172 Running Camp Camp Grounds 173 Arriving . 173 Sanitation 174 Leadersl^p 174 Team Work. . 174 Camp Officers 175 Camp Program 175 Group Work 175 Rules 176 Inspections 176 Horns of High Hikers 176 Woodcraft Council Ring . 177 Councils 177 Making Council Fire 178 Totem Pole 179 Beds 179 Water 180 Mosquitoes 181 Lighting a Fire 181 Qunp Cookery 183 CooUng Without Utensils. 184 The Gee-String Camp 186 Camp Horn 186 Chapter HI. Woodlore and Handicraft Edible Wild Plants. 191 Mushrooms 194 White Man's Woodcraft — Measuring at a Distance 198 30) xxiv -. Coiit0iit8 PAOC Weather Wisdom 200 When Lost in the Woods 202 Tracking and Trailing 203 Keeping up the Old Trails 215 The Value of Doing 216 Indian Tweezers 217 Indian Clock 217 The Watch as a Compass 218 Home-made Compass 218 Lights 218 Hunter's Lamp 219 Woodman's Lantern 219 Knife and Hatchet 220 A Waterproof Shelter 224 Camp Loom 226 Navajo Loom 227 Camp Rake 228 Camp Broom 229 Rubbing-stick Fire 230 Drum •. . . . 232 The Woodcraft Willow Bed 232 Making a Teepee 236 Putting up a Teepee 239 Archery 241 How to Make a Bow 241 Woodcraft Paints 243 Woodcraft Dyes 245 Lace or Thong . 245 Woodcraft Buttons 245 Handicraft Stunts 246 Miscellaneous 246 Spoons 248 Bird Boxes 249 Sparrow-proof Bird Boxes ....... 251 Knots 253 Blazes and Signs 253 Blazes 253 Stone Signs 257 Grass and Twig Signs 257 Smoke Signals 258 Signals by Shots 258 Tramp Signs 259 How to Raise Money 260 31) Contents PAGE Chapter IV. Friends in the Out of .Doors How to Know the Wild Things 265 Sixty-four Common Wild Flowers 268 The Woodcraft Boy in the Forest 280 Fifty Common Forest Trees ^ 283 The Stars 314 Forty Birds 321 Snakes, Good and Bad 338 SECTION IV Woodcraft Exploits and Achievements or Coups and Degrees Woodcraft Exploits and Achievements 345 Coups 345 Their use 345 Class I — ^Athletics 346 Class II — Campercraft 356 Class III — Nature Study 362 Class IV— Crafts 364 Class V — Entertainer 368 Class VI— Life Craft 369 Degrees 369 Their Use 369 List of Degrees — sixty-foiu: in all 370 Index 429 32)33)
page

Preface

vii

Officers and Members or the National Council

ix

Message from the Chief

xi

The Woodcraft League

xv

Twelve Secrets of the Woods

xvi
SECTION I

Organization and General Information

Woodcraft Men — Their Message to Woodcraft Boys

3

How to Form a Tribe

To become a Woodcraft Boy
5
To start a Tribe
5
Woodcraft Boy's Suit
6
Band Meetings
7
Charter
7
A Meeting Place
7
Councils
7
Regular Council
8
Order of Doings
8
Decorum of Council
9
Indoor Council
9
The Woodcraft Laws
10
Initiations
10
Initiation Trials
11
New Members' Work
11
Growth
11
Woodcraft Indians
11
Totems
12
Requirements for Ranks
18
Entering or Wayseeker
18
Pathfinder
18
Minisino
19
Titles and Officers
20
Badges
21
Illustration
23
Meaning of the Badges
22
Salute
24

Meaning of the Council Ring

24

Ceremony of Grand Council

25

Council Robe

26

Model Constitution for a Tribe

27

The Inbringing of a Newcomer

30

Installation of the Higher Ranks

32

Conferring of Coups and Degrees

32

List if Sagamores and Sachems

33

Winning a Name

34
SECTION II

Tribe and Council Activities

Suggestions on Tribal Work

35
General
37
First Three Months (Pathfinder)
38
Next Five Months (Minision)
38
Games
Council
Tub Tilting
43
Indian Leg Wrestle
44
Navajo Feather Dance
44
Cock Fighting
45
One Legged Chicken Fight
45
Strong Hand
45
Stung
45
Talk-Fest
46
Solemnity
46
Out-door
Watching by the Trail
46
Trailing
46
Apache Relay Race
47
Chinese Tag
47
Bat Ball
47
Scouting
47
Quick Sight
48
SECTION I
ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION
Woodcraft Men— Their Message Model Constitution for a Tribe
  to Woodcraft Boys The Inbringing of a Newcomer
How to Form a Tribe Installation of the Higher Ranks
Meaning of the Council Ring Conferring of Coups and Degrees
Ceremony of Grand Council List of Sagamores and Sachems
Winning a Name

34) 35)

SECTION I – ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION

WOODCRAFT MEN

Their Message to Woodcraft Boys

In the beginning, Woodcraft was the only science known to man, because he lived in the woods, and there had to master the things of his everyday life.

Thus it gave him skill with his hands, speed with his feet, as well as knowledge of all wild nature. It taught him to swim and be brave as well as obey his leader and be true to his clan. The first time he failed in any of these things might easily mean death. Those who survived were the ones who had learned by heart all the big lessons of Woodcraft. It was not only so then, but it has always been so, and is so to-day.

All the great men who have made history were trained first in the school of Woodcraft. Nimrod, the mighty hunter, who built the city of Nineveh; Sardanapalus, the lion-killer, the Monarch of Assyria, who, by force of his own arms overcame two lions that attacked him at one time; Brennus, the Gaul, who could shoe his own horse and who was able to master all Rome; Rollo, the sea king, who could steer his own ship in the wildest water and landed in Normandy to establish order and lay down laws that are now accepted all over the world; William, the Conqueror of England, the hunter whose bow was the strongest among all the archers of his day; Charlemagne, the great hunter, careful farmer, world master; William of Orange, hunter, fisherman, sportsman, horseman, arbiter of the destinies of all the British Empire; Washington, hunter, woodsman, frontiersman, farmer, and army scout, able to run, wrestle, command or obey; Abraham Lincoln, hunter, pioneer, woodsman, axeman, farmer, deck-hand; Robert E. Lee, hunter, woodsman, horseman, planter, farmer; U. S. Grant, back-woodsman, frontiersman, farmerboy, soldier, big brother to five little ones. These 36) and the whole long list of names in the Hall of Fame, all bear testimony to the truth of this: whether in wood or on farm, all their essential training was in mastering the daily obstacles of life; obstacles which called for handicraft and nature knowledge, strength and dogged determination, qualities which ever doubled as they were used.

It was so in the earliest days of man, in the Colonial days of America, and to-day, and always will be. For as surely as Woodcraft was nature’s school for man when she constructed him out of brute material, so surely is it nature's school for boys to-day. The things that it engenders and nourishes to power are the things that spell success in life, no matter where the boy’s life may be cast.

The Woodcraft Boy to-day does not have to study the trail to see what beasts have gone to drink, or put his ear to the ground to know if the buffalo herd is coming; but he knows that in the city the telephone book is the key to the business world. He does not have to smell the wind to learn where the jungle is burning, but he knows where the fire department box is and how to turn in an alarm. He does not have to look up and down the stream for crocodiles before swimming over, but he watches both ways before crossing the street. He need not study the scratches on the trunk for guides to camp, but he notes the name of the street when turning the corner, and in the midst of noise and excitement he keeps his head and knows his way as his forebears kept their wits in the midst of a herd stampeded; otherwise, they, themselves, would have had no descendants. He clings to the blessed heritages from those other days, so he is healthy, and he knows how to live so as to have the overflowing sense of power. It is in his nature to learn again the trees and plants and to understand the message of any whistle in the woods or fields. And because he loves them, he protects the beautiful things of his country. He sees the wonders of the skies and is touched by the mystery of the stars. He knows where to camp; how to sleep; how to cook; how to live comfortably in primitive conditions. And, trained in the far back game of clan, he is thoughtful at home and helpful alike to younger children and older folk. The calm fortitude, built up of manifold training, teaches him to meet friend or foe, pleasure or danger, simply, and bravely. Whatever his situation may be he does his best, conscious of the Great Spirit’s presence, and honors Him in his life.

These are the things that Woodcraft built into us in the beginning; these in their total are High Manhood; and these are 37) the things that are ever ready to reappear at the call of Woodcraft to-day.

HOW TO FORM A TRIBE OF WOODCRAFT BOYS

To Become a Woodcraft Boy

One may easily become a Woodcraft Boy, either by joining a Tribe already organized or by forming a new Tribe. Get together nine other boys, twelve years of age or over, and a man twenty-one years of age to act as a Guide. Let each read the Woodcraft Manual for Boys carefully, so they may know what Woodcraft is. Send to Headquarters for Application for Charter. Then select a name for the Tribe, usuaUy of historic or special interest and often an Indian name; also select a totem. Have the boys sign the Application for Charter. Send the Application with three dollars to the National Headquarters, the Woodcraft League, 13 West Twenty-ninth Street, New York City, where the Council of Guidance will act on your Application and give vour Tribe a Charter.

To Start a Tribe

The Tribe is the unit of organization, consisting of not less than ten, nor more than fifty members. Each Tribe is divided into Bands of not less than five nor more than ten members. Each Band has a Guide, a man eighteen years of age or over. One of the Guides should be selected as Head Guide of the Tribe and must be twenty-one years of age or over. The Guides direct the work of the Bands, the Head Guide being responsible to Headquarters.

In beginning.it is wise to have the officers temporary or for a short time only. Elect, or have the Guide appoint, a Chief, a second Chief, a Tally Keeper, and Wampum Keeper. Decide the time and place of your meetings, the dues (about five cents a week is usual), and other matters of a similar nature.

You should then divide the group into Bands of not less than five boys and not more than ten. Each Band should elect, or the Guide appoint, a Chief, and if meeting separately, a Tally Keeper and Wampum Collector, who shall report to the Tribal officers. 38)

STYLE OF SUIT FOR WOODCRAFT BOYS

Made of greenish gray similar to the uniforms of the Forest Rangers. May be of khaki or woolen mixture, so that the suit may be worn for ordinary daily use. 39)

Band Meetings

Each Band should select a Band name and totem. The Band should hold a weekly meeting followed by a Tribal meeting (of all the Bands), or it may be decided to make the Tribal meetings less frequent.

Charter

The Charter, costing $3.00 annually, certifies that the Tribe is registered at Headquarters and entitles the Tribe to a definite place in the Woodcraft League, to recognize achievements according to the Woodcraft Manual for Boys and to wear the badges of the League. With the Charter comes a Guide's Appointment, also two Pledges to be pasted in the Tally Book, one for the members to sign and one for the officers to sign. The $3.00 charter fee covers all the expenses of chartering a group regardless of its size (up to fifty). Individual badges of rank should be purchased as needed. See p. 23, also page 11.

A Meeting Place

One of the very first problems the Tribe will have to face is that of providing a place to meet. It should be comfortable, clean, quiet, and kurge enough to seat the Tribe in a cirde. For the Band meeting a smaller room will do. If the room is used by others it will be necessary to use it without change; but when a Tribe has entire control of a room, or when the room is used by more than one Tribe, it will be possible to fix it up so as to suggest an outdoor council ring, the interior of a log cabin or stockade. For the outdoor ring see Section III, Chapter 2.

Councils

In the Woodcraft League the meetings of the Bands and Tribes are called Councils. A weekly meeting would be called Regular Council, a meeting with a more elaborate program and with visitors is called Grand Council. A meeting of the Guides and officers is called High Council. One at least of the Guides should familiarize himself with the nmning of the Council, as soon as possible. 40)

REGULAR COUNCIL

If it is possible, open the meeting by making the fire with the rubbing sticks, in which case the Leader should begin with the paragraph "Now light we the Council Fire," as on page 25, ending with the paragraph, "That His Wisdom will be with us." (If matches are used omit the above.) Continue as follows: "The four corners of this symbol fire stand each for Fortitude, Truth, Beauty, and Love, from which radiate the twelve golden laws of Woodcraft."

The Guide (or Chief) now speaks from the Council Rock: "Let the Keeper of the Tally call the roll." In large meetings this is done by Bands. Each Leader stands as his Band is called by name, salutes the Chief, and says: "O Chief, Ten of our Band — all here," or "Eight here," as the case may be.

After this is done, the regular order of parliamentary business is followed as below.

ORDER OF DOINGS IN COUNCILS

Roll Call.

Tally of Last Council or Report of Tally Keeper.

Report of Wampum Keeper.

Business Arising out of Tally.

Scouts' Reports, also Officers of the Day. (This includes: first, all unusual work done for the Tribe by a member and is reported by the Guide; second, all matters of interest, particularly those relating to nature study by members of the Tribe.)

Left over Business.

For the (Jood of the Tribe. (At this point members may bring up any matter which ordinarily would not come up under other heads. Matters of discipline, etc.)

Achievement Badges claimed and awarded. (Previously passed in committee.)

New Business.

New Members.

Initiations.

Challenges, etc. (These may be athletics of any sort either at the Council ring or otherwise. They may also include challenges at story telling, dancing, singing, cooking, firelighting, nature study. The challenger arises, salutes the Chief, and says: "O Chief I, --- of --- Band challenge --- of --- Band.") 41)


Games. (These may be individual such as hand wrestling, chicken fighting; or group games, such as "stung," etc. They may also include sudi things as movies, etc.)

Songs, dances, stories.

Close the Council with the Omaha Tribal Prayer as all stand about the fire with hands and faces upraised.

The Chief then announces, "Our Council is ended."

DECORUM OF COUNCIL

In the Council no one may cross or remain within the open space, except the Chief presiding, the members speaking or performing, and the Keeper of the Fire when attending to his duties. Nevertheless the Fire Keeper must not tend the fire at a time when it will interfere with any performance or distract attention at an important moment.

For assent or approval, we say "How"; for "No" we say "Wah"; the Chief at the "Council Rock" is addressed "O Chief," and speaks not from the chair, but from the "Council Rock." Any one wishing to speak, arises, salutes, giving the Woodcraft sign as given on page 24, says, "O Chief" and waits until the Chief recognizes him by name or gesture, thus giving the sole right of speech for the time.

It is not proper to whisper in Council, nor to laugh when a serious matter is being presented, nor look around much, nor heed not the speaker, nor should one make noise or tap with one's feet or hands, or with a stick, or chew or eat or lounge about, or lie down, nor turn to look when some one arrives late, but in all ways act as though each speaker were great and important, however much he may be otherwise. For this is good manners.

The order of ceremony for Grand Council is found on page 25.

INDOOR COUNCIL

For indoor coimcils it is often desirable to have an "indoor council fire" which is made by connecting one or more electric bulbs, covering the lights with orange crepe paper and then building around it a "log cabin fire." Of course, nothing burns but the light but the effect is very striking and the expense is slight. 42)

The Woodcraft Laws

The laws for the Woodcraft Boys (and for the leaders as far as possible) are:

  1. Be Brave. Courage is the noblest of all gifts.
  2. Be Silent while your elders are speaking and otherwise show them deference.
  3. Obey. Obedience is the first duty of the Woodcraft Boy.
  4. Be Clean. Both yourself and the place you live in.
  5. Understand and respect your body. It is the Temple of the Spirit.
  6. Be the friend of all harmless wild life. Conserve the woods and flowers, and especially be ready to fight wild-fire in forest or in town.
  7. Word of honor is sacred.
  8. Play fair. Foul play is treachery.
  9. Be Reverent. Worship the Great Spirit and respect all worship of Him by others.
  10. Be Kind. Do at least one act of unbargaining service every day.
  11. Be Helpful. Do your share of the work.
  12. Be Joyful. Seek the joy of being alive.

Initiations

When brought into some new group such as the school or club, one is naturally anxious to begin by making a good impression on the others, by showing what one can do, proving what one is made of, and by making dear one's seriousness in asking to be enrolled. So also those who form the group; they wish to know whether the newcomer is made of good stuff, and is likely to be a valuable addition to their number. The result is what we call initiation trials, the testing of the newcomer.

The desire to initiate and be initiated is a very ancient, deeplaid impulse. Handled judiciously and under the direction of a competent adult guide, it becomes a powerful force for character building, for inculcating self-control.

In Woodcraft we carefully select for these try-outs such tests as demonstrate the character and ability of the newcomer, and the initiation becomes a real proof of fortitude, so that the new boy is as keen to face the trial, as the Tribe he would enter is to give it. 43)

THE INITIATION TRIALS

The trial should be approved by the Council and be given to the candidate when his name is proposed for membership — that is, posted on the Totem pole where it remains for seven suns. In camp a shorter time may be allowed at the discretion of the leaders.

  1. Silence. Keep absolute silence for six hours during the daytime in camp, while freely mixing with the life of the camp. In the city keep silence from after school till bedtime.
  2. Keep good-natured. Keep absolutely unruffled, for one day of twelve hours, giving a smiling answer to all.
  3. Exact Obedience. For one week give prompt, smiling obedience to parents, teachers, and those who have authority over you. This must be certified to by those in question.
  4. Make a useful woodcraft article, such as a basket, a bench, a bed, a bow, a set of fire-sticks, etc.
  5. Sleep out, without a built roof overhead, for three nights consecutively, or ten, not consecutively. (Sleeping porch allowed by special permission of Council.)

NEW MEMBER'S WORK

After the new member has learned the Laws and taken the Initiation test, the first thing to claim his attention is that of qualifying for the rank of Pathfinder and later of Minisino, then the Achievements, each with its appropriate badge, which are described on page 345. In time he will have a Woodcraft suit, but this may come later.

Growth

The idea of growth is a big one in the Woodcraft program. The new member should grow from Wayseeker to Pathfinder and then to Minisino. Then he should advance so as to be able to make the Achievements and Degrees which are mentioned in Section IV of the Woodcraft Manual.

Woodcraft Indians

Such tribes as were chartered under the name Woodcraft Indians may retain the old name and forms if they so desire. 44)


BLUE BUFFALO 1902 On white ground.

FLYING EAGLES 1902 Black and white on red. Yek-yek-yek

BLUE HERONS 1904 Blue on green. Hrrrrr?

HORNED KINGBIRDS 1902 Black and white on pale red.

SINAWA 1903 Black on red.

BLACKBEARS 1906 Black on red

AHMEEKS 1909 Black on red. A loud "slap-pl

SILVER FOXES 1904 Black on white.

RED TRAILERS 1903 Red on pale yellow

MOON BAND 1905 Yellow on blue.

OWENOKES 1904 Red with black lines on pale blue.

BLAZING ARROW Red on pale yellow. 45)


RAVEN Black on red Hroo-Hroo

HOOT OWL Black and yellow on green Wo-ka-hoa-hoo

OKOKOHOO or CATOWL Red and white on purple. Hoo-hoo-hoo

SCREECH OWL Dark red, white face on purple ground. Whill-il-il-loo A soft quavering cry.

BLACK VOLF Black on yellow or LOBO BAND Gray on pink. Ya-hooooo

BLACK CAT Black with yellow eyes on yellow ground. Me-ow

WOLF Black on red for Wolves. Brown in yellow for Brown Wolves. Red on pale blue for Red Wolves, etc,etc. You-w-w

LYNX Brown on gray. Brown on blue. Red on green. Yow-wow-wow

FOX Red on yellow for Red Foxes Silver on gold for Silver foxes. Yap-yurrr

WILD CAT Gray or brown on tea green. Yah-row-row

GRIZZLY Brown. Grr-woof

LITTLE BEAR Black or brown on pale buff. Woof-woof 46)


FIREBOAT Datk blue on p^ green. , A biv whiitlE.

THUNDER CANOE lUck or duk gray on pkl Uiw. A vfaink then m bang.

BLACK EAWE BALD EAGLE Black on nd. WUte wad biDwn on yellair. KdtJKk-idi Krei-knt-ity Blue on blood nd. NIGHT-BIRD own uid afaitc on ptle bl Ftabedy-fieabody^ftabed^ »ht>IM. ^^ BUCE Purple on blue. AihriUwbUlle. LOON Bluk and white fbr Rid Loon, Amber Loon, etc, cm blue gnnind, A Iremulous aitat. MUSTANG Black Mnstang, Red Mu- ting, and ^ild Hone; on yellow ground. A lone neifh. V BUCKHORN. Black buck, etc, on ptli green ground. A •v^ 47)


XS SILENT BEAVER Brown on blue. No mouth — ^no ay SHUNKA-REELA. (nrnning fox) Yellow and black on pale blue. Yap-yahoo STING RAY Green with black marks on pale red ground. RED-GODS Red on pale blue. BADGER White and black on yeUow ground. BLAZING STAR A rattling whistle Yellow stai^—red tail— on blue. WHOOPING CRANE White on blue ground — ^black wing. Kah-roo, a trumpeted croak. WOLVERINE Black and pale brown on white. Garoooo BLUE MOON Pale blue on deep green. Any known night song. RED-GODS COUGAR Red with black lines on pale | Dark brown on pale.blue. blue. An awful yell. ECHO BAND Pale on dark blue. Bk'kQ 48)


BUGLING ELK T'ark brown 00 foie red. MOOSE Black on pale gxeen. A long smooth beUow. CAT-IN-THE-NIGHT Gny on black. Provhfow COYOTE Brown and white on yellow. Yoop-yoop-yak-yew in as- cending side like a coyote's baik. Flying eagle White and brown on pale blue. Kek-Kek'Kek FIRE-MOUNTAIN BAND. Blue mountain, red flames on blade. Yip^p^yohoQ^amg WHITE MOUNTAINS or SNOW PEAK BAND White on daik blue. Rumhk-sksksk THUNDERBIRD Darii blue on yellow, wh*te head. Lightning comes from his tsyt» ARROW FOOT Red on blue field. SUNRISE BAND Yellow on pale blue. Call a loud Yo^, yo^, yo- ko on ascending notes. f.>.A COON Gray with bkurk maiks on a SUNSET BAND MOHAWK red ground. Red or yellow on blue-gteen Black and red on olive green, A h^h pitched quavering or pink. Indian whoop. Boo-whhhw A long descending whistle. 49)


LIGHT HEART Red on pde blue. KINGSNAKE Yellow with red spots, ground pale green. ARROWHEADS Tuiqtioiw bhie axiow on dark brown. Ping BLUE SKY Large blue drde on white. FLYING PATROL or FLEET FOOT or WINGED HEEL. White on red. SHINING MOUNTAIN Dark blue semi-drde with white mountain. WAR QUILL White feather Made tip and red tuft on yellow. YELLOW QUnX All ydlow with bladi: tip on pale green.

o o o Q THE SEVEN STARS Pale pink on dark blue. OJIBWA Orange on pale blue. Peace Whoop. RED ARROW Red <m white. Zip-tip BLACKFOOT BUu:k and red. WarWhoc^. DEERFOOT Ydlow and blade on blue- g^reen. Pat-Pat-Pat HORSESHOE Bhie on pale yellow. CUnk-Ckmb RED-HAND Red hand on gray. Bo SNAPPER BAND. Red on turquoise. Snap-ouch 50)

REQUIREMENTS IN THE BIG LODGE

Wayseeker

To qualify for a Big Lodge — that is, to enter as a Wayseeker — one must:

Be over twelve years of age.

Know the twelve laws and state the advantages of them.[1]

Take one of the initiations.

Be voted in unanimously by other members of the group.[2]

Having passed this, the candidate becomes a Wayseeker and receives the Big Lodge Badge of the lowest rank, that is, with two green tassels on it.

The next higher rank is that of Pathfinder.

Pathfinder

To win the rank of Pathfinder, the Wayseeker must know the "Star-Spangled Banner" or in Canada "The Maple Leaf" and take the following fifteen tests:

  1. Have one month's honorable service without a stain on record in Big Lodge as Wayseeker.
  2. Walk five miles in two hours and write a satisfactory account of it.
  3. Swim twenty five yards.
  4. Know the Pole Star, the Two Dippers, and at least three of the other constellations.
  5. Know ten forest trees, leaf and trunk.
  6. Know ten wild flowers by observation.
  7. Know five edible wild plants or transplant successfully four kinds of trees, flowers or plants.
  8. Know fifty signs of the sign language.
  9. Know ten totems as found in the city.
  10. Tie five of the following standard knots and know their uses; double bow, running noose, square, whip a rope's end, timber hitch, bowline, hard loop, clove hitch, eye splice.
  11. Make a bird box or restaurant, according to specifications of the Audubon Society. See that it is properly placed.
  12. Prepare of wildwood materials only, and fight three successive camp fires with three matches; or supply sufficient and proper firewood for cooking six meals.
  13. Understand and demonstrate the use of hatchet and

51) whittling knife, under adult guidance; or understand and demonstrate use of hammer and saw (such as putting a shelf in a wooden box).

  1. Enlist a new member in one of the Lodges.
  2. Help daily for one week in home duty for the joy of unbargaining service.

When these tests have been satisfactorily passed the member is called out in Coimcil, the Guide in charge tells of it in as much detail as is needed. Then taking a pair of scissors or a knife, announces:

"Now, therefore, acting for the Council I clip from this member's badge, the first emblem of inexperience, the tassel of green, and consign it to the flames."

Then shaking hands with the candidate says:

"I now declare complete your installation as a Pathfinder."

Minisino

To win the rank of Minisino (meaning "A Boy Tried and Proven") the following tests must be taken.

  1. Make a rubbing stick fire.
  2. Sleep out three nights, also cook a meal, with no utensils but a hatchet and what one can make with it, or cook three digestible meals by camp fire for not less than three persons.
  3. Know the essentials of camping, including: where to camp, how to put up a tent and prepare for rain, where and how to erect a latrine. (See Camping, Section III.)
  4. Know how to make of wildwood materials either a comfortable rainproof shelter suitable for overnight or know how to make a dry, comfortable camp bed.
  5. Make a comfortable bed or a serviceable mat of rushes, grass or wood fibre. If wildwood material is not obtainable, straw, hay or com husks may be used.
  6. Single paddle a canoe (if one can swim), or row a boat one-half mile in fifteen minutes.
  7. Take an eight mile hike, most of which is in the country, and write a satisfactory account of it.
  8. Know twenty-five birds — ten of them from observation in street, field or woods.
  9. Know ten native quadrupeds.
  10. Know elements of life-saving — breaking grips, getting body to shore, resuscitation; and ready help for cuts, poisoning, fainting, dislocation, and sprains as found on page 142.

52)

  1. Have, by examination and practice, an acquaintance with the essentials of etiquette, as used in the Woodcraft Council and in daily living.
  2. Run a Council and teach a dance or song.
  3. Spend at least three hours a week for two weeks helping in home duties.
  4. Keep temper quite unruffled or speak no evil of any one for one moon.
  5. After consultation with the Guide, abstain from besetting sin for two months.

Now, as before, the Guide testifies in Council, the Pathfinder has the last green tassel cut from his Badge and is installed as a Minisino of the Big Lodge.

Titles and Officers

Head Guide — One at least twenty-one years of age, of good character, associated with some Woodcraft Tribe and actually giving time to leading in Woodcraft work. Also qualified or willing to qualify within a year as Gleeman or Council Leader. (See Degrees.) Is responsible to Headquarters for work of Tribe.

Guide — One at least eighteen years of age, of good character, willing to give time to leading a Band in Woodcraft work. Is commissioned by Headquarters upon recommendation of the Head Guide.

Shaman — a Guide who has qualified as Camper, Camp Doctor, Camp Cook, and Council Leader.

Chief — A member of a Tribe appointed as Leader by the Guide or elected by the members of the Tribe with the Guide's approval. He acts as the representative of the members (should learn to run the Council), and cooperates with the Guide in conducting the work of the Tribe.

Band Chief — A member of one of the Bands appointed as leader by the Guide or elected by the members of the Band with the Guide's approval. He acts as the representative of the members and cooperates with the Guide in conducting the work of the Band.

Tally Keeper — A member of the Tribe appointed by the Guide, or elected by the Tribe with the approval of the Guide, to act as Secretary and keep the Tally.

Wampum Keeper — A member of the Tribe appointed by the Guide, or elected by the Tribe with the approval of the Guide, to act as Treasurer. Sometimes it may be wise to have one member hold both this and the preceding office. 53)


Band Tally and Wampum Collector — A member of a band appointed by the Guide or elected by the Band with the approval of the Guide to act as Secretary for the Band and to collect dues of the members. Reports to the Tribal officers.

Wayseeker — The lowest rank in the Big Lodge.

Pathfinder — The next or second rank in the Big Lodge.

Minisino — The highest rank in the Big Lodge.

Father and Mother Councillor — Adult relative or friend, interested in work, welfare, and support of the Tribe, but not necessarily giving as much time as a Guide.

Sagamore — A member who has achieved twenty-four Coups. Must be at least 14 years of age and a Minisino.

Grand Sagamore — One who has achieved twenty-four Grand Coups.

Sachem — A member who has achieved forty-eight Coups.

Grand Sachem — A member who has achieved forty-eight Grand Coups.

Fire Keeper — A member of a Band or Tribe appointed by the Chief to attend to the Council Fire for any given period.

Watch Lodge — It has been found very valuable in some cases to have a group of selected members of the Tribe who will assist at times when discipline is necessary. This group may be called by any appropriate name, but should be called upon only in emergency.

Band — A group of not less than five nor more than ten members under a Band Chief and a Guide.

Tribe — A group of not less than two Bands, that is, at least ten members, chartered from Headquarters and empowered to confer Badges and Degrees according to the Laws of the Woodcraft Manual under a Chief and a Head Guide appointed by Headquarters. The maximum number in a Tribe is fifty members.

Tribe Committee — A committee of three or more adults who cooperate with the Guide and guarantee the continuance of the tribe.

Badges

The symbol of the Woodcraft League is a white shield with blue horns.

That of the Boys' Big Lodge has in addition a blue teepee with a white doorway on it.

That of the Little Lodge has an incomplete circle and a small brown lodge on it.

The crown on the Chief's badge is in each case blue. 54)


That of the Coup is a black and white eagle feather embroidered in wash silk.

That of the Grand Coup is the same with a red tuft on the end.

That of the Sagamore has a crown with five points.

That of the Grand Sagamore, Sachem, and Grand Sachem is made in the same way as the Sagamore badge with the addition of red tufts, etc.

The badges for degrees are red squares (with a design in black) and blue horns.

That of the Guide has a trail on it.

That of the Shaman has on it the four mountains of attainment.

The robe badge for degree is the Zuni Coil in the centre of which is the emblem of the degree.

The Head or Hat Band for the Boys' Big Lodge is composed of blue squares on a white background.

That of the Little Lodge has brown squares with a white background.

The Meaning of the Badges

The badge of the Woodcraft League is an ancient Indian totem composed of a pair of horns attached to a shield; the horns meaning "attack "and the shield "defense"; the idea s)anbolized being, "trained and ready." This is used by all in the League, whether boy or girl. Little Lodge or Adult.

The blue on the badge is to remind us of "Blue Sky," which is our watchword. For imder the blue sky, in the sunlight, we seek to Uve our lives; and our thoughts are of "Blue Sky," for that means "cheer"; and when there are clouds, we know that the blue sky is ever behind them, and will come again.

On the boy's badge the blue teepee reminds us that the teepee, the only movable dwelling that permits of any open fire inside, was the abode of the first woodcrafters of this country. It always faced the east with the sunrise that symbolizes the ever-renewed promise of the day. The fire within it was the symbol of the Great Spirit and the smoke to them was the established emblem of prayer, ascending from the hearth to the far above.

The two green tassels are the badges of inexperience; and when by achievements the Woodcraft boy is entitled to have them removed, the meaning of the symbolism is as evident as it is happy. 55)

WOODCRAFT BOYS' BADGES

Wayseeker Pathfinder Minisino Chief

Sagamore Grand Sagamore Sachem Grand Sachem

Guide Shaman

Coup Badge Degree Badges Grand Coup Zuni Coil Blanket Degree Badge

(LITTLE LODGE)

Wood Brownie Water Brownie Fire Brownie Chief

Head Bands 56)

Salute

The salute is given with the right hand with all the fingers closed to the palm, except the little finger and the thumb and the hand raised level with the head.

The Meaning of the Council Ring

Why do we sit in a circle around the fire? That is an old story and a new one.

In the beginning, before men had fire, they were forced to sit up in the trees and shiver aU night as they looked down at the shining eyes in the bushes below — the eyes of fierce creatures ready to destroy them.

But fire, when it was found, enabled man to sit on the groimd all night, for the brute beasts feared it and stayed afar. It afforded him protection, warmth, a place of meeting and comfort. All the good things that we think of when we say "home" belong to the place around the fire. And when man began to think of such matters, he accepted the fire as the Great Mystery. Still later, as he realized that the Sun was the Great Mystery by day, he reasoned that there could not be two great mysteries; therefore, the Invisible Cause behind these two must be the one Great Mystery; and in this was the first thought of true religion.

All of these things are deep in oiu: nature, groimd in through the ages as we sat about the fire of wood that was our nighUy guardian in the forest. And all of these ancient thoughts and memories are played on, whether we realize it or not, when we galther in a circle about the Council Fire.

Then, too, a circle is the best way of seating a group. Each has his place and is so seated as to see everything and be seen by everybody. As a result each feels a very real part in the proceedings as they could not feel if there were corners in which one could hide. The circle is dignified and it is democratic. It was with this idea that King Artibur abolished the old-fashioned long table with two levels, one above the salt for the noble folk and one below for the common herd, and founded the Round Table. At his table all who were worthy to come were on the same level, were brothers, equal in dignity and responsibility; and each in honor bound to do his share. The result was a kindlier spirit, a sense of mutual dependence.

These are the thoughts in our Council Ring. These are among the reasons why our Council is always in a circle and if possible 57) around the fire. The memory of those long-gone days is brought back again with their simple, reverent spirit, their sense of brotherhood, when we sit as our people used to sit about the fire and smell the wood smoke of Council.

Ceremony of Grand Council

When the members have familiarized themselves with the work they wiU want to mvite their friends and hold Grand Council, introducing various things, such as dramatic dances, songs, etc., in addition to the regular Doings in Council. The following order is suggested for the opening:

When all are assembled and seated, give a short roll of the drum.

Then let the Guide or the appointed Chief of the Council call out : "My friends, give ear — we hold a Council"; or if the Indian words are preferred, "Yo-hay-y- Yo-hay-y-y; Meetah Kola Nahoonpo Omnee-chee-yaynee-chopi.

If one of the members is to make the fire with the rubbing sticks, the Chief, still standing, now says in a loud, clear voice:

"Now light we the Coimcil Fire after the manner of the forest children, even as Wakonda himself doth light his fire — by the rubbing together of two trees in the storm wind, so cometh forth the sacred fire from the wood of the forest."

(He uses the drill; the smoke comes, the flame bursts forth.)

"Now know we that Wakonda the Great Spirit hath been pleased to smile on His children, hath sent down the sacred fire. By this we know He will be present at our Council, that His wisdom will be with us."

Four torches are there on our symbol fire. And from them reach twelve rays — twelvegolden strands of this the Law we hold.

From the Lamp of Fortitude Are These

Be Brave'; for fear is in the foundation of all ill; unflinchingness is strength.

Be Silent. It is harder to keep silence than to speak in the hour of trial, but in the end it is stronger.

Obey; for obedience means self-control, which is the sum of the law.

And These Are the Rays from Beauty's Lamp

Be Clean; for there is no perfect beauty without cleanliness of body, soul, and estate. The body is the sacred temple of the 58) spirit, therefore reverence your body. Cleanliness helps first yourself, then those around, and those who keep this law are truly in their country's loving service.

Understand and respect your body. It is the temple of the spirit, for without health can neither strength nor beauty be.

Protect all harmless wild-life for the joy its beauty gives.

And These Are the Rays from the Lamp of Truth

Hold your word of honor sacred . This is the law of truth, and any one not bound by this cannot be bound; and truth is wisdom.

Play Fair; for fair play is truth and foul play is treachery.

Be reverent. Worship the Great Spirit, and respect Worship of Him by others for none have all the truth, and all who reverently worship have claims on our respect.

And These Are in the Blazing Lamp of Love

Be Kind. Do at least one act of unbargaining service every day, even as ye would enlarge the crevice whence a spring runs forth to make its blessings more.

Be Helpful. Do your share of the work for the glory that the service brings, for the strength one gets in serving.

Be Joyful. Seek the joy of being alive — for every reasonable gladness you can get or give is treasure that can never be destroyed, and like the springtime gladness doubles, every time with others it is shared.

Then use the regular ceremony of the Council cutting short the business unless it is very interesting. After closing by singing the Omaha Tribal Prayer, the Cluef announces: "Our Council is ended, but our Council Fire bums; now, therefore, lest this blessing become a danger, it is the duty of our Fire Keeper to utterly quench our Council Fire or hedge it about with an impassable barrier lest it become a source of fire."

Closing

Sometimes the Council is closed with another song in which case the "Omaha" is sung after the lighting of the fire.

The Council Robe

A number of the members of the Woodcraft League have found the Council Robe at Grand Council both comfortable and picturesque. 59)


It is usually a blanket of light weight material, decorated with badges for degree or coups when they have been won, also totems of the band, the tribe, etc.

CONSTITUTION OR THE LAWS FOR THE RULING OF THE TRIBE

I. Name

This Tribe shall be called "The Tribe of the Big Lodge of the Woodcraft League."

II. Purpose

Our purpose is to learn the outdoor life for its worth in the building up of our bodies and the helping and strengthening of our souls; that we may go forth with the seeing eye, and the "thinking hand" to learn the pleasant ways of the woods and of life, that we be made in all wise masters of oiurselves; facing life without flinching, ready to take our part among our fellows in all the problems which arise, rejoicing when some trial comes that the. Great Spirit finds us the rulers of strong souls in their worthy tabernacles.

III. Who May Enter

Those who are twelve years of age, who know the law, who are acceptable to the Band and who can show themselves worthy, according to an established initiation. All begin at the lowest rank.

Those who would enter must be admitted to a Band which is already part of a Tribe, or is afterward made such.

IV. Councils

A Council of the Tribe should be held in the first part of each moon or oftener.

Each Band should hold a weekly meeting.

The yearly Coimcil for the election of oflicers shall be held on the first sun of the Leaf Falling Moon (October) or as soon after as possible.

The moons are: Snow (Jan.), Himger (Feb.), Crow or Wakening (March), Grass (April), Planting (May), Rose (June), 60) Thunder (July), Red(Aug.), Hunting (Sept.), Leaf-falling (Oct.), Mad (Nov.), Long-night (Dec).

Special Council may be called by the Chief with the approval of the Guide, and must be called by him upon the written request of one fourth of the Council or one third of the Tribe.

A quarter of the whole number shall be a quonun of the Council or Tribe.

V. The Rulers of the Tribe

(See Titles, page 20)

The Head Guide, responsible to Headquarters, is chief ruler.

Guides, responsible to the Head Guide.

Chief, elected by the whole Tribe, or sometimes appointed by the Guide; this officer should be strong and acceptable, for the Chief is the leader, must enforce the laws, has charge of the standard which bears the totem of the Tribe, and is the representative of the members.

The Second Chief takes the Chief's place in case the latter is absent; is elected by the whole Tribe.

Tally Keeper; elected by the members,or appointed forone year by the Guide or Chief, and is charged with keeping the records. Enters nothing in the records, except as commanded by the Council; should be an artist.

Wampum Keeper, Appointed for one year by the Guide or elected by the members to keep the records and public property of the Tribe. Should have a lock-box or small trunk to keep valuables in.

Sometimes one member holds more than one of these offices.

The Guides appointed by Headquarters, the Tribal and Band Chiefs, and the Sachems and Sagamores by right of their Honors, together form the High Council or Governing Body of the Tribe.

All disputes, etc., are settled by the Guide, the Chief, and Council. The Council makes the laws and fixes the dues. The Chief enforces the laws with the support of the Guide.

All rulers are elected or appointed for one year, or until their successors are chosen. The election to take place on, or as soon as possible after, the first Sun of the Leaf-falUng Moon (October 1st).

Honorary or Life Members have been elected by some Tribes as marks of distinction or affection.

(Whenever in doubt, follow the National Constitution.) 61)


Vow of the Head Chief. (To be signed with name and totem, if any, in the Tally Book.) I give my word of honor that I will maintain the Laws, see fair play in all the doings of the Tribe, and protect the weak, and I will not ask any one to do what I am not willing to do myself.

Vow of each member. (To be signed with the name and totem, if any, in the Tally Book.) I give my word of honor that in all matters of Woodcraft I will obey the Chief and Council of my Tribe, and if I fail in my duty I will appear before the Council when ordered, and submit without murmuring to their decision.

VI. Changes of the Law

Changes of this code, in harmony with the National Laws, may be made at any Council by a two-thirds vote of all the Tribe, if due notice of the proposed change is given to all members seven suns before.

VII. Dues

Dues shall be: first . . . a year; second, assessments made on all by the Council for Tribal purposes; and third, when necessary, the Coimcil shall assess those taking part in camp.

The initiation fee for newcomers shall be . . . which shall include the first year's dues, but shall not include the assessments.

VIII. Confidential

It is charged that all keep secret the confidential discussions of the Council.

IX. Laws and Punishments

The laws are as already given (p. 9).

Punishments are meted out by the Chief and Council, after a hearing of the case. They consist of :

Renewal of initiations.

Exclusion from the games, meetings or, if in camp, from the boats for a time, or of fines, etc. 62)


The extreme penalty is " death " ; that is, banishment from the Tribe.

The Band

Each Band of not less than five nor more than ten members elects its Chief for one year, or until the successor is elected. The Band also elects the Second Chief, to act in absence of the Chief and a Tally Keeper, who should be an artist, for it is his office to keep the records, the Winter Count, and the Tally Robe of the Band, and these should be embellished in all ways. A Wampum Collector, also, is needed, and may be elected though the Chief may fill the office unless otherwise arranged. The other members, even those of lowest rank, sit in the Council of the Band without election.

Two or more Bands imite to form a Tribe.

Every member of the Band is a member of the Tribe, and uses the Totem and Call. But the Band has also a Totem and a Call of its own.

The Band keeps its own Tally, and raises what dues it pleases. But it also pays dues to the Tribe and is represented in Tribal Council by its Chief and Nobles (if any) and such Tribal officers as it can elect.

The Inbringing of a Newcomer

Those who would learn the life, and take the vows, of Woodcraft, must enter by the lowest stage of the Lodge. And before being admitted must as already set forth (p. 18):

  1. Be of right age (i. e., twelve for Big Lodge).
  2. Know the laws of the Lodge, also the hand sign and the salute.
  3. Must be proposed, seconded, and have name posted for seven suns on the bulletin board (Totem pole) or tally book and be given an Initiation Test as set forth in the trials of fortitude, on page 10.
  4. Must have passed the given initiations and if found worthy may take the vow in this wise: The Guide, or whoever is conducting the ceremony, will say at the time appointed for the inbringing, "There is a new member to be taken in at this Council, by name. . . . Let the woidd-be member stand up. This candidate, I am told, has duly qualified in the four tests of fitness, being of right age, knowing the laws of the Lodge, having been duly posted for seven suns, having faced the initiation of. ...

63)

"It now remains to vote for or against the admission of this member, and to the end that there may be no hindrance to freedom of speech, the candidate is asked to leave the Council and roam in the distant woods, till this matter shall have been decided."

In the discussion all the Tribe may take part, but only the Band interested may vote; for the member enters the order by joining a Band. In the voting one blackball is enough to exclude. If the candidate is voted down it is wiser to defer the announcement till a later Council and meanwhile let the unlucky one know privately of the decision. In case the favorable unanimous vote is given the two backers go out into "the woods" and return with the successful candidate.

Standing before the Guide in open Coimcil he shall be questioned and instructed, so he shall know more fully of the sacred purpose of the League. Then the Guide shall say: "Is it your serious wish to become a member of the Woodcraft League?"

Answer: "It is."

"We have already learned that you are fully qualified in the four proofs of fitness by being over twelve years of age, by learning the law of the Lodge, by (here name the initiation taken), by being found acceptable to the Band you wish to join. Is it not so?"

Answer: (by the officer who knows): "Yes, Chief, I can vouch for the candidate."

"You know our kws; we shall take them one by one.

"Do you promise obedience to the Council? "

Answer: "I do."

(And so, through the twelve laws, whereby the member is bound to obedience, courage, cleanliness, health-seeking, to cherish the Great Spirit's gifts; and to service, kindness, fair-play, joy, silence, reverence, honor.)

"And what are the four lights from which these laws do emanate?"

Answer: "They are Fortitude, Beauty, Truth, and Love"

"And whence did these four receive their light? "

Answer: "From the Light of the Central Fire which is the emblem of the Great Mystery by which we symbolize that all Good comes from the one Great Source."

The Guide then says: "Raise your hand and say after me: 'I give my word of honor that in all matters of the League I will obey the Chief and Council and the laws of my Tribe, and if at any time I fail in my duty I will appear before the Council, 64) when ordered, and submit without murmuring to its decision.'

"I receive you into our Order, and by this badge I formally signify the same." (Now the Guide pins the badge over the candidate's heart, or on his arm, shakes hands and says) :

"Now I declare your installation complete as a Wayseeker in the . . . Band of the . . . Tribe, which is of the Big Lodge in the Woodcraft League."

Thus one enters the Tribe and the League by joining a Band.

Installation of the Higher Ranks

Whenever a member has won the right to promotion the evidences are first submitted to the High Council or the Conmiittee they appoint, and if quite satisfactory the installation is made at the next Council or Grand Coimcil, whichever is most con- venient or desirable.

When the programme has gone as far ais "badges to be claimed," the Chief of the applicant's Tribe or Band shall announce the claim. The Committee who have examined the evidence now stand up to support the claim. The Guide or Chief at the Council Rock (in the chair) asks "if any do challenge the claim," and if none, briefly describes the qualifications and their value in our work, then says: "Acting for the Council, therefore, I now cut from the Homed Shield the green tassel, the badge of the rank this member is leaving, and announce that his installation is complete as a ... of the . . . Lodge.

Then clips off the green tassel, casts it into the fire, and shakes hands with the successful one, who retires to his seat amid loud applause.

The Conferring of Badges for Coups and Degrees

(See Section IV)

When in the Council the Guide or Chief, at the Council Rock, announces that now is the time to claim badges,. each who is prepared with a properly filled out blank (got from Headquarters) stands up till bidden to speak, then steps forward and says:

"O Chief, in behalf of ... of the .. . Band, I daim a coup (Grand Coup or Degree as it may be) for . . . 65) and here is the testimony of my witnesses," handing over the Record.

The Chief of the Council calls out loudly: "Here . . . claims . . . and here is the evidence fully witnessed by . . . and ... all persons of good standing and able to speak with authority in this matter. The Committee has already looked into the case and endorsed the application, What is the pleasure of the Council?"

Some one rises and says: "O Chief, there can be no question of the justice of this claim. I move that it be allowed."

Another says: "I second that, O Chief." The Chief says: "Moved and seconded; all in favor say 'How,' contrary say 'Wah.' The 'Hows' have it, the claim is allowed."

The Chief then says: "In behalf of the Council I bestow on you this eagle feather or this degree badge as a symbol of your achievement."

This paper is now signed by the Chief in the chair and becomes the property of the recipient; a record of it in the Tally Book is all that the Tribe needs.

List of Sagamores and Sachems

During the fourteen years since the Order was founded only twenty-three have won the Sagamore's Crown, viz:

Sagamore Plenty Coups, 1905, Douglas A. Miller, Greenwich, Conn.

Sagamore Deerfoot, 1906, Loraine M. Wood, Rutherford, N. J.

Sagamore Deerslayer, 1906, Willis R. Monroe, Cos Cob, Conn.

Sagamore Silver Fox, 1908, S. Miller Jordan, Rutherford, N. J.

Sagamore Kingbird, 1910, James F. Gilkinson, Middletown, Conn.

Sagamore Eagle-eye, 1911, George L. White, Cos Cob, Conn.

Sagamore Little Thunder, 1912, Albert L. Finiels, Cos Cob, Conn.

Sagamore Little Beaver, 1912, Richard L. Burdsall, Port Chester, N. Y.

Sagamore Karonawa, 1912, Paul Cecil Spoffard, Port Chester, N. Y.

Sagamore Ningonit, 1912, Edward D. Graber, Greenwich, Conn.

Sagamore Onjima, 1913, Alexander P. Leverty, Bridgeport, Conn.

Sagamore Moskuas, 1914, Clive C. Day, Summit, N. J.

Sagamore Rolling Thunder, 1914, James C. Maples, Port Chester, N. Y,

Sagamore Little Eagle, 1914, Samuel Comley, Port Chester, N. Y.

Sagamore Kijika, 1914 Richard A. Reynolds, Bridgeport, Conn.

Sagamore Wapoos, 1914, Robert G. Hull, Bridgeport, Conn.

Sagamore Airtalk, 1914, Clifford Appleton, Bridgeport, Conn.

Sagamore Ishka Chissakid, 1914, Harvey C. Went, Bridgeport, Conn.

Sagamore (No name.), 1914, Horace T. Smith, Bridgeport, Conn. (Resigned.)

Sagamore Wita-tonkan, 1916, F. R. Hoisington, Jr., Rye, N. Y.

Sagamore Tatanka, 1916, John Louis Liecpy, Brookline, Mass.

Sagamore (No name), 1916, Donald Colpitts, Kineo, Me.

Sachem Migwanag, 1915, Lewis F. Hall, Bridgeport, Conn. 66)

Winning a Name

The bestowal of the ceremonial name is a serious matter, and the highest honor within the gift of the Council.

In die Woodcraft League the ceremonial name is given only when a member measures up as the finest type of Woodcraft Boy.

In a tribe of fifty not more than two or three ceremonial names would ordinarily be won during a year. Any one applying for a ceremonial or honor name is thereby proven unworthy of it. The suggestion should come from those around him after the life and conduct of the member shows that he has attained to a certain high measure of power and self-restraint, or especial achievement that manifests the excellence of the spirit within. The name is almost never given for a single exploit, but rather for a career of fortitude or much high achievement in some department.

When the Council, ever watchful, has decided that such a one, by his steady and sterling gifts, is entitled to a name, the best way is to find out privately if this person wishes for the honor, next what particular name or idea is appropriate and acceptable to all concerned. If desired, the Council may get from Headquarters a suitable list of names from which to make iselection. 67) SECTION II TilIBE AND COUNCIL ACTIVITIES Suggestions on Tribal Work Dmces Games Phys, Pngennts, and Manna: Songs Campfire Stories and Poems 68) 69) SECTION n TKIBE AND COUNCIL ACTIVITIES (This section aims to help Woodcraft Tribes in running their Council meetii^. The subjects which follow are intimately associated with the Councus, though much of the material in Things to Kjiow and Do also will be of great value.) One day after a heavy snowstorm the children of a country school were wondering what they would do at recess time. Some one suggested that they go out in a neighboring field, stand with their backs to the large oak tree in the centre, and then see who could walk the straightest line to the fence. This they did, but they found that only one of the number had walked a straight line — the rest had turned aside for stumps or holes. And when they asked the boy why he had been able to walk such a straight line he answered, "I kept my eye on a post and walked right toward it." There are so many interesting things that a Tribe can do that there is a danger of missing some of the best things unless the Tribe has a pkui. Make sure then that the meetings give proper attention to the various interests of the Tribe, and see that each member has a chance to grow. Every meeting should be care- fully planned so as to give opportunity for tribal business, to have a fine time, and to learn some new thing. And, of course, the same dose attention and enthusiasm will be given to each subject during the time it has right of way. Each member enters as a Wayseeker and hopes to become a Pathfinder, then a Minisino, and finally to win a number of Coups and Degrees. It is wise to decide on the length of time it should take for all the Tribe to pass the tests for Pathfinder and allot to each meet- ing its share of subjects to be covered. In this way each mem- ber will have a chance to grow with the others. It is necessary that every member of the Tribe "play the game." The biggest step man ever took in his long history of advancement was when he learned to cooperate with others. Insist on team work. Discourage quitters, whether it be in games, singing, tribal business, or in the learning of new things. Make them see that the whole value of the Tribe will depend 70) aS Woodcraft Manual for Boys upon the amount of lo3^1ty and team work each member puts into it, for "The strength of the pack is the wolf; The strength of the wolf is the pack." Here are a few suggestions for covering the tests for Pathfinder in three months and die Minisino in five. It can be done, though your Tribe may prefer to cover the ground more slowly. The nimibers indicate the numbers of the tests. These suggestions cover only the tests. At every Council you should intro- duce songs, dances, primitive history, legends, stories and nature narratives, handicraft, etc. Pathfinder {Three manihs) First Month'. First week: Organization council; choose name, totem, and officers, explain purpose of Woodcraft Boys, ceremony, etc. Second week: Above continued — ^Laws, give out initiations. Third week: Swear in members and officers; Trees (s); Hike and account (2). Fourth week: Knots (10). Second Month: First week: Stars (4). Second week: Suggestions — ^Ten Totems (9) ; Enlist new mem- bers (14); Home help (15); Swim (3). Third week: Wild flowers (6). Fourth week: Check up work done — optional work. Third Month: First week: Sign language (8). Second week: Hatchet and knife (13); Prepare wood for fires (12). Third week: Bird box or restaiurant (11). Fourth week: Sign language (8). FHth week: Edible wild plants (7). Minisino {Five months) First Month: First week: Rubbing stick fire (i). Second week: Birds (8). 71) Tribe Activities 39 Third week: Hike and account (7). Fourth week: Tent and latrine (3). Second Month: First week: Life Saving, first aid (10). Second week: Life Saving. Third week: Life Saving. Fourth week: Life Saving and home help (13). Third Month: First week: Birds (8). Second week: Stick bed (5). Third week: Rainproof shelter (4). Fourth week: Review — open schedule — Etiquette (11), Tem- per (14). Fourth Month: First week: Animals (9). Second week: Run Council (12). Third week: Sleep out — cook meal (2); Canoe (6). Fourth week: Character (15). Fifth Month: First week: Birds — ^review. Second week: First Aid-Life Saving — ^review. Third week: Animals and birds — ^review. Fourth week: Campercraft — ^review. •'«*w»>«^.,-- t 72) 73) COUNCIL GAMES Council Tttb Tilting One*legged Chicken Fight Leg Wrestle Strong Hand Navajo Feather Dance Stung Cock Fighting Talk-f est Solemnity Also many of the Outdoor and Indoor Games Outdoor Watching by the Trail Far Sight Trailing Home Star Apache Relay Race Hostile Sp Chinese Tag Tree the Coon Bat Ball Rat on the Lodge Scouting Water-boiling Contest Quick Sight Medley Scouting Still-hunting the Buck

Water Spearing the Great Sturgeon Canoe Tag Boat and Canoe Tilting Indoor Odds and Evens Geography Blind Man's Buff Menagerie My Vacation Menagerie Party Names by Topics Portrait Party Fortune Magic Music Guessing Game Fireside Trick Kingdom Lone Star Trick Feather Football 74) 75) COUNCIL GAMES Many of the tribes have found it best to restrict the councfl games to the Council Ring. Tub Tilting Tub Tilting is immensely popular at night by the blazing campfire as well as in the city at the indoor councUs. It is an exciting game, tests the ability of the contestants, and can be made quite scientific. It is usually the most popular game in the Woodcraft work and justly so. For this we use two barrels, about flour barrel size, or better still, two stools made with a heavy plank top about eighteen inches in diameter and supported by f oiu: strong legs spreading widely at the bottom. The top of the stool should be two feet off the ground. These are set level, exactly a spear length apart, centre to centre. Each fighter takes his place on a stool, and his game is to put the other off the stool. To prevent accidents, we have usually a catcher behind each man. The umpire stands alongside, near the middle. It is a foul to use the spear as a club, or to push below the knees, or to push the stool, or to seize the other man's spear in your hand. A foul gives the round to the other man. The round is over when one man is off or when his spear touches the ground. It is a draw when both go off together. They change stools and spears alter each roimd. The battle is usually for three or five rounds. I do not know of any good thrusts having been invented, but several good parries are well known. One is to use your spear- handle as a single stick. The best players parry much by wriggling the body. Often, when overbalanced, one can regain by spinning completely around. The correct spears always used in our work are made thus: Take eight feet of the butt-end of any ordinary bamboo fishing- rod or, U anything, a little heavier than ordinary. Get a two- 76)

Woodcraft Manual for Boys 

inch plank of any light wood, and from this cut a disk three inches across, bevel off and round the edges. Bore a hole (about three fourths of an inch) in the middle, and put this on the top of the bamboo, so that it sets against a shoidder or knot. Drive a circular plug in the hollow of the bamboo for a wedge, and make all secure with one or w«eacTv dtik |.^Q yg^ ^jj jjg^jlg driven in (No. ^0 7 7). t Now pad the head an inch thick with the ordinary horsehair stufiing that is used in furniture, and bind Fftiiih««( W€A«t all with strong burlap, sewing it at f^Q i the seams, and lashing it around the bamboo with string (No. 8). This completes the dry land spear. If for use in the water, make a final cover out of rubber cloth. This keeps the spear dry. A completed spear weighs about one and one half pounds. Each tribe should have a half-dozen of these spears. They serve a niunber of purposes, some of them quite different from that originally intended. I have seen a good many campers try tilting on the land or on the water and make an utter fauure of it, by reason of the absurdly clumsy, heavy spears used. A green sapling was cut for handle, and the end tied up in a bundle of rags that was i8 inches through. This was hard enough to lift, when dry, and as it usually soon fell into the water and got sopping wet, its weight became trebled, and one could not use it as a spear at all. Indian Leg Wrestle The contestants lie flat on their back on the ground or floor, facing in opposite directions, and lying side by side. They then lock arms and as the judge counts one, two, three they each raise the leg next to their opponent so as to be ready when the official says "three" to lock legs. Each tries to turn the other over backward. The one who succeeds in doing this wins. The game is to win two out of three rounds. Navajo Feather Dance An eagle feather hung on a horsehair, so as to stand up- right, is worked by a hidden operator, so as to dance and caper. The dancer has to imitate all its motions. A marionette may be used. It is a great fun maker. 77) Tribe Activities 45 Cock Figkting Make two ^tout sticks, each 2 feet long (broomsticks will do}; 'Pad each of these on the end with a ball of rag. These are the spurs. Make an 8-foot ring. The two rivals are on their hui^ers, each with a stick through behind his knees, his hands clasped in front of the knees, and the arms imder the ends of the spurs. Now they close; each aiming to upset the other, to make him lose his spurs or to put him out of the ring, any of which ends that round, and scores i for the victor. If both fall, or lose a spur, or go out together, it is a draw. Battle is for 3, 5, or 7 rounds. One-legged Chicken Fight In this each of the two contestants stands upon one leg, hold* ing up the other by grasping it at the ankle with the opposite arm behind the body. The other hand, also behind, grasps the sup- porting arm at the elbow. Points are scored as above, but it is defeat also to drop the up leg or to let go the arm. Strong Hand The two contestants stand right toe by right toe, right hands clasped together; left feet braced; left hands free. At the word "Go! each tries to unbalance the other; that is, make him lift or move one of his feet. A lift or a shift ends the roimd. Battles are for best out of 3 or 5 rounds. Stungi or Step on the Rattler — Sometimes Called Poison This is an ancient game. A circle about three feet across is drawn on the ground. The players choose sides, possibly one band against another, and place themselves alternately holding hands, to make a ring around this, and try to make one of the number step into the poison circle. He can evade it by side-stepping, by jumping over, or by dragging another into it. Each one who steps in the circle is stung and sits down. Sometimes we use a newspaper with a switch lying across it. When all on one side have been stung, the other side become the Rattlers, and may sting each of the oUiers with the switch across their hands. 78) 46 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Talk-fest The Talk-fest, if properly handled, can be one of the most amusing of the Council Ring games. The idea is to have two good talkers talk simultaneously for not more than two minutes. Each selects his own subject. A jury of three persons is ap- pointed. The contest is decided on the basis of continuity^ humor, and general value of the speeches. Solemnity The idea is to have one member challenge another to a test of ability to keep one's face straight." Facing each other and in the presence of the crowd, each looks into the other's eyes to see which will smile or laugh first. Speech and gesture may be in- troduced if desired. OUTDOOR GAMES Watching by the Trail

This is a game we often play in the train, to pass the time pleasantly. Sometimes one party takes the right side of the road with the windows there, and the other the left. Sometimes all players sit on the same side. The game is, whoever is first to see certain things agreed on scores so many points. Thus: A crow or a cow coimts i A horse 2 A sheep • • • • 3 A goat 4 A cat • « . . 5 A hawk 6 An owl 7 The winner is the one who first gets 25 or 50 points, as agreed. When afoot, one naturally takes other things for points, as certain trees, flowers, etc. Trailing A good trailing stunt to develop alertness and observation is managed thus: One boy wearing the tracking irons is deei; 79) Tribe Activities 47 He is given 100 beans, 30 slices of potato, and 10 minutes' start. He has to lay a track, as crooked as he pleases, dropping a bean every 3 or 4 yards and a slice of potato every 20. After ten minutes' run the deer has to hide. The trailers follow him, picking up the beans and potato slices. Each bean coimts i point, each slice of potato 2. The one who finds the deer scores 10 for it. Apache Relay Race One band is pitted against another, to see who can carry a message and bring a reply in shortest time, by means of relays of runners. One quarter of a mile is far enough for an ordinary race. This divides up even 55 yards to each of eight runners. The band is taken out by the Chief, who drops scouts at con- venient distances, where they await the arrival of the other runner, and at once take the letter on to the next, and there await the return letter. A good band of 8 can carry a letter a quarter of a mile and bring the answer in about 3 minutes. Chinese Tag Is like the regular game of tag with this difference: the one who is tagged must keep his hand on that part which was hit when he was tagged thus making only one free arm. Bat BaU A regular baseball diamond is used, two teams are chosen of equal number. A volley ball or indoor baseball is used, pref- erably the former. One team is scattered anywhere inside the bases, the other team is up to bat. The boy bats the ball with his hand. The opposing team catching the ball he has batted tries to put the runner out by throwing the ball at the runner or by touching him with it. If the runner stands still he may not be put out, but the team trying to put him out must keep the ball passing continually; one of the players holding the ball is unfair. The boy running must reach the home plate before another batter comes up to bat. Scouting Scouts are sent out in pairs or singly. A niunber of points are marked on the map at equal distances from camp, and 80) 48 Woodcraft Manual for Boys the scouts draw straws to see where each goes. If one place is obviously hard, the scout is allowed a fair number of points as handicap. All set out at same time, go direct, and return as soon as possible. Points are thus allowed: Last back, zero for traveling. The others coimt one for each minute they are ahead of the last. Points up to ICO are allowed for their story on return. Sometimes we allow lo points for each Turtle they have seen; lo for each Owl seen and properly named; 5 for each Hawk, and i each for other wild birds; also 2 for a Cat; i for a Dog. No information is given the scout; he is told to go to such a point and do so and so, but is fined points if he hesitates or asks how or why, etc. The Game of Quick Sight Take two boards about a foot square, divide each into twenty- five squares; get ten nuts and ten pebbles. Give to one player one board, five nuts, and five pebbles. He places these on the squares in any pattern he fancies, and when ready, the other player is allowed to see it for five seconds. Then it is covered up, and from the memory of what he saw the second player • • )• * e —


□ • QvicAifs'it Gma counUrs must reproduce the pattern on his own board. He counts one for each that was right, and takes off one for each that was wrong. They take turn and turn about* 81) Tribe Activities

This game is a wonderful developer of the power to see and memorize quickly. Far Sight, or Spot the Rabbit Take two six-inch squares of stiff white pasteboard or whitened wood. On each of these draw an outline Rabbit, one an exact dupUcate of the other. Make twenty round black wafers or ^ inchfi r «  spots, each half an inch across. Let one player stick a few of these on one Rabbit-board and set it up in full light. The other, beginning at loo feet, draws near till he can see the spots well enough to reproduce the pattern on the other which he carries. If he can do it at 75 feet he has wonderful eyes. Down even to 70 (done 3 times out of 5) he counts high honor; from 70 to 60 counts honor. Below that does not count at all. Home Star or Pole Star Each competitor is given a long, straight stick, in daytime, and told to lay it due north and south. In doing this he may guide himself by sim, moss, or anything he can find in nature — anything, indeed, except a compass. The Erection is checked by a good compass corrected for the localitv. The one who comes nearest wins. It is optional with the judges whether the use of a time- piece is to be allowed. Hostile Spy Hanging from the Totem pole is a red or yellow handkerchief. This is the Grand Medicine Trophy of the band. The Hos- 82) 50 Woodcraft Manual for Boys tile Spy has to capture it. The leader goes around on the morning of the day and whispers to the various members, "Look out — there's a spy in camp." At length he goes secretly near the one he has selected for spy and whispers, "Look out, there's a spy in camp, and you are it" He gives him at the same time some bright-colored badge, that he must wear as soon as he has secured the Medicine Trophy. He must not hide the Trophy on his person, but keep it in view. He has all day till sunset to get away with it. If he gets across the river or other limit, he wins and they must pay an agreed ransom for the Trophy. If he is caught, he loses and has to pay a ransom for himself. Tree the Coon This is an indoor game, founded on the familiar "Hunt the Thimble." We use a little dimuny coon; either make it or turn a ready- made toy rabbit into one, by adding tail and black mask, and cropping the ears. Sometimes even a little rag ball with a face painted on it. All the players but one go out of the room. That one places the coon anywhere in sight, high or low, but in plain view; all come in and seek. The first to find it sits down silently, and scores i. Each sits down, on seeing it, giving no clue to the others. The first to score 3 coons is winner, usually. Sometimes we play till every one but one has a coon; that one is the booby. The others are first, second, etc. Sometimes each is given his number in order of finding it. Then, after 7 or 8 coons, these numbers are added up, and the lowest is winner. Rat on the Lodge Each player has a good-sized bean bag. This is the rat and is kept by the player permanently. The lodge is any solid object six inches or more above the ground or floor. A dead-line is drawn through the lodge and another parallel, 15 feet away, for a firing-line. The boy who is "it," or "keeper," perches his bean bag or rat on the lodge. The others stand at the firing-line and throw their bean bags at his. They must not pick them up or touch them with their hands when they are beyond the dead-line. If 83) (Hie does, then the keeper can tag him (unless he reaches the firing-Une) and send him to do duty as keeper at the rock. But they can coax their rats with their feet up to the dead- line, not beyond, then watch for a chance to dodge back to the firing-line, where they are safe at all times. If the rat is knocked oflf by any one in fair firing, the keeper is powerless till he has replaced it. Meantime, most of the play- ers have secured their rats and got back safe to the firing-line. Water-boiling Contest Given a hatchet and knife, i match, a 2-quart pail, 7 inches or less in diameter, one quart of water and a block of soft wood about 2 feet long and 5 or 6 inches through. The record for water-boiling is said to be 7.59. First cut plenty of wood. Spend three minutes on it. Sup- port your pail on four pegs driven in the ground or by a long stick driven diagonally into the ground. If water is handy dip the pegs in it before placing. Tlie water must be jumping and bubbling all aver the surface or it is not boiling. If the first match goes out, contestants are usually allowed a second, but are penalized by having 2 minutes added to their time. Medley Scouting The following competition in Medley Scouting took place at one of my camps. A prize was offered for the highest points in the following: At the word, " Go. " Bring a leaf of sugar-maple; and tell how it differs from other niaples. Tell a short story or give a recitation. Bring a leaf of poison ivy (wrapped in a thick paper, to avoid touching it), and describe the poison, and mode of counteracting it. Mark off on a stick your idea of a yard. Bring a leaf of witch hazel, and tell what it is good for. Bring a leaf of beech, and tell how it differs from those most like it. Dance a step; any — ^English, Irish, Scotch, or Indian. Strike a match and light a lamp; both of them imaginary. 84) S3 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Make a, map of North America from memory in ten minutes. Give an imitation of some animal, actions or sounds. Play the part of an Indian woman finding her warrior dead. For each of the first ao competitors, points were given; the prize adjudged by the total. Some of these stunts may seem trivial, but there was a pur- pose in each, and that purpose was served. In the Indian widow, for example, we wished to select the best actor for play. Most of the boys failed. Two were good, but one, nearly the smallest in camp, was so fine that he brought tears into the eyes oS many. The selection of the various leaves impressed these kinds on all, especially those who failed to bring the right ones. The animal imitation and dance was introduced to cultivate the spirit of going fearlessly in and doing one's besti however poor it might be. The imitations of monkey, lynx, cat, panther, moose, etc, developed a keen observation and a lot of good natural history that was intensely interesting as well as amusing. The water-boiling was particularly instructive and was tried twice. The first time the winner took 14 minutes, and the sec- ond best 20. The last time, the winner's time was 8 minutes, and the second one's 10. Still-bunting the Buck, or the Deer Hunt The deer is a dummy, best made with a wire frame, on which soft hay is wrapped till it is of proper size and shape, then all is covered with open burlap. A few touches of white and black make it very realistic - If time does not admit of a well-finished deer, one can be 85) made of a sack stuffed with hay, decorated at one end with a smaller sack for head and neck, and set on four thin sticks. The side of the deer is maiked with a large oval, and over the heart is a smaller one. Bows and Arrows only are used to shoot this deer. A pocketful of com, peas, or other large grain is now needed for scent. The boy who is the deer for the first hunt takes the dummy under his arm and runs off, getting ten minutes' start, or until he conies back and shouts "readyl" He leaves a trail of com, dropping two or three grains for every yard and making the trail as aooked as he likes, playing such tricks as a deer would do to baffle his pursuers. Then he hides the deer in any place he fancies, but not among rodts or on the top of I a ridge, because in one case many arrows would be broken, and in the other, lost The hunters now hunt for this deer just as for a real deer, either following the trail or watching the woods fOiead; the best hunters com- bine the two. If at any time the tTMl is quite lost the one in charge shouts "Lost Trail/" After that the one who finds the trail scores two. Any one giving a false alarm by shouting "Deer" is fined five. Thus they go till some one finds the deer. He shouts "Deer I " and scores ten for finding it. The others shout "Second," " Third," etc., in order of seeing it, but they do not score. The finder must shoot at the deer with his bow and arrow from the very spot whence he saw it. If he misses, the second hunter may step up hve paces, and have his shot. If he misses, the tiiird one goes five, and so on till some one hits the deer, or until the ten-yard limit is reached. If the finder is within ten yards on sighting the deer, and misses his shot, the other hunters go back to the ten-yard limit. Once the deer is hit, all the shooting must be from the exact spot whence the successful shot was fired. Ashotin thebigovalisa WywowA(j;thatscoreSj^iie. A shot outside that is a scrakk; that scores two. A shot in the small oval w heart is a heart wound; it scores ten, and ends the bunt. Arrows which do not stick do not count, unless it can be proved that they passed right through, in which case they take the highest score that they pierced. 86) 54 Woodcraft Manual for Boys If all the arrows are used, and none in the heart, the deer escapes, and the boy who was deer scores twenty-five. The one who found the dummy is deer for the next hunt. A clever deer can add greatly to the excitement of the game. Originally we used paper for scent, but found it bad. It litter^ the woods, yesterday's trail was confused with that of to- e day, etc. Com proved better, because the birds and the squirrels kept it cleaned up from day to day, and thus the ground was always ready for a fresh start. But the best of all is the hoof mark for the shoe. These iron hoof marks are fast to a pair of shoes, and leave a trail much like a. real deer. This has several advantages. It gives the hunter a chance to tell where the trail doubled, and which way the deer was going. It is more realistic, and a boy who can follow this skilfully can follow a Uv- ing deer. In actual practice it is found well to use a little a>m with this on the hard places, a plan quite consbtent with realism, as every hunter will recall. It is strictly forbidden to any hunter to stand in front of the firing-line; all must be back of the line on which the shooter stands. There is no hmit to the ^tuations and ouious combinations in this hunt. The deer may be left standing or lyii^. There is do law why it should not be hidden b^iind a solid tree trunk. Hie game develops as one follows it. After it has been played for some time with the iron hoof mark as above, the boys grow so 87) skilful on the trail that we can dispense with even the corn. The iron mark like a deer hoof leaves a very reaUstic "slot" or track, which the more skilful boys readily follow through the woods. A hunt is usually for three, five, or more deer, according to agree- ment, and the result is reckoned by points on the whole chase. WATER GAMES Spearing the Great Sturgeon This water game is exceedingly popular and is especially good for public exhibition, being spectacular and full of amusement and excitement. The outfit needed is : (i) A sturgeon roughly formed of soft wood; it should be TA6 Wooden Stur<[6Qn^ WfLjkt^for ia/faft. about three feet long and nearly a foot thick at the head. It may be made realistic, or a small log pointed at both ends will serve. (2) Two spears with six-inch steel heads and wooden handles (about three feet long). The points should be sharp, but not the barbs. Sometimes the barbs are omitted altogether. Each head should have an eye to which is attached twenty feet of Th$ SffirhfzcL one-quarter-inch rope. On each rope, six feet from the spear- head, is a fathom mark made by tying on a rag or cord. (3) Two boats with crews. Eadi crew consists of a spear- man, who is captain, and one or two oarsmen or paddlers, of whidi the after one is the pilot. All should be expert swimmers or else wear life belts during the game. 88) 56 Woodcraft Manual for Boys The game. Each boat has a base or harbor; this is usually part of the shore opposite that of the enemy; or it obviates sdl danger of collision if the boat starts from die same side. The sturgeon is left by the referee's canoe at a point midway be- tween the bases. At the word "Go!" each boat leaves its base and, making for the sturgeon, tries to spear it, then drag it by the line to the base. When both get their spears into it the contest becomes a tug of war until one of the spears pulls out. The sturgeon is landed when the prow of the boat that has it in tow touches its proper base, even though the spear of the en- emy is then in the fish: or it is landed when the fish itself touches base if it is also in tow at the time. The boats change bases after each heat. Matches are usually for one, three, or five sturgeon. Points are counted only for the landing of the fish, but the referee may give the decision on a foul or a succession of fouls, or the de- linquent may be set back one or more boat-lengths. Sometimes the game is played in canoes or boats, with one player as spearman and crew. Rides: It is not allowed to push the sturgeon into a new posi- tion with the spear or paddle before striking. It is allowed to puU the sturgeon under the boat or pass it around by using the line after spearing. It is allowed to lay hands on the other boat to prevent a col- lision, but otherwise it is forbidden to touch the other boat or crew or paddle or spear or line, or to lay hands on the fish or to touch it with the paddle or oar, or touch your own spear while it is in the fish, or to tie the line around the fish except so far as this may be accidentally done in spearing. It is allowed to dislodge the enemy's spear by throwing your own over it. The purpose of the barbs is to assist in this. It is allowed to run ontoiht sturgeon with tle boat. It is absolutely forbidden to throw the spear over the other boat or over the heads of your crew. In towing the sturgeon the fathom-mark must be over the gimwale — at least six feet of line should be out when the fish is in tow. It is not a foul to have less, but the spearman must at once let it out if the umpire or the other crew cries "Fathom!" The spearman is allowed to drop the spear and use the paddle or oar at will, but not to resign his spear to another of the crew. The spearman must be in his boat when the spear is thrown. If the boat is upset the judge's canoe helps them to right Each crew must accept the backset of its accidents. 89) Canoe Tag Any number of canoes or boats may engage in this. A rubber cushion, a hot-water bag full of air, any rubber foot- ball, or a cotton bag with a lot of corks in it b needed. ITie game is to tag the other canoe by throwing this into it. The rules are as in ordinary cross-tag. Tilting in the Water When used on the water, the ordinary rules of canoe tilting are followed. Each spearman stands in the bow of his boat, on the bow-seat. Hb crew bring him within eight feet of his rival, and now he endeavors to put him overboard. Points are reckoned thus: Forcing your enemy to put one foot down off the seat S Forcing your enemy to put two feet down off the seat lo Forcing your enemy on one knee 5 Forcing your enemy down on two knees ... 10 Forcing your enemy to lose his spear . .10 Forcing your enemy overboard 25 It b a foul to strike below the knee, or to use the spear as a club. The umpke may dock up to twenty-five points for fouls. When canoes are used, the spearman stands on the bottom, so all points are by loss of spear, or by going overboard. INDOOR GAMES Odds and Evens Boys form in a single line across the room. One boy is "it" He says he will call odds; then calls numbers both odd and even, but those in the line must run only on odd numbers. If

  • "" ™" on even they are out, also those are out who, when the

on an odd number, are the last to reach the given goal. Blind Man's Buff lyers are numbered, one player is bhndfolded. The rm a ring about him. The one in the centre calb out 90) $8 Woodcraft Manual for Boys two numbers, the players having these numbers change places at once, the one in the centre trying to catch one of them. K successful he takes the place and number of the boy caught and that player goes in the centre and is in turn blindfolded. My Vacation Make booklets with the pages entitled "My earliest photo- graph, "My latest picture," "Who went with me," "How we went," "Where we went," "Where we lived," "Some people we met," "An accident," "How it turned out," "Our happiest moments," "A near tragedy," "Finis," etc. Give each boy an old magazine, a pair of scissors and paste and he is to cut illustrations for the pages of his booklet from the magazine and can make some very amusing combinations, adding poetry if he is clever. Names by Topics " What names suggest birds? " Drake, Partridge, Hawk, etc. "What names are part of a house?" Beam, Garrett, Locke, Key, Hall, etc. " What names are part of the body? " Hand, Foote, Hart, etc. "What names are flowers, shrubs, or grains?" Lily, Rose, Cotton, Marguerite, Rice, Berry, etc. "What names suggest occupations?" Miller, Goldsmith, Butler, Shepherd, Cook, etc. "What names suggest geographical formations?" Dale, Beach, Hill, Brooks, Stone, etc. Fortune Requiring two sets of numbered cards, the players are given these cards of one set only until all are distributed. The other set of cards, corresponding in number to those given out, are played face down on the central table (or floor if desired). Each player in turn goes to this set, places his hand upon the topmost cards and says, "The boy who has the card corresponding to this is red headed and quick tempered. He will either be a great politician or have a coal wagon" (or something else humorous, or impossible). He then turns the card over, holds it up, and finds the owner of the corresponding card. Much fun may be had if the description given was exactly opposite of the truth. The game continues by having the owner of the last card tell some one's character or f ortime. 91) Guessing Game The players sit in a circle; one of them is blindfolded and stands in the centre. Each player is given a number. Then the blindfolded player calls 3 or 4 numbers as i, 5, 9, 10. The players who have those numbers jump up and change seats anioi^ themselves. While this changing goes on the blind- folded player attempts to catch them. If he does succeed in catching one he must guess who the captive is {by feeling his dress, features, etc.). If he guesses correctly his eyes are un- covered and the captive is " it." If not, the game is continued as before — several more members being called out. Kingdom The Guesser goes out of hearing until the group chooses an object Then the Guesser is call^ and may ask any question tbatdcan be answered by "Yes" or "No," only one question of one person, and the number of questions is limited, perhaps ten or fifteen, according to the cleverness of the Guesser and the abstruseness of the object chosen. The Guesser usually begins by asking, "What kingdom is it?" and having established whether the object is in animal, vegetable, or mineral kingdom, proceeds to ask such questions as wUl narrow the subject down as quickly as possible to object selected. Geography Any number of players allowed for this game, which has often been played at a diimer table or around a campfire. The first player begins by naming a geographical place, such as a moun- tain, river, city, state, or nation; the next player gives another name, which must be geographical and the first letter of which must be the same as the last letter of the name given by the first player; and so on around the circle, again and again, until all have dropped out by failing to think of a suitable name and the one remaining is the winner. For instance, first player names Alabama; second player names Arkansas, third player names Saskatchetvan, fourth player, the Nile. Game of Menagerie lyers are seated in a circle. One begins thus, "As 1 he Menagerie — " His neighbor to the right asks, 92) 6o Woodcraft Manual for Boys "What did you see there?" He answers, "I saw a lion." The neighbor then turns to his right-hand neighbor and says, "I went to the Menagerie." The same question is then asked, "What did you see there?" The second player must then re- peat the answer of the first, "I saw a Uon," adding to it an ani- mal of his own, "and a monkey." The game goes on in Mii*^ way, each player putting the same question and answer of his neighbor and adding the name of another animal. "Pack the Trimk" may be played in a similar manner. Any article suit- able or grotesque may be packed in the trunk. Menagerie Party Each player receives on a slip of paper a number and the name of an animal, e. g., i, elephant, 2, mouse. The leader calls on each player in turn to come forward and draw on a blackboard the animal named on his slip. One minute is given to exe- cute each drawing. The other players try to guess the ani- mal on the board and write their guess, correctly numbered, on papers provided for the purpose. When the list has been com- pleted the leader reads the correct list aloud and the players correct their mistakes. If there are not many artists present, the results are apt to be startling. A Portrait Party A modification of the last game is for the players to sit in a circle and each draw a portrait of his left-hand neighbor. The leader collects the portraits, puts a number on each to identify it, and places them on exhibition. The players try to guess the original of each portrait. Magic Music The player who is "it" leaves the room, while the others de- cide upon some action they want him to do, for instance — ^walk to the centre of the room and recite poetry. The player then re- turns and the game commences. The other players sing or hum or one plays the piano. When the player who is "it" nears his destination (in this case the centre of the room) the music grows louder and he can tell that he is on the right track. If he hesitates or goes in the wrong direction the music continues soft and low. Having at last reached the proper spot, the player proceeds to try out all sorts of stunts, until, guided by the tone of the music, he hits upon the right action (reciting 93) poetry). The game goes on in thb way, another player being chosen each time. Fireside Trick* Put your hands together as in the drawing, palms also touch- ing. The thumbs are you and your brother. You can separate easily—like that. The £rst fingers are you and your father, you can sepfirate not quite so easily — like that. The little fingers are you and your sister, you can 3q>arate, but that comes a little harder still ^ikethat. The middle fingers are you and your mother, you can separate, but it is hard— see that. The ring fingers are you and your sweetheart, you caimot separate without everything else going first to pieces. The Lone Star Trick* A Texan showed me an interesting trick on the table. He took six wooden toothpicks, bent then sharply in the middle, and laid them down in Uie form shown in "A." "Now," he says, "when our people got possession of Texas, it was nothing but a wilderness of cactus spines. See them there ! Then they began irrigat- ing. (Here he put a spoonful of water in the centre of the spines.) And .1. — - .1 g gg^ jjj ^jjjj they turned Star State." ed, the water )thpicks to straighten out until they made the pat- ain"B." 94) 62 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Feather Football or Feather Blow This is an indoor, wet-weather game. The players hold a blanket on the knees or on the table. A soft feadier is put in the middle. As many may play as can get near. They may be in sides, 2 or 4, or each for himself. At the signal "Go!" each tries to blow the feather ofF the blanket at the enemy's side, and so count one for himself. A game is usually best out of 7, 1 1, or 13. Books Recommended Games for the Playgroxtnd, Home, School and Gymnasium. Jessie H. Bancroft, Published by the MacMillan Company, 450 pages. $1.50 Camp and Outing Activities. (Cheley-Bako:.) Published by Associa- tion Press. I1.50 95) SONGS AoMfiea mke Song Star-Spangted Binner Good Hlglit O Boantifiil for Spadons Skies Caoodif ■ Lora Song KonseT DwOiSoiiK Atooetta Zon-zi-moa-de Omalut Tribal Prajtr Mnj« Uukedn HIOiw Thnnder 96) 97) SONGS Group Singiiig There may be Woodcrafters who are little interested in ath- letics and not moved by the charms of handicraft, but it is very doubtful whether there are any indifferent to music. All can- not produce it, but all can enjoy it in some measure. There can be no finer expression of team play than in group singing, and no Woodcraft Tribe will have done its best work until its members have learned to sing well, and while it is desirable that the leader be a musician, any one who can carry a tune can select good singable songs and teach them to the group. In addition to tihe general songs, which may be foimd in all of the good collections of songs, are the songs that are particularly native to America. These are considered by many of our best composers to be of high value. Because of the fact that these native American folk-songs have not been greatly used we are including several of them in this chapter. It is tiie spirit of the American folk-song that commends it. It is spontaneous, interpreting the world about us as well as the world within, offering a song and a dance for every mood and every large event in life. America My country, 'tis of thee. Sweet land of liberty. Of thee I sing: Land where my fathers died, Land of the Pilgrim's pride, From every moimtain side Let freedom ring. My native country, thee, Lsmd of the noble free. Thy name I love: I love thy rocks and rills. Thy woods and templed Mils; My heart with rapture thrills Like that above. r 98) 66 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Let music swell the breeze And ring from all the trees Sweet freedom's song; Let Mortal tongues awake, Let all that breathe partake Let rocks their silence break, The sound prolong. Our father's God, to Thee, Author of liberty, To thee we sing; Long may our land be bright With freedom's holy light; Protect us by Thy might. Great God, our King. — Samud F. Smi^f 1832. The Star-Spangled Banner O say, can you see, by the dawn's early light, ^niat so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars , thro' the perilous fight? O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming; And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still there? O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave? On the shore, dimly seen thro' the mists of the deep. Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes. What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep. As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses? Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam. In full glory reflected, now shines on fiie stream — Tis the star-spangled banner. O long may it wave ^ O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. And where is that band who so vauntingly swore, 'Mid the havoc of war and the battle's confusion A home and a country they'd leave us no more? Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution, .] 99) Tribe Activities 67 No refuge could save the hireling and slave From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave — And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. O thus be it ever when freemen shall stand Betwreen their loved homes and foul war's desolation, Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation. Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just, And this be our motto, "In God is our trust" — And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave While the land of the free is the home of the brave. — Francis Scott Key, 1814. O Beautifal for Spacious SUes Eatbhuhb Ln Bates S. A. Wakd . bMi • U • fnl for Bpa - ciona akiei. For am - ber , betra - ti - fal for pil - grim tefi Whose atem, im - S. bean - ti - fol for fas • roes proved In lib - er - 4. b«an • U - M for ps • triot draam Tbat aee* b« - For par - pie moon-lain maj • ea - tiea A - a Bireaa A thor- ongh-fare for free - dom jjeat A - strife, Who mors thaii aelf their conn - trj loved. And I Thine al • a - baa - tor cit - fee gleam Un • 100)

O Beautiful for Spacious Skis—Concluded

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I bove the cross the mer - cy dimmed by i^g^ rrr »=p»=ti L L fruit - ed plain! A - mer • i • eal A wil - der - ness! A- mer . i - ea! A more than life! A . mer . i - ca! A ha - man tears! A- mer . i - ca! A ^ m > ^ i : m

^» mer - i - ca! God shed His grace on mer • i - ca! God mend thine er - 'ry mer - i- ca! May God thy gold re mer - i- ca! God shed His grace on thee And crown thy flaw. Con - firm thy fine, Till all sue thee And crown thy

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i ^ good with broth • soul in self • cess be no - good with broth -

er-hood From sea con-trol. Thy lib b!e-nes8, And ev er-hood From sea i- to er 'ry to f

^

shin- ty gain shin- ing sea! in law! di - vine! ing sea! ^^ i -t

  • =*:

Uj-i—i. I lizzt — ' — r Fram "Fdlowafaip Hymns." Used by penaiasioii of Association Piess tnd Mn. S. A. Ward. ^ 101) Tribe

Rouser or Reveille jlli sj~^ s J ^j: S J: ji ^j: J j Ho, sleepers, a • rise! the sun's io the skies,The summer mist flies from the lake and the lea. The Red Gods do call: Ho, high, Hi-kers all, Come drink of the Life-cup you nev-er will see. f s ^ J J J jl ^^ S K- h ri =Z3g: •ni^ — 5^ Then blow ye winds high, or blow ye winds low. Or blow, ye wet S ^ J, J ^p east wind o - ver the sea. We'll face ye and fight, and 'y J J J a —'^J J. ^^J Ji. I laugh when you smite, For storm was the trainer that toughened the tree.

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j ' ^ ji J ' ^ ■ I I k Yo hoi a - rise, a -rise! A -rise, a-rise, yo ho - o! 102) 70 Woodcraft Mantutl for Boys Alouette Ftom "Social Activities," by Cheslcy, pub. by AssodaUon 103) Tribe Activities

Alouette is an unusually fine song for group singing. The idea is that of caressing a beautiful bird. A leader sings the verse up to end of '*je te plumerai la tete" and the group repeats this, running down scale. The soloist sings "et la tete" and the chorus repeats twice. All sing chorus. In the next verse the soloist uses "cou" and just before the chorus, adds to it the word used in the previous verse as: "et le cpu" response by crowd, then "et la tete" response from crowd, then on to chorus. After each verse the previous verse words are added until all the parts of the bird have been used. The Omaha Tribal Prayer Hannonized by PRor. J. C« Fzllmqrs. Slow. Grave. Solemn. J J ^ |g ^ ' ^ : JZ s i m Wa-koD'-da dhe • dhu . Wa-pa dhin a • ton - he. '^ ?5 g -9- ft /^ ^ r ± CoH Fed. ♦ ^ ^ S fs /^ d^ i 4^ " g b i g OiVa-kon-da dhe -dhu Wa-pa-dhin a • ton 'he. g .^.

^ 

^ <v p frp? I «  Ped. By permission from Alice C. Fletcher's Indian Story and Song.'- Translation: Father a needy one stands before thee; I that sing am he. 104) n Woodcraft Manual for Boys Hike Song Music by Job. S. Jones . Way down in yon-der yal-ley The mist is like a sea, . We wan-der by the wood-land That hangs np - on the hiil, 8. We gaze up - on the streamlet. As o'er the bridge we lean; Tho' the sun be scarce-ly ris - en, There is light e-nough for me. We hear the birds a- tan- ing, Their mom-ing ciar- ion shrill. We watch its hur-riedrip-plesy That catch the mom-ing sheen. l^^i^. JUMSM For be it ear - ly mom-ing, Or be it late at night; For hur - ried-ly a - wak- ing. From midst the dew - y spray ; Oh, the Woodcraft Boys are stalwart^ And the Woodcraft Girls are fair; Cheer - i - ly ring our foot-steps. Right, left, right! Cheer - i - ly now the black-bird. Whist-ling greets the day. And cheer -i -ly breathes around us. The bracing wood-land air. Ghobus For be it ear - ly mom-ing. Or be ii late at night. Cheer - i • ly ring our foot-steps, Bight, left, right. fe — ^— J N r- Qg^ ^ ^ ^ — y^ »: t t: ^ ^ i: J i eve- nings dusk -y shad-ows. In mom-ing ros • y light, ^ h h ^ t u — •■ l W ^ % ^ Cheer -i - ly ring our foot-steps. Right, left, right. From *' Untvenity of Toronto Song Book." F. Suckling &, Sons, Toronto. 105) Tribe Activities [ Lullaby (DtiHeaM to E.T.S.bs Frvneit Dmtnun.) Chippewa Cradle Song VHn-ter kOkd all our mirth. And the Fira - fUta ilaep. The Canoeist's Love Song OJIBWAY

Where eanitthoube, O ay ttittlrbcartt V/tttn caut uwu oc, u 

dan-day-^H. ah gak-mah st -h en - datt^y-akn, keep a-w»ke, Up on ariv-er I keep a-wake, ■eek for tou, Up on a riv - er I seek for you. mrsweeUieartr I walceandaeekthee.O Qmit . . . .1 my aweet-heirl nnisKon from Frederick R, Burton's "American Primitive Mu^," ,pUtii>n by Wm. Brewster Humphrey. 106) 74 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Death Song OfibuHxy Very moderate * J 1 f

4- ^j g --{g 

r r ' ¥- Mah-noo ne-naJk nin^ga - mah^Jah, moK-noo ne'nah, I am go - ing on a jour - ney Far and lone be - ^ f nin-ga - mak • jak. A- e • da-iui vin • I niit^a- ({« - yondthe Bet-ting son. To the Spir- it-land sow I am de •

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&£ ^ S Pit i"" ' r f ^ joA Mah'Uoo ne ' fiah ntn-^a mah ' Jah » neen, part - ing, In the trail made by my fore - fa - there, A ' ' da -na- v^tn - ^ nin-pa (fe... Jak,, To the Spir - it - land e - ter-nal I am go - Ing. ^ — ^ ? X "sK IT n From "American Primitive Music," by Frederick R. Burton. Adapted by Wm. Brewster Humphrey of the American Indian League. XJsea by special permission. 107) Tribe Activities Zon-zi-mon-de On tvmaiaiSrOKAliitC.Flilcktr'i "India* Sleryt^Jli'^ Omalui Spirited. JK. jtf, / = 152 narmoniied by Prof. J. Q. Filuiobb P^=^ m^ =!^ ^-nrn — 1 J--J- J^JiJ 1 •k ha Him that I.. we now

greet Give to 3 . him yd hoB.or - rtt^,^M^ML L MIL . LLll ^-m — 1 — 1 u u -J ■*^ ?^^-g-^.j^w^7?=rH did bring Wal-come to onr cooo-cU ring, f A 2.2.S.AA A ^ L p^li I rrl-r^cztftjife^i "t J LJ U !_l ~ > 108) 76 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Muje Bcah^foMi Muj - je muk - e - sin aw - yaw - yon mu j - je muk - e - sin aw - yaw - yon

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M^-^M^^ I Bt muj - y- muk • <? - sin aw - yaw • yon muj - je muk - e • sin aw • yaw • yon. , This Moccasin Song, "Worn out Moccasins I am Wearing," is from Fred- ) erick R. Burton's "American Primitive Music," 1909, by permission. . mther Thunder! Hiffc< t*n $j 'ni i IV i i' iJ. y. •• • ^» •~.> /*— ^— » — I ^^ jTw— ta — " ntc^rrrr: ^ I From "The Indians' Book," by Natalie Curtis; pub. Harper Bros., by special permission. 109) Stonn Qond &uike Dance Lone Hniit«r Caribon Dsace Dog Dance Animal Dance of Nana-bo-jou 110) 111) DANCmO John Ruskin surprised the worid some fifty years ago by his eloquent plea for dancing as a mental training. Our ^ucators have slowly accepted the idea and, some twenty years ago, began to seek in Europe for folk-dances that would furnish amusement combined with rhythmic exercise and the chance for dramatic expression. Many good dances were brought from England, Russia, and Hungary, etc., before we awakened to the fact that in this de- partment the richest of all lands to-day is our own country. There are more and better folk-dances in America than in any other country that we know of. There are scores of charming Indian folk-dances which the Woodcraft Boy would like to biow, a few of which are given here. They have been tried out many times and approved by leading educators. More than any others at present available, they contain the possibility of graceful movement, exercise, and dramatic expression. It is unfortunate that the crouch of one certain dance has been accepted by many of the public as the only position in the Indian dances, for it has blinded us to the real beauties of their typical performances. It is difficult for us to realize how much dancing meant to the Red Men. It figured in all their social and athletic life. The dance was a great public opportimity to either tell in pantomime historical facts or interpret ideas. The vital things of their everyday life, as well as their dramatic adventures, were pre- sented at the Council Ring through the dance. The chase, the things connected with their religion; love and hate, peace and war, were all set forth to music and movement at the Council Fire. The time most used for these dances is two-time; a heavy and light beat on the tom-tom, with or without the chant that especially belongs to each particular clance. The fundamental step is the two-step, which consists of a very short step and a short hop on each foot, with a sharp upward action of the knee. This was meant originally to jingle a string of bells or rattles that were worn on each knee. P 112) 8o Woodcraft Manual for Bp3rs The one-time and ^ree-time are less frequently used and are more difficult to do. The arms and body are swayed and freely used to express the dramatic story; always, of course, rhythmically. The Storm Cloud One of the best-known native dances is the Storm Cloud, the story of the Rising Wind and the Cloud done into a dance. The first time I saw it was at an Indian village on Lake Huron, when a tall, sturdy Indian did it with a buffalo robe. But it is used widely in the west, and the weight of the robe, which is the doud, is proportional to the strength of the dancer. It is danced by one boy using a white drape for the cloud. For a child this should be of canton flannel or muslin about two yards long and a yard wide. For a stronger person a heav- ier drape, even a white blanket is sometimes used. This dance needs a large circle and should not be attempted in a small room. It portrays the strong and rising wind pla3dng with a doud, beginning slowly but ending in a cydone when the dancer spins and shrieking falls flat, while the doud settles on his face. The music is chiefly drum, sometimes only drum. Trailer means the hands raised high and wide apart holding the doud so that it floats behind. The Dip consists in beading low to one side so that one hand points straight up, and one straight down, it is given first on one side then the other, the doud floating behind. The Eagle Swoop is given every six beats and it takes three oeats to do it beginning with the hands raised in the trailer, lower the left hand to near the chest, raise the right straight up but forward, swing both down to left, then by swinging the right hand round the head and both hands into trailing position the doud swings dear. After six more beats repeat at other side. The Flying Scud or Driving Cloud thus, hold one end of the drape in left hand tight against the right shoulder, the other end in the right hand with arm fully extended and level the drape tight between the two hands, then running very fast once around wave the right hand up and down so that the doud undulates. The Double Swoop is much like the Eagle Swoop, but the dancer turns face to the right when the left hand swings over, then 113) Tribe Activities 8i turns and faces the left as the bands change so that the right is up. In the Spin the cloud is held tight to the shoulder, as in Flying Scud once around is enough for each spin except the final. In the final, three or four spins will do with grand crescendo, time, etc., then with a scream the dancer drops, jerks the cloud toward his feet, back over his head, then sUghtty back so it settles over his face and body. While the drum is sufficient for the dance the effect is better if a lovf humming chant in correct time is kept up by the drum- mer. This should increase in volume, and in the chmax aU should give a high-pitched, prolonged shout while the drum beats a heavy tattoo. . Then all is still. Sometimes when necessary to shorten it the sth and 7th figures ace left out, but it always begins with the Walking Trailer and ends with the Spin. The exact and full scenario is as follows : (Each figure goes once around) st. Walking Trailer brisk march tune and. " " with side dip. " " " rd. Running Trailer double quick " th. " " with side dip. " " " th, Eagle Swoop, 6 beats to the trailer pause and 3 beats to the dip. th. Flymg Scud. th. Trailer and Double Eagle Swoop, 6 beats trailer and 3 beats for each swoop. Sth. Flying Scud, with a spin for each of the four Winds. 9th. Double Eagle Swoop without trailer, loth. Spin in centre, wind screams as the dancer drops fiat then dies. Dead Cahn. The Lone Hunter The Lone Hunter is a favorite for a single dancer. The r should be in white for the best effect and carry a light i-incb wooden shield on the left arm and a light six-foot of wood in the left band. The making of these is suffi- y shown in the cut. ells the story of a scout who went forth alone to hunt, but ng t^ shield as he may venture into the hui)ting grounds ith« tribe. 114) 82 Woodcraft Manual for Boys First the drum gives a long roll to notify the audience the scout is coming in, then three thumps for the scout to appear. He steps into the Ring, holding the spear high in one hand, and the shield in the other. He gives a loud shout then changes the spear to the left hand with the shield (he pats his mouth with the flat right hand to make the rolling call); then dances to the two-time (Zon-zi-mon-de or Muje Mukesin will do to accompany the drum) around the ring twice, showing X)flf, as this is supposed to be in the village, swinging the spear and buckler high in the air or clashing them together; making playful passes at the spectators, tossing back his long hair or feathers streaming behind--doing aU in graceful gesture to the music. This is the show oflf in the village. Next the dancer goes on the real hunt. Crouching somewhat now, shading his eyes with his hand on the shield, listening for every sound, peering here and there, and sometimes sticking the spear into things to pick them up for examination. Thus he goes once around to two-time music. Now, at the beginning of the fourth round, he stops and starts, he has found a trail and by his action must show that he has. The music now changes to slow march time. The Vs/oodtn ShizLd c= >»€a^ (o-fooT ^onf ^Tuf s o^ h-^ir ' ' ' tUM^MfcUAMMMAAMl biykdirtq two-step dance is ended. The dancer follows an imaginary track all around, picking up leaves and trying the wind or looking for helpful signs. When at length back to the starting point, the next act begins. Suddenly he descries a deer quietly feeding, unconscious of enemies, and is all tense excitement. Now he crawls up, keeping step to the march time, putting in all possible expres- sions to teU the story, until nearly withm throwing distance, he rises, makes a "stodger" or feint with the spear, then another. 115) Tribe Activities 83 ajid at the third or last (rising higher each time) finally is just about to let go when a noise out to one side suddenly attracts his attention. He turns quickly to realize that close at hand is a band of his tribal enemies and that he is in a trap. His ex- pression of triumph changes to fear. He shrinks to the ground and swiftly runs away till at the exit there he turns, and, fling- ing back a deficit ydl, shakes his spear at the foes and is lost to view. A long drum roll closes the scene. The D(^ Dance This is a Shoshoni celebration. A procession is formed. The leader carries a. bucket, a stool, or a basket upside donn, for a low stand. The next one carries a dog's skull, or something like one. We have iised a loaf of bread, provided with eyes and teeth, or a big puff ball. The next has a dish or a flat Indian basket or tray. The next two or three have feathers, and the rest have crackers or candies. The last is fixed up with a dog's mask and tail, and runs on alt-fours. The procession comes in dancing and barking to a two-time dance tune — goes once around. Then the leader puts down the stand. The skull is set on it, and the tray on the ground before. The rest sit in a half-drde in front. The leader then kneels down and addresses the skull thus: "Dog! In the days of our fathers you were the one who dragged the lodge poles from camp to camp. Without you, we could have had no comfortable place in which to sleep. So I will dance and sing in your honor to-night." He puts a feather in the dog's head, then dances his best dance, while the rest sing, "Yap-yap, Yap-yap, Yap-yap, Yow-w-w-o" in imitation of a dog barking on a rising scale, finishing with a long howl. The leader has now danced to the other end of the half- circle and sits down. The next comes and addresses the skull: "Dog! In times you were the one who guarded the camp at night. No >uld surprise us when you were on watch. Nothing make you betray us. So I will dance and sing in your to-night!" idda a feather and dances his best, while the rest "Yap" g chorus. Then he sits at the opposite end of the circle, next comes and says, perhaps, "DogI In the days 116) 84 Woodcraft Manual for Boys of our fathers you were the one who could follow the wounded deer. You made the hunting a success. So I will daQce and sing in your honor to-night." He adds a feather or a candy, and dances. (Yap, yap, as before.) The next says: "Dog! When I was a little pappoose, I wandered from the village and fell in the river. No one saw me. I should have been drowned, but you jumped in and pulled me out. So I will dance and sing in your honor to- night." He adds his contribution and dances. The next says: "Dog! You were the one who cleaned up the camp, so we were not troubled with flies." Others thank the dog for finding the lost children, for giving alarm when an enemy approached, for killing a rattler, for finding the lost medicine bag, etc. Then the last one, the boy dog, comes up and barks at the head. Finally, the leader resumes, saying: "Yes, Dog! You were the one that dragged the lodge poles. You were the one that found the wounded deer, etc. And best of all, first, last, and all the time, you were our faithful friend, and all you asked in return was a bite to eat and a place to Ue down. And so long as the blue sky is above the green grass you will be the friend of the prairie children. Then, when at last we cross over the great river, and see behind the Divide, we hope we shall find awaiting us our old friend, the Dog, that we may take up our friendship again, and continue on and on in the good country where no white man or smallpox ever comes." Then they pass around the dish and eat the crackers and candies; offering things to the dog, and honoring him as much as possible with a variety of stage "business." Finally, all go off, carrying the various things and barking as they came. Ojibwa Snake Dance Select a good dancer for leader. All form line, holding hands, carefully graded so the smallest is last. Then, dancing in step to the music, they set out in a line, follow-my-leader style, doubling the line on itself, and evoluting around the fire. Sometimes the dancers face alternately — that is, all the even numbers in the line look one way and the odd another. A good finish is to curl in a tight spiral around the head, when the tail boy mounts on the back of the one before him and shakes a rattle, like a rattler rattling on its coil. 117) Tribe Activities The Caribou Dance

The easiest of our campfire dances to learn, and the best for quick presentation, is the Caribou Dance. It has been put on for pubUc performance after twenty minutes' rehearsing, with those who never saw it before; and it does equally well for indoor gymnasium or for campfire in the woods. In the way of fixings for this, you need four pairs of horns and four tails. Real deer horns may be used, but they are scarce and heavy. It is better to go out where you can get a few crooked limbs of oak, cedar, hickory, or apple tree; and cut eight pair, as near like a, b, c, in the cut as possible, each about two feet long and one inch thick at the butt. Peel these; point the square ends of the branches, then lash them in pairs, thus (d). A pair, of course, is needed for each caribou. These are held in the hand and above the head, or in the hand resting on the head. The tails are made each out of one third of a flat barrel hoop of wood. At one end of the hoop make four holes in pairs, an inch apart; thus (see/ in cut). These are for cords that pass over the wearer's belt and through the hoop. The hoop is then wrapped with white muslin and finished with a 118) 86 Woodcraft Manual for Boys tuft of white muslin strips on the end. The tail finished looks like (g), and is stuck inside the wearer's belt, which goes through the two cord loops (A), shows a way of fastening on the tail with cord only. The four caribou are best in white. Three or four hunters are needed. They should have bows but no arrows. The Medicine Man should have a drum and be able to sing the Muje Mukesin, as given, or other Indian dance tune. One or two per- sons who can howl like wolves should be sent off to one side, and another that can yell like a lynx or a panther on the other side, well away from the ring. Otherwise the Medicine Man or leader can do the imitations. Now we are ready for THE DANCE OF THE WHITE CARIBOU The Medicine Man begins by giving three thumps on his drum to call attention; then says in a loud, singing voice: "The Caribou have not come on our himting grounds for three snows. We need meat. Thus only can we bring them back, by the big medicine of the Caribou Dance, by the power of the White Caribou." He rolls his drum, then in turn faces each of the Winds, beckoning, remonstrating, and calling them by name: Kitchi- nodin (West); Keeway-din (North); Wabaninodin (East); Shawani-nodin (South). Calling last to the quarter whence the caribou are to come, finishing the call with a long Ko — Kee — Na. Then as he thumps a slow single beat the white caribou come in at a stately pace timed to the drum. Their heads are high, and they hold the horns on their heads, with one hand, as they proudly march around. After going round once in a sun cirde (same way as the sun), they go each to a comer. The drum stops; all four approach to salute the great mystery in the middle, the fire. They bow to it together, heads low, tails high, uttering a long bellow. Then they circle once, close to the fire; stop on opposite sides of it, facing outward; march each to a comer or compass point; and then bow or honor that windf bellowing long. Now the Medicine Man begins any good dance song and beats double time. The caribou dance around once in a circle. The music stops. The first and second, and third and fourth, close in combat. They lower their heads, lock homs held safely away from the head, lash tails, snort, kick up the dust, and dance around each other two or three times. The music begins again, and they circle once. 119) Tribe Activities 87 The music stops. Now the first and fourth and second and third lock horns and fight. After a round or so the music begins again and they circle, dancing as before. Now the howling of wolves is heard in the distance, from the fellows already posted. The caribou rush toward that side and face it in a row, threat- ening, with horns low, as they snort, stamp, and kick up the dust. The wolf-howling ceases. The caribou are victorious. They turn away and circle once to the music, holding their heads high. The woif-howling, panther -yelling (or other menacing sound) is now heard in the other direction. Again the caribou line up and defy it. When it ceases, they dance proudly around, heads up, chests out as they step, for they have conquered every foe. But a band of himters appears, crawling flat on their breasts and canying bows. They crawl half aroimd the ring, each tell- ing those behind by signs, "Here they are; we have foimd them," "Four big fellows," "Come on," etc. When they come oppo- site the caribou, the first hunter lets oflf a short **yelp." The caribou spring to the opposite side of the ring, and then line up to defy this new noise; but do not understand it, so gaze in fear. The hunters draw their bows together, and make as though each let fly an arrow, then slap their hands to make a loud "crack." The first caribou drops, the others turn in fear and run around about half of the ring, heads low, and not dancing; then they dash for the timber. The hunters run forward with yells. The leader holds up the horns. All dance and yell aroimd the fallen caribou and then drag it off the scene. The Medicine Man says: "Behold, it never fails; the Caribou dance brings the Caribou. It is great medicine. Now there is meat in the lodge." The Animal Dance of Nana-bo-jou For this we need a Nana-bo-jou; that is, a grown-up who can drum and sing. He has a drum and drumstick, and a straw or paper club; also two goblins, these are good-sized boys or girls wearing ugly masks, or at least black hoods with two eye holes, made as hideous as possible; and any number of children, from three or four up, for animals. If each has the attributes of some bird or beast, so much the better. 120) 88 Woodcraft Manual for Boys First, Nana-bo-jou is seen chasiog the children around the out* side of the circle, trying to catch one to eat; but failing, thinks he'll try a trick and he says, "Stop, stop, my brothers. Why should we quarrel? Come, let's hold a council together and I will teach you a new dance. " The animals whisper together and the coyote comes forwardj barks, then says: "Nana-bo-jou, I am the Coyote. The animals say that they will come to council if you will really make peace and play no tricks. "Tricks! "says Nana-bo-jou "I only want to teach you the new songs from the South. " Then all the animals troop in and sit in a circle. Nana-bo-jou takes his drum and begins to sing, . " New songs from the South, my brothers. Dance to the new songs. " Turning to one, he says: "Who are you and what can you dance?" The answer is, "I am the Beaver (or whatever it is) and I can dance the Beaver Dance." "Good! Come and show me how." So the Beaver dances to the music, slapping the back of his flat right hand, up and imder his left hand for a tail, holding up a stick in both paws to gnaw it, and lumbering along in time to the music at the same time imitating the beaver's waddle. Nana-bo-jou shouts: "Fine! That is the best Beaver Dance I ever saw. You are wonderful; all you need to be perfect is wings. Wouldn't you like to have wings so you could fly over the tree-tops like the eagle? " " Yes,*' says the Beaver. "I can make strong medicine and give you wings, if all the animals will help me," says Nana-bo-jou. " Will you? " "Yes," they all cry. "Then all close yoiu: eyes tight and cover them with your paws. Don't look until I tell you. Beaver, dose your eyes and dance very fast and I will make magic to give you wings." All close and cover their eyes. Nana-bo-jou sings very loudly and, rushing on the Beaver, hits him on the head with the straw club. The Beaver faUs dead. The two goblins run in from one side and drag off the body. Then Nana-bo-jou shouts: "Look, look, now. See how he 121) Tribe Activities 89 flies away! See, there goes the Beaver over the tree-tops." All look as he points and seem to see the Beaver going. Different animals and birds are brought out to dance their dances and are killed as before. Then the Crow comes out, hopping, flopping, cawing. Nana-bo-jou looks at him and says: "You are too thin. You are no good. You don't need any more ^ngs," and so sends him to sit down. Then the Coyote comes out to do the Coyote Dance, imitating Coyote, etc.; but he is very suspicious and, in answer to the ques- tions, sajrs, "No; I don't want wings. The Great Spirit gave me good legs, so I am satisfied " ; then goes back to his seat. Next the Deer, the Sheep, etc., come out and are killed; while all the rest are persuaded that the victims flew away. But the Coyote and the Loon have their doubts. They danced in their turns, but said they didn't want any change. They are satisfied as the Great Spirit made them. They are very slow about hiding their eyes. At last, they peek and realize that it is all a trap and the Loon shouts: Nana-bo-jou is killing us! It is all a trick ! Fly for your lives I " As they all rim away, Nana-bo- jou piu-sues the Loon, hitting him behind with the club, which is the reason that the Loon has no tail and has been lame behind ever since. The Loon shouts the Loon battle-cry, a high-pitched quaver- ing lul44-l-^Hho and faces Nana-bo- jou; the animals rally around the Loon and the Coyote to attack the magician. All point their fingers at him shouting "Wakankan Seecha" (or Black Magic). He falls dead in the circle. They bury him with brandies, leaves, or a blanket, and all the animals do their dances around him. Before beginning the story of the dance should be told to the audience. Books Recommended Folk Dances and Singing Games, by Elizabeth Burchenal. Pub- lished by G. Schirmer. $i .50 Indian Games and Dances, by Alice Fletcher. Published by C. C. Bir- chard & Co., Boston. $1.00 PLAYS, PAGEANTS, AND MASQUES The Peace Pipe Ceremony The Medicine Man, standing in front of the ready laid fire, opens Council thus: '^Neetah Kola Nayhoonp Omnee-chee-yay 122) go Woodcraft Manual for Boys nee-chopi — Hear me, my friends, we are about to hold a Coim- cil. "Now light we the Council Fire after the manner of the Forest Children, not in the way of the white man, but — even as Wakdnda himself doth Ught his fire — ^by the rubbing together of two trees in the storm wind, so cometh forth lie sacred fire from the wood of the forest." (He uses the drill; the smoke comes, the flame bursts forth.) "Now know we that Wakonda, whose dwelling is above the Thimder-bird, whose messenger is the Thunder-bird, hath been pleased to smile on his children, hath sent down the sacred fire. By this we know he will be present at our Council, that his wisdom will be with us. "This is a Council of Peace, so Ught we first the Pipe of Peace." (Kneeling at the fire he lights the pipe. As soon as it is going, he Mts the pipe grasped in both hands, with the stem toward the sky, saying): To Wakonda; that his wisdom be with us. Hay-oan-kee-ya. Noofirway. (All answer): Noon-way. (Amen, or this is our prayer.) To Maka /na, Mother Earth, that she send us food, Hay- oon-kee-ya. Noon-way. (All answer): Noon-way. To Weeyo-peata, the Sunset Wind, that he come not in his strength upon us. (Then blows smoke and holds the stem to the west.) To Wazi-yaiay the Winter Wind, that he harm us not with his cold. (Pipe as before.) To Wee-yo-hinyan-paUiy the Sunrise Wind, that he trouble us not with his rain. (Pipe as before.) To Okaga, the Hot Wind, that he strike us not with his fierce heat. (Pipe as before.) Then the Medicine Man stands holding the pipe in one hand and proclaims aloud: "Now with the Blessing of Wakonda and respite from the Tah-tee-yay To-pa, we may deal with busi- ness of gravest import, doubting notlung, for wisdom from above is with us." Books Recommended The following books will be found of great value in the putting on of Plays, Pageants, and Masques: Plays of the Pioneers, Constance D'Arcy Mackay. Harpers. $i. 123) Tribe Activities gi SoNO Of Hiawatha, words by Longfellow, dnmatintton by Florence HolbiDok. Published by Houghton, Mifflin Co. I.is Hiawatha's Wedhing Feast (Canbibi), words by Longfellow, music by S. Coleridge-Tayloi. Published by Novello & Co. $.75 HouDAV Plavb, Marguerite Merington. Duffield. (1.35. 124) 125) CAMPFIRE STORIES AND POEMS Road to Fairyland Gitch-e 0-kok-o-hoo The Fairy Lamps The Corn-smut Girl Origin of the Bluebird The First Gang Twin Stars The Seven Swans How Men Found the Great Spirit 126) 127) CAIXPFIKE STORIES AND POEMS The Road to Fairyland* Do you seek the road to Fairy- land? Ill tell it's easy, quite. Wut till a yellow moon gets up O'er purpl^seas by night, And gilds a smning pathway That is sparUing diamond bright. Then, if no evil power be nigh To thwart you, out of spite, And if you know the very words To cast a spell of might. You get upon a thistledown. And, if the breeze is right, You sail away to Fairyl^d ^ong this track of light. The Fairy Lands' There was once a little bare-legged brown-limbed boy wiio spent all his time in the woods. He loved the woods and ail that was in them. He used to look, not at the flowers, but deep down into them, and not at the singing bird, but into its eyes, to its little heart ; and so he got an insight better than most others, and he quite gave up collecting birds' eggs. But Uie woods were full of mysteries. He used to hear little bursts of song, and when he came to the place he could find no

  • Sm Footnote p. 98.

128) 96 Woodcraft Manual for Boys bird there. Noises and movements would just escape him. In the woods he saw strange tracks, and, one day, at length, he saw a wonderful bird making these very tracks. He had never seen the bird before, and wovdd have thought it a great rarity had he not seen its tracks everywhere. So he learned that the woods were full of beautiful creatures that were skilful and quick to avoid him. One day, as he passed by a spot for the hundredth time, he found a bird's nest. It must have been there for long, and yet he had not seen it; and so he learned how blind he was, and he exclaimed: "Oh, if only I could see, then I might understand these things! If only every bird would wear over its nest this evening a Uttle lamp to show me! " The sun was down now ; but all at ojice there was a soft light on the path, and in the middle of it the brown boy saw a Little Brown Lady in a long robe, and in her hand a rod. She smiled pleasantly and said: " Little boy, I ai8 the Fairy of the Woods. I have been watching you for long. I like you. You seem to be different from other boys. Your request shall be granted." Then she faded away. But at once the whole landscape twinkled over with wonderful little lamps — ^long lamps, short lamps, red, blue, and groups; wherever he looked were lamps — twinkle, twinkle, twinkle, here and everywhere, imtil the forest shone like the starry sky. He ran to the nearest, and there, surely, was a bird's nest. He ran to the next; yes, another nest. And here and there each diflferent kind of lamp stood for an- other kind of nest. A beautiful purple blaze in a low tangle caught his eye. He ran there, and found a nest he had never seen before. It was full of purple eggs, and there was the rare bird he had seen but once. It was (Wanting the weird song he had often heard but never traced. But the eggs were the marvelous things. His old egg-collecting instinct broke out. He reached forth to clutch the wonderful prize, andr—in an instant all the lights went out. There was nothing but the black woods about him. Then on the pathway shone again the soft light. It grew brighter, till in the middle of it he siaw the Little Brown Lady — the Fairy of the Woods. But she was not smil- ing now. Her face was stem and sad as she said: "I fear I set you over-high. I thought you better than the rest. Keep this in mind: "Who reverence not the lamp of life can never see its light." Then she faded from his view. 129) Tribe Activities 97 The Orie^ of the Bluebird* Ninna-bo-Jou, the Sun-god, was sleeping his winter's sleep on the big island just above the thunder-d^ that men call Niagara. Four moons ba,d waned, but still he slept. The frost draperies of his couch were gone; his white blanket was burned into holes; he turned over a Uttle. Then the ice on the river cracked like near thunder. When he turned again it began to slip over the big beaver-dam of Niagara, but still he did not awake. The great Er-6eaver in his pond flapped his tail, and the waves rolled away to the shore and set the ice heaving, cracking, and groaning, but Ninna-bo-jou slept. Then the Ice-demons pounded the shore of the island with their clubs. They pushed back the whole river-flood till the channel was dry, then let it rush down like the end of all things, and they shouted together: "Ninna-bo-jou! Ninna-bo-joul Niima-bo-joul" But still he slept calmly on. Then came a soft, sweet voice, more gentle than the mating turtle of Miami. It was in the air, but it was nowhere, and yet it was in the trees, in the water, and it was in Ninna-bo-jou, too. He felt it, and it awoke him. He sat up and looked about Hb white blanket was gone; only a few tatters of it were to be seen in the shady places. In the snowy spots the shreds of the fringe with its beads had taken root and were growing into little flowers with beady eyes. The small voice kept crying: "Awake; the Spring is coming! " Ninna-bo-jou said: "little voice, where are you? Come here." But the little voice, bemg everywhere, was nowhere, and could not come at the hero's call. So he said: "Little voice, you are nowhere because you have no place to Uve in; I will make you a house." So Ninna-bo-jou took a curl of birch bark and made a little wigwam and because the voice came from the skies he pamted the wigwam with blue mud, and to show that it came from the Sunland he painted a red sun on it. On the floor he spread a scrap of his own white blanket, then for a fire he breathed into parkof life, and said: "Here, little voice, is your wigwam." ittle voice entered and took possession, but Ninna-bo-jou jreathed the spark of life into it. The smoke-vent wings

to move and to flap, and the little wigwam turned into a 

if ul Bluebird with a red sun on its breast and shirt of white. ' it flew, but every Spring it comes, the Bluebird of the

Footnote p. q8.

130) qS Woodcraft Manual for Boys Spring. The voice still dwells in it, and we feel that it has lost nothing of its earliest power when we hear it cry: "Awake, the Spring is coming! " The Twin Stars* Two-Bright-Eyes went wandering out To chase the Whippoorwill; Two-Bright-Eyes got lost and left Our teepee — oh, so still! Two-Bright-Eyes was lifted up To sparkle in the skies And look like stars — ^but we know well That that's our lost Bright-Eyes. She is looking for the camp; She Would come back if she could ; She is peeping thro' the tree-tops For the teepee in the wood. The Gitch-e 0-kok-o-hoo* After the Great Spirit had made the world and the creatures in it, he made the Gitch-e 0-kok-o-hoo. This was like an Owl, but bigger than anything else alive, and his voice was like a river plunging over a rocky ledge. He was so big that he thought he did it all himself, and was puflfed up. The Blue Jay is the mischief-maker of the woods. He is very smart and impudent; so one day when the Gitch-e 0-kok-o-hoo was making thunder in his throat, the Blue Jay said: "Pooh, Gitch-e 0-kok-o-hoo, you don't call that a big noise! You should hear Niagara; then you would never twitter again." Now Niagara was the last thing the Manitou had made; it never ceases to utter the last word of the Great Spirit in creating it: "Forever! Forever! Forever!" But Gitch-e 0-kok-o-hoo was nettled at hearing his song called a "twitter," and he said: "Niagara, Niagara! Fm sick of hearing about Niagara. I will go and silence Niagara for always." So he flew to Niagara and the Blue Jay snickered and followed to see the fun.

  • This and the preceding four stories and poems are from Woodmyth

and Fable/' Ernest Thompson Seton. Acknowledgment to Century Co. 131) Tribe Activities

When they came to Niagara where it thundered down, the Gitch-e 0-kok-o-hoo began bawling to drown the noises of it, but could not make himself beard. " Wa-wa-wa," said the Gitch-e O-kok-o-hoo, with great effort and only for a minute. " WA-WA-WA- WA," said the river, steadily, easily, and for- ever. "Wa-wa-wa!" shrieked Gitch-e O-kok-o-hoo; but it was so utterly lost that he could not hear it himself, and he began to feel small; and he felt smaller and smaller, until he was no bigger than a sparrow, and his voice, instead of being like a great cata- ract, became like the dropping of water, just a little Tink-tank-tink, Tink-tank-tink. And this is why the Indians give to this smallest of the Owls the name of " the water-dropping bird." When the top is wider than the root, the tree goes down. The Story of Corn-smut Girl f Long A| one of the Hopi villages was a handsome young man ' Rainbow Youth. Every day before sunrise he practised ig, and made offerings to the Sun and to the other gods, he might become strong and swift. During the day and light he remained in the house. ie day he announced that he would marry the girl whose meal was ground so fine that it would stick to a large shell , . ,ing on hb wall Then all the girb began to grind meal, lAMfto make it just as fine as they could. For all ^e maidens ed greatly to marry this handsome young man. lie ^ter another they came to the home of Rainbow Youth threw their meal against the shell. But it always fell to loor, and the maidens, one by one, would go away ashamed. jw in this village Uved Com-smut Girl, and she was dark- led and dirty. Her brothers teased her, asking why she

■ aot marry Rainbow Youth, and she said she would try. 

" ]they laughed and said they did not think Rainbow Youth d keep u& promise if her meal should stick to the shell, "len Com-smut Girl had her meal ready, she took it in a

t to the young man's house. He spoke kindly, and asked

} enter and sit down, lenhe said, "What is it you wish?" 132) loo Woodcraft Manual for Boys "I have come for you," she answered. "Very well," said Rainbow Youth. He took a handful of her meal and threw it against the large shell, and it stuck fast. "Good!" said he. "It is my own word. I have agreed to marry the girl whose meal stuck to my shell. Your meal has done so. Therefore I go with you." So the two started to the home of Corn-smut Girl. For when a Hopi man takes a wife, he lives with her family. The brothers and the mother of Corn-smut Girl were sur- prised that the handsome youth had married such an ugly girl, but they were glad to welcome him into the. family. When the evening mealtime drew near. Corn-smut Girl went into another room. Soon a beautiful young woman came out and sat with the others to eat. Rainbow Youth wondered why his wife did not join them, but he asked no questions. As bedtime came on, his brothers-in-law explained to him that this beautiful young woman was his bride. Corn-smut Girl. Her dark, smutty skin was really only a mask which she wore during the day. Every day she wore this mask, but at night she removed it and showed her true self to her family. For in truth she was not an ordinary person, but a goddess! Now the girls who had wished to marry Rainbow Youth were angry and jealous, and they made fun of the young man and his dirty bride. But he did not care, for he knew that his wife was resdly more beautiful than any of them. After several years had passed. Corn-smut Girl said that since she was a goddess, it was not right for her to live among mortal people. So with all her family she one day disappeared into the ground. And in the place where she went into the earth the Hopi now pray to Corn-smut Girl as a goddess, begging her to send them good crops of com. The First Gang From "Around the Fire," by H. M. Burr, Association Press. The years went by and Om and Sut were almost men. They had trapped the smaller animals, now and then shooting a deer with their arrows or driving one into a pitfall. But now they aspired to bigger game. They wanted to sit with the men about the campfire, to be treated by the women, and especially . ;by the girls of their own age, as if they were grown up. And • *i^ere was just one way to demonstrate to the satisfaction of 133) Tribe Activities loi all that they had arrived at man's estate, and that was to prove themselves hunters strong enough and cunnmg enough to match their wits and weapons against the strength and fury of the bear and the wild buffalo. They spent long days in the woods together planning and contriving- They provided themselves with bows of the strong- est and arrows of the sharpest, with saw-edged knives, lances, and stone axes. For hours they shot at a mark, taking turns and criticising each other's shooting and handling of the bow. Sometimes the men found them and smiled at them indulgently. But the women and girls laughed and jibed at the boys and pretended to be very much alarmed at the idea of two smooth- faced boys going hunting alone in the woods. That made the boys work all the harder and keep more and more by themselves. Now in a valley, some distance away, there was a herd of wild buffaloes, the most dreaded of all the wild beasts. The bear was ugly only when hungry or wounded. The leopards rarely atta^ed men in the daylight and in the open. Even the wolves did not like to fight men unless they could take them at a disadvantage. But tibe buffalo bulls seemed to have in their breasts the concentrated fury of all the savage creatures of the wild. They feared nothing. Their thick hide and powerful muscles defended their vital parts from the arrows and spears of men. They would charge at sight, and when their keen eyes did not detect their enemies their sensitive nostrils did. The only possibility of escape was to climb the nearest tree, and sometimes the mad bull would lie in wait at the foot of the tree till the man dropped from cold or exhaustion. Many men had been already killed. Even the boldest and the hardiest rarely ventured near the buffalo valley. The boys were warned from it as from sure death. For that reason, perhaps, it had a peculiar fa^ination for Om and Sut They talked about it and dreamed about it. They climbed hills from which they could look down into it. They never forgot the tune when Uiey first saw the herd in the dis- tance, the bulls feeding on the outside, the cows and calves on the inside. Now and then some young bull would get too bold and rouse the anger of one of the kings of the heid and there would be a terrible battle. When the dust hid the fighters from the boys' sight, they could hear the terrible bellowings. As time went on, buffalo valley had a greater and greater attraction for the boys. They ventured nearer and nearer. They lay on the bluffs overlooking the valley and boasted to each other how they would kill a bullock and carry it back to 134) I02 Woodcraft Manual for Boys their cave homes; and they imagined how envious the men and boys who had been afraid would be and how humble the girls. But one day they ventured a little too near, and a stray buUock caught sight of the boys and immediately charged. Each boy climbed a tree with a swiftness which did credit to his bringing up, and there they stayed hour after hour during the long day, the bull watching them from blood-red eyes. Now and then he would stroll away to browse and drink, but at the slightest movement would dash back to the foot of the trees where the boys roosted. As night came on the boys grew colder and colder and hungrier and hungrier. They remembered the men who had gone into the buffalo valley and never came back, and they wished they were at home, even though the girls did laugh at them and they had to sit back of the men at the fire. Finally they escaped, but by good fortune, not by any prowess of their own. A great bear came out of the wooid, looking for something to fill his empty stomach. He had missed a deer as it came to drink. He was tired of the roots and ants' nests. He wanted meat — good red meat and plenty of it. When he saw the bullock, he hesitated for a moment, for big as he was he usually passed bulls by; a fight with one was such uncertain business, and even if he killed the bull the appetite was likely to be killed, too. But the bear was very big and the bull not very large, and he was out of sorts and he hesitated too long. The bull spied him and charged instantly. The bear stood up on his hind feet. As the bull struck him, Bruin gave him a blow with his great paw which would have broken the neck of any other animal, and buried his great fangs in his shoulder. But the bull's sharp horns pierced the chest of the bear and bore him back to the ground. Deeper and deeper the cruel horns reached, while 'the claws of the bear tore great strips from the bull's flanks. It was a terrible spectacle, but the boys were too near to enjoy it. Quick as a flash they sUd down and ran up the cliffs above them like two monkeys. At the top they stopped, panting for breath, and looked down into the valley. The air was filled with terrible roarings and bellowings. In the dim light they could see a huge brown mass rolling back and forth below them. Now they thought the bear had won and now the bull. By and by the dark settled down, and nothing could be seen, the sounds grew fainter, and finally all was still. The boys did not dare to go through the woods in the dark, so they found a bed of leaves and lay down where they were. But there was 135) Tribe Activities 103 not much sleeping that night. A leopard's shrill cry woke them from their first doze; the baying of wolves awakened them from the next; and when a great owl gave his weird wail just above their heads, they gave it up. The crackling of twigs told them that they were being himted by some night prowler. In the dark and with no weapons — for they had dropped everything but their knives — they were at the mercy of any wild beast which discovered their hiding place. Then Om remembered the fire which had saved his life when a child, the fire which no animal was bold enough to come near. Could he make a fire. The moss upon which they lay was dry. A rough flake of flint which had not been shaped was in his skin pouch and his flint knife was in his belt. He had seen his father call the Red Spirit from the moss by strik- ing flints together. Once or twice he had succeeded in doing it himself, but it was no easy task. StUl there was nothing for it but to try. With trembling hands he gathered the driest of the moss into a Uttle pile and pulled together some dry twigs. Sut got on his knees ready to blow the smallest spark into flame. Om took the flint flake in his left band and struck it a glancing blow with his knife. A dull spark flew, but did not Ught the moss. Again and again he tried, but in vain. Meanwhile, soft but ominously heavy footfalls came nearer and nearer. It was now or never. In desperation he struck a terrific blow which shattered the knife and brought the blood to his battered hand. He saw nothing, but Sut suddenly stooped lower and blew gently, and then more strongly. A tiny glow appeared, a wisp of smoke and then a red flame. Om crouched by the fire, exhausted, speechless, and helpless; but Sut skilfully fed the growing flames till they leaped high, and the hunter in the dark leaped away with great bounds into the deep woods. All night the boys sat by the fire, hungry and exhausted, but happy and safe. In the morning they looked down on the open spot below them which had been the scene of the terrible fight of the night before; and there, still locked together by horn and claw and jaw, were the bear and the bull, both dead and both victorious. A fox came out of the brush and sniffed at the pool of blood in which they lay; a flock of red-eyed buzzards hovered in the air above and finally aUghted on a dead tree near by. The boys were looking with mingled awe and delight at the bodies of their savage foes of the day before, when a brilliant thought came to Sut. "Om! The homs and claws! We will take them to the camp, and who will laugh at us then? " No 136) 104 Woodcraft Manual for Boys sooner thought than done. Down the cliff they dambered, forgetful of everything but the coveted trophies. At the foot they found their weapons where they had dropped them. The fox skulked away, the buzzards screamed and flapped to a little more distant tree, while the boys hacked off with rude knife and stone bludgeon one of the bear's claws and the horns of the bull. Then they fled up the cliff again and started hot foot for home. As they approached the stream by which they lived, Sut began to hasten, but Om went slower and slower. "Hurry, you snail," said Sut, "the women and girls will be poimding the meal and making ready for the men to eat and they will see by these that we are not boys to be laughed at." "But," said Om, "we did not kill them; we ran away." "Oh! but we don't need to tell aU that," said Sut; "hurry up, hurry up!" But Om would not hurry. He went more and more slowly and finally sat down to think it out. The temptation was a very strong one. Perhaps all they would need to do would be to be silent, and it would be very pleasant to be treated like mighty hunters and men. But the trouble was that deep down in their hearts they would know that they had not proved it. Then a thought came to Om which settled his imcertainty. If it had not been for Odin who sent the bear to fight the bull, and sent the Red One at the prayer of the flints to drive away the leopard, they would not be here and there would be no story to tell. Then he remembered that his father had said that the Great One loved truth as he loved light. He turned to Sut with all his indecision gone. "We will tell the truth! We will not win the man-right by telling a lie." Sut grumbled a little, but yielded, as he always did to the stronger will of Om. When the boys came to the river bank there was a great shout, and all went out to meet them, for the villagers had grown anxious at their long absence. And they were pleased that no one laughed at them, not even the girls. As the bo)rs were being fed, they told the story of their adventures amid the eager questionings of the home group. The horns of the bull and the paws of the bear were passed about, and the older m«a told how large the bear must have been from the size of the paw. They then told stories of bears which they had seen and fights of many kinds in the forest till Om and Sut were forgotten. But Om was pleased to notice that his father looked at him with quiet approval in his eyes, and he heard him say to Oma: "Our son will be a great hunter, for his feet are swift andhis hands are strong, and his head is chief over them all,, jand^i n^are 137) Tribe Activities lo; than that, he is beloved by the Great One." And Om was glad. For a while the boys brooded over their adventure and kept away from the buffalo valley. But the horns and the great claws kept reminding them, and ag^ all their hunting trips seemed to lead toward the dangerous valley. Oma had tried to make Om promise that he would not go there again, but Ai^ had said: "Do not make him promise. He must prove his man-right as we all have done, and the Great One loves him." Finally Om said to Sut: "We cannot escape the call of the death valley. Something tells me that we will either leave our bones there or win our man-right. I have been thinking it over, and it seems to me that one of the reasons why so many men have lost theh lives there is that they have not used their brains and they have not worked together. Why shouldn't we be the first to do it? My idea is this. We will get ti^ether ten boys of our own age and we will have only those who will promise under the sacred oak tree to hunt tt^ether and not each for hun- self . Then we will choose one who shall be to the others as the head is to the hands and feet. All shall obey him. When we have learned to work together, we will go where the cliffs which overlook the buffalo valley draw together, and we will pile great stones where a push will send them craving down. Then we will keep watch, and some time when the wind blows up the valley and the herd is well up to where the cliffs are too steep to climb, where they come together like two streams, we will pray to the Fire Spirit and take burning brands from the fire and light the tall dead grass at the opening of the valley. Six will start from one side and six from the other, and we must outrun the deer. The buffalo will run from the wall of fire farther and farther up into the narrow part of the valley, and when they are bunched together like fish in a trap we will hurl down great stones and shoot our arrows, and there will be meat enough for all the men of the north country, and every cave shall have its buffalo skm at the going m." So Om and Sut got the other boys ti^ether with great secrecy, and every one was made to take die oath of loyalty to the gang ' ;r the sacred oak. And Sut was chosen chief, because he the best talker. Om could make the plans and carry them In the working of the thing Sut did most of the talking, he always kept his eye on Om and did what Om wanted, when it came to doing things Om was leader, jr weeks the clan scouted the valley, often having hair- dth escapes when they ventured too near. It seemed as if 138) zo6 Woodcraft Manual for Boys the wind would never be in the right direction when the herd was at the small end of the runway. But the delay was a g<x>d thing. The boys learned to hang together and obey the conunands of their chief. One boy nearly lost his life by disobe3dng, but the lesson was learned, and the gang himg together as no boys had ever done since the man-story began. At last the day came when the lookout reported the herd well up in the narrow end of the valley and the wind blowing in. Nothing was said, but by common consent Om was leader for the day. He sent Sut and five other boys to the south, while he and five more went to the north. Each gang was to build a fire where the smoke would not blow up the valley, and dry torch sticks were made ready to light At midday^ when a ^ear driven into the ground cast no shadow, Om shot an arrow high into the air. Each boy seized a torch from the fire and dashed across the mouth of the valley, lighting the dry grass as he ran. It was a wild rush. Never had the boys run as they ran that day. In the years after, they told the tale to their children and grandchildren and they set the pace faster with each telling. In less time than it takes to tell, the boys had spread their net of fire and the wind was drawing it for them. When the boys reached the cliffs, the frightened herd was al- ready crowding up into the narrow end of the wedge-shaped valley, fleeing in terror from the pursuing wall of fire. Then the boys rolled the great stones down upon the seething mass below them, shooting their arrows till the supply was exhausted. The maddened buffaloes trampled on and gored each other until scarcely more than half the herd escaped aUve. The young hunters, exhausted but triumphant, danced along the ledges, filling the air with savage yells. The next thing was to send word to the scattered homes. Three boys were left to keep watch, and the rest ran as if nmning a race to carry the news of the feast that was waiting for all who would come. Before night every man, woman, and child within a distance of twenty imles was on the spot. Old suspicions were foigotten and old grudges ignored, for the time being, at least. A great fire was built, and the men stripped the hides from the dead buffaloes and the women rolled them up to carry away for tan- ning. One of the largest of the bulls was dragged to the fire and roasted whole. Far into the night they worked and feasted. Finally, as they stretched themselves about the fire, exhausted but satisfied, Ang spoke: I have seen the Cold Spirits come and go many times, but 139) Tribe Activities 107 I have never seen so many men together as now. Men have not been like the wolves, which hunt in packs, or like the bufiPaloes, which feed in droves, or like the ducks and geese, which come and go in flocks. Each man, with his mate, has lived apart like the bear or the lion. There have been fear and hatred between us because each man feared that some other man would spoil his hunt or rob his traps. And we have lived far apart. To-night we sit about the same fire as some of us have sat before at- the feasts of the Great One. As I look into the fire, into the cave of the Red One within it, I see that whenever men come together to hunt, to feast, and there is no hatred in their hearts, it is a feast of Odin. I have told you many times before of the will of Him whose voice I am as I watch the tongues of flame. It is His will that men learn to live together. These boys have heard the whisper in the heart which we have not heard. They have killed more buffak)es since the sun rose this morning than we have done in all our lives and our fathers before us. They have not come to their full strength; they have not learned to shoot as far or as straight as we have done, but together they have done what no one of us could do." Then Ang picked some long grasses from a tuft beside him and took out a single one. Holding it where all could see, he snapped it as if it were a spider's web; then he put two together and snapped them; afterward more and more imtil he had twisted a rope of grass which the strongest man could not break. He passed it about the circle, and each tried in vain to break it. Then Ang took it and held it high above his head where all could see, the women and boys as well as the men. The single grass which the child can br^ is man alone; this rope of twisted grass is man united." A shout of assent broke from the group: "It is the will of the Great Spirit" Then Wang, who had been restless in his place, leaped to his feet: "If we are to hunt together like the wolf, we must learn from him. Each pack has its head which all the others obey. When the geese fly to the south, a great bird who is wise always leads the flock. Let us learn from the beasts and the birds. Who shall be our chief? " They all looked at Ang, and some one said, "Let Ang be our chief." But Ang shook his head: "I have told you for many years the will of Odin. I will do so still as I see it in the fire or hear it in the whisper to the heart, but my eyes do not see as they did, my feet are not so swift in the chase, or my hands so strong at the kilL The head of the wolf pack is the strongest and the most cunning, not the oldest. The whisper within tells me 140) io8 Woodcraft Manual for Boys that it is not time to choose a chief to-night. He must be proven first." The men looked about on each other and knew that the words of Ang were wise. There was no one that they could aU follow without question. The time to choose had not come yet. It came when But that is a tale for another telling. Then Om and Sut and the boys who had followed them were brought into the men's circle by the fire, and they told the story of how they had trapped the buffaloes. It was Sut who told the story, and his eyes shone like stars and his voice bubbled like the brook. As he talked on, Wang would wag his head now and then, as much as to say: "See! Like father, like son." The girls listened eagerly to Sut, but the older ones looked at Om, who sat a little back where the Ught did not shine so bright on his face, and nodded their heads and said to each other: "Some day, perhaps, if the Great One wills." From that time on men began to do things together as they had never done before. They hunted together and fished to- gether. Groups of related and friendly families lived near, as Ang and Wang had done. And they had more to eat and more to wear. Fewer lost their lives in hunting the more dangerous animals. The women and children were safer in the little vil- lages than they had been in their lonely caves and huts. And Om and Sut were remembered in the sagas of the tribe as those who taught men how to live together. The Seven Swans " The Legends of Vancouver," by Pauline Johnson, by permission of pub- lishers, McClelland, Goodchild & Stewart, Ltd., Canada. "Did you ever know a mother who did not love her crippled baby more than all her other children?" asked the old klootdi^ man,* glancing up from her basket-weaving, and for a moment allowing her slender hands to Ue idly in her lap. "One always loves the weak ones," I commented. "We ad- mire the strong, we are proud of the deft, the agile; we applaud the skilful, the clever, but we love the weak." "It is always so," she agreed. "Always so when the one who loves is a mother-woman, and when the weak one is a baby." As she spoke the old klootchman looked away across the canyon; her eyes were very dreamy, and I knew her thoughts were wing-

  • Woman.

141) Tribe Activities 109 ing their pathless way back to the olden years and the earlier his- tory of her tribe. I crouched down beside her, settling comfortably in a natural shelf of rock, and for a time watched in silence the mad tumble of the sleepless Capilano River, as it crowded through the throat of the canyon three hundred feet below us. A swirl of melodies arose from its myriad waterfalls, its count- less rapids — ^melodies soft and fresh as a robin's whistie, and their singing intensified the fragrance of damp mosses and pungent firs and cedars that frame this most exquisite beauty-spot in British Columbia. "There are not many song birds here," I remarked. "I sometimes think that Nature so richly favored this wonderful province that she kept the birds for some less beautiful country. Here the forests and the rivers sing to us. Their voices are more like a heavenly orchestra, like unseen hands playing on a thou- sand strmgs. The winds, the firs, the whispering rivers, are like Chopin Prelude sobbed from the throat of a violin." The klootehman looked at me longingly, and I caught myself back — ^I had been voicing my thoughts unmindful of her dear, uncomprehending mind. I sidled.

  • ^ You no savvy what I talk of, eh, klootehman? " I said.

"Some savvy," she answered, using the native phrase with quaint delight. "What I mean is that here we cannot hope to have every- thing," I hastened. "The less lovely country east of the Rockies must be given some things that are denied to us. We have so much beauty that Nature balanced things a Uttle by giving the East its song birds." "Yes," she agreed; "but we have many other birds. The SagaUe Tyee (God) gave us birds for food here, not for song. The winds sing, but cannot feed the Indian people. The waters taugh, but cannot keep us from starving by their pretty voices. So, the SagaUe Tyee gave us the fish and the birds for food — many gray geese, russet pheasants, wild ducks, whistling swans " "Oh, klootehman!" I interrupted, "yesterday I saw a band of magnificent white swans fly directly over the city — seven of them. They were heading for the southeast." She turned abruptly and looked at me with a half-curious, half-affectionate expression illuminating her rugged old face. "You see seven swans? " she asked with intense interest. "Yes," I assured her. "Seven wonderful white swans. They were the most graceful things I ever saw. They sailed 142) no Woodcraft Manual for Boys overhead like delicate white-winged yachts drifting on the blue sea — ^the far waterless sea of the ^es." "Very good sign," she said emphatically. "Very good luck for you — ^for sure you count seven of them? " " Yes/' I assured her. Then I told her how I happened to be at the door of my wigwam" when I heard a faint whistle sky- ward, and looking aloft I saw them — seven white-feathered beauties sailing southward into the lands of sim and warmth. I could picture them idling away the winter in some far southern lagoon, while the lazy tropic weeks drifted by as they waited for the caU of the North that would come with the early days of April — the sweet dear call of the North that would mean mating time — that wouldmean daysof nestingamong the reeds and rocks of cooler climes, and a long, joyous simuner in the far reaches of the upper Pacific Coast. I watched them for many moments; their slender white throats were outstretched with the same keen eagerness to reach the southern suns as a finely bred horse displays near the finish of a race. Their shining pinions were like silken sails swelling to the breeze, and lofty as their flight was, I could distinguish a hint of orange from the web of their trailing feet. Their indifference to the city beneath them, their direct though deliberate course, their unblemished whiteness were like a glimpse of some far perfect thing that human hands may not defile. Farther and farther they winged their way, fainter and fainter drifted back- ward their clear whistlings until they were but a blur against the blue; like an echo of a whisper their voices still floated be- hind them, then a pearl-gray scoii of cloud enveloped them — they were gone. The klootchman listened like one absorbed. "Very good sign," she repeated, as I concluded my story. " In what way? " I asked. "What is it the palefaces call the one who loves you?" she questioned. Then answering her own query with: "Sweetheart — ^is that not it? Yes? Well, sign is, your sweetheart very true to you. He not got two faces, one for you, another for when he is away from you. He's very true." I laughed sceptically. "A woman's sweetheart is never true to her, but a man's always is," I remarked, with a C}micism bom of much observation and some little experience. "You know the big world too well for be happy," she began. "Oh, I am the happiest-hearted woman alive," I hurried to explain. Then, teasingly, "and I'll be happier still if what you say of the seven swans is really true." 143) Tribe Activities iii "It's txue," she replied in a tone that compelled belief. "It is strange thing that you see and talk of seven swans, when an hour ago I speak to you of crippled baby and how the mother- women love them, care for diem, protect them. You see, tilliciim (friend), there is a Squamish story — ^what you call it? Legend? Yes, legend about a crippled child and a band of seven swans." I edged nearer to her. Then she told me the whimsical tale, while the restless Capilano murmured and chanted, laughed and rollicked, sang and sobbed out its music far, far below us. "The little girl was bom a cripple. There was not ugliness, nothing crooked in her form, just one little foot that was weak and limp and nerveless, and when she learned to walk, this fdot trailed slightly behind the other. But, oh! the love of her Squamish mother that hovered over her, protected her, petted her, nursed her, waited on her; it was the all-powerful love of a mother-woman for a weak child, and the baby grew into girl- hood, then to womanhood, wrapped around with this wonderful garment of love, as the dinging fragrant moss wraps the foot of a tree. "Her mother called her *Kah-lo-ka' (accent on lo), which in the Chinook means 'The Swan,' for the girl was very beautiful. Her face was as a flower, her form slender and filled with grace, only the trailing foot stood between her and the perfection of young womanhood. But her soul was yet more beautiful than her face. She was kind, joyous, laughter-loving. She never said a bitter word, never gave a sneering smile. Her heart was light, her hands skilful, her voce gentle. Her fingers were 'swift to weave baskets and blankets, her eyes keen and lustrous in selecting the dyes for the quills and fibres and furs, for her home-making and her garments, and she loved little children as her mother had done before her. "And many a brave wanted her for his wife — many a young fisherman, many a warrior, many a trapper, but her heart loved none, until a young hunter came from the North, and said,

  • I will be strong for both of us: I will be fleet of foot for both.

My arrows are true and never faU ; my lodge is filled with soft, warm furs, your frail little feet will rest upon them, and your heart will rest in my heart— will you come?' "The shadows crossed her face as she looked at her trailing foot. *But I can never run to meet you when you return from the forest with the deer across your shoulders or the beaver across your arm,' she regretted. *My step is slow and halting, not swift like the other maidens of my tribe. I can never dance 144) 112 Woodcraft Mantial for Boys for you at the great potlatches for hours and hours, while the old people sing and the young people admire. I must sit with the old women — ^alone with the old ones and the ugly ones — - alone!' " ' You will never be old, never be ugly,' he assured her. * Your face and your soul are things of beauty. They, with your laugh- ing heart, will always be young. Your mother named you Kah-lo-ka, The Swan, and you are always that — shall ever be that to me. Come, will you come with me — ^will you come from your mother's love — to mine? ' "And, womanlike, she went with him, and her father's lodge knew her no more. "But daily her mother would come to see her, to rejoice in the happiness of the young wife — the happiness that made her forget her trailing foot, that made her ever-lovely face still more beautiful, and she would call the Uttle bride- wife, *Be-be, Be-be,' as though she were still her frail baby girl. It is the way with mothers and a crippled child. " The years drifted on, and Kah-lo-ka bore her hunter-husband six beautiful children, but none of them had the trailing foot, nor yet the lovely face of their laughter-loving mother. She had not yet grown old to look upon as the Squamish women are apt to do while even yet young, and her face was like a flower as she sat among the old and ugly at the great potlatches, while the maidens and the yoimg men danced and chanted, and danced again. How often she longed to join them none ever knew, but no shadow ever blurred her eyes, no ache ever entered her always young heart imtil the day her husband's cousin came, a maiden strong, lithe, tall as the hunter himself,^ and who danced like the sunlight on the blue waters of the Pacific. "For hours and hours this cousin would dance tirelessly, and through all the hours he watched her, watched her sway like the branches of the Douglas fir when storm 'beaten, watched her agile feet, her swift, light steps, her glorious strength, and when she ceased, Kah-lo-ka's husband and the young braves and warriors gathered about her with gifts of shell necklaces and fair speeches. "And Kah-lo-ka looked down at her own poor trailing foot — and the laughter died in her eyes. In the lodge with her six little children about her she waited for him many days, many weeks, but the hunter-husband had left her for one who had nc trailing foot to keep her sitting among the old and the ugly. "So Kah-lo-ka waited, and waited, long, long years through, 145) Tribe Activities z 13 and the friends of her youth grew old and wrinkled, her tribes- people grew infirm and feeble with age, but the face of the woman with the trailing foot remained as beautiful, as young, as unUned as when she first met and loved the young hunter who had gone out of her life many scores of moons ago. "And far away in his distant lodge the hunter-husband grew old and weakened in body and mind; his aim was no longer sure, his eye no longer keen, and at his side sat his cousin, she who was once so Ught of foot, so joyous in the dance, so strong and straight and agile, but the years had weighted her once swift feet, had aged her face, had stooped her shoulders, had stiffened her muscles, her ankles, her hands. Old and wrinkled she crouched in her blanket, for her blood ran slowly, her youth was gone — she danced no more. "And one day he returned to look upon her whom he had left, to hear her laugh, and to learn that a true woman's love will keep her young and flowerlike forever. With a great cry he bowed himself before her, and though he was old and feeble and ugly, although he was false and had failed her, and had forgotten her — ^womanlike she outstretched her arms toward him, for was he not the father of her children? "But the Sagalie Tyee (the Almighty) spoke out of the sky. and His word is law to all races, to all people: *You shall not have her again, O Hunter T spoke the voice. *You have been untrue. She has been true. Untruth cannot mate with truth, dishonor cannot mate with honor, falsity cannot mate with fidehty. I, the Sagalie Tyee, chief of the skies and of earth and of the seas, shall place her and her children where their youth and their beauty and their laughter shall forever taunt and reproach your crooked, misshapen heart. They shall never grow old or ugly, and she with her trailing foot shall be- come that most beautiful and graceful thing that I have ever created. Watch the morning skies, O Hunter of the double face, the double heart, and on the first Ught of the rising sun you will see seven perfect things, Beauty, Grace, Laughter, Youth, Fidelity, Love, and Truth — seven glorious things that you have forfeited, have cast aside!' "In the morning the aged hunter sought Kah-lo-ka's lodge. . It was empty, but against the gold of the rising sun there arose a group of seven pearl-white swans. They poised above him for a moment, then winged their way southward. He watched in an agony of loneliness their graceful flight; he listened in an agony of heartache to their clear, wild piping laughter that drifted backward like the notes of a distant flute; his aged eyes 146) 114 Woodcraft Manual for Boys watched and watched as those seven beautiful birds sailed away on wings like silken webs, and whose feet trailed a blur oi orange against the blue of the morning sky. He bowed his head then — ^for he knew that those trailing, graceful feet were his Kah-lo-ka's one defected — glorified." "Do they always travel in flocks of seven? " I asked. " Not always, but often so," she replied. " So when you count seven white ones, it will be sure to be Kah-lo-ka and her children; that is why I say you have good luck, and a true sweetheart. It is only an old Indian story, but it means much." "I suppose, klootchman, it means that like begets like?" I half questioned. "That truth bears truth. That fidelity bears fidelity — ^is that it? " "Yes, did not the SagaUe Tyee say that truth could not mate with untruth? " she said very reverently. How Men Found the Great Spirit From Around the Fire/' by H. M. Burr, Permission Association Press. In the olden time when woods covered all the earth except the deserts and the river bottoms, and men Uved on the fruits and berries they found and the wild animals which they could shoot or snare, when they dressed in skins and lived in caves, there was little time for thought. But as men grew stronger and more cunning and learned how to Uve together, they had more time to think and more mind to think with. Men had learned many things. .They had learned that cold weather followed hot, and spring, Winter; and that the sun got up in the morning and went to bed at night. They saw that the great water was kindly when the sun shone, but when the sun hid its face and the wind blew Upon it, it grew black and angry and upset their canoes. They had found that knocking flints together or rubbing dry sticks would light the dry moss, and that the flames which would bring back summer in the midst of winter and day in the midst of night were himgry and must be fed, and when they escaoed devoured the., woods and only the water could stop them. These and many other things men learned, but no one knew why it all was or how it came to be. Men began to wonder, and that was the beginning of the path which lei to the Great Spirit. In the ages when men began to wonder there was bom a boy 147) Tribe Activities Z15 whose name was Wo.* As he lay in his mother's arms, she loved him, but wondered: "His body is of my body, but whence comes the life—^the spirit whidi is like mine and yet not like it? " And his father, seeing the wonder in the mother's eyes, said, "Whence came he?" And there was no one to answer, and so they called him Wo, to remind them that they knew not whence he came. As Wo grew up, he was stronger and swifter of foot than any of his tribe. He became a mighty hunter. He knew the ways of all the wild things and could read the signs of the season. As he grew older, they made hun a chief and Ustened while he spoke at the coimcil board, but Wo was not satisfied. His name was a question, and questioning filled his mind. Whence did he come? Whither was he going? Why did the sun rise and set? Why did life burst into leaf and flower with the coming of the spring? Why did the child become a man and the man grow old and die? The mystery grew upon him as he pondered. In the morning he stood on a mountain top and, stretching out his hands, cried, " Whence? " At night he cried to the moon, " Whither? " He listened to the soughing of the wind in the trees and to the song of the brook and tri^ to learn their language. He peered eagerly into the eyes of little children and tried to read the mystery of life. He listened at the still lips of the dead, wait- ing for them to tell him whither they had gone. He went about among his fellows silent and absorbed, £dways looking for the unseen and listening for the unspoken. He sat so long silent at the council board that the elders questioned him. To their questioning he replied like one awakening from a dream: "Our fathers since the beginning have trailed the beasts of the wood. There is none so cunning as the fox, but we can trail him to his lair. Though we are weaker than the great bear and buffalo, yet by our wisdom we overcome them. The deer is more swift of foot, but by craft we overtake him. We cannot fly like a bird, but we snare the winged one with a hair. We have made ourselves many cunning inventions by which the beasts, the trees, the wind, the water, and the fire become our servants. "Then we speak great swelling words: 'How great and wise we are! There is none like us in the air, in the wood, or in the water!' But the words are false. Our pride is like that of a partridge drumming on his log in the wood before the fox leaps

  • Wp meant, in the language of the time, "whence."

148) zi6 Woodcraft Manual for Boys upon him. Our sight is like ttiat of the mole burrowing under the ground. Our wisdom is like a drop of dew upon the grass. Our ignorance is like the great water which no eye can measure. "Our life is like a bird coming out of the dark, flittering for a heartbeat in the hut and then going forth into the dark again. No one can tell us whence it comes or whither it goes. I have asked the wise men, and they cannot answer; I have listened to the voice of the trees and wind and water, but I do not know their tongue; I have questioned the sun and the moon and the stars, but they are silent. "But to-day in the silence before the darkness gives place to light I seemed to hear a still small voice within my breast saying to me: 'Wo, the questioner, rise up like the stag from his lair; away, alone to the mountain of the sun. There thou shalt find that which thou seekest.* "I go, but if I fall by the trail another will take it up. If I find the answer, I will return. " Waiting for none, Wo left the council of his tribe and went his way toward the mountain of the sun. For six days he made his way through the trackless woods, guided by the sim by day and the stars by night. On the seventh day he came to the great moimtain — ^the moimtain of the sim, on whose top, according to the tradition of his tribe, the sun rested each night. All day long he climbed, saying to himself : "I will sleep to-night in the hut of the sun, and he will tell me whence I came and whither I go." But as he climbed, the sun seemed to climb higher and higher. As he neared the top, a cold cloud settled like a night bird on the moimtain. Chilled and faint with hunger and fatigue, Wo strug- gled on. Just at simset he reached flie top of the mountain, but it was not the mountain of the sun, for many days' journey to the west the sim was sinking in the Great Water. A bitter cry broke from Wo's parched lips. His long trail was useless. There was no answer to his questions. The sun jour- neyed farther and faster than men dreamed, and of wood and waste and water there was no end. Overcome with misery and weakness, he fell upon a bed of moss with his back toward the simset and the unknown. And Wo slept, although it was unlike any sleep he had ever known before, and as he slept he dreamed. He was alone upon the mountain waiting for the answer. A cloud covered the mountain, but all was silent. A mighty wind rent the cloud and rushed roaring through the crags, but there was no voice in 149) Tribe Activities 117 » the wind. Thunder pealed, lightning flashed, but he whom Wo sought was not there. In the hush that followed the storm Wo heard a voice low and quiet, but in it all the sounds of earth and sky seemed to mingle — ^the song of the bird, the whispering of the trees, and the murmuring of the brook : "Wo, I am He whom thou seekest; I am the Great Spirit; I am the All-Father. Ever since I made man of the dust of the earth and so child of the earth and brother to all Uving things, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, thus nuking him my son, I have waited for a seeker who should find me. Iq the fullness of time thou hast come, Wo, the questioner, to the Answerer. "Thy body is of the earth and to earth returns; thy spirit is mine; it is given thee for a space to make according to thy will; then it returns to me better or worse for thy making. Thou hast found me because thy heart was pure and thy search for me tireless. Go back to thy tribe and be to them the Voice of the Great Spirit. From henceforth I will speak to thee and to the seekers that come after thee in a thousand voices and appear in a thousand shapes. I will speak in the voices of the wood and streams and of those you love. I will appear to you in the sun by day and in the stars by night. When thy people and mine are in need and wish for the mQ. of the Great Spirit, then shall my spirit brood over thine and the words that thou shalt speak shall be my words." And Wo awoke, facmg the east and the rising sun. His body was warmed by its rays. A great gladness filled his soul. He had sought and found, and prayer came to him like song to the bird: "O Great Spirit, Father of my spirit, the sim is Thy messenger, but Thou art brighter than the sun. Drive Thou the darkness before me. Be Thou the light of my spirit." As Wo went down the moimtain and took the journey back to the home of his people, his face shone, and the light never seemed to leave it, so that men called him "He of the Shining Face." When Wo came back to his tribe, all who saw his face knew that he had found the answer, and they gathered again about the • Council Fire to hear. As Wo stood up and looked into the eager faces in the circle of the fire, he remembered that the Great Spirit had given him no message and for a moment he was dumb. Tlien the words of the Great Spirit came to him again: "When thy people and mine shall need to know my will, my spirit 150) shall brood over thine and the words that thou shalt speak shall be my words." Looking into the eager faces full of longing and questioning, his spirit moved within him and he spoke.

"I went, I sought, I found the Great Spirit, who dwells in the earth as your spirits dwell in your bodies. It is from Him the spirit comes. We are His children. He cares for us more than a mother for the child at her breast, or the father for the son that is his pride. His love is like the air we breathe; it is about us; it is within us.

"The sun is the sign of His brightness, the sky of His greatness, and mother-love and father-love and the love of man and woman are the signs of His love. We are but children; we cannot enter into the council of the Great Chief imtil we have been proved, but this is His will, that we love one another as He loves us; that we bury forever the hatchet of hate; that no man shall take what is not his own, and the strong shall help the weak."

The chiefs did not wholly understand the words of Wo his they took a hatchet and buried it by the fire, saying, Thus bury we hate between man and his brother," and they took as acorn and put it in the earth, saying, "Thus plant we the love is the strong for the weak." And it became the custom of the tribe that the great council in the spring should biuy an axe and plant an acorn.

Every morning the tribe gathered to greet the rising sun, and with right hands raised and left upon their hearts prayed, " Great Spirit, hear us; guide us to-day; make our wills Thy will, our ways Thy ways."

And the tribe grew stronger and wiser than all the other tribes of men.

Books Recommended

  • Around the Fise, H. M. Burr. Association Press. $.75
  • Legends of Vancouver, £. Pauline Johnson. McClelland, Goodchild & Stewart.
  • The Gaunt Gray Wolf, Dillon Wallace. Fleming Revelle. $1.25
  • Wild Andials I Have Known, Ernest Thompson Seton. Scribners. $1.75
  • Wild Andcal Ways, Ernest Thompson Seton. Doubleday, Fftge & Co. $1.50
  • Indian Tales of Long Ago, Edward S. Curtis. $1.00

151) SECTION III

THINGS TO KNOW AND DO


CHAPTER I — CITY WOODCRAFT

CHAPTER II — CAMPERCRAFT

CHAPTER III — WOODLORE AND HANDICRAFT

CHAPTER IV — FRIENDS IN THE OUT OF DOORS


Chapter I

  • City Woodcraft * Ready Help
  • Woodcraft in Town * Patribtism and Citizenship
  • Wireless for Woodcrafters * Hiking
  • Totems in Town * Sign Language
  • Fire — Servant or Master? * Picture Writing
  • Sleep Outdoors * Weather Signals
  • Health * Railroad Signals
  • A Good Body * Roof Camping
  • The Life Force * Individual Tally Books
  • Health Hints * Names for Months

152) 153) CHAPTER I

CITY WOODCRAFT

Woodcraft in Town

Woodcraft in the beginning was the only science of man. It meant masterful touch with the things of his daily life, indoors and outdoors, near or far. So, also, by growth and transference we define Woodcraft in our city to-day as seeing, comprehending, and mastering the ordinary things of our daily life. The boy or girl who looks both ways before crossing the street, who knows what all the signs on the lamp-post mean, who avoids breathing through the mouth, especially when there is dust flying, who knows the warnings of the different colored lights, who knows the number on the motor car that rushed by so recklessly, who keeps the chest expanded and the toes nearly straight in walking, who can tell a man’s track from a woman ’s or a young man’s from that of an old man on the wet pavement, who realizes that the telephone book is the key to the business life of a city, who recognizes and acts on all the hand signals given by the traffic policeman—he is practising good Woodcraft and culti- vating something that in the life-game spells “SUCCESS.” There are three separate fields for Woodcraft in the city. The first is that of the incidental things of wild life that are found in our parks, suburbs, and water front. No less than one hundred forest trees, one hundred wild flowers, sixty different wild birds, twenty difi'erent furry fouI-foots, a dozen turtles, snakes, etc., are found in New York C1ty, while ever the same, overhead, are the stars. The second field is in the museums and libraries. Every one of our great cities is rich in material of priceless value, gathered here from the wilderness, stuff really relating to Woodcraft. The material is composed not only of collections of birds, animals, trees, etc. ., but of robes, boats, songs, dances, ceremonies, legends, pictures, carvings, and a myriad of things that stir the loving imagination of the red- blooded, blue-sky boy or girl. But the last 15 the largest and most important department, for 154) it offers the newest field of purely city work, These are some of its headings:

Signs and blazes on the main street (a blaze or Indian sign is understood to be a simple mark conveying information without using words or letters). There are on Broadway at least fifty signs and blazes descended from those used in the wilderness by savages; in some cases the very same mark 15 used. A totem is a simple form, usually a natural form used as the symbol of a man, a group of men, or an idea It has no reference to words, letters, or language. In this light, there are zoo or 300 totems of daily use in every big city. Some trademarks 'and all armorial bearings are of the nature of totems. Every great railway company has a totem, though it was not so fifty years ago. The change has come because a totem is copyrightable, remembe‘rable, ad- vertisable, visible afar and comprehensible by all, no matter what the language or lack of learning may be.

The old sign language of the plains exists among us to the extent that over one hundred of the gesture signs are in daily use among the school children and the folk from Southern Europe. The policeman regulating the traflic uses at least fifteen of these signs daily and hardly realizes it, yet every one understands them and obeys. Here they serve the same purpose as in the wilds; they convey information when it is impassible to be heard and they do it in the universal language of ideas which all can comprehend no matter what his speech may be.

The tracks of difierent human beings as well as of dogs, cats, rats, mice, horses, sparrows, etc., are seen after every shower, when the gutter is wet and the pavements dry, as well as after a snowstorm; and they all have a story to tell to the eyes of woodcraft wisdom.

City craft— the knowledge of the things which are particularly a development of the city: how the streets are paved, how the garbage is disposed of, where the city water is obtained and its quality, these and many other things relating to making life in the city produce the best results, are an open field. All of these and a thouSand more are to be found' in the city. And the value of city Woodcraft is not merely in the things themselves but' In being able to see the things about you. Begin to-day to see, comprehend, and master the ordinary daily things of your life. 155) Things to Know and Do 123 WIRELESS FOR WOODCRAFTERS BY A. FREDERICK COLLINS Every Woodcrafter ought to be able to send and receive mes- sages over long distances by every known means including smoke signals, wig-wagging, heliography, and wireless, and the last named method is to'my way of thinking the most useful and interesting. There are three parts to every wireless set and these are (I) an aerial wire system, (2) a sending apparatus, and (3) a receiving apparalus; and you can buy all of it ready to put up, or if you like to use tools you can make all of the parts yourself, except the head telephone receivers, as thousands of other wireless fel- lows have done before you. The Aerial Wire System THE AERIAL. The aérial wire system, or just aerial as it is called for short, is formed of two or three No. I4 aluminum, or stranded copper w‘ires stretched as high above the ground as you can get them. These wires must be insulated from the poles, or whatever they are fastened to, and to do this six porce- E W ' AFigJ B. Fig] 29 Porcelain Insulator 4 Strain Insulator / spawns/e poem/w _ “5"” To” msumrwz C. FigJ Theflerial LEflD/NG //V INS UMTOR lain insulators, as shown at A in Fig. I, and two strain insulators, as shown at B in Fig. I, are needed. Each end of each wire, which should not be less than thirty feet long, is fastened to a 156) 124 Woodcraft Manual for Boys porcelain insulator and the latter is in turn fastened with a bit of wire to a spreader, that is a strip of wood one inch thick, three inches wide, and four feet long. Each spreader is then fastened to a strain insulator as shown at C 1n Fig.1 when the aiérial 15 hoisted and fixed to the supports; and don’ t forget that the higher the aérial and the longer the wires the greater the distance to which messages can be sent and received. The Ground Next in importance to a high, long, and well-insulated aiérial is the ground, and there are several ways of getting a pretty good one. The first way is to use the gas or water pipes and to solder a No. 6 bare copper wire to it, or ,fasten it on with a ground clamp; another way is to drive a piece of iron pipe into the ground deep enough to reach moist earth, but the best way of all 15 to solder a copper wire to a sheet of copper, or zinc, three I I feet wide and four feet long and bury 1t deep into the moist earth. nqz LIGHTNING swam To make an 38ml 3 safety de evice rather than a source of danger from lightning it should be grounded, when you are not sending or receiving, through an aérial switch as shown in Fig. 2. This switch is screwed to the outside of/your operating room near the window where the atrial and ground wires go through to the inside. ,ro INSTRUMENTS / wuvoow 7V/HJV 01 Gil/7089 0.1 The Sending Apparatus To send messages you will need the following pieces of ap— paratus: (I) an induction coil, or better a transformer, (2) a telegraph key, (3) a spark-gap, (4) a battery, or if your house is wired you can tap the circuit and get your current from that source, (5) a tuning coil, and (6) a condenser. THE INDUCTION C011,, on TRANSFORMER. The purpose of an in- duction coil is to change the direct current of a battery or lighting circuit into high pressure alternating currents. A transformer is used where alternating current only can be had. A transformer is better and cheaper than an induction coil, having the same .4)..A..J.__ __.4'_. __-«__ #4.. u... L. 157) Things to Know and Do 125 sending range and should be used if you can get alternating current to work it with. THE TELEGRAPH KEY. The purpose of the key is to break up the battery or fighting current which energizes the primary coil of the induction coil, or the transformer, into dots and dashes representing the letters of the alphabet, or International Morse Code as it is called. The key is connected in circuit with the primary of the coil and the battery or other source of current. THE BATTERY on POWER CIRCUIT. From either the one or the other the power to operate your induction coil or transformer is L E YDE/V JflR3 7'0 9531141; To GROUND Fig 3. Transmitter ready to send had. If current from a lighting circuit is used a variable resistance must be connected in the primary circuit to cut down the cur- rent to the amount required. THE SPARK-GAP. This is simply a pair of brass rods fitted with 158)

26 Woodcraft Manual for Boys ‘

brass balls and insulated handles which slide through a pair of brass standards fixed to a marble or other insulating base. The spark-gap is connected to the terminals, that is the ends of the wires of the secondary coil. TEE TUNING COIL. The tuning coil of the sending apparatus is simply a coil of heavy brass or copper wire one eighth or one fourth inch in diameter, wound in a helix around a wooden frame, and it is used to enable the operator to give the electric waves sent out by the aErial a certain length in order to conform to the Government Regulations. The tuning coil is connected in circuit with the spark-gap and the condenser, and the aerial and ground wires are connected to it as we shall presently see. Tm: HIGH TENSION CONDENSER. This can be either a bat- tery of Leyden jars or it can be made of a number of sheets of glass covered with tin-foil. The sending condenser must be pro- portioned to the size of the tuning coil and the larger it is, within certain limits, the shorter and thicker the spark at the gap will be and the more efiective the electric waves that are sent out by the aérial. Connecting Up the Transmitter When you have made or bought all of these pieces of apparatus connect them up as shown in Fig. 3 with No. 14 copper wire, ' which should be insulated, that is the primary of the induction coil, or transformer; the battery, or other source of current, and the key are connected in series as it is called. Next the spark-gap, the condeneer, and the tuning coil are connected in series and then the end of the aérial wire is con- nected with the top binding post of the tuning coil, while one of the clips of the tuning coil and the ground wire are connected together, all of which is clearly shown in Fig. 3. Before sending wireless telegraph messages with this or any other set you must have a Government license and the way to obtain a license is fully explained in a pamphlet entitled Radio Communication Laws of the United States and which you can get by sending fifteen cents to the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Ofiice, Washington, D. C. THE INTERNATIONAL MORSE Cons: The following code is used throughout the world on land and sea for sending wireless telegraph messages and for this reason it is called the International Morse Code. It is a little difierent from the ordinary Morse Code, but it is easier to learn than the latter. You must be able to send at 159) Things to Know and Do :27 least five words per minute before you can obtain a Govern- ment license. The Receiving Apparatus A wireless receiver is easily made, that is all except the head telephone receiver, or you can buy the whole receiving apparatus ready made. Many boys have only receiving stations, for a license is not required to listen in and wherever you live you are The International Morse Code A B c_ D E F 0' -000 -o_o -oo o 00-. a n ' l s - K --O 0.00 00 O--- -0- L M N 0 P 0-00 -- -. --- O--O . 0 R s ‘I' u --0- 0-0 000 - 0'.- V w x Y 000- O-- -OO- -0-- Z mu um 000'! um. --00 0-00. 000-. -9 000-. I Period r Idem m 00 00 O o‘o--OO --OO-- I 2 _ 3 .---- OO--- 0.0-- 4 5 6 7 0.00- .0... -.O.. .-..O 8 9 0 _---O. ----O -‘---’ cu m or - -.-0- 0-0-0,' almost sure to be within signaling range of some other station. A receiver consists of (r) a crystal detector, (2) a tuning coil, (3) a variable condenser, and (4) a pair of head telephone receivers. A CRYSTAL DETECTOR. A crystal detector in its simplest form is merely phosphor-bronze, or a German silver, point ressmg gently on a crystal of silicon or of iron pyrites. A meta frame- 160) 128 Woodcraft Manual for Boys work screwed to a hard rubber base is used to hold the crystal in place and to provide the means for obtaining the right pres— sure of the point on the crystal. TEE TUNING COIL. This is made by winding a single layer of No. 20 or 22 insulated copper wire on a cylinder of wood, glass, or other material; the insulation of the wire is scraped ofi in two parallel lines the length of the coil and two springs sliding on brass rods make contact with the turns Of wire. The tuner, as it is sometimes called, is used to tune in any sta- tion, that is to adjust the ae'rial wire and circuits of your re- ceiver to the wave length sent out by the station which you want to listen to. It is also useful to tune out interfering signals and to make the received signals ring clear and loud in the receiver. TEE CONDENSER. The best kind of a receiving condenser is of the variable type. It is made of a number of thin sheet brass TWO 5 L ID E k VAR/flBL CONDEN5ER TUNING COIL ._.q H5190 TEL E PHONE RE CE I VER Fig 4. The receiver ready to listen I]: semicircles, called leaves, half of which are fixed in position and the other half, which alternate with the fixed leaves, are made movable. The movable leaves can be turned by means of a knob and very sharp tuning can be obtained when it is used in connection with the tuning coil. Tm: TELEPHONE RECEIVERS. To receive over long distances 161) Things to Know and Do 129 a good pair of head telephone receivers must be used. A re- ceiver wound to 500 ohms resistance is good enough to receive over distances of 100 miles or so, but for longer distances each receiver should be wound to 1,000 ohms resistance. In buying your receiver be sure that it is wound with copper wire and not German silver wire, as a receiver wound with the last-named kind of wire is not nearly as sensitive as one wound with the former kind of wire though the resistance of both may be the same. Connecting Up the Receiver Having all the parts of the receiver the next thing to do is to hook them up, that is connect them together. If you intend to receive only, then connect one of the binding posts of the tuning coil with the aerial wire and connect the ground wire with one of the sliding contacts. The other sliding contact is joined to one of the binding posts of the variable condenser and the other post of the condenser leads to one of the posts of the detector, while the other post of the detector is connected with the ground wire. The telephone receiver is shunted around the detector, all of which is clearly shown in Fig. 4, when the instrument is ready to receive mes- sages. The A'érial Switch If you are going to send as well as to receive you will have to use an aérial switch, that is a specially made switch. When the lever of the switch is up the sending apparatus is cut out and the receiver is Connected to the afirial and ground wires. But when the switch is down the receiver is disconnected and the sending apparatus is cut in. Operation of the Apparatus SENDING. Suppose now that the aérial switch is in the down position and that you are sending a message. . When you press down the button of the telegraph key it closes the battery, or lighting circuit, and the current flows through the primary coil of the induction coil, or transformer. - If it is a direct current the vibrator of the induction coil 162) r30 ‘ Woodcraft Manual for Boys changes it into an interrupted current and this sets up high pres- sure alternating currents in the secondary of the coil; or if it is an alternating current to begin with, then the transformer sets up high pressure alternating currents in the secondary coil. In either case these high pressure alternating currents charge the condenser and this in turn discharges through the spark- gap- and makes a continuous stream of bright, crackling sparks. Now the discharge of a condenser through the spark-gap sets up high tension currents of very high frequency, or electric oscillations as they are called, and these currents surge through the tuning coil, the aérial, and ground wires at the rate of a mil- lion times a second, more or less. These electric oscillations running forth and back along the aerial wire are changed into electric waves, just as an ordinary electric current flowing in a wire is changed into magnetic lines of force, and these electric waves push out into space in every direction exactly as the vibrations of a bell send forth sound waves, but with this diflerence, where a sound wave will travel only a few miles at most, an electric wave will travel hundreds of miles, and, again, where a sound wave travels 1,086 feet a. second, an electric wave travels 186,500 miles a second, which is the speed of light. . RECEIVING. Since electric waves from a sending aérial are radiated into space in every direction, they will, of course, strike any aérial wire wherever it may be located if it is not too far away. And when the electric waves strike an aérial connected with a receiver they set up in the aérial wire electric oscillations Shaving exactly the same number of vibrations per second as the electric oscillations which sent out the waves. For this reason the receiving circuits must be tuned to the sending circuits. . The high frequency oscillations set up in the aerial wires by the incoming electric waves will flow down the aerial to the tuning coil, thence through the condenser and the detector, on to the ground and back again and it is the purpose of the de— tector to act as a sort of valve to change the rapid oscillations into an interrupted direct current. This latter kind of a current energizes the telephone receiver where the former kind of current will not afiect it, with the result that buzzing sounds are made which are read by. the operator, that is a short buzz is read as a dot and a long buzz as a dash, and in this way messages in the International Code are received. .4- 163) _ Things to Know and Do I 131 As I mentioned in the beginning of this article wireless ap- paratus can be bought ready to set up of nearly all dealers in electrical supplies or if you want to make the apparatus for yourself get The Book of Wireless” published by D. Appleton and Co., New York, which tells you all about it. Totems in Town A totem is an emblem of a man, a group of men, or an idea. It has no reference to words or letters. Before men knew how to write they needed marks to indicate ownership. This mark must be simple and legible and was chosen because of something connected with the owner or his family. Later some of the trades adopted a symbol; for in- stance the barbers in the early days were “blood letters” and were closely associated with the medical profession. Their totem indicated their business, and we have the red-and-white barber pole of to-day. It was among the Indians along the west coast of America that the science and art of totems reached its highest development, though they have a. world-wide usage and go back in history to the earliest times. . Out of this use of totems as owner marks and signs grew the whole science of heraldry and national flags. Thanks to the fusion of many small armies into one or two big armies, that is, of many tribes into a nation, and also to modern weapons which made it possible to kill a man farther ofl than you could see the totem on his shield, national flags have replaced the armorial devices, and are the principal totems used to-day. But a new possibility has been discovered in modern times. Totems will serve the ends of commerce, and a great revival of their use is now seen. The totem is visible such a long way OE and is understood by all, whether or not they can read or know our language, is copyrightable and advertisable, so that most of the great railway companies, etc., now have totems. There are not less than one hundred common totems used in our streets to—day. Among the familiar ones seen are the Amer- ican eagle, with white head and tail, the Austrian eagle with two heads, the British lion, the Irish harp, the French fleur de lis, etc. Among trades the three balls of the pawnbroker, the golden fleece of the drygoods man, the mortar and pestle of the druggist, and others are well known. Examples of these and others are given in the illustration,but any wideawake Woodcraft Boy will be able to find many others by careful observation. 164) Christianity Mourning Electric Commercial Power Success (3 @ P353311 RmR Salt .Lake FfilaR. Traffic Telgglllone T Pawnshop Liberty Army Druggist Woodcraft ower Optician fiififio 63' Union Pacific Islamism Skating Star Union New York R. R. Dig. Penna. The Power Canadian Barber Scotland R. R. of the Pacific People R. R. Totems Often Seen 4".‘.___-f‘_ .__._ A..4__ 4, A).._ A. 4.14 165) fl» .V—r—A Things to Know and Do 133 __ Fire—Servant or Master? FIRE IS A GREAT SERVANT BUT A TERRIBLE MASTER Fire Prevention Condensed from Fire Commissioner Robert Admson’ s Pamphlet Why should America sufier five times as much fire loss per head as any European country? Chiefiy because we are so careless. Just think that every year about 2,000 lives are lost in fires, and 6,000 persons injured. The money loss to this country is about _$500, 000 ,000, which means that every family of five persons 'is paying $12. 50 a year as their share of this loss—$2. 50 apiece. In Europe the people are so careful about fires that fire loss is only about fifty cents apiece. Taking no account of the sufier- ing and misery, our cash fire loss in America is $600,000 a day, $2 5,000 an hour, $416 a minute. In other Words, we lose each year through fire more than enough to build the Panama Canal. During rgr 3, in New York City alone, 588 fires were caused by children playing with matches, with a loss of $32,000. It has been calculated that more people have been killed in recent years on the Fourth of July celebration than were killed in the whole original Revolution that it celebrates Nearly 40,000 were killed or injured in Fourth of July fires in the ten years, 1904 to 1914. This is why sensible people have risen up and demanded a safe and sane Fourth. Fireworks and bonfires should be absolutely forbidden. I ' never yet saw the time or place where a bonfire was not a curse. However safe it may seem, there is sure to be some risk, and it is wasting valuable wood. A true Woodcraft Boy or Girl never makes a bonfire. Let us express our patriotism without ruin- ing our neighbors’ property or our own. Fires would be practically unknown if we followed the advice of Commissioner Adamson of New York City, and practised the TWENTY-THREE DON’TS Don’t allow children to play with matches. Don’t block the fire escapes. Don’t fail to inspect your own home, or the place where you work, so as to know where all exits are. Don’ t throw away lighted matches, cigars, or cigarettes. Don’ t go into dark closets, bedrooms, or cellars, with lighted candles or matches. 166) 134 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Don’t use kerosene to light fires with, or use benzine or naphtha near open flames. Don’t fill kerosene lamps when lighted. Don’t use a poor quality of kerosene oil. Don’t put ashes in wooden boxes or barrels. Keep ashes away from boards. Don’t put hot ashes on dumbwaiter, or near wooden partitions. Don’t have piles of rubbish in the house, or cellars, or in workshops. Don’t use candles on Christmas trees. Don’t keep matches in anything but a closed metal box. Don’t tie back the dumbwaiter shaft in the cellar. Don’t store oils, paints, grease, or fats in the house. Don’t have greasy rags around, they catch fire by themselves Don’t have lace curtains near gas brackets. Don’t use folding gas brackets. Don’t use gasoleue, naphtha, or benzine in the house unless all windows are open and there is no light near. Don’t pour gasoleue or naphtha down the drain. Don’t use kitchen stoves close on tables unless there is a metal sheet underneath the burners. Don’t set gas stoves right up against the wall. They should have a metal sheet behind them. Don’t look for gas leaks with a lighted match or candle. IN CASE OF FIRE But suppose that in spite of your doing your share some one else has failed, and a fire has broken out in a house. The first thing is keep cool, act quickly, and send in an alarm. How. Find the nearest alarm box to your home. If it opens with a key, find out who keeps the key. The ordinary box has no key; you simply turn the handle to the right, open the door, and pull the hook down all the way and let go. Wait until the firemen arrive and direct them to the fire. If you don’t know where the nearest alarm box is located, use the ’phone and ask Central for Fire Headquarters, and tell the Fire Department operator the exact address of the building where fire is. If the fire is in a crowded building, the first thing is to keep cool and help others to do the same, for PANIC is worse than Fire. It‘kills far more. Keep cool and help others do the same. A cool man who can get up and address the crowd from the step can often do wonders, for though they cannot hear him the crowd can see that he is cool. This helps .them. 3.4 ”h“ _. A‘ A‘I-|- 4.4]; fl J.44 ‘An— 4).- -1. A A ‘1 167) v‘T—m Viz-r ‘ _ Things to Know and Do 135 IN A BURNING HOUSE Remember that in a house afire there is always good air near the floor, so crawl with head low if the room is full of smoke. If you must open a window, close the door first. Then get out and wave anything you can get, shout and wait. Some fireman will be sure to see and save you if you keep cool. Remember these men are absolutely brave, sure, and quick, they know their business; they are there to help you. The fire that is so serious to you is an everyday thing to them. I might almost say they never fail, unless the victim does not keep cool. We may make jokes about our street cleaners, and write harsh things at times about the police and the alderman, but we are always proud of our firemen, and whatever they tell you to do is sure to be the best thing possible at the time. If your clothing is on fire, roll in any woolen blanket, rug, or coat you can find. If you find an insensible person in a room full of smoke, get him on the floor, tie his hands together loosely with a towel or suspenders; if you have no cord, throw the. end of his coat over his face around your neck, and he is on the floor below you; then crawl out on all fours, straddling him as you drag him. If some one is cut ofi, up aloft, so he must jump, let half a dozen men hold a canvas blanket or other strong cloth for him to jump on. Hold it as high as you can with its centre about twelve feet from the baseof the wall, and he can jump safely from a great height. Of course, you can help him to hit it by moving it to fit his jump after he is started. Keep all doors and windows closed as much as possible to cut OR the draft. But always see that the alarm has gone in. Sleep Outdoors As you drive through New England in the evening, summer, or winter, you must notice a great many beds out of doors, on piazza or on sun-deck. Many of these are beds of persons who are sufiering from lung trouble. They have found out that this is the way to cure it. Some of them are the beds of persons who fear lung trouble and this they know is the way to evade it. Take, then, this lesson: If possible, every boy should sleep out of doors as much as possible; not on the ground, and not in the wind, but in a bed, warm, dry, and rainproof, and he will be the better for it. 168) 169) Health Hints The Life Force Brenthing Walking Neu-sightedness—Remedy Dry Footgeu Reedy Help - Revive from Drowning Sunstroke HEALTH Burns and Scslds Hemon'lmge Cuts 1nd Wounds Lightning Shock—Nervous Couspse Fainting Mad Dog—Snake Bite Insect Stings Cinders in Eye t- ___._. 0 170) 171) HEALTH Health Hints The law of the Woodcraft Boys is “understand and respect your body—it is the temple of the spirit.” Most of the joy in living comes from a healthy body, every part of which is in perfect order and'running smoothly. Health means activity. Only a body which has been used and tried will radiate vitality. There was a time when the body was spoken of as a thing to be ashamed of, as something to hinder one from achieving the worthwhile things. In those days men spoke of spiritual things and worldly things ,thinking they were distinct and separate—forgetting thatgS the things of the spirit work themselves out through the body. The most beautiful thing in the world is the human body and the most wonderful. Cherished with this idea. the muscles become beautiful and strong, the skin clean and firm. Such a body is fit to meet the struggles of life and has a reserve force to meet the call of emergency. Most of us start with a good body and it is our sacred duty to keep it so. Here are a few rules for you to follow: 1. Carry yourself well. Throw your shoulders back. Ex- pand your chest. Don’t slouch. 2. Breathe deeply. Practise proper breathing. Have as large a chest expansion as possible. 3. Learn to sleep properly. Get at least eight hours and if possible nine. Have plenty of fresh air in your room. 4. Accustom your body to the air. Make sure your muscles of the back and stomach are in the best of condition. Use the wet and dry rub down frequently—every day. Ac- custom your body to firmness, avoid any tendency toward softness. 5. Eat simple food—avoid stimulants. Check any habits of drinking soft stufi, over-eating candy. Stop when you have eaten enough. 6. Above all be clean Bathe frequently and carefully. See that all parts of the body are cleansed thoroughly and regularly. 139 172) r40 Woodcraft Manual for Boys The Life Force By Dr. Valeria Parker The greatest force in the Universe is known as the Life Force. Although common to every living thing, it has never been understood by philosophers nor has it been created by scientists. We know, however, that in whatever form it manifests itself, the Life Force has three powers—~growth, assimilation, and con-‘ tinuation of its own life through new lives. This last is the great- power by which our world, with‘its many forms of plant and animal life, is renewed, throughout the ages. We call this power reproduction. In plants and animals, reproduction takes place through definite laws and at definite seasons, controlled by the force we call Nature. In human beings, reproduction, or parenthood, is governed by mind and spirit, but if uncontrolled, instead of being a force of life and happiness, it becomes a means of degradation of body, mind, and spirit, leading to destruction. Because of the great importance of the Life Force in human beings, reproductive power is not fully received until about the fourteenth year. During and after this time, special facts should be known and understood in order that the body may receive proper care and that character and self-control may be developed. Therefore, now that you have passed the years of childhood and- since you are responsible for the care of your own body and the development of your. own character you should know the special laws governing human life. When it is understood, reverenced, and guided in the right direction, the Life Force, when not concerned in parenthood, is used in strengthening the body and the mind. As this great force becomes a part of your life and is given into your keeping, it becomes your privilege to know the facts concerning it for the development of bodily strength and moral character. Some of this information you may get from books concerning which your Guide will advise you. From older persons whom you respect you may learn important truths. Never should you seek facts from those who by word or action show that they would treat lightly or even degrade the Power of Life; After you begin to understand the true meaning of manhood, you will resolve that you will hold your share in the “Life of the Ages” as a sacred trust to be used in service to others as well as the devel- opment of your own best self. .. __ -h_ -. . Ah _.l.“_ A .h__ r- { 173) WW}... '. Things to Know and Do 14! Breathing “Shut Your Mouth and Save Your Life" was the title of an essay by George Catlin, a famous outdoor man, who lived among the Indians, and ,wrote about them 1825 to ’40. In this he pointed out that it is exceedingly injurious to breathe through your mouth; that, indeed, many persons injured their lungs by taking in air that was not strained and warmed first through the nose, and in many cases laid the foundation of diseases which killed them. ‘ Don’t Turn Out Your Toes Too Much When you see a man whose toes are excessively turned out, you may knows he was born and brought up on sidewalks. He is a poor walker and will not hold out on an all-day tramp. The mountaineer and the Indian scout always keep their feet nearly straight. It is easier on the feet, it avoids corns and bunions, and it lengthens the stride; makes, in short, a better traveller. A glance at his tracks will tell you how a person walks. The Keen Eyes of the Indian. > Do You Wish to Have Them? Near-sighkdness. An eminent eye doctor, Dr. W. H. Bates of New York, has found out how you can have sight as keen and eyes as good as those of the Indians who live out of doors. After eight years’ study of the subject he has established the following: , a. The defect known as near-sight or short-sight seldom exists at birth, but is acquired. b. Besides being acquirable, it is preventable and in some cases curable. c. It comes through continual use of the eye for near objects only, during the years of growth. The Remedy. The remedy is, give the eye regular muscular exercise every day for far-sight by focussing it for a few minutes on distant objects. It is not enough to merely look at the far-ofi landscapes. The eye must be definitely focussed on something, like print, before the necessary muscular adjustment is perfect and the eflect obtained. _ The simplest way to do this is—get an ordinary eye testing card, such as is sold for a nickel at any optician’s. Hang it up 174) r42 Woodcraft Manual for Boys as far 03 as possible in the schoolroom and use it each day. Train your eyes to read the smallest letters from your seat. By such exercises during the years of growth almost all short—sight, or near-sight, and much blurred sight or astig- matism, may be permanently prevented. An interesting proof is found by Dr. Casey Wood in the fact that while wild animals have good sight, caged animals that have lost all opportunities for watching distant objects are generally myopic or short-sighted. In other words, nature adapts the tool to its job. Dry Footgear A certain minister knowing I had much platform experience said to me once: “How is it that your voice never grows husky in speaking? No matter how well I may be my voice often turns husky in the pulpit.” He was a thin, nervous man, very serious about his work and anxious to impress. I replied: “You are nervous before preaching, which makes your feet sweat. Your socks are wet when you are in the pulpit, and the sympathy between soles and voice is well known. Put on dry socks just before entering the pulpit and you need not fear any huskiness.” He looked amazed and said: “You certainly have sized me up all right. I’ll try next Sunday.” I have not seen him since and don’t know the result, but- I know that the principle is sound—wet feet, husky throat. READY HELP To Revive from Drowning (I) As soon as the patient is in a safe place, loosen the cloth- ing, if any. (2) Empty the lungs of water, by laying the body breast down, and lifting it by the middle, with the head hanging down. Hold thus for a few seconds, till the water is evidently out. (3) Turn the patient on his breast, face downward. (4) Give artificial respiration thus: by pressing the lower ribs down and forward toward the head, then release. Repeat about twelve times to the minute. (5) Apply warmth and friction to extremities, rubbing toward the heart. (6) DON’T GIVE UPI Persons have been saved after 4")— ‘l ’ A __h'__n 175) v v-—~ _ w-fi .V—— Things to Know and Do :43 hours of steady efiort, and after being under water over twenty minutes. (7) When natural breathing 1s reestablished, put the patient into warm bed, with hot-water bottles, warm drinks, or stimu- lants, in teaspoonfuls, fresh air, and quiet. Let him sleep, and all will be well. Sunstroke (1) Reduce the temperature of the patient and the place— that is, move the patient at once to a cooler spot, if possible, in the shade. (2) Loosen or remove the clothing about the neck and body. (3) Apply cold water or ice to the head and body, or even wrap the patient in sheets wet from time to time with cold water. (4) Use no stimulant, but allow free use of cold water to drink. Burns and Scalds Exclude the air by covering the burn with a thin paste of baking-soda, starch, flour, vaseline, 'olive oil, linseed oil, castor- oil, lard, cream, or cold cream. Cover the burn first with the smear; next with a soft rag soaked in the smear. Shock always accompanies severe burns, and must be treated. Hemorrhage, or Internal Bleeding This is usually from the lungs or stomach. If from the lungs, the blood is bright-red and frothy, and is coughed up; if from the stomach, it is dark, and is vomited. Cause the patient to lie down, with head lower than body. Small pieces of ice should be swallowed, and ice-bags, or snow, cold water, etc., applied to the place whence the hemorrhage comes. Hot applications may be applied to the extremities, but avoid stim- ulants, unless the patient is very weak. Cuts and Wounds After making sure that no dirt or foreign substance is in the wound, the first thing 15 tight bandaging—to close it and stop the bleeding. The more the part is raised above the heart—the force-pump—the easier it is to do this. If the blood comes out in spurts, it means an artery has been cut; for this, apply a twister or tourniquet—that is, make a big 176) r44 Woodcraft Manual for Boys knot in a handkerchief, tie it round the limb, with the knot just . above the wound, and twist it round with a stick till the flow is stopped. Lightning To revive one stunned by a thunderbolt, dash cold water over him. Shock or Nervous Collapse A person suffering from shock has pale, dull face, cold skin, feeble breathing, rapid, feeble pulse, listless, half-dead manner. Place him on his back with head low. Give stimulants, such as hot tea or cofiee, or perhaps one drink of spirits. Never remove the clothing, but cover the person up. Rub the limbs and place hot-water bottles around the body. Most persons recover in time, without aid, but those with weak hearts need help. Fainting Fainting is caused by the arrest of the blood supply to the brain, and is cured by getting the heart to correct the lack. To aid 'in this have the person lie down with the head lower than the body. Loosen the clothing. Give fresh air. Rub the limbs. Use smelling-salts. Do not let him get up until fully recovered. Mad Dog or Snake Bite Put a tight cord or bandage around the limb between the wound and the heart. Suck the wound many times and wash it with hot water to make it bleed. Burn it with strong ammonia or caustic or a white-hot iron; or cut out the wounded parts with a sharp knife or razor, if you cannot get to a doctor. Insect Stings Wash with oil or weak ammonia, or verysalt water, or paint with iodine. Cinders or Sand in the Eye Can be removed with the corner of a handkerchief, or the wet end of a tiny roll of soft paper. Io. 177) Thhgs to Know and Do

Books Recommended

“FIRST AID,” by Major Charles Lynch. P. Blakiston Sons & Co., 1017 Walnut St,, Philadelphia, 1911. 30 cents

PATRIOTISM AND CITIZENSHIP

Patriotism and religion are the finest expressions in the life of man. His first impulse in life is for self-protection, his second to protect his family, and his third to protect his land and nation. Patriotism is a love of nation which begins in self-control and family love. It compels one to forget self and do the best thing for the nation. The waving of flags, the singing of hymns, the great celebrations indicate its existence. But it appears in its finest form in citizenship, when men and women strive to see that righteousness and justice are done. f It means careful study of the conditions of life existing in the nation and having thoughtful and positive opinions as to how these con- ditions may be bettered. It means casting a vote at every op- portunity for the best man and the best cause. More than this, it means doing always what you conceive to be right and in- sistence that the affairs of the community be conducted on this same principle. It means the greatest good to the greatest num— ber. It means libraries, night schools, and playgrounds, and looks after garbage disposal, hospitals, and health laws. It means the elimination of corruption in every form, whether in government, in society, or private life—it means in public life the conscience ' ‘of the individual. While patriotism and citizenship are the same to young and old, they mean one thing to a young person and more to a grown-up. To the older person they entail the serious matter of voting, of holding office, of cooperating with others in achieving good government. To the Woodcraft Boy it means duty well done in home, in school, on the playground and street, in his relations with his friends and acquaintances. It means taking seriously the club, the class, the Woodcraft Tribe— any organization to which he belongs. These things are vital, and only one who lives wisely and well as a young person will be able to do his best in maturity. Guided by these principles, a Woodcrafter, young or old, votes for the best and does not decide the 1ssue on friendship or selfish in- terest. The Woodcrafter grown up always votes for the best fitted, never- takes office because it is an honor merely, but con- siders it a sacred duty. The Woodcrafter in school, club, Tribe, or other group recognizes his responsibility to see that right is 178) r46 Woodcraft Manual for Boys done—heis conscious that the greatest need of his time is that of strong men and women who will want the best and see that it is obtained. This is patriotism and citizenship—that you know your home- land as well as you can, that you love it so well that you give to it your best, that your homeland may be a place of right thinking and right living to all, rich and poor, young and old, strong and weak. Books Recommended- Speeches, Poems, and Recitation: Anson DAY, Robt. Haven Schaufller. Moflat, Yard & Co. $2.00 Crnrsms, Robt. Haven Schaufiler. Mofi'at, Yard & Co. Snoo FLAG DAY, Robt. Haven Schaulfiier. Mofiat, Yard & Co. Sroo INDEPENDENCE DAY, Robt. Haven Schaufller. Mofl‘at, Yard & Co. 8r.oo Lmoom’s Brnrnmv, Robt. Haven Schaufiler. Moflat, Yard & Co. $1.00 MEuonrAL DAY, Robt. Haven Schaumer. Moflat, Yard 8: Co. 81.00 _ _.g It is a good rule in hiking to set out with the idea of keeping the party together, having a pleasant time, and seeing interesting things, rather than of showing how hardy you are. It 15 as bad as trying to show how smart you are. Do not try to make a record. Record breakers generally come to grief in the end. ' Take a few boys, not more than a dozen, and set out determined to be moderate. Plan a moderate trip of which not more than half the time must be consumed in going and coming. For example, if it is Saturday afternoon and you must be home by six o’clock, having thus four hours, divide the time into two hours’ travel, going and coming, and two hours’ exploration or sight-seeing. Three miles is a moderate walk for one hour, so that should be the limit of distance that ordinarily you tramp from your starting'point. At five o’clock all hands should be ready to face homeward. In a large city it may be that the hike will be taken to a park, to a museum, or to a place or point of historical interest. In this connection it might be well for some member of the tribe to make a list of the interesting historical places, of the museums of vari- ous kinds, of interesting buildings, including any manufacturing plants; and have this list ready when it is decided to take a hike. The following are some of the rules which have been found good in hiking: Do not go in new shoes. .(Y; 179) V ' ' ','— "" 'Jfi "'— "I' ‘wfiu “V wv—v fi|1~ Things to Know and Do . 147 Make sure that your feet are comfortable. (A comfortable shoe is not too tight nor too loose.) See that your stockings are without holes and. ordinarily with- out large dams. (When going on a long hike it is well to take an extra pair of stockings with you.) In walking keep your toes practically straight ahead of you. Whalkmgl ' with your feet turned out is tiring and results in foot trou e. Try to have the members of the group of similar age and physical ability. If going in the country it is well to take a tape line, knife, some string, and some matches. A compass and a pocket level and a map also are of value in many cases A notebook and pencil are of great value. Remember that the value of the hike is in doing things which you cannot do at home, and last and most important it is wise to set out with a definite object. Here are some of the objects for a ' short hike: To determine that hard maple or any other timber does or does not grow in such woods or such a park. To see how many kinds of trees can be discovered in a given place, or how many kinds of wild flowers. To practise the building of fires of wildwood material. To have a practical demonstration in cooking. To get acquainted with the birds. To learn the geological formation of a certain rock or ledge. To get 100 straight rods, 30 inches long; to make an Indian bed of willow, hazel, red willow (kinikinik) arrow-wood, etc. To get wood for rubbing sticks or the fire-bow. To get horns for a Caribou dance. If there' is snow, to take, by the tracks, a census of a given woods, making full-size drawings of each track—that is four tracks, one for each foot, and also give the distance to the next set. Most important of all, remember that though it is wise to start with an object, it is still wiser to change whenever some much more alluring pursuit or opportunity turns up. Any one who sticks to a plan merely because he started that way, when it turns out to be far from the best, is not only unwise—he is stupid and obstinate. Make sure that as you travel to the point you have selected that your eyes and ears are open to see the hundreds of interest- ing tlfmgs that may be seen along the roadside. 180) r48 . Woodcraft Manual for Boys Books Recommended Bovs’ Boox or HIKING, Edward Cave. Published by Doubleday, Page 8: Co. Price .50 cents , Sign Language From the “Book of Woodcraft,” by permission of Ernest Thompson Seton. Doubleday, Page & Co. Price, Sr. 75 Do you know the Sign Language? If not, do you realize that the Sign Language is an established mode of communication in all parts of the world without regard to native speech? Do you know that it is so refined and complete that sermons and lectures are given in it every day, to those who cannot hear? Do you know that it is as old as the hills and is largely used in all public schools? And yet when I ask boys and girls this question, “Do you use the Sign Language?” they nearly always say (‘ No.” Why should you talk the Sign Language? There are many reasons: In this code you can talk to any other Woodcrajter without an outsider knowing or understanding. It makes conversation easy in places when you must not speak aloud, as in school, during music, or by the bedside of the sick. It is a means of far-signalling much quicker than semaphore or other spelling codes, for this gives one or more words in one sign. It will enable you to talk when there is too much noise to be heard, as across the noisy streets. It makes it possible to talk to a deaf person. It is a wonderful developer of observation. It is a simple means of talking to an Indian or a Woodcrafter of another nationality whose language you do not understand. This indeed is its great merit. It is universal. It deals not with words but with ideas that 'are common to all mankind. It is therefore a kind of Esperanto already established. So much for its advantages; what are its weaknesses? Let us frankly face them: , It is useless in the dark; It will not serve on the telephone; It can scarcely be written; In its pure form it will not give new proper names. To meet the last two we have expedients, as will be seen, but the first two are insurmountable difficulties. - Al“. ,._ h;— I- #IL. 1‘. A‘"I-.‘- —".—~

IA

181) v.‘ J, W ll U‘ Things to Know and Do 149 Remember, then, you are to learn the Sign Language because it is silent, far-reaching, and the one universal language. Since it deals fundamentally with ideas, we avoid words and letters, but for proper names it is very necessary to know the one- hand manual alphabet. Here are some of the better known. Each boy will probably find that he has known and used them all his schooldays: You (pointing at the person); Me (tapping one’s chest); My, mine, yours, possession, etc. Hold out the closed fist, thumb up, and swing it down a little so thumb points forward. Yes (nod). When far 0E, make your right hand, with all fingers closed except index and thumb which are straight and touching at top, advance, bend toward the left side as though bowing, then returned and straight again. No (head shake). When too far for that to be seen, hold the closed right hand in front of the body, then sweep it, out- ward and downward, at the same time turn the palm up as though throwmg something away. Eat) (throw the flat hand several times past the mouth in a curve ; , Drink (hold the right hand as though holding a cup near the mouth and tip it up); Sleep (lay the right check on the right flat hand); Look (flat hand over eyes); Look there (point and look in same direction); Touch (reach out and touch with index); Listen (flat hand behind ear); Whisper (silently move lips, holding flat hand at one side of mouth); Silence or hush (forefinger across lips); I will not listen (hold flat hands on cars); I will not look (cover eyes with hands); Taste (lay finger on lip); Smell (hold palm to nose); That tastes good (smack the lips); The food was good (pat the stomach); Bad taste ' cc and s itting out); Bad smell hold the nose); Thus “Will you eat ?” would be a Question, you eat, but Have you eaten? would be, Question, you eat, finished. Drinking (lift right hand to mouth as though it held a glass); Smoking (make as though holding a pipe and drawing); Paint (use flat right as a brush to paint flat left); 182) 150 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Shave (use finger or thumb on face as a razor); Wash (revolve hands on each other as in washing); Bond (with right hand bend left index); Break (with fists touching, make as though to bend a stick, then swing the fists apart); Write (make the action with index); Strike (strike down with fist), Fighting (make the fists menace each other); Set it afire (sign match, and then thrust it forward); Drive horses (work the two fists, side by side); ' Finished or done (hold out the flat left hand palm to the right, then with flat right hand and chop down past the ends of the left fingers); Search me (hold the coat flaps open in each hand); Swim (strike out with flat hands) ; _ Dive (flat hands together moved in a curve forward and down); Will you come swimming ? (first and second fingers raised and spread, others closed); Good (nod and clap hands), Bad (shake head and grimace) , ”Very “very much,” is made by striking the right fist down past the knuckles of the left without quite touching them, the left being held still; Hot (wet middle finger in mouth, reach it forward and jerk it back); Cold (fists near shoulder and shaken); Good-bye (hand high, flat, palm down, fingers wagged all to- . gether) , Thank you (a slight bow, smile and hand-salute, made by draw- ing flat hand a few inches forward and downward palm up); Su)rrender (both hands raised high and flat to show no wea- pons ; I am thinking it over (forefinger on right brow and eyes raised); I orgot (touch forehead with all right finger tips, then draw flat nd past eyes once and shake head); I wind him around my finger (make action with right thumb ‘ and index around left index); I have him under my thumb (press firmly down with top of right thumb); Sleepy (put a fist in each eye), Bellyache (with hands clasped across the belly), Sick (a grimace and a limp dropping of hands) , Go (move hand forward, palm first), Come (draw hand toward one’ s self, palm in); .a 183) Things to Know and Do Harry (same, but the hand quickly and energetically moved several times); Come for a moment (hand held out back down, fingers closed excep)t first, which is booked and straightened quickly several times ; Stop (flat hand held up; palm forward); Gently or Go easy (like “stop,” but hand gently waved from side to side); Get up (raise fiat hand sharply, palm upward); Sit doum (drop flat hand sharply, palm d;own) Rub it out (quickly shake flat hand from side to side, palm forward); Up (forefinger pointed and moved upward); Down (ditto downward); Way or road (hold both flat hands nearly side by side, palms up, but right one nearer the breast, then alternately lift them forward and draw them back to indicate track or feet travelling); Forward (swing index forward and down in a curve); Backward (jerk left hand over shoulder); Across (hold left hand out flat, palm down, run right index across it); Over and above (hold out flat left, palm down, and above it hold ditto right), Under (reverse or foregoing); I t s in my pocket (slap pocket with flat hand), I send you a kiss (kiss finger tips and move hand in graceful sweep toward person), I pray (clasped hands held up), I a)»: afraid, or surrender (hold up both flat hands palm for- ward I forget (slowly shake head, and brush away something in air, near the nose); I am seeking (looking about and pointing finger 1n same di- rections) , I have my doubts (slowly swing head from side to side); You surprise me (flat hand on open mouth) , Connivance (winking one eye); Puzzled (scratch the head); ' Crazy (tap forehead with index then describe a circle with it); Despair (pulling the hair); Wgeping (with index finger at each eye, trace course of tears , Friendship (hands clasped); Threatening (fist shaken at person); 184) 152 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Warning (forefinger gently shaken at a slight angle toward person); S corn (turning away and throwing an imaginary handful of sand toward person); I nsolent defiance (thumb to nose tips, fingers fully spread); I ndiflerence (a shoulder shrug); Ignorance (a shrug and headshake combined); Arrogant (indicate swelled head), Pompous (indicate a big chest), Incredulity (expose white of eye with finger, as though prov- ing no green there), Shame on you (right forefinger drawn across left toward person several times); You make me ashamed (cover eyes and face with hands); M ockery (stick tongue at person); Disdain (snap fingers toward person); Applause (silently make as though clapping hands); ‘ Victory (one hand high above head as though waving hat), He is crass (forefinger crossed level), Fool or ass (a thumb 1n each ear, flat hands up); Cutthraat (draw index across throat); I am no fool (tap one side of the nose); Joke (rub side of nose with index); Upon my honor (with forefingers make a cross over heart), I beg of you (flat hands tight together and upright), Do you think me simple ? (forefinger laid on side of nose); Will you ? or,is isit so ? (eyebrows raised and slight bow made), Bar up, fins, or I claim exemption (cross second finger of right hand on first finger and hold hand up); P_overty (both hands turned flat forward near trouser pockets); Bribe (hand held hollow up behind the back); 01:1); me (hold out open flat hand pulling it back a little to finish , . I give you (the same, but push forward to finish); Pay (hand held out half open, forefinger and thumb rubbed together), Give me my bill (same, then make motion of writing), ' ‘ Church (hands clasped, fingers m, but index fingers up and touching); 1)€evolver (hold out right fist with index extended and thumb Up , Gun or shooting (hold hands as in aiming a gun); Match (make the sign of striking a match on the thigh); Jew (flat hands waved near shoulders palm up), 4 1- I»- Ann-r". ._.. "ad-4:.- 1-— :‘5 Am I. A w- Ant.” .(‘_ L‘s-1.- 185) "rm"! “W“ “V" 'v If I WWW M": V 1W": _Things to Know and Do 153 Knife (first and second fingers of right hand used as to Whittle first finger of left); House. Hold the flat hands together like a roof. Pistol (making barrel with left hand, stock and hammer with right, snap right index on‘ thumb); Query.' The sign for Ques- tion—that is, “I am asking you a question,” “I want to know”—is much used and important. Hold up the right hand toward the person, palm forward, fingers open, slightly curved and spread. Wave the hand gently by wrist action from side to side. It is used before, and sometimes after, all questions. If you are very near, merely raise the eyebrows. The following are needed in asking questions: How'Many? First the Question sign, then hold the left hand open, curved, palm up, fingers spread, then with right digit quickly tap each finger of left in succession, closing it back toward the left palm, beginning with the little finger. How Much ? Same as How many 1’ What 7' What are you doing? What do you want? What is it? First give Question, then hold right hand palm down, fingers slightly bent and separated, and, pointing forward, throw it about a foot from right to left several times, describing an arc upward. When ? If seeking a definite answer as to length of time, make signs for Question, How much, and then specify time by sign for hours, days, etc. When asking in general “When” for a date, hold the left index extended and vertical, others and thumb closed, make a circle round left index tip with tip of extended right index, others and thumb closed; and when the index reaches the starting point, stop it, and point at tip of left index (what point of shadow?). ' Where 7 (What direction?) Question, then with forefinger sweep the horizon in a succession of bounds, a slight pause at the bottom of each. Whiqh ? Question, then hold left hand in front of you with 186) 154 Woodcraft Manual for Boys palm toward you, fingers to right and held apart; place the end of the right forefinger on that of left forefinger, and then draw it down across the other fingers. sssss isms , . i3. 3 . ' ‘9 sssss 7 2% % s Why ? Make the sign for Question, but do it very slowly. Who 2’ Question, and then describe with the right forefinger ‘ a. small circle six inches 1n front of the mouth. -34 _4.-w —_ g

  1. 9.,

187) “NY . Things to Know and Do 155 It takes a good-sized dictionary to give all the signs in use, and a dictionary you must have, if you would become an expert. A very pretty Woodcraft sign is given as follows: First, give the Question sign, then make an incomplete ring of your right forefinger and thumb, raise them in a sweep until above your head, then bring the ring straight down to your heart. This is the Indian way of asking, “Is the sun shining in your heart? ”— that isa “Are you happyP”—your answer will be made by the right hand and arm standing up straight, then bowing toward the , left, followedby a sharp stroke of the right fist knuckles past those of the left fist without their touching, which means: “Yes, the sun shines in my heart heap strong.” Picture-writing The written form of Sign Language is the picture-writing also called Pictography and Ideograp , because it represents ideas and not words or letters. It is widely believed that Sign Language is the oldest of all languages; thatindeed it existed among animals before man appeared on earth. It is universally accepted that the ideography is the oldest of all writing. The Chinese writing for instance is merely picture-writing done with as few lines as possible. Thus, their curious character for ”Hearing” was once a com- plete picture of a person listening behind a screen, but in time it was reduced by hasty hands-to a few scratches; and “War,” now a few spider marks, was originally a sketch of “two women in one house.” , To come a little nearer home, our alphabet is said to be descended from hieroglyphic ideographs. “A,” or “Ah,” for- example, was the sound of an ox repre- sented first by an outline of an ox, then of the head, which in various modifications, through rapid writing, became our “A.” “O” was a face saying “Oh,” now simplified into the round shape of the mouth. Sm: INDMNScouT PIGTOGRAPHS gnu-j” ."u gun or'ch, CUfl‘¢J‘¢t "9°" "helm funk 188) 156' Woodcraft Manual for Boys “S” was a serpent hissing. It is but little changed to-day. We may also record our Sign Language in picture—writing,"- as was the custom of many Indian tribes, and we shall find it worth while for several reasons: It is the Indian special writing; it is picturesque and useful for decoration; and it can be read by any Indian no matter what language he speaks. Indeed, I think it probable that a pictograph inscription dug up 10,000 years from now would be read, whether our language was mm + fir Mr eoflov in mm. In Timur, H but!) Joan" 6‘41}! $23“ UH CI“ INN ) '¢ _ )K - Iii Y. v H L y "I 3&~ A a) a a a . A. 7”“7.‘ W“ F‘Edul rum we mm min fo fall i8 tn.)- M‘“ " "I!" track: turmr onf‘nil r ,1 ,k -r. understood or not. When the French Government set up the Obelisk of Luxor in Paris and wished to inscribe it for all time, they made the record, not in French or Latin, but in pictographs. It is, moreover, part of my method to take the child through the stages of our race development, just as the young bird must run for a send-05, before it flies, so pictography being its earliest form 15 the natural first step to writing. In general, picture-writing aims to give on paper the idea of the Sign Language without first turning it into sounds. In the dictionary of Sign Language is given the written form after each of the signs that has a well-established or possible symbol. Many of these are drawn from the Indians who were among the best scouts and above noted for their use of the picture—writing. A few of them will serve to illustrate. H l l 0' (33211:)? JV 9!! 1V" V! 1"" WK Numbers were originally fingers held up, and five was the whole hand, while ten was a double hand. We can see traces of this origin in the Roman style of numeration. A one-night camp, a more permanent camp, a village and a town are shown 1n legible symbols. _ &_.,_Jt _l. 'h 189) Things to Know and Do :57 iv _ An enemy, sometimes expressed as a “snake,” recalls our own “snake in the grass.” A “ friend” was a man with a branch 5— of a tree; because this was commonly used as a. flag of truce and ‘F k Woman Bad P @ B by a Water 8. 5: k @) Good water Scout Good water in arrow U 5 @fl flights 3 coating p g One-night camp ,7 Question L A More permanent camp r X. Yes 1493 v. L O No r K ‘ Doubtful 89 Town } <« "L Peace _?_ Heap or many I have found V ”("1“ <3) 3 ' . 881' Surrender }’ § % Grizzly bear JL_ mm" 934’ Chipmunk l‘ . x ‘I' Enemy & Dead bear

_ ,6 Friend ' 11X

Treaty of peace '1' 190) 158 Woodcraft Manual for Boys had indeed the same meaning as our olive branch. The tree is easily read; it was a pair of figures like this done in Wampum that recorded Penn’s Treaty. ' > “Good” is sometimes given as a circle full of lines all straight and level, and for "bad” they are crooked and contrary. The wavy lines stood for water, so good water is clearly indicated. lg" . ‘—"' Level V Snow Moon or January "—9 Direction forward Hunger Moon or Febru- ary Direction Mmrd ' Crow Moon Sun or day m" Grass Moon or April Sunrise Planting Moon or May Sunset Ro e M Noon 5 oon or June Night Thunder Moon or July Red Moon or Green Day back one, or yes- Corn A t tenday Da forward one ' tX-morrow ’ or Heating Moon Septem. r M th oon, or mon Leaf - Falling Moon §<rilgseei @(éCCt’G-QQCECCQQ Rain October . ’Mad Moon November 4%” Snow ()5 Year (or snow round to 9 Long Night Moon De- . mow) oember The three arrows added mean that at three arrows’ flight in that direction, that is a quarter mile, there is good, water. If there was but one arrow and it pointed straight down that meant “good water here,” if it pointed down and outward it meant “good water at a little distance.” If the arrow was raised to carry far, it meant “ good water a long way ofi there.” This sign was of the greatest value in the dry country of the South- ' March the Wakening or - Jr. _ ,4.) 4 191) 'T V ‘vVl-r’ 7_ Things to Know and Do 159 west. Most Indian lodges were decorated with pictographs depicting in some cases the owner’s adventures, at other times his prayers for good luck or happy dreams. The old Indian sign for peace, three angles all pointing one way that is “agreed,” contrasts naturally with the “war” or “ trouble” sign, in which they are going difierent ways or against each other. a An animal was represented by a crude sketch in which its chief character was shown, thus chipmunk was a small animal with long tail and stripes. Bear was an outline bear, but grizzly bear had the claws greatly exaggerated. When the animal was killed, it was represented on its back with legs up. Each chief, warrior, and scout had a totem, a drawing of which stood for his name or for himself. ifs" @VWr A man’s name is expressed by his totem; thus, the above means, To-day, 20th Sun Thunder Moon. After three days “Deerfoot,” Chief of the Flying Eagles, comes to our Standing Rock Camp. ' When a man was dead officially or actually, his totem was turned bottom up. Here is a copy of the inscription found by Schoolcraft on the grave post of Wa- bojeeg, or White Fisher, a famous Ojibway chief. He was of the Caribou clan. On the top is his clan totem reversed, and on the bottom the White Fisher; the seven {Egrks on the left were war parties he The three marks in the middle are for wounds. The moose head is to record a desperate fight he had with a bull moose, while his success in war and in peace are also stated. This inscription could be read only ~ ' by those knowing the story, and is rather as a memory help than an exact record. - .- — .— ‘— .- ’- .— - 192) 160 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Weather Signals (Adopted for general use by the United States Signal Sérvice on and after March 1, 1887.) ‘i y. No. I ~ No. ’No. 5.. ‘ White Flag Blue Flu Black Triangular BWhite Elia; White and Blue lP-i Clear or Fair Rain or Snow Temperature Cold Wave Local Rain or Snow No. 1, white flag, clear or fair weather, no rain. No. 2, blue flag, rain or snow. _ No. 3, black triangular flag, refers to temperature, and above Nos. 1 or 2 indicates warmer weather; below No. I or 2, colder weather, and when not displayed, station- ary Weather. No. 4, white flag with black centre (cold wave flag), sudden fall in temperature; this signal is usually ordered at least twenty-four hours in advance of the cold wave. It is not displayed unless a temperature of forty-five de- grees or less is expected, nor is flag No. 3 ever dis- played with it. No. 5, means local rain or snow; with 3 above it means with higher temperature; and with 3 below it means lower temperature. ' A~ red flag with a black centre indicates that a storm of marked violence is expected. Display Examples ' . r 11.; s ' Warmer. my Cold Wave. rm Mel/egathu-h nge‘io' Weather. followed by Weather ., Rain or Snow _4_L ___J1_ 4&4;.-L_{2__ _ -Il ‘1‘.-.wa .J—A— .fia— _ ‘ AAA. 193) A ‘W’ WHH‘MI' f‘r' s? Things to Know and Do 161' Storm and Hurricane Warnings FEES N. E. S. E. N W S. W. Harri. Winds. Winds Winds Winds cane . S'rour Wanmxcs. —A red flag with a black centre indicates a storm of marked violence. The 'nnants dis sELayed with flags indicate direction of wind—red. easterly; white. westery :pennant a ve flag indicates wind from northerly quadrants; below, from south- erl qu night a red lightb indicates easterly winds, white light below red, westerly winds. Two red flagswi black centres ind1cate approach 0 tropical hurricane. No night hurrieui'e signals are displayed Signals on the Railway Most of us are familiar with some of the signals given by brakemen, conductors, or engineers, but not so many of us have sat right down to inspect the code, as oflicially fixed. A con- ductor on the Canadian Pacific Railway allowed me to copy it out from his “Trainman’ s Book,” 1909, and since then I have been told that this 15 the code 1n unrversal use, so I give it in full. It consists of color signals, hand and lantern signals, toots and cord-pulls. It will add a new interest to the journey, at least when you can read the “Signs of the Iron Trail,” and the “Talk of the Iron Horse.” . ‘ The Code (From C. P. R. “Trainman’s Book," 1909, No. 7563; but in general use.) Colors: Red = stop. Green = Go ahead. Yellow = Go cautiously. Green and White=flag station. Stop at night. Blue=Workmen busy under car. Hand, Flag and Lamp Signals: Swung across track . . . . . Stop. Raised and lowered vertically . . . Go ahead. Swung at half-arms’ length, in small circle ’ acrOss track, train standing . . ‘ . Back up. 194) 162 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Swung vertically in a big circle at arms’ length across the track, when train is running . . . . . . . . Train broken in two. Swung horizontally above head, when train is standing . Put on air-brakes. Held at arms’ length above the head, when train is standing . . . . Release air-brakes. Other Hand Signals, modifications of the above: Hand (or hands) held out horizontally and waved up and down . . . . Goahead. Hand (or hands) suddenly drawn flat and horizontal . Stop. Sometimes hands raised and held palms forward . . . All right. Arm thrust forward and swept back opposite shoulders, as in beckoning . Come back. Signals by Engine Whistle: (o a short toot. -—- a long one) o = Stop; put on brakes. —- — = Take 03 brakes; get ready to start. — 000 = Flagman go out to protect rear of train. — -— — —— = Flagman returned from west or south. — — -— — —- = Flagman returned‘frorn. east or north. — —— — = (When returning) Train broken in two. To be repeated till answered by the same from the trainman, i. e., No. 4 in hand, flag, and lamp signals. Sim- ilarly, this is the answer to No. 4 of hand, flag, and lamp signals. 00 = (All right) the answer to any signal not otherwise provided for. 000 = (When the train is standing) back up; also is reply to signals to “back up.” 0000 = Call for signals. — oo = Calls attention of other trains to signals. 00 = The acknowledgment by other trains. —- — oo = Approaching grade-crossings, and at whistleposts. -— —- = Approaching stations. 0 — = (When double-heading) Air-brakes have failed on leading engine, and second 1 ‘1‘ a .4 .e X... ._ A ,y__ILA A. .m“) 195) 7 Things to Know and Do 163 engine is to take control of them. Second engine repeats same as soon as it has control. oooooooooo, etc. = Cattle (or persons) on the track. Air-whistle or Cord-pull: When the train is standing: Two blasts == Start. Three “ = Back. Four “ = Put on or take ofi brakes. Five “ = Call in flagman. When the train is running: (All but the 2d are answered by a blasts) Two blasts = Stop at once. Three “ = Stop at next station. Four “ = Reduce speed. Five “ = Increase speed. Six “ = Increase steam-heat. Seven “ = Release air-brakes, or stick- ing brake. The engineer responds to these with two short toots, meaning “All right,” except in the second, when the engineer answers in three short toots. Roof Camping and Gardening In our big cities where land is so valuable that an acre com- monly brings millions of dollars, we have long been pinched for playgrounds, and Woodcraft pursuits seem out of the question. All the cry of overstocked cities is for light and space. And with all this need, we have long shut our eyes to a most obvious and abundant supply. 'In New York, congested New York, for example, there are thousands of acres of open sunlight, well-ventilated unused space, which a very slight acquaintance with Oriental or Occidental nations would have taught us to use. We refer to the flat roofs of the houses. In Greater New York these must amount to nearly ten thousand acres; half at least of this ofiers good chances for roof camps or roof gardens. . A roof camp is now being considered under the guidance of the Woodcraft League. It has first a parapet all about, then a higher . wall of strong mesh wire. Along one side is a row of small “dog " 196) 164 Woodcraft Manual for Boys tents. In a brazier, secure in the middle of a stone hearth, is a fire. An elevator near by afiords a quick trip to the swimming tank in the basement. Some semblance of verdure is ofl'ered by vines and trailers in boxes; and thus, a hundred feet above the street, the boys or girls are in another world, and can dress and live much as in camp. Many little experiments are now being made to utilize these waste spaces; roof gardens are very possible to-day; flowers, fruit, and vegetables can be grown successfully, and even bird sanctu- aries are being attempted. These are not yet a success; but it seems likely that, with food, drink, shelter, protection, and nesting boxes supplied, we could in time induce some acceptable birds to found their little colonies in such places. English sparrows and starlings would doubtless be the first to respond, but there are some reasons for expecting success also with swallows, martins, nighthawks, sparrowhawks, screech-owls, pigeons, etc.; while some western species like the crimson house-finch might be brought in on trial. The whole field is open at present and almost unexplored, but it seems to be one of unusual promise. ' Individual Tally Book Every Woodcraft Boy should have an Individual Tally Book and notebook. Nothing adds so much to future enjoyment as such a record of achievements, exploits, and knowledge; to say nothing of the souvenirs in forms of photos, sketches, rhymes, and songs. It adds greatly to the interest and value if the book is bound in a leather cover which may be decorated in various ways. Indian Names for the Months Most all primitive people called the months “Moons.” The North American Indians particularly were noted for naming the msgndths quaintly and well. The following is a list which may be 1.1 (January) Snow, (February) Hunger, (March)- Crow or Wak- ening, (April) Wild Goose or Green Grass, (May) Planting, (June) Rose, (July) Thunder, (August) Green Corn or Red, (September) Hunting, (October) Falling Leaf, (November) Mad, (December) Long Night. _ _ 4.. _wmr~———(_—_- ._/I . . 197)

MARCH - Wakening or crow moon JUNE - Rose moon
APRIL - Wild goose or Green grass moon JULY - Thunder moon
MAY - Planting or Song moon AUGUST - Greencorn or Red moon

198)

SEPTEMBER - Hunting moon DECEMBER - Long night moon
OCTOBER - Falling-leaf moon JANUARY - Snow or Cold moon
NOVEMBER - Mad moon FEBRUARY - Hunger moon

199)

CHAPTER II

CAMPERCRAFT


Campercrat Rules
 Camping Out Inspections
  Outfitting Home of High Hikers
  Outfit for Six Woodcraft Council Ring
  Tents Councils
  Teepees Making Council Fire
 Running Camp Totem Pole
  Camp Grounds Beds
  Arriving Water
  Sanitation Mosquitoes
  Leadership Lighting a Fire
  Team Work Camp Cookery
  Camp Officers Cooking Without Utensils
  Camp Program Gee-String Camp
  Group Work Camp Horn

200) 201) CHAPTER II CAMPERCRAFT Camping Out Every boy who knows the fun and help of camping out looks forward to living in the open. Not so long ago camping out meant rou hing it in the extreme—sleeping in an uncom- fortable bed Without proper'clothing and food. Some of these things may be necessary at times, but the wise camper aims to ' live comfortably. Camping out offers a number of priceless benefits and is also beset by one or two dangers. Those who are wise campers get the good and avoid the dangers. The good things are the pure air, the bracing and lung-healing power of the woods, the sun bath, the tonic exercise, the nerve rest, and the joy that comes from control of mind and body. The bad things are the danger of rheumatism from sleeping on the ground in damp clothes, the exhaustion from bad nights through insufiicient bed clothes or an uncomfortable bed, and the discomfort and ill health arising from irregular meals and badly cooked food. ‘ By wisely selecting the equi ment, the place, and being in- formed regarding the simple es of camping, every Woodcraft Boy will find a camping out experience the biggest thing in his life and one he will look back on with great pleasure and for- ward to with the keenest anticipation. It can and should mean a return to the home with the body strong and healthy, the mind bright and happy, and the soul strengthened and fortified because of the experience of coming close to the earth in company with other boys of similar tastes. If any judgment is used in promptly changing wet clothes when not in action, in never sleeping directly on the ground, and in placing the bed in a dry place and that there is plenty of warm bedding, there will be no danger of either colds or rheu- matism. It is always wise to have some warm clothing es pecially for cold or damp weather. It is also good to go on the trip with a definite object. If the 169 202) r70 Woodcraft Manual for Boys camp is to be at the same place during the stay, it is well to decide before going to learn something about the trees, birds, flowers, camp cookery, etc., also to have a fairly definite idea as to how the days will be spent. Do not make the mistake of “ lazing around ” too much. The woods is a much safer place than home, though this is contrary to the average impression. If your eyes and ears are kept open, more interesting thingsthan can be counted will be found within a short distance. It may be that the change from the city to camp will be a sad— den one and that readjustment will be necessary. If the camper is a little homesick, it is well to fight it ofi and it will not be long before all will have the feeling old campers have. There will be something in the rippling lake, the green of the trees, the whisper- ing of the breeze, the sunlight, the blue sky, twilight in the woods, the smell of food cooking over the campfire, and the mystery of the campfire itself that will grip and call the camper back again. And through it all will come that control of muscle and mind that only the outdoor folk have. - OUTFITTING Outfit fora Party of Six (Camping One Week in Fixed Camp) I r 2-foot teepee (if for cold weather), accommodating five or six, not forgetting a storm-cap, Or, in summer, a 10 x 12 wall tent. 18 x Io'awning for kitchen and dining-room, in hot or wet weather. 5 yards mosquito-bar and some dope for stinging insects. 3 or 4 one-gallon bags of cotton for supplies. A few medicines and pill-kit or “first aid,” including cold cream, vaseline, or talcum wder for sunburn. I strong clothes line; of cord; ball of twine; ball of strong linen pack-thread. Axe. A sharp hatchet. Claw-hammer. Whetstone. Small crosscut saw. Spade. File. Packing needles and sewing-kit for repairing clothes. 203) r 11V '11? . Things to Know and Do 17: Nails: One lb. of 1}, two lbs. of 2:}, two lbs. of 3%, and one lb. of 5-inch. Soap. Mirror. Toilet paper. Waterper match-box. Cooking outfit: Either a ready-made, self-nesting “Buzza- cot,” or 3 cover-kettles, ro—qt. ., 4-qt., and 2-qt. (riveted, not soldered). r frying-pan, with handle and cover. 2 big spoons. 2 wire grills. I butcher knife. gawk? t an pepper casters. Dish pan. Cofiee-pot (riveted). - Dishcloths and towels. Folding lantern and supply of candles. And for each boy, plate, cup, saucer, also knife, fork, and 5 And such other things as are dictated by previous experience or for use in the games to be played. Besides which each member has ordinary clothes, with a change, and toilet-bag, also: A rubber blanket. 2 wool blankets. r cotton or burlap bed-tick, 2} x 6} ft. Bathing suit. A pair of‘ ‘sneaks” or sport shoes. Woodcraft suit. Fishing tackle, according to choice. Pocket knife. Food to last six boys one week: Assorted cereals (oatmeal, wheatena, etc.) . . . . . . 6 lbs. Rice . . . . . . . . . . 2 lbs. Crackers . . . . . . . . 10 lbs. Cocoa . . . . . . . . . lbs. Tea . . . . . . . . . . lb. Coffee . . . . . . . . . 3 lbs." Lard. . . . . . . . . . 5 lbs. Sugar . . . . . . . . 6 lbs. Condensedmilk . . . . . . 12 cans 204) 172 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Butter . . . . . . . . . 7 lbs. Eggs. . . . . . . . . . 3 dozen Bacon . . 15 lbs. Preserves (better still, fresh fruit if it canbeobtained). . . . . 5 lbs. Prunes . . . . . . . . . 3 lbs. Maple syrup . . . . . . . 3 quarts Cheese . . . . . . . . . I lb. Raisins . . . . . . . . . lbs. Potatoes . . . . . . . . bushel White beans. . . . . . . . 3 quarts Canned corn . . . . . . . 3 cans Flour . . . . . . . . 25 lbs. Baking-powder . . . . . . . 1 lb. Concentrated soups . . . . . § lb. Salt . . . . . . -. ' . . 2 lbs, Pepper . . . . . . . . . 1 ounce Sardines . . . . . . . ._ . 4 packages ‘ Dried beef . . . . . . . . I lb. Macaroni . 2 lbs. Fresh fish and game are pleasant variations, but seem to make little difierence 1n the grocery bill.

Tents There are many styles of small tents on the market; almost any of them answer very well. For those who wish to equip themselves with the latest and best, a IO 1: 12-foot wall tent of Io-ounce double-filled army duck, stained or dyed yellow, brown, or dull green, is best. It will accommodate a party of five or SIX. ' ' For tramping trips, light tents of waterproof silk are made. One large enough for a man weighs only two or three pounds. ~ Any of the established makers can supply what is needed if they know the size of the party and nature of the outing. Teepees The Indian teepee has the great advantage of ventilation and an open fire inside. It has the disadvantage of needing a lot of poles and of admitting some rain by the smoke-hole. A new style of teepee, invented by myself some years ago, has been quite successful, since it combines the advantage Lin. _._n__ _ -___ -l1._ ,‘h _ AA. .11 -p . Ll.__. -1 205) cof teepee and tent and needs only four poles besides the smoke-poles. It is, however, less picturesque than the old style.

This gives the great advantage of an open fire inside, and good ventilation, while it is quite rainproof.

It can be put up with four long poles outside the canvas, the poles crossing at the top as in the Indian teepee. Of course the point of the cover is attached before the poles are raised.

It may be got from D. T. Abercrombie & Co., 311 Broadway, New York.

RUNNING CAMP

Camp Grounds

In selecting a good camp ground the first thing to look for is a dry, level place, near good wood and good water. It is desirable to have the camp face the east and to have some storm break or shelter on the west and north; then it gets the morning sun and the afternoon shade in summer. Sometimes local conditions make a difierent exposure desirable. For obvious reasons it is well to be near one’s boat landing. Arriving at Camp As soon as all are on the ground with their baggage, locate the places for the tents (ordinarily this should be done in ad vance). If the camp is a large one let the leaders allot the locations. Try to have each tent about twenty-five feet from the next, in a place dry and easy to drain in case of rain and so placed as to have sun in the morning and shade in the afternoon. Trench each tent carefully. Pitch at a reasonable distance from the water supply and from the latrine. 206) r74 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Sanitation ' As soon as convenient appoint members to dig and prepare - a latrine, or toilet, with screen. It should be located some distance from the camp and from the water, so that there will be no ibility of contaminating the water. , All 'tter and refuse should be handled in such a way that the camp grounds are clean, that the garbage is kept covered till disposed of b burning or burying. Woodcraft camps are known for their cleanliness and for the fact that when the camp is over the grounds are as clear of filth, scraps, papers, cans, bottles, etc., as though no human being had ever been there. Anything which draws flies should be carefully avoided. Leadership Of course no group would go camping without having some one to act as the Guide or leader. The Guide should be in charge of the camp, supervise the swimming, games, the routine and daily life of the camp. He should decide matters of dispute and with the Tally Chief and Chief of the band, and any others they may care to add, decide matters which require decision. In large camps he will be assisted by assistant guides, each in charge of a group of boys, along with the Chief of each group. Team Work There is no place where team work is more needed than in camp. Here boys really “live ether,” and only as each and every member of the camp does ' part will the camp- be a complete success. This will mean that the work should be assigned daily to individuals or to groups, depending on the size of the camp. Even the first day rough assignments should be made and just as soon as everybody is settled down, methodic work should be begun. For small groups the following duties should be assigned: - First, Health Chief. Gather up and destroy all garbage each day at a given hour and inspect the latrine hourly and see that all keep the rules. Second, Mail Chief. Take all letters to the post and bring back all the mail. Third, Cook. Is responsible for the preparation of the meals for the day. ’ {1_. i i (p 207)

Things to Know. and Do 175 

Fourth, Cook’s Assistant. When there is sufficient work the assistant may get ice, or do other similar work. . Fifth, Cook’s Wood. Cut sufficient supply of wood for the cook’s use. Sixth, Council Fire Wood. Have the wood cut and laid for the Council Fire with suflicient supply for the evening. Must keep the Council Fire bright, not big, but never dull. These appointments in the case of larger wmps will be given to a band or tent group. The main thing is to see that each boy or each tent group is definitely assigned to a duty and that the work is well done. Camp Oflicers _ If the band has not already elected a Tally Keeper it may do so with the approval of the Guide, making sure that the Tally Keeper is representative of the camp and one who will keep a record every day, all being written in the Tally Book. Camp Program There should be a regular routine so that everybody may know' when things happen. The following is given as a good one; it may be changed to meet the needs of the camp: 6:30 A. M. Turn out, bathe, etc. 7:00 Breakfast. 8:00 Air bedding in sun, if possible. roboo Woodcraft games and practice. r r zoo Swimming. 1 2:00 M. Dinner. 1:00 P. M. Talk by leader. 2:00 Games, etc. 5:00 Swimming. 6:00 Supper. 7:00 Evening Council. 9:15 Lights out. Sometimes High Council for a few minutes in- stead of in the morning. Whether the camp is large or small, the boys should learn to respond promptly. Those who fail to do so should be made to realize the consequence of their carelessness. Group Work When the camp has several bands it is wise to work out the rules of the camp and its activities, so as to lay emphasis on the 208) 176 Woodcraft Manual for Boys band or tent group. The group should gain or sufier according to the good work or bad work of its members. Some camps give points for good and had work and the band or tent group is credited with the work of their members. This same idea should be carried out in competitions for the whole mp, so that the band which does the best work during the season would be given recognition of some sort. ' Rules Each camp will make rules when necessary, but the follow— ing will be found good in every camp: No firearms. No swimming, except at regularly appointed times and laces. p No campers should leave camp without permission. Loose straw, cans, papers, bottles, glass, or filth of any kind lying around are criminal disorder. Each group is responsible for order as far as the half line be- tween them and the next group. Inspections The Guides of the various bands or the one appointed in the smaller group should inspect at least once a day. The oficer appointed to inspect goes from tent to tent. Each Band is allowed fifty points for normal, then docked one to ten points for each scrap of paper, cans, or rubbish left lying about; also for each disorderly feature or neglect of the rules of common sense, decency, or hygiene, on their territory; that is, up to half- way between them and the next group. They may get addi- tional points for unusually fine work; but it is always as a Band . c7 .,. that they receive the points, though it was . f ‘ ‘ the individual that worked for them. ' The Horns of the High Hikers ._' ..~ After the inspection, the Chief announces ' ' 4 the winning Band saying: “The Horns of the V, > , u ' . High Hikers were won to-day by . . . ‘ l n (1,, L14 Band.” And the horns are accordingly hung on their standard, pole, or other place, for the day. At the end of the camp, the Band that won them oftenest carries them home for their own; and ever afterward are allowed l‘4 __n‘._ .44 _/.n J' _ LA; mi. 4: 209) . ‘v- ‘1‘ ‘1' m“— 7‘" T" j ‘5 v v 'W. WV Things to Know and Do 177 1:10 put in one corner of their banner a small pair of black orns. What are they? Usually a pair of polished bufialo horns with a fringed buckskin hanger, on which is an inscription saying that they were won by . . . Band at such a camp. When buffalo horns cannot be got, common cow horns or eve horns of wood are used. ' Woodcraft Council Ring In every large permanent camp a Woodcraft Council Fire Circle should be established at once. The uses and benefits of this will be seen more and more, as camp goes on. For the Woodcraft Council Ring, select a sheltered, level place - that admits of a perfectly level circle 30 feet across. On the outer rim of this have a permanently fixed circle of very low seats; 6 inches is high enough, but they should have a back, and ultimately a rain shed to protect those seated. Each Band should make its own seat, and always sit there during Council. On the back of the seat should be two loops of wire or string in which to put their standard. Back of the first row should be a slightly higher row. If the ground slopes up, all the better, but in any case there should be fixed seats enough for all the camp. The place should be carefully leveled and pre- pared, and kept always in order, for it will be used several times each day, either for Councils or for games, dances, and per- formances. At one side of the ring in a conspicuous place should be the throne of the Chief; close by this a desk and seat for the Tally Keeper and on the desk should be a lantern holder; in the exact middle of the ring is the Council Fire, never a bonfire. Councils Three kinds of Councils are held in the Woodcraft Council Rin : - Lg The High Council of the Chiefs and Guides daily, and at other times when called, arranges programs. - 2. The General or Common Council of all the campers every night from seven to nine o’clock. At this we have some business (in the awarding of honors), some campfire stunts or challenges, and a little entertainment. , 3. Grand Council. This is usually held once a week. Every one comes in full Woodcraft costume. Visitors are invited. 210) r78 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Business, except when very interesting, is dispensed with, and a. programme of sports and amusements, chiefly for the visitors, is carefully prepared. This is “ Strangers’ Night ” and they should be entertained, not bored. Making Council Fire The Council Fire is a very difierent thing from the cooking- fire or the so-called bonfire. And there are just as many ways of making it wrong. These are the essentials: It must be easily started. It must give a steady, bright light. It must have as little heat as possible, for it is mostly used in the summer. Therefore, it must be small. ' . ’ It is best built as in (c), about two and one half feet high; the bottom stick about three feet long; the rest shorter and smaller. The small wood and chips to light it can be put either under or on top of the second layer. It should be drawn in toward the top, so as to burn without falling apart. It must contain a large proportion of dry, winter-seasoned wood, if it is to blaze brightly. The readiest seasoned wood is usually old lumber. For an all-evening Council Fire, at least three times as much should be in stock as on the fire when started. Here are some wrong methods: The high pyramid or bonfire (a) goes off like a flash, roasts every one, then goes dead. The shapeless pile (b) is hard to light and never bright. The bonfire is always bad. It wastes good wood; is dangerous to the forest and the camp; is n_:t 211) ‘T vv' ’ c" Things to Know and Do 179 absolutely unsociable. A bonfire will spoil the best camp-circle ever got together. It should be forbidden everywhere. Totem Pole Directly opposite the Chief’s throne, on the outer edge of the circle, should be the Totem Pole. This is always set up as soon as possible in all permanent camps. Its purpose is, rst, to typify the movement; 2d, to display the Totems of the Tribe, 3rd, to serve as a. place of notice. Any document posted on the Totem Pole is considered published. ‘ a. Totem Pole of the Becket Tribe (1 5 feet high) b. of Flying Eagles 5 and d. from Niblack’s West Coast Indians, Eagles and Bears Beds Of all things, the camper’s bed is the thing most often made wrong, and most easily made right, when one knows how; and of all things comfort at night is most essential. Every dealer in camp outfits can produce an array of difierent camp beds, cots, and sleeping bags, that shows how important it is to be dry and warm when you sleep. The simplest plan is the oldest one—two pair of blankets and A— 212) 180 Woodcraft Manual for Boys waterproof undersheet on a neatly laid bed of evergreen boughs, dry leaves, or dry grass. The ideal way of laying the boughs is shown in the figure below. When I can’t get grub of the Broadway sort, I ’11 fatten on camper’s fare, I ’U tramp all day and at night resort To a bad boughed down with care. 4,“. smu But there are few places now in eastern America where you are allowed to cut boughs freely. In any case you cannot take the bough bed with you when you move, and it takes too much time to make at each camp. Sleeping bags I gave up long ago. They are too diflicult to air, or to adjust to difierent temperatures. Rubber beds are luxurious, but heavy for a pack outfit, and in cold weather they need thick blankets over them, other- wise they are too cool. So the one ideal bed for the camper, light, comfortable, and of wildwood stufi, is the Indian or willow bed, described on p. 2 32. Water, or the Indian Well If there is a swamp or pond, but no pure water at hand, you can dig an Indian well in half an hour. This is simply a hole about 18 inches across and down about 6 inches below water- level, a few paces from the pond. Bail it out quickly; let it fill again, bail it a second time, and the third time it fills, it will be full of filtered water, clear of everything except matter actually dissolved. It is now well known that ordinary vegetable matter does not cause disease. All contamination is from animal refuse or excreta, therefore a well of this kind in a truly wild region is as safe as a spring. 213) Things to Know and Do 181 Mosquitoes, Black Flies, etc. If you are camping in mosquito or fly season, the trip may be ruined if you are not fully prepared. For extreme cases, use the ready-made head-nets. They are hot, but efiectual. You can easily get used to the net; no one can stand the flies. In my Arctic trip of 1907, we could got have endured life without the nets. Indians and all wore em. 0f the various dopes that are used, one of the simplest and best is Colonel N. Fletcher’s, given in Kephart’s “Book of Camping and Woodcraft”: “Pure pine tar . . . . . . 1 oz. Oil pennyroyal . . . . . . I oz. Vaseline . . . . . . . 3 ozs. “Mix cold in a mortar. If you wish, you can add 3 per cent. oarbolic acid to above. Some make it 1% ozs. tar.” Most drug shops keep ready-made dopes under such names as Citronella, Repellene, Lollakapop, etc. Lighting at Fire The day Columbus landed (probably) the natives remarked: “White man fool, make big fire, can’t go near; Indian make little fire and sit happy.” We all know that a camp without a campfire would be. no camp at all; its chiefest charm would be absent. Your first care, then, is to provide for a small fire and pre- vent its spreading. In the autumn this may mean very elabo- rate clearing, or burning, or wetting of a space around the fire. In the winter it means nothing. Cracked Jimmy, in “Two Little Savages,” gives very practical .directionS for lighting a fire anywhere in the timbered northern part of America, thus: “ F irst a curl of burch bark as dry as it can be, Then some twigs of soft wood, dead, but on the tree, Last of all some pine-knots to make the kittle foam, And there’s a fire to make you think you’re settin’ right at home.” . 214) 182 Woodcraft Manual for Boys If on have no birch bark, it is a good plan to shave a dry soft- wood” stick, leaving all the shavings sticking on the end in a fuzz, like a Hopi prayer stick. Several of these make a sure fire kindler. Fine splinters may be made quickly by hammering a small stick with the back of the axe. In the case of a small party and hasty camp, you need nothing

l.“ ~ 

.: Jollli mum i but a pot hanger of green wood for a complete kitchen, and many hundreds of times, on prairie and in forest, I found this sufficient. A more complete camp grate is made of four green logs (aspen preferred) placed as in the illustration. Set the top , logs 3 inches apart at one end, 10 inches at the other. The top logs should be flattened in the middle. of their top sides—to hold the pot, which sits on the. open- ing between the top ogs. The fire of course is built Gm“ I“ Gnu on the ground, under the logs. Sometimes stones of right size and shape are used instead of the logs, but the stones do not contribute anything to the heat and are less manageable. . In addition to this log grate, more elaborate camps have a kitchen equipped with a hanger as on next page, on which are pot hooks of green wood. - In wet weather an axernan can always get dry wood by cutting into a standing dead tree, or on the under side of down timber that is not entirely on the ground. 215) Things to Know and Do 183 Camp Kitchen On the prairies and plains, since bufialo chips are no more, we use horse and cow chips, kindled with dry grass and roots of sage-brush, etc. To keep a fire alive all night, bank the coals: i.e., bury them in ashes. . Always put out the fire on leaving camp. I l is a crime to leave a burning fire. Use buckets of water if need be. Camp Cookery l cm'Sfee Horace Kephart’s “Book of Camping and Wood- t." In most camps the staples are: cocoa, cofiee (or tea), bacon, game, fish, and hardtack, ban- , nocks or biscuit. To make these take I pint flour, I teaspoonful of baking-powder, Half as much salt, Twice as much grease or lard, With water enough to make into paste, say one half a pint. When worked into smooth dough, shape it into wafers half an inch thick and three inches across. Set in a greased tin, which is tilted up near a. steady fire. Watch and turn the tin till all are browned evenly. 216) 184 Woodcraft Manual for Boys For other and better but more elaborate methods of making bread, see Kephart’ 5 book as above. For cooking fish and game the old, simple standbys are the - frying- -pan and the stew-pan. As a general rule, mix all batters, mush, etc., with cold water, and always cook with a slow fire When going into camp not far from home some think it a good plan to take a cold roast of _beef with them. Soup stock should be made the first days of every bit of bones and meat. There is an old adage: Hasty cooking is tasty cooking. Fried meat is dried meat. BOiled meat is spoiled meat. Roast meat is best meet. This reflects perhaps the castle kitchen rather than the camp, but 1t has its measure of truth, and the reason why roast meat is not more popular is because it takes so much time and trouble to make it a success. Cooking Without Utensils We sometimes call it “hatchet cookery,” because the cook is supposed to begin with nothing but a hatchet. To cook a good, toothsome meal with such a meagre outfit is good proof of a skilled Woodcrafter. Let us assume that you have meat, fish, potatoes, flour, and baking—powder, in addition to your hatchet. To Boil the Fish. Make a big fire and in it put twenty stones each as big as two fists. Near by, dig a hole a foot wide and' two feet deep. Get a flat hardwood board, a foot long and six or eight inches wide. Clean and lash the fish onto this board, with a grass, rush, bark, or root—binding every inch or more; or else make a little basket lid of rushes, spruce roots, etc., lay that on the fish and bind all to the board. This is your plank. Do not use pine or any gummy wood for this, as it gives the fish a bad taste. When the stones in« the fire are red-hot, roll some into the hole till it is filled up eighteen inches. Then put in a layer of small cold stones, then a layer of grass; now lay your planked fish on this upside down, that 15, with the fish under the board. Cover all with a wad of fresh grass and, lastly, with two or three inches of clay. Make a little hole at one side and pour into that about ' 1“ m. d «A “I. ~. 1.x u r ‘_. __4/n4..:.-£‘. 217) ~w' *' Things to Know and Do 185 a. bucket of water. Close up the hole, cover all tight and leave for half an hour to an hour. Open cautiously, carefully keeping the clay from the fish. Turn the plank and remove the binding. The fish will be found beautifully cooked. Potatoes take three times as long to do in this way. To Broil. To broil fish, e, or bacon is easy if one make a hot fire, then expose a level of coals, fan it once with a hat or board to remove the ashes from the top of the coals, then drop the meat to be cooked right on the coals. It will broil in a minute or two. Turn it over with a stick and the operation will be quickly completed. Toasting is easily done if we cut a forked stick of strong green wood and hold the bread over the fire. Roasting. A good meat roaster is made'by hanging the meat in a green wood hook made with a broad wooden fan set in a split near the top and above that a heavy cord to hang it with. Thus the wind, striking the fan, turns the meat and twists the cord ft? TLPch l ass Coo «er. 5'— m ground. ) ' and-‘lurnd matron!" ”(Kim . I . k ’— {.7 until it is tight; then it unwinds, but, owing to the weight of the meat, goes past the dead point and winds itself up the other way, and so on. This is an especially satisfactory roaster when there is wind. Bread. The test of all is the making of good bread without utensils. Some make a hole in the ground for a breadpan and line it with a comer of a mackintosh. But most old timers use 218) r86 ‘ Woodcraft Manual for Boys the top of the flour in the sack itself. Simply spread the mouth wide open and securely level and proceed as though it were a pan. To make a small loaf of bread, put a teaspoonful of baking- powder on about a pint of flour, add a lump of butter or grease as big as a walnut and a dash of salt. Mix them together, then add about a cupful of cold water, work it into the flour that has been prepared. It will not strike into the flour below. Thoroughly work up the mass of dough and now it is ready for treatment as bread, twist, or as cakes. - Bread Twist. Cut a smooth, round stick two or three inches through and three feet long, point one end, drive it in the ground leaning toward the fire at a place just a little hotter than you can hold your hand. Work the dough into a long roll and twist it like a vine around the'stick. After ten minutes, turn the stick around in the hole, so as to give the full heat to the other side, and so on; in half an hour, the bread should be brown and finished. Cakes. Select a broad, flat, thin stone; heat it at the fire until it is too hot for your hand to touch; brush it clean, work the dough into cakes half an inch thidk and three inches across, put them on the flat stone and prop it up near the fire as steeply as possible, so long as they do not fall off, and roast till pale brown all over. Mud Baking. This is used for fish and game. Clean the food thoroughly, enclose it in a coat of mud at least an inch thick, bury it in the ashes of the fire and keep a brisk fire on it for thirty to sixty minutes, according to the size of the meat or fish to be roasted. Potatoes can be baked in the ashes without any mud. They take much longer than meat. The Gee-String Camp Whenever complete isolation from summer resorts or mixed company make it permissible, we have found it well to let the fellows run all day during warm weather, clad only in their shoes and their small bathing trunks, breech-clout, or gee- string. This is the Gee-String or Indian Camp. Its value. as a daily sun bath, a continual tonic, and a mentally refreshing hark back to the primitive, cannot be overestimated. Camp Horn I wish every camp would get a good camp horn or Michigan lumberman’s horn. It is about four feet long, has a SIX-Inch __..I_ -t 1" )‘IJN T. ._ I.’--.-“; .3- _A_ Am‘r‘XA 1 ‘7: . I 219) bell-mouth, and is of brass. Its sounds are made by mouth, but a good player can give a tune as on a post horn. Its quality is wonderfully rich, mellow, and far-reaching, and it can be heard for three or four miles. It is a sound to stir the echoes and fill the camp with romantic memories. 220) 221) CHAPTER III WOODLORE AND HANDICRAFT Edible Wild Plants Mushrooms White Man’s Woodcraft— Measuring Weights and Distance Weather Wisdom When Lost in the Woods Tracking and Trailing Keeping Up the Old Trails The Value of Doing Indian Tweezers Indian Clock Watch as Compass Horne-made Compass Lights Hunter's Lamp Woodman’s Lantern Knife and Hatchet Waterproof Shelter Camp Loom Navajo Loom Camp Rake Camp Broom Rubbing-stick Fire Drum Woodcraft Willow Bed Making a Teepee Archery Woodcraft Paints Woodcraft Dyes Lace or Thong Woodcraft Buttons Handicraft Stunts Miscellaneous Spoons Bird Boxes Sparrow-proof Bird Box Knots Blazes and Signs Stone Signs Grass and Twig Signs 'Smoke Signals Signals by Shots Tramp Signs How to Raise Money 222) 223) CHAPTER III WOODLORE AND HANDICRAFT Edible Wild Plants No one truly knows the woods until he can find with certainty a number of wild plants that furnish good food for man in the sea- son when food is scarce; that is, in the winter or early spring. During summer and autumn there is always an abundance of familiar nuts and berries, so that we may rule them out, and seek only for edible plants and roots that are available when nuts and berries are not. Rock Trips. The most wonderful of all is probably the green- ish-black rock tripe, found on the bleakest, highest rocks in the northern parts of this continent. There is a wonderful display of it on the clifl's about Mohonk Lake, in the Catskills. Richard- son and Franklin, the great northern explorers, lived on it for months. It must be very carefully cooked or it produces cramps. First gather and wash it as clear as possible of sand and grit, washing it again and again, snipping oil the gritty parts of the roots where it held onto the mother rock. Then roast it slowly in a pan till dry and crisp. Next boil it for one hour and serve it either hot or cold. It looks like thick gumbo soup with short, thick pieces of black and green leaves in it. It tastes a little like tapioca with a slight flavoring of licorice. On some it acts as a purge. Basswood Browse or Buds. As a child I ate these raw in quantities, as did also most of my young friends, but they will be found the better for cooking. They are particularly good and large in the early spring. The inmost bark also has food value, but one must disfigure the tree to get that, so we leave it out. Slippery Elm. The same remarks apply to the buds and inner bark of the slippery elm. They are nutritious, acceptable food, especially when cooked with scraps of meat or fruit for flavor- ing. Furthermore, its flowers come out in the spring before the leaves, and produce very early in the season great quantities of seed which are like little nuts in the middle of a nearly cir- cular wing. These ripen by the time the leaves are half grown 191 224) 192 Woodcraft Manual for Boys and have always been an important article of food among the wild things. Many Indian tribes used to feed during famine times on the inner bark of cedar and white birch, as well as on the' inner bark of the slippery elm and basswood, but these cannot be got with— out injury to the tree, so omit them. When the snow is 06 the ground the plants respond quickly, and it is safe to assume that all the earliest flowers come up from big, fat roots. A plant can spring up quickly in summer, gathering the material of growth from the air and soil, but a plant coming up in the early spring is doing business at a time when it cannot get support from its surroundings, and cannot keep on unlessit has stored up capital from the summer before. This is the logic ' of the storehouse in the ground for these early comers. Wapalo. One of the earliest is wapato, or duck potato, also called common Arrowleaf, or Sagittaria. It is found in low, swampy flats, especially those that are under water for part of the year. Its root is about as big as a walnut and is good food, cooked or raw. These roots are not at the point where the leaves come out but at the ends of the long roots. Bog Potato. On the drier banks, usually where the sedge begins near a swamp, we find the bog potato, or Indian potato. The plant is a slender vine with three, five, or seven leaflets in - a group. On its roots in spring are from one to a dozen potatoes, varying from an inch to three inches in diameter. They taste like a cross between a peanut and a raw potato, and are very good cooked or raw. Indian Cucumber. In the dry woods one is sure to see the pretty umbrella of the Indian cucumber. Its root is white and crisp and tastes somewhat like a cucumber, is one to four inches long, and good food raw or boiled. Calopogan. This plant looks like a kind of grass with an onion for a root, but it does not taste of onions and Is much sought after by wild animals and wild people. It is found in low or marshy places. Hog Peanuts. In the early spring this plant will be found to have a large nut or fruit, buried under the leaves or quite under- ground in the d woods. As summer goes by the plant uses up this capital, ut on its roots it grows a lot of little nuts. These are rich food, but very small. The big nut is about an inch long and the little ones on the roots are any size up to that of a . b133,: Turnip or Jack-in-the-Pulpil. This is well known to - L.A-+.-n___m_ _._fl __ x... f -r—._ “‘ 44*. ‘11“ 225) Wild Food - Plants 226) 194 Woodcraft Manual for Boys all our children in the East. The root is the most burning, acrid, horrible thing in the woods when raw, but after cooking becomes quite pleasant and is very nutritious. Prairie or Indian Turnip, Bread-root or Pomme-blanche of the Prairie. This is found on all the prairies of the Missouri region. Its root was and is a staple article of food with the Indians. The roots are one to three inches thick and four to twelve inches long. Solomon’s Seal. The two Solomon’s Seals (true and false) both produce roots that are long, bumpy storehouses of food. Crinkle-root. Every school child in the country digs out and eats the pleasant peppery crinkle-root. It abounds in the rich, dry woods. Mushrooms, Fungi, or Toadstools We have in America about two thousand difierent kinds of Mushrooms or Toadstools; they are the same thing. Of these, probably half are wholesome and delicious; but about a dozen. of them are deadly poison. There is no way to tell them, except by knowing each kind and the recorded results of experience with each kind. The story about cooking with silver being a test has no foundation; in fact, the best way for the Woodcraft Boy or Girl is to know definitely a dozen dangerous kinds and a score or more of the Wholesome kinds and let the rest alone. Sporeprint. The first thing in deciding the nature of a toad- stool is the sporeprint, made thus: Cut off the stem of the toad- stool and lay the gills down on a piece of gray pa r' under a vessel of any kind. After a couple of hours, lift t e cap, and . radiating lines of spores will appear on the paper. If it is desired to preserve these, the paper should be first covered with thin mucilage. The color of those spores is the first step in identification. All the deadly toadstools have white spores. No black-spored toadstool is known to be poisonous. Poisonous Toadstools The only deadly poisonous kinds are the Amam'tas. Others may purge and nauseate or cause vomiting, but it is believed that every recorded death from toadstool poisoning was caused by an Amanita, and unfortunately they are not only wide- spread and abundant, but they are much like the ordinary 'n ‘. A M Jill‘N—"-._n_ _. r‘ _4 L- I. Ah-‘K. -n .1‘_«_d‘/‘._l ‘1— 227) Things to Know and Do 195 table mushrooms. They have, however, one or two strong marks; their stalk always grows out of a “poison cup,” which shows either as a cup or as a bulb; they have white or yellow gills, a ring around the stalk, and white spores. Deadly Toadstools All the deadly toadstools known in North America are pic- tured on the plate, or of the. types shown on the plate. The Deadly Amanita may be brownish, yellowish, or white. The Yellow Amanita of a delicate lemon color. WHO?! ' Amanda wmre Ammla 4 228) 196 Woodcraft Manual for Boys The White Amanita of a pure silvery, shiny white. The Fly Amanita with cap pink, brown, yellow, or red inthe centre, shaded into yellow at the edge, and patched with frag- ments of pure white veil. The Frosty Amanita with yellow cap, pale cadmium in centre, elsewhere yellowish white, with white patches on warts. . All are very variable in color, etc. But all agree in these things. They have gills, which are white, or yellow, a ring on the stalk, a cup at the base, while spores, and are deadly poison. In Case of Poisoning If by ill chance any one has eaten a poisonous Amanita, the effects do not begin to show till sixteen or eighteen hours afterward—that is, long after the poison has passed through the stomach and begun its deadly work on the nerve centres. Symptoms. Vomiting and purging, “the discharge from the bowels being watery with small flakes suspended, and sometimes containing blood”; cramps in the extremities. The pulse is very slow and strong ‘at first, but later Weak and rapid, sometimes sweat and saliva pour out. Dizziness, faintness, and blindness, the skin clammy, cold, and bluish or livid; tem- perature low with dreadful tetanic convulsions, and finally stupor. (McIlvaine and Macadam, p. 627.) Remedy: “Take an emetic at once, and send for a physician with instructions to bring hypodermic syringe and atropine sulphate. The dose is Th of a grain, and doses should be continued heroically until 1,117 of a grain is administered, or until, in the physician’s opinion, a proper quantity has been injected. Where the victim is critically ill the 315 of a grain may be administered.” (McIlvaine and Macadam, XVII.) Wholesome Toadstools It is a remarkable fact that all the queer freaks, like clubs and corals, the cranks and tomfools, in droll shapes and satanic colors, the funny poisonous looking Morels, Inkcaps, and Boleti are good, wholesome food, but the deadly Amanitas are like ordinary mushrooms, except that they have grown a little thin, delicate, and anaemic. All the Pufi'balls are good before they begin to pull, that is as long as their flesh is white and firm. ..__~w_ mnr_ _. L .h In ... _. Mdfl 53.. A 1 'n ,. rm -L- Jun V.~_’>.A;A.= ,,.1 K _ A N} (2‘ -.n_. (I 229)

All the colored coral toadstools are good, but the White Clavan'a is said to be rather sickening. All of the Morels are safe and delicious. So also is Inky Coprinus, usually found on manure piles. The Beefsteak Mushroom grows on stumps, chiefly chestnut. It looks like raw meat and bleeds when cut. It is quite good eating. So far as known no black-spored toadstool is unwholesome. The common mushroom is distinguished by its general shape, 230)

98 Woodcraft Manual for Boys

its smell, its pink or brown gills, its white flesh, brown spores, and solid stem. Mushroom Growing (See Article on “How to Raise Money") Books Recommended Enmm AND POISONOUS FUNGI or NEW You, by Charles H. Peck. Pubhshed by New York State Museum, Albany, 1895. Emma FUNGI or New You, by Charles H. Peck. Published by New York State Museum, Albany, 1906. . Tm: Musmoou Boox, by Nina L. Marshall. Published, 1902, at New York by Doubleday, Page & Co. 33. so . ONE THOUSAND AMERICAN FUNGI, by Mchaine & Macadam, 85. Pub- lished by the Hobbs-Merrill Company of Indianapolis, 1902; add 40 cents ms. usnnoons, by G. F. Atkinson. Holt & Co. 0131:: Musnoou, by M. E. Hard. The Ohio Library Company, Columbus, 0. White Man’s Woodcraft or Mounting Weights and Distance Would you like to tell a dog’s height by its track? Then take the length in inches of his forefoot track, multiply it by eight, and that will give you his height at the shoulder. A little dog has a 24}-inch foot and stands about eighteen inches; a Sheepdog with a 3-inch track measures twenty-four inches, and a mastifl’ or any big dog with a. 4-inch track gives thirty to thirty-two inches. The dog’s weight, too, can be judged by the track. Multiply the width of his forefoot in inches by the length, and multiply that by five and you will have a pretty close estimate of his weight in pounds. This, of course, does not apply to freak dogs. The Height of Trees To get the height of a tree, cut a pole ten feet long. Choosing the smoothest ground A, prop the pole some distance from the tree. Lay down so that the eye B is level with the tree base and in line with the top of the pole and the tree. Mark the mm B with a peg and measure the distance from the peg to e foot of the pole, then from the peg to. the foot of the tree. The height of the tree will be found by the formula: the distance between the peg and the pole is to the height of the pole as 231) “'1“ "J Things to Know and Do 199 the distance between 'the peg and the tree is to the height of the tree or BA: AC:: BE:X. This may be proved by selecting lin knot on the tree which may be easily climbed to. See inside e. ' / 0" C,a/ Jig-("IL”— To Measure the Distance Across a Stream Drive a stake at H.— 1 To measure distance from H to D cut three straight poles of exactly the same length and peg them together in a triangle. Place the triangle on the bank at A, B, C, sighting the line A B for the spot at D, and put three pegs . , " ""H " "-4 Inn-p"..- " in the ground exactly under the three pegs where the triangle is. Move the triangle to E F G and placing it so that F G should line with A C, and E G with D. Now A G D "knost must be an equilateral triangle; therefore, ach‘“ to arithmetic, the line D H must be seven eighths or A G, which (an of course be easily measured. 232) "zoo Woodcraft Mannal for Boys To Measure Distance Between Two Objects at a Distance Cut three poles six, eight, and ten feet long and peg them to- gether in a triangle. A B C is a right angle according to the laws of mathematics if the legs of the triangle are six, eight, and ten. Place the right angle on the shore, the side A B pointing to the inner side of the first object D (say a tree), and the side B C as nearly as possible parallel with the line between the two trees. Putin a stake at B, another at C, and continue this line toward K. Now slide the triangle along this till the side GFpointstoE,andthesideH GisinlinewithCB. The distance from D to E, of course, is equal to B G. See “Two Little Savages,” 1903. Weather Wisdom When the dew is on the grass, Rain will never come to pass. When the grass is dry at night, Look for rain before the light. When grass is dry at morning light, Look for rain before the night. ‘ ‘W Three days’ rain will empty any sky. . ‘ DOA» A deep, clear sky of fleckless blue Breeds storms within a day or two. ‘M—WR_ Lm—x‘ __._ _ ._ AA.‘-LJ?A-I, I l ‘5’ “In. t. .5' .‘_.MA 233) Things to Know and Do not When the wind is in .the east, It’s good for neither man nor beast. When the wind is in the north, The old folk should not venture forth. When the wind is in the south, It blows the bait in the fishes mouth. When the wind is in the west, It is of all the winds the best. An opening and a shetting Is a sure sign of a wetting. (Another version) Open and shet, Sure sign of wet. (Still another) It’s lighting up to see to rain. Evenin red and morning gray Sends e traveler on his way. Evening gray and morning red Sends the traveler home to bed. Red sky at morning, the shepherd takes warning; Red sky at night is the shepherd’s delight. If the sun goes down cloudy Friday, sure of a clear Sunday. If a rooster crows standing on a fence or high place, it will clear. If on the ground, it doesn’t count. Between eleven and two You can tell what the weather is going to do. Rain before seven, clear before eleven. Fog' 1n the morning, bright sunny day. If it rains, and the sun is shining at the same time, the devil iswhipping his wife and it will surely rain to-morrow. If it clears off during the night, it will rain again sh.ortly Sun drawing water, sure sign of rain. 234) 202 Woodcraft Manual for Boys A circle round the moon means “storm.” As many stars as are in circle, so many days before it will rain. Sudden heat brings thunder. A storm that comes against the wind is always a thunder- storm. ' The oak and the ash draw lightning. Under the birch, the cedar, and balsam you are safe. East wind brings rain. West wind brings clear, bright, cool weather. North wind brings cold. South wind brings heat. (On Atlantic coast.) The rain-crow or cuckoo (both species) is supposed by all hunters to foretell rain when its “Kow, kow, kow” is long and hard. So, also, the tree-frog cries before rain. Swallows flying low is a sign of rain; high, of clearing weather. The rain follows the wind, and the heavy blast is just before the shower. Outdoor Proverbs What weighs an ounce in the morning, weighs a pound at night. A pint is a pound the whole world round. Allah reckons not against a man’s allotted time the days he spends in the chase. If there’s only one, it isn’t a track, it’s an accident. Better safe than sorry. No smoke without fire. The bluejay doesn’t scream without. reason. The worm don’t see nuflin pretty ’bout de robin’s song.— (Darkey.) Ducks flying overhead in the woods are generally pointed for water. If the turtles on a log are dry, they have been there half an hour or more, which means no one has been near to alarm them. Cobwebs across a hole mean “nothing inside.” Whenever you are trying to be smart, you are going wrong. Smart Aleck always comes to grief. You are safe and winning when you are trying to be kind. When Lost in the Woods If you should miss your way, the first thing to remember is like the Indian, “You are not lost; it is the teepee that is lost.” l Mrim’trgfirg 4-- 7m’vlim‘ww,ibk____ L ‘1.- —)_.£.:: 235) Things to Know and. Do 203 It isn’t serious. It cannot be so, unless you do something foolish. The first and most natural thing to do is to get on a. hill, up a tree, or other high lookout, and seek for some landmark near the camp. You may be so sure of these things: You are not nearly as far from camp as you think you are. Your friends will soon find you. You can help them best by signaling. The worst thing you can do 15 to get frightened. The truly dangerous enemy is not the cold or the hunger, so much as the fear. It is fear that robs the wanderer of his judgment and of his limb power; it is fear that turns the passing experience into a final tragedy. Only keep cool and all will be well. Ifkthere is snow on the ground, you can follow your back trac . If you see no landmark, look for the smoke of the fire. Shout from time to time, and wait; for though you have been away for hours it is quite possible you are within earshot of your friends. If you happen to have a gun, fire it off twice in quick succession on your high Idokout then wait and listen. Do this several times and wait plenty long enough, perhaps an hour. If this brings no help, send up a distress signal—that 15, make two smoke fires by smothering two bright fires with green leaves and rotten wood, and keep them at least fifty feet apart, or the wind will confuse them. Two shots or two smokes are usually un- derstood to mean “I am in trouble.” Those in camp on seeing this should send up one smoke, which means “Camp is here.’ .In a word, _“keep cool, make yourself comfortable, leave a record of your travels, and help your friends to find you. ’ TRACKING AND TRAILING 1"];me “The Book of Woodcraft,” Ernest Thompson Seton, Doubleday, e& The Secrets of' the Trail It was Fenimore Cooper who first put the good Indian on paper—who called the attention of the world to the wonderful woodcraft of these most wonderful savages. It was he who made white men realize how far they had got away from the primitive. It was he who glorified the woodman and his craft. 236) 204 Woodcraft Manual for Boys .Yet nowhere do we find in Cooper’s novels any attempt to take us out and show us this woodcraft. He is content to stand with us afar OE and point it out as something to be worshipped —to point it out and let it die. Fenimore Cooper has had many imitators, just as Uncas has had many successors. The fine art of trailing is still main- tained in the Far West, and it has always seemed strange to me that none has endeavored to give it permanent record, other than superlative adjectives of outside praise. Trailing What is trailing? The fox-hunter has some idea when he sees a suflerb pack follow a faint scent through a hundred perplexing p cee, discerning just which way the fox went, and about how long ago. The detective does another kind of trail; ing when he follows some trifling clue through the world of thought, tracing the secret of an unknown man along an in- visible path, running it to earth at last in the very brain that conceived it. In his trailing the Indian uses the senses of the “animal” to aid the brain of the man. To a great extent his eyes do the work of the hound’s nose, but the nose is not idle. When the trail disappears, he must do the human detective work; but under all circumstances his brains must be backed by the finest senses, superb physique, and ripe experience, or he cannot hope to overmatch his prey. Hard to Photograph Tracks When, in 1882, I began my dictionary of tracks (see “Life Histories of Northern Animals”), I found that there was no literature on the subject. All facts had to be gathered di- rectly from Nature. My first attempts at recording tracks were made with pencil and paper. Next, realizing how com- pletely the pencil sketch is limited by one’s own knowledge, I tried photography; but it invariably happens that not one track in ten thousand is fit for photographing, and itcannot be taken except when the sun is about thirty degrees above the horizon—that is, high enough to make a picture, and low enough to cast a shadow of every detail. Thus photography was possible only for about an hour in the early morning and an hour in the late afternoon. But the opportunity in the meanwhile usually was gone. I then- tried making a plaster cast of the tracks in the mud. Only one such in a million was . ‘12. ‘Wxfidhm __“- _-:’._ m- as ._j_ L‘Aw-J 237) V'w fi“ “0’ .7 ‘--‘w' a v—r Thingsto Know and Do 205 eastable. As a matter of fact, none of the finestwere in the mud; and the much more interesting dust-tracks were never within reach of this method. For most practical purposes I have been forced to make my records by drawing the tracks. No Two Tracks Alike The trailer’s first task is to learn the trails he means to follow. The Red Indian and the Bushman, of course, simply memorize them from their earliest days, but we find it helpful and much easier to record them in some way. Apart from other considerations, a form is always better comprehended if we reproduce it on paper. As a general principle, no two kinds of animals leave the same track. As a matter of fact, no two in- dividuals leave the same trail. Just as surely as there are difierences in size and disposition, so there will be correspond- ing difierences in its trail; but this is refining beyond the purposes of practicability in most cases, and for the present we may be satisfied to consider it a general rule that each species leaves its own clearly recognizable track. One of my daily pastimes when the snow is on the ground—which is the easiest and ideal time for the trailer, and especially for the beginner—is to take up some trail early in the morning and follow it over hill and dale, carefully noting any change and every action as written in the snow, and it is a wonderftu rewarding way of learning the methods and life of an animal. The trail records with perfect truthfulness everything that he did or tried to do at a time when he was unembarrassed by the nearness of his worst enemy. The trail is an autobiographic chapter of the creature’s life, written unwittingly, indeed, and in perfect sin- cen . Wtiienever in America during the winter I have found myself with time to pass between trains, I endeavor to get out into the country, and rarely fail to find and read one of these more or less rewarding chapters, and thus get an insight into the life of the animal, as well as into the kinds that are about; for most quadrupeds are nocturnal, and their presence is generally un- suspected by those who do not know how to read the secrets of the trail. . Dog and Cat The first trails to catch the eye and the best for first study are those nearest home. Two well-marked types are the tracks 238) 206 Woodcraft Manual for Boys of eat and dog. MoSt anatomists select the cat as the ideal of muscular and bony structure. It is the perfect animal, and its track also is a good one to use for standard. In these separate prints the roundness of the toe-pads tells the softness, their spread from each other shows the supplenoss of the toes; the absence of claw-marks tells of the retractability of these weapons. The front and hind feet are equal' in length, but the front feet are broader. This is the rule among true quadrupeds. The series of tracks—that is, its trail—shows the manner of the cat in walking. In this the animal used appar- ently but two legs, because the hind foot falls exactly on the trail made by the front foot, each track being really doubled. This is perfect tracking. There are several advantages in it. Every teamster knows that a wagon whose hind wheels do not exactly follow the front wheels is a very bad wagon to haul in sand, snow, or mud. The trail for it has to be broken twice, and the labor increased, some say, 50 per cent. This same principle holds good in the case of the cat track; by cor- rect following the animal moves more easily. But there is still a more important reason. A hunting cat sneaking through the woods after prey must keep its eyes on the woods ahead or on the prey itself. At the very most it may pick out a smooth, safe, silent place for its front feet to tread on. Especially at the climax of the hunt all its senses are focussed on the intended 'victim; it cannot select a safe spot for each hind foot in turn, even though the faintest crunch of a dry leaf will surely spoil the stalk. But there is no danger of that; the cat can see the spots selected for the front feet, and the hind feet are so per- fectly trained that they seek unerringly the very same spots—'— the safe places that the front feet have just left. Thus perfect stepping is silent stepping, and is essential to all creatures that stalk their prey. The opposite kind 'of stepping is seen in very heavy animals which frequent marshy ground; to them it would be a positive disadvantage to set the hind foot in the tread of the front foot, where so much of the support has just been destroyed. The ox illustrates this. These principles are ap- plicable in geology, where the trails are the only biographical records of certain species From the manner of setting the feet we can distinguish the predacious and the marsh-frequenting quadrupeds. The next track likely to be seen is that of the dog. In this the harder, less pliant foot and the non-retractile ‘claws are clearly seen. But the trail shows the dog is not a correct walker. His tracks are “out of register” as a printer -44. ‘_.“'-A_f‘ -‘V‘ A‘t‘L _l'_ ’F__ h- _ 1.. L. 239) Things to Know and Do , 407 would say. And he has a glaring defect—the result no doubt of domestication, of long generations on pavements and in houses—he drags his toes. All these things contribute to make - the dog a noisy walker in the woods. Wolf It is well at this time to compare the track of the dog with that of the wolf. I have made dozens of drawings, casts, prints, photographs, and studies of wolf and dog tracks; and have not found a single reliable feature that will distinguish them. One hunter says the wolf has the relatively small outer toes. Yes, sometimes; but not when compared with a collie. Another says that the wolf’s foot is longer; but not when compared with that of a greyhound, staghound, or lurcher. Another, the wolf’s foot is larger; yet it will not rank 1n size with that of a St. Bernard or a Great Dane. The wolf lifts his feet neatly without dragging his toes; but so do many dogs, especially country dogs. Thus all these diagnostics fail. on the whole a wolf is a better walker than a dog. His tracks do usually register, but not always, and m some wolves rarely. If a wolf-tr ack in the snow be followed for a mile or two, it will be found to go cautiously up to an unusual or promising object. It is obviously the trail of a suspicious, shy creature while the dog-trail is direct, and usually unafraid. But this does not apply to the dogs which poach or kill sheep. _ There is there- ’fore no sure means of distinguishing them, even in the wilder— ness. One can only judge by probabilities. I have often heard inexperienced hunters boast that they could “tell them every time”; but old hunters usually say, “No man can tell for sure.” Rabbits and Hares America is well provided with rabbits and hares. A score or more of species are now recognized, and two very well-known types are the cottontail of the woods and the jack-rabbit of the p ms. The cottontail is much like an English rabbit, but it is a. little smaller, has shorter ears, and the whole under part of the tail is glorified into a flufiy, snowy powder-pufl. It leads the life of a hare, not making burrows, but entering burrows at times under the stress of danger. The track of a New England cottontail' ls given in Illustration 1. 240) 208 Woodcraft Manual for Boys. .As .the cottontail bounds, the hind feet track ahead of the front feet, and the faster he goes the faster ahead his hind feet get. This is true of all quadrupeds that bound, but 15 more obvious in the rabbits, because the fore and hind feet difier so much 1n size. . The jack-rabbit of Kansas is the best known of the long- eared jacks. His trail, compared with that of the cottontail, would be as in Illustrations 2 and 3. The greater size of the marks and the double length of the bounds are the obvious but not important differences, because a young jack would come down to the cottontail standard. The two reliable diflerences I found are: First, the jack’s feet are rarely paired when he 13 bounding at full speed, while the cottontail pairs his hind feet but not his front ones. (Animals which climb usually pair their front feet in running, just as tree-birds hop when on the ground.) Second, the stroke that is shown (x in Illustration 2) is diagnostic of the southern jack-rabbit; it is the mark made by the long hanging tail. Each of the four types of hare common in the temperate parts of America has its own style of tail and fashion of wearing 1t: The northern or white-tailed jack carries his snowy-white tail out straight behind, so its general pure~white 1s visible; . The southern or black- tailed jack has his tail jet-black on the upper part, and he carries it straight down; . The varying hare has an inconsequent, upturned tuft, like a tear in his brown pantaloons, showing the white undergarment; The cottontail has his latter end brown above, but he keeps it curled up tight on his back, so as to show nothing but the gleaming white pufi of cotton on a helpful background of rich brown. The cottontail’s tail never touches the ground except when he sits down on it. The most variable features of any animal are always its most specialized features. The jack-rabbit’ s tail-piece 1s much subject to variation, and the length and depth of the little intertrack—ial dash that it makes 1n the snow is a better guide to the individual that made it than would be the tracks of all four feet together. Fox 0f more general interest perhaps is the track of the fox. I have spent many days—yes, and nights—on the trail, .'t-i’.('__..‘k- ‘8‘. -17; I mad. 1 L ‘. .__/n_ k-J’AJ'. - ‘- ’0 A. 241)

No. 1 Cottontail

No. 2 Jack-rabbit

No. 3

No. 4 242) 210 Woodcraft Manual for Boys following, following patiently, reading this life of the beast, using notebook at every important march and change. Many an odd new sign has turned up to be put on record and ex. _ plained by later experience. Many a day has passed with nothing tangible in the way of reward; then, as in all hunting, there has come a streak of luck, a shower of facts and abundant reward for the barren weeks one by, an insight into animal ways and mind that could not ave been obtained in any other way. For here it is written down by the animal itself in the oldest of all writing—a chapter of the creature’s normal life. One day, soon after the snow had come, I set out on one of the long decipherments. The day before I had followed a fox-trail or threeor four miles, to learn only that he tacked up wind and smelled at every log, bump, and tree that stuck through the snow; that he had followed a white hare at full speed, but was easily left behind when the bare got into his ancient safety—the scrubby, brushy woods. This morning I took up another fox-trail. The frost was intense, the snow was dry and powdery and as each foot was raised it fell back; so that the track was merely shapele dim- ples in the whiteness. No tell-tale details of toes and claws were there, but still I knew it for a fox-trail. It was too small for a coyote. There were but two others that might have been confounded with it; one a very large house-cat, the other a very small house-dog. The fox has the supple paw of the cat. It spreads even more, but it shows the long, intractile claws. As a stepper the fox ranks close to the cat. His trail is noted also for its narrowness—that is, the feet are set nearly in one straight line. This in a trail usually means a swift animal; while the badly spread marks, seen at a maximum in the badger, stand for great but sluggish strength. The region put the (at out of the reckoning. Besides, at one or two places the paw had grazed the snow, showing two long furrows, the marks of claws that do not sheathe: dog- marks, perhaps, but never a cat’s. The marks were aligned like a cat’s, but were fourteen inches apart, while it is rare for a cat to step more than ten. They were not dog-marks: first, the probabilities were against it; second, the marks were nearly in a line, showing a chest too narrow for a do . Then the toes did not dra , though there was four inches ogsnow. The register could not distinguished but there was one feature that settled all doubt—the big, soft, shallow marks of the fox’s brush, sometimes sweeping the snow .JW‘; _-"‘ ‘3. .‘ ' . ‘1‘1. 7‘ .-|. . Tar—cu- _ 3 1-4-4 1. A A A a -4. I’ 243) Things to Know and Do an at every yard, sometimes not at all for fifty steps, and telling me with certainty, founded in part on the other things—“This is the trail of a fox.” Which way is he going? is the next question, not easy to answer when the toe-marks do not show; but this is settled by the faint claw-marks already noted. If still in doubt, I can follow till the fox chances on some place under a thick tree or on ice where there is very little snow, and here a distinct im- pression may be found. The Fox’s Hunt For a mile or two I followed my fox. Nothing happened. I got only the thought that his life was largely made up of nose investigation and unfavorable reports from the committee in charge. Then we came to a long, sloping hollow. The fox trotted down this, and near its lower end he. got a nose report of importance for he had swung to the right and gone slowly— 50 said the short steps—zigzagging up the wind. Within fifteen feet, the tacks in the course shortened from four or five feet to nothing, and ended in a small hole in a bank. From this the fox had pulled out a common, harmless garter snake, torpid, curled up there doubtless to sleep away the winter. The fox chopped the snake across the spine with his powerful meat- cutters, killed it thus, dropped it on the snow, and then, with- out eating a morsel of it as far as I could see, he went on with his hunt. (Illustration 5 A.) Why he should kill a creature that he could not eat I could not understand. I thought that ferocious sort of vice was limited to man and wwsels, but clearly the fox was guilty of the human crime. The dotted guide led me now, with many halts and devious turns, across a great marsh that had doubtless furnished many a fattened mouse in other days, but now the snow and ice for- bade the hunt. On the far end the country was open in places, with clumps of timber, and into this, from the open marsh, had blown a great bank of soft and drifted snow. Manitoban winters are not noted for their smiling geniality or profusion of outdoor flowers. Frost and snow are sure to come early and continue till spring. The thermometer may be for weeks about zero point. It may on occasion dip down to thirty, yes, even forty, degrees below, and whenever with that cold there also comes a gale of wind, it conjures up the awful tempest of the snow that is now of world-wide fame as-the 244) an Woodcraft Manual for Boys blizzard. The blizzard isa terror to wild life out on the lains. When it comes the biggest, strongest, best clad, rush for elter. They know that to face it means death. The prairie chickens or grouse have learned the lesson long ago. What shelter can they seek? There is only one—an Eskimo shelter—a snow house. They can hide' in the shelter of the snow.

No. 5. M'Ihe record of the fox’ a hunt

As the night comes, with the fearful frost and driving clouds of white, the chickens dive into a snowdrift; not on the open plain, for there the snow is hammered hard by the wind, but on the edge of the woods, where tall grass spears or scattering twigs stick up through and keep the snow from packing. Deep in this the chickens dive, each making a lace for itself. The wind wipes out all traces, levels 03 each ho e and hides them well. There they remain till morning, warm and safe, unless—and here is the chief danger—some wild animal comes by during 245) Things to Know and Do 213 the night, finds them in there, and seizes them before they can escape. M This chapter of grouse history was an old story to the fox and coming near the woodland. edge, his shortened steps showed that he knew it for a Land of Promise. (Illustration I 13.) At C he came to a sudden stop. Some wireless message on the wind had warned him of game at hand. He paused here with foot upraised. I knew it, for there was his record of the act. The little mark there was not a track, but the paw-tip’s mark, showing that the fox had not set the foot down, but held it poised m a pointer-dog pose, as his nose was harkening to the tell-tale wind. Then from C to D he went slowly, because the steps were so short, and now he paused: the promising scent was lost. He stood in doubt, so said the tell-tale snow in the only universal tongue. Then the hunter turnedand slowly worked toward E, while frequent broad touches in the snow continued the guarantee that the maker of these tracks was neither docked nor spindle—tailed. From E to F the shortened steps, with frequent marks of pause and pose, showed how the scent was warming—how well the fox knew some good thing was near. At F he stood still for some time with both feet set down in the snow, so it was written. Now was the critical time, and straight up the redolent wind he went, following his nose, cautiously and silently as possible, realizing that now a single hwdless step might spoil the hunt. Closing In - At G were the deeply imprinted marks of both hind feet, showing where the fox sprang just at the moment when, from ~ the spotless snowdrift just ahead, there broke out two grouse that had been slumbering below. Away they went with a whirr, whirr, fast as wing could bear them; but one was just a foot too slow; the springing fox secured him in the air. At H he landed with him on the prairie, and had a meal that is a fox’s ideal in time of plenty; and now, in deep hard winter, it must have been a banquet of delight. Now, for the first time, I saw the meaning of the dead garter snake far back on the trail. Snake at no time is nice eating, and cold snake on a cold day must be a mighty cold meal. Clearly the fox thought so. He would rather take a chance of getting something better. He killed the snake; so it could 246) 214 Woodcraft Manual for Boys not get away. It was not likely any one would steal from him ' that unfragrant carcass, so he would come back and get it later if he must. But .as we see, he did not have to do so. His faith and patience were amply justified. Instead of a cold, unpleasant snake, he fed on a fine hot bird.

Tracks of 61d man. ' “ “ a young hunter. “ “ a city woman. N H dog- “ ‘1 Cat. 3 a p.- -_-¢0-- U- l 3 weer" Thus I got a long, autobiographical chapter of fox-life by simply following his tracks through the snow. I never once saw the fox himself that made it, and yet I know—and you know—it to be true as I have told it. @11th Sheep LALJVA. _n_ -h — ‘ 247) Jhings to Know and Do 2:5 . , ;. Boobs Recommended Tn Lira Hrs'ronms or Non-mean Axum. Two la volumes by Ernest Thompson Seton, dealing with habits of animals, an giving tracks of nearly all. Scribners, 1909. Mutants or m Anmonnacxs, by C. Hart Merriam, M. D. Henry Holt & Co., New York City. Price 82.00 _ Keeping Up the Old Trails There is always great cause for regret when an old road with all its historical interest is abandoned. It was undoubtedly a sad blunder in the Canadian govem- ment when it allowed the Old Cart Trail from Winnipeg to Edmonton (800 miles) and the similar trails to Calgary and Prince Albert to be closed by fences so that the travelling public now pursues a rectangular course, climbing over hills and floundering through bogs instead of taking the path selected by the pioneers for its easy grades and directness of line. The authorities now begin to realize the magnitude of their blunder when it is too late. In the United States the old Allegheny Crossings and the Overland routes are being made into national highways with- out regard to rectangular survey, guided by an accurate study of natural obstacles as they were in the beginning. In other localities a similar care is manifesting itself in resto- ration and perpetuation of the Old M occasin Trails which are of singular value not only to the historian but to the pedestrian, for they are not only the shortest lines between points but al- ways the most beautiful. In some cases the road was selected in order to go from one noble landscape to another. Such roadways are cheap to make and valuable to every one from the passing lover of scenery to the Forest Ranger on his daily round. The Green Mountain Club (President Will F. Monroe) is doing noble work along this line and should receive the support of every Woodcrafter. It is not too much to say that every famous highway in America to-day was, at first, only a moccasin trail through the woods, and that the engineers are indebted to that fact. The Boston Post Road, the Cumberland Gap, the Monterey Drive, Egan ass all bear testimony of the ancient trail-maker. ' .By' a means, then, let us save the Old Moccasin Trails, even if it be only by recording their lines so that a wiser generation may undertake the restoration. 248)

In England they have long had a powerful society pledged to preserve the old footways, a society which has done noble necessary service, and we should long ago have had such an organization here to do the same or similar sort of work.

Let us not neglect this work but as lovers of the woods class with forest and bird protection the Keeping of the Old Trails that it will be easier to follow the streams and to enjoy the birds and flowers of woodland and hill.

The Value of Doing

Our grandfathers alone in the wilderness, were sufficient unto themselves, for they were true Woodcrafters — they mastered the things about them. Conditions have changed, and now most of these things have been taken from the home to the factory, so the old home training is no longer in reach.

The big value of all this knowledge was in that it bestowed power. For learning to do gives more power to do, and when you let some one else do a thing for you, you eventually lose the power to do that thing. Through the ability to do have peoples prospered and nations become great.

When the Romans put in the hands of slaves the doing of everything, they thereby lost the power to do, and were defeated by themselves in their national life and then by their enemies in battle. The Vikings sailed their ships fearlessly and far, for they had proved themselves on many seas: In time of stress, each leader took the helm of his own ship; and the proud boast often heard among these world-subduing northern folk was: “I am a noble. My father owns his own forge.” Always in the world’s history, those who valued the ability to do have been strong and sturdy. The Persians’ battle flag in their strongest time was a blacksmith’s apron. Emerson recognized the value of doing things well when he said: “If a man can write a better book, preach a better sermon, or make a better mousetrap than his neighbor, though he live in the woods, the world will make a beaten path to his doorway.”

So the Woodcraft Boy of to-day will learn to do, if he would be happy and healthful; for life is made worth while, not by the few great moments, but by the making of the daily life pleasant and full of meaning. The difference in lives is largely in what one knows and can do. One is of value in the office from this standpoint.

Probably nothing is sadder than to go into a home where everything is bought ready prepared; clothing ready made, food 249)

bought in small quantities at a delicatessen shop, amusement had at the movies or at some place where it can be bought. The clothing is commonplace — no brain or pride has gone into the making; the food was bought in a hurry and haphazardly. The amusements are often flat, and mostly superficial.

Oh, Woodcraft Boy, would you really live? Then begin, not by dreaming of some new field to enter or new worlds to conquer, but by knowing and using all the things about you. Know the pleasure of workmanship, the joy that comes from things made well by your own hands, the happiness which comes from closer touch with the fundamental things of life and the consciousness of being of value to the world.

Indian Tweezers

Oftentimes a camper may need a pair of tweezers or forceps to pull out a thorn or catch some fine end. If he happens to be without the real thing, he can supply the place with those of Indian style — these are simply a small pair of clam-shells, with edges clean and hinge unbroken.

The old-time Indians had occasionally a straggly beard. They had no razor, but they managed to do without one. As a part of their toilet for special occasion they pulled out each hair by means of the clam shell nippers.

An Indian Clock, Shadow Clock, or Sundial

To make an Indian shadow clock, or sundial, prepare a smooth board about fifteen inches across, with a circle divided by twenty-four rays into equal parts. Place it on a level, solid post or stump in the open. At night set the dial so that the twelve o’clock line points exactly north, as determined by the Pole Star and nail it down. Then, fix a stick or pointer with its 250) 218 Woodcraft Manual for Boys upper edge on the centre and set it exactly pointing to the Pole Star (a b); that is, the same angle as the latitude of the place, and fix it there immovably; it may be necessary to cut a notch (c) 1n the board to permit of a sight line. The hours eight at night to four next morning may aswell be painted black. As a time- piece, this shadow clock will be found roughly correct. “ The Indians of course used merely the shadow of a tree, or the sun streak that fell on the lodge floor through the smoke opening. The Watch as a Compass In case one desires to locate north and has no compass, a watch may be used. Point the hour hand to the sun. In the morning, halfway be- tween the outside end of the hour hand and noon is due south; in the afternoon, one must reckon halfway backward; for instance, at 8 A. 11., point the hour hand to the sun and find the place half- way to noon. It will be at 10, which is due south. At 4 o’clock, point the hour hand at the sun and reckon halfway, and the south will be found at 2 o’clock. ' The reason “halfway” is used, is that, while the sun makes a course of 24 hours, the clock makes a course every 12 hours. If our timepieces were rational and had a face showing 24 hours, the hour hand pointed to the sun would make 12 o’_,clock noon, always south. If the sun is clouded and you cannot see it, get into a clear open space. Hold your knife point upright on the watch dial, and it will, unless the clouds are very heavy, cast a faint shadow, show- ing where the sun really' is. A Home-made Compass If you happen to‘ have a magnet, it is easy to make a compass. Rub a fine needle on the magnet; then on the side of your nose. Then lay it gently on the surface of a cup full of water. The needle will float and point north. The cup must not be of metal. Lights For camp use, there is nothing better than the Stonebridge folding lantern, with a good supply of candles. A temporary 'l‘o make a more scientifically accurate Sundial. Ice Collins’ “ Book of the Stars," 1). 41. _ ‘HMM‘mn~d—l_k kh— 251) Things to Know and Do 219 torch can readily be made of a roll of birch bark, a pine knot, or some pine-root slivers, in a split stick of green wood. Hunter’s Lamp A fairly steady light can be made of a piece of cotton cloth or twisted rag stuck in a clam shell full of oil or melted grease. An improvement is easily made by putting the cotton wick through a hole in a thin, flat stone, which sets in the grease and holds the wick upright. ' Another improvement is made by using a tin in place of the shell. It makes a steadier lamp, as well as a much larger light. This kind of a lamp enjoys wide use and has some queer names, such as slot-lamp, grease-jet, hunter’s lamp, etc. (See cut below.) Woodman's Lantern When nothing better is at hand, a woodman’s lantern can be made of a tomato can. Make a big hole in the bottom for Tomato-m ‘ fir”? Lanterns the candle, and punch the sides full of small holes, prefer- ably from the inside If you have a wire to make a hanger, well and good; if not, you can carry it by the bottom. This 252) 220 Woodcraft Manual for Boys lets out enough light and will not go out in the wind. If you want to set it down, you must make a hole in the ground for the candle, or if on a table, set it on two blocks. (Cut on page 2 :9.) Another style is described in a recent letter from Hamlin Garland: “Apropos of improved camp lights, I had a new one ‘sprung on me,’ this summer: A forest ranger and I were visiting a miner, about a mile from our camp. It came on dark, pitch dark, and when we started home, we could not follow the trail. It was windy as well as dark, and matches did very little good. So back we went to the cabin. The ranger then picked up an old tomato can, punched a hole in the side, thrust a candleu through the hole, lighted it, and took the can by the disk which had been cut from the top. The whole thing was now a boxed light, shining ahead like a searchlight, and the wind did not affect it at all! I’ve been camping, as you know, for thirty years, but this little trick was new to me. Perhaps it is new to you’ H. G. Still another style, giving a better light, is made by heating an ordinary clear glass quart bottle pretty hot in the fire, then dipping the bottom part in cold water; this causes the bottom to crack ofl. The candle is placed in the .neck, flame inside. and the bottle neck sunk in the ground. Knife and Hatchet or Whittling and Chopping If I were marooned on an island or left alone in the wilderness, and had the choice of but one weapon to take along, I should take a good knife. If I were allowed two, the second would be a hatchet. With these two one can make most of the things needed for securing food or building shelters. The Northern Indians are probably the best whittlers in the world. They use a curious curved knife called the crooked knife. It is made of an old file curled up at the point so it can cut a narrow groove. With such a knife a Chipewyan Indian can make bow, arrows, traps, snowshoes, canoe, and wigwam—as well as clothing, his whole outfit complete; a good crooked knife, therefore, is a fair start in life for an industrious Indian. Rules for Using a Knife In whittling, always assume that the knife 13 going to slip, there- fore, arrange so it can do no damage when it does slip. . __ 1‘: de‘h. Ik— __/_ 5—} _ ‘3‘. mil.._.-__ _’)1. i. __._ ‘ _ai_ 253) ~ Things to Know and" Do 22: For this reason, it is usual to make a beginner Whittle away from himself, but that is not always safe. Indeed, all the best whittlers in the world, including Northern Indians, Farriers, Wagonmakers, etc., whittle toward themselves, with the hand held palm up, the knife blade at the little finger side, using the pull of the arm instead of the push, thereby getting more power and better control. But this is sure, you should never whiltle toward the hand that is holding the wood. Always keep your knife sharp. It is a sign of a tenderfoot to have a dull knife, and of a trained Woodcrafter to have a keen one. To keep a knife sharp, it must be a good piece of steel and you must know how to sharpen it. The only way to get a good blade is to go to a good maker and pay a good price. The fancy knives that are corkscrew, toolchest, bootjack, and whistle all combined, are seldom of good steel. Old-timers prefer a white-handled knife as it is more readily found if dropped on the ground or in the water. The blade cannot be kept in good condition if used for any- thing but a wood cutter. Therefore, do not cut nails, metal, or softwood knots (especially hemlock knots) with it. Never stick the blade in the fire. That would draw the tem- per and spoil the knife. . Do not abuse your knife by using it for a hammer, wedge, screwdriver, or pry. - Carry a little Whetstone or else a small file to keep your knife in good shape. .A pocket or shut-up knife is the only style worth carrying. The hunting knife or dagger has not enough use to—day to make it worth while. It is a proof of a good whittler if one can make half. a dozen firefighters in succession. A firelighter or fuzz-stick (see illus- tration) is a stick of soft wood about an inch thick or six or eight inches through, shaved into thin slivers which are still on the stick; that is, are one solid piece at one end and all thin slivers at the other. This can only be done if you have a sharp, strong knife, a well-selected piece of soft wood without knots in it, and a steady hand. Provided the wood is good, the fire- lighter is perfect if not a sliver is loose or drops ofi. Use of Hatchet A good camper is known by his hatchet; if it is always sharp, and kept muzzled when travelling, the owner knows his business. 254)

22 Woodcraft Manual for Boys

Most of the knife rules apply equally to the hatchet. Never try to break a stone with a hatchet or let the hatchet be driven into a log by striking its back with another hatchet or anything of metal; use a wooden maul if it is necessary to drive the hatchet, as in splitting a stick. If you are going to hew a piece of timber with a hatchet, always draw a line first to guide you. If you are going to point a stake, make it a four-sided point, cutting sides No. I and No. 3, No. 2 and No. 4; so that finally at any cross-section of the point it will be square. It is a sure sign of inexperience when a camper throws his hatchet at trees, etc., to see if he can make it stick. Broken blades, broken handles, and injured trees are the inevitable re- sult, with the large possibility of serious accident. Use of the Axe The hatchet has long been the emblem of George Washington, in allusion to the incident of the cherry tree. So also the axe has become an emblem of Abraham Lincoln, the backwoodsman, the railsplitter, the typical American, who used the axe to carve his home out of the wilderness. I think that the axe might well be the emblem of America, for it was composed originally of the finest metal that Europe could supply, combined with a handle of the finest, toughest stufl that America could grow; and thus became the best weapon ever wielded by man for subduing the wilderness. . Most of the instructions for use of the hatchet apply equally to the axe; but the axe chiefly is used for cutting down trees and cutting up logs. To cut down a large tree with an axe, first clear a space around so you have firm footing and no limbs are left to catch the axe as it swings. Now begin by cutting the notch A (see illustration) at a convenient height, on the side to which you would throw the tree. Then split out the big chips B A by strokes at B. Continue the operation until you reach C D. Then stop and cut in the notch E. Resume cutting at C D until the tree falls. The notch E is never made on the level with D or lower, be- cause then the butt of the tree might shoot backward as the tree falls and kill the woodsman; also, the~upright part left standing between E and D prevents the tree falling the wrong way. When it matters little which way the tree goes, the notch is made much lower. l.‘ 1' AR __)h_ L __ I; .x‘; A M:‘& _ ‘7‘: _MA4__.’L_ 255) Things to Know and Do 223 l" g Mlk 256) 224‘? Woodth Manual 'for Boys If the tree-leans much the wrong way, you can push it over by guide or spring poles. Thus the tree F is leaning to the east, but a strong brace planted at G will make it fall to the south, if you cut the tree chiefly on the south side and leave the last uncut fibres of wood to run east and west, so they act as a hinge. This hinge is very important at times. In the section H the tree may be inclined to fall toward I, but it is easiest to bend the hinge at right angles to its main length so the angle of the hinge will throw it toward J, if there is no wind and the tree does not lean too much. ‘ _ Another well-known device is the spring pole. To make sure of the tree K falling toward L, put in a spring pole M, as long and as heavy as you can manage, force it in and have it bent down so that it is pushing against the tree. In some cases, sev- eral of these poles are put in. Two are, of course, twice as powerful as one, and when the tree is cut at the L side, the poles push it that way. These were very familiar woodsman’s tricks in my young days, but they are now largely displaced by the saw. The plan being to notch the tree at N, then saw it in at 0 until large iron wedges may be driven in behind the saw as it sinks into the trunk, and the tree is inevitably thrown toward N, usually in a line at right angles to the cut of the saw. A clever woodsman can throw a tree so exactly where he wants it that he can make it drive a given stake. A good axeman can fell a six-inch tree in a minute. When one is cutting a sapling, it helps greatly if the tree be bent over, then one blow of the axe on-the bulge of the bend will usually cut it off, whereas a dozen might be needed if the tree were‘not pulled over first. To cut a large log on the ground, the axeman stands on it and cuts between his wide-spread feet; cutting half through each side and keeping the kerfs or cuts plumb, P Q (see illustration). If it were cut through entirely from one side as at R, the labor would be double, because fully twice as much wood must then be removed. For a small log, it is easier to stand on the ground and cut more nearly on the upper side till halfway through, then roll the log half over and make the other cut. A Waterproof Shelter of Wilderness Stuff If you have plenty of spruce, balsam, or hemlock boughs avail— . , able to furnish a roof thatch, it is easy to make a lean-to. This ____./ ._ "5-. A r ,-' -M‘fl -_”‘_M I... 3 ’1 ‘M/.. AA __ A. ___.“ 4:1— .. 257) 5" Things to Know and Do 225 consists of a frame of poles bound with roots of spruce or tamarac, or else the inner bark of the elm, tamarac, leatherwood, or pignut hickory. (See A in illustration.) Begin at the bottom and cover them with the boughs cut twenty or thirty inches long and each one attached to the poles at D in the illustration. Plan of bark Siting/u A ZeanJo frank [totes LasAuL on Diagram Showmq’ arra n9 unmi ,t of bin h-Aark x x are isle: Sameh'mu added . ' afftr "u bark I: 07! 155/7190”? WI/d 500353 If you chance to have an abundance of birch bark, it is yet simpler. Cut the birch bark as large as possible and insert a row of sheets at the bottom, brown side up, overlapping at the up- and-down joints instead of setting the bark pieces side by side as in shingling. The top row may need extra binding poles to hold the bark sheets down (XX in B). These poles are bound at their ends to the ends of the poles below them. If grass or rushes are used, tie it in bundles and put on as with boughs. Sometimes the grass bundles are lashed separately to the upper sides of the poles with root or bark bindings. , J ,If one happens to have a supply of clay handy, a first-class clay 258) 226 Woodcraft Manual for Boys roof can be made. Make the structure very strong with cross pole so close side by side that they touch each other. On them lay a few inches of grass, and cover all with the clay hammered smooth. In each case, the ends may be filled up with the same material . as the roof. A fire in front makes of it a very comfortable dwelling. In rough, hasty work, the lashing of the poles is dispensed with ; the poles being held in place by knots left projecting on the two main end supports. This answers for the clay or the bough roof, _ but will not do for birch bark or other shingling. Camp Loom and Grass Mats The chief use of the camp loom is to weave mats for the beds of grass, straw, hay, or, best of all, sedge. I have made it thus: A 3-foot cross-bar A is fast to a small tree, and seven feet away even stakes are driven into the ground 8 inches apart, each 3 feet out of the ground. Five stout cords are tied to each stick, and to the cross-bar, (5%. C4 FH—L fiud (van-bu Icm unbu- ‘,D..""’ Marloom. ‘-‘ _ keeping them parallel. Then, between each on the cross-bar, is attached another cord (four in all) the far end of which is made fast to a loose cross-bar, B. One person raises the loose cross-bar B, while another lays a long bundle of grass tight in the comer C. Then B is lowered to D, and another roll of grass or sedge is tucked in on the under side of the stake cords. Thus the bundles are laid one above 4 4k _4“_ 1A _.' A; 4__._-“.-. _, AI“ _a’h_ll_‘u._n _ n. A __a_‘ 259) VvT—v "fl”.rm, W Things to Know and Do 227 and one below, until the mat is of the required length; The' cords are then fastened, the cross-bars removed, and the mat, when dried, makes a fine bed. When added to the willow bed, it is pure luxury; but lawful, because made of wildwood material. Navajo Loom A profitable amusement in camp is weaving rugs or mats of inner bark, rags, etc., on a rough Navajo loom. The crudest kind, one which can be made in an hour, is illustrated below. I have found it quite satisfactory for weaving rough mats or rugs. A and B are two trees or posts. C is the cross piece. D is the upper yarn-beam, wrapped its I , ¢——§£I . I?) 1 'l r (l ‘ _- III"? A, , c, _ 775' 1 D II 35:21:53. ' / !I III E _ ,7 A~ a it" . ‘ "'1 " i 1‘ / WW ] ‘ whole length with a spiral cord. E is the lower yam-beam, I similarly wrapped. F F are stout cords to carry the frame while the warp is being stretched between the yam-beams. G G is a log hung on for weight. H is a round stick fast- 260) 228 Woodcraft Manual for Boys ened between the yarns, odds on one side, evens on the‘other, to hold the yarns open until the rug is all done, but about one inch when it is drawn out. Now, with a needle, the yarns or strings for the warp are stretched from one yam-beam to another, as a continuous string. The exact method is shown on a larger scale in the upper figure I I. The batten or spreader J is a piece of light wood two inches wide and one half inch thick, with square edges, 'but thin, sharp point, and about as long as the yarn-beam. Now, we are ready to begin. Run the batten between the yarns under the sticks H H. Then drop it to the bottom and turn it flatwise, thus spreading the yarns apart in two rows. Lay a line of soft bark, rags, or other woof in this opening on top of the batten, making sure that it projects a couple of inches at . each end. Double these long ends around the strong cords FF then back along themselves. Now draw out the spreading bat- ten and press the woof down tight. Run the batten through alternate threads again, but the reverse way of last, and this time it goes more slowly for the lack of a guide rod.’ Lay a new line of woof as above. When the rug is all finished, except the top inch or more, draw out the rod H H and fill the warp to the top. _ Finally cut and draw out the spiral cords on each yarn-beam. This frees the rug, which is finished, excepting for trim and bind- ing, when such are desired. * Those who want full details of the best Navajo looms and methods will find them in Dr. Washington Matthew’s article ' on Navajo Weavers, 3d Annual Report, Bu‘r. of Ethnology, 2 1881-2. Washington, 1884. -1‘1. . N $‘K—vfl'w‘_A———_ ‘L Camp Rake . A camp rake is made of forked branches of oak, beech, hick- ory, or other hard wood, thus: Cut a handle an inch thick B C and 4 feet long, of the shape shown. Flatten it on each side of A, and make a gimlet—hole through. Now cut ten branches of the shape D E, each about 20 inches long. Flatten them at the E end, and make a gimlet-hole through each. Fasten all together, ‘This is done much more quickly by help of a heald-rod, that is, a hori- zontal stick as wide as the blanket, with every other strand of the warp loosely looped to it by a runniriticord near the to . When this rod is pulled forward it reverses the set of e threads and a ows the batten to drop in at once. - V 261) n— Things to Know and Do 229 five on each side of the handle, as in F, with a long nail or strong wire through all the holes; then, with a cord, lash them together, spacing them by putting the cord between. Sharpen the points of the teeth, and your rake is ready. Camp Broom There are two ways of making a camp broom. First, the twig broom. This is easily made as follows: Cut a handle t Illlllllllll luul‘ A an inch thick, and shape it to a shoulder, as in A B C. Lash on birch or other fine twigs, one layer at a time, until sufficiently 262) 23o Woodcraft Manual for Boys thick, as D E. Now at F, put a final lashing of cord. This draws the broom together, and binds it firmly to the handle. Trim the ends even with the axe, and it is ready for use. The other style is the backwoods broom. This was usually made of blue-beech or hickory. A 4-foot piece of a 4-inch green trunk is best. Shavings 18 inches long are cut down, left attached at J, and bent back over the end until there is a bunch of them thick enough; when they are bound together with a cord and appear as in K. Now thin down the rest of the handle L M, and the broom needs only a little drying out to be finished. Rubblngesfick Fire I have certame made a thousand fires with rubbing sticks, and have made at least five hundred difl'erent experiments. So far as I can learn, my own record of thirty-one seconds from taking the sticks to having the fire ablaze is the world’s record,‘ and I can safely promise this: That every one who will follow the instructions I now give will certainly succeed in making a rubbing-stick fire. Take a piece of dry, sound, balsam-fir wood (or else cedar, cypress, tamarac, basswood, or cottonwood, in order of choice) and make of it a drill and a block, thus: ""me .. WW. 1. Tools for firemaking Drill. Five eighths of an inch thick, twelve to fifteen inches 1(ong; roughly rounded, sharpened at each end as in the cut cut I a . ' Block, or board, two inches wide, six or eight inches long, five ' eighths of an inch thick. In this block, near one end, cut a side notch one half an inch deep, wider on the under side; and near 'Thlsmwritturtenyeussgoniueetbentherecordhsbeeurepestedhrlowemdhyothas. JA ; N__4_1L __._L _. '3>._, r _ 4! .L 1“. #1.. v 263) 4‘ ‘v—N—vwr‘ ‘ —1——"~ . —;V—r Things to Know and Do 231 its end half an inch from the edge make a little hollow or pit in the top of the block, as in the illustration (cut I b). Tinder. For tinder use a wad of fine, soft, very dry, dead grass mixed with shredded cedar bark, birch bark, or even cedar wood scraped into a soft mass. Bow. Make a bow of any bent stick two feet long, with a strong buckskin or belt-lacing thong on it (cut I c). Socket. Finally, you need a socket. This simple little thing is made in many diflerent ways. Sometimes I use a pine or hemlock knot with a pit one quarter inch deep, made by boring with the knife point. But it is a great help to have a good one made of a piece of smooth, hard stone or marble, set in wood; ' the stone or marble having in it a smooth, round pit three eighths 2. Readytomakefire inch wide and three eighths inch deep. The one I use most was made by the Eskimo. A view of the under side is shown in cut 1 (fig. d). Now we are ready to make the fire: Under the notch in the fire-block set a thin chip. Turn the leather thong of the bow once around the drill: the thong should now' be quite tight. Put one point of the drill into the pit of the block, and on the upper end put the socket, which is held in the left hand, with the top of- the drill in the hole of the stone (as in cut 2). Hold the left wrist against the left shin, and the left foot on the fire-block. Now, draw the right hand back and forth steadily on level and the full length of the how. This causes the drill to twirl in the pit. 264) 232 . Woodcraft Manual for Boys Soon it bore: in, grinding out powder, which presently begins to smoke. When there is a great volume of smoke from a grow- ing pile of black powder, you know that you have the spark. Cautiously lift the block, leaving the smoking powder on the chip. Fan this with your hand till the live coal appears. Now, put a wad of the tinder gently on the spark; raise the chip to a convenient height, and blow till it bursts into flame. N. B. (r) The notch must reach the middle of the fire-pit. (2) You must hold the drill steadily upright, and cannot do so without bracing the left wrist against the left shin, and having the block on a firm foundation. (3) You must begin lightly and slowly, pressing heavily and sawing fast after there is smoke. (4) If the fire does not come, it is because you have not followed these instructions. Drum While an ordinary bought drum does very well for dancing, some tribes make their own, using a section of a hollow tree (or in some cases a small barrel) covered with untanned calf skin. It is soaked till soft, scraped clear of hair, and tightly stretched over each end of the hol- ‘7 > low log. As it dries, it shrinks and be- Tthnmn Dwm- - comes very tense, giving a good drum sound. Usually it is tuned up by warming at the fire before use. ,_ , —_.._- The Woodcraft Willow Bed The only bed I know of which is light, portable, woodcrafty, made of wildwood stuff that can be got anywhere, and costing nothing but a little labor. is the willow or prairie bed used by all the Plains Indians. This is how it is made: On your first short hike to the coun- try go to some stream bank or swamp, and cut about seventy straight rods of red willow (kirmikinik), gray willow, arrow-wood, or any straight shoots, each about as thick as a pencil, when peeled, except one or two that are larger, up to half an inch thick; and all thirty inches long. Tie them up in a tight bundle with several cords until you get time to work them. Peel them, cut a slight notch in the butt of each rod, three quarters of an inch from the end, and you are ready to make the bed. «.4 _'_‘A

.- 52-1.. M‘ A h. «#‘4: -4 _ L-‘hh‘lk .- 265) .-,_ R‘fi' 7' v 15" Things to Know and Do 233 And here I may say that some folks, who could not get to the country to cut willow rods, have used the ordinary bamboo fishing-poles. These are sawed up in 30-inch lengths and split to the necessary thinness; the butt end yields four or even five of the splints, the top, but one. This answers well, ' gamu'isawturumrmfie- . If. 1 'T—L The my fume uni in will!!! ”TOM. on ml n inflate Cut No. 1 and three poles furnish material enough for the bed. This is allowable because, though the stuff is not of our own woods, it is American; it grows in the Southern States. One or two fellows in town have made the bed of dowels from a furniture factory. Now get a ball of cord, that will stand a 2 5-lb. pull, a ball of fine linen thread, and a piece of shoemaker’s wax, to complete your materials. ' If outdoors, you can stretch your cords between two small trees about seven feet apart, but it is much easier if you make a rough frame of strips or poles seven feet by three inside to work on. Cut four pieces of the cord, each about twenty feet long. Double each and tie a 3-inch hard loop in the middle. Twist these doubled cords and put them on a frame '(Cut No. I), fastened to nails as at A B, the surplus cord wrapped around the frame, and the others as at C D E F G and H. Take one of the heaviest rods, say a half-inch one, for a starter. With a pointed stick, open the two strands of the twisted cord, and set the rod tight against the knots I J K L. Now set a second rod in place below the first, seeing that two twists of the string are between each rod and that the 266) 234 Woodcraft Manual for Boys space separating them is one inch. Keep alternating butts and tops. At each point, that is at four places on each rod, make a lashing of waxed thread, holding_rod and cords to- gether (No. 2). I have seen beds with only two lashings, that' is, one at each end, but four lashings is the sound and safe plan. When the rod-work is six feet long, it is time to taper ofl. No.3, Various hcicu - Cami—5‘“ NI}. Willow 61‘. With Black Wolf Y‘al‘rm Put in one big rod for a finish, and tie hard loops in the cords at this point. Then, using shorter rods, make a narrower part about eighteen inches high for a head. Finally, cover this head with a piece of brown khaki or canvas which should be decorated with the band’s colors and totem, either painted or done in beadwork, or in colored cottons that are cut out and sewed on (Cuts Nos. 3 and 4). It is well to add also a wooden hook for one’s watch (a and b, Cut No. 3) and a pocket for matches and money, etc., at night. ft}; Li‘d‘hdt—xAg‘H’E; i. -A __;f' . ,4 Aymkt‘. ( -_._‘:._.il_ ,2 267) V V“i" 'W" , ' Things to Know and 'Do 235 The Indians often elaborated these beds to a great, extent when in permanent camps. Each rod was selected, perfectly straight, thinned at the butt end, to be uniform, and an extra piece added at the bed, head and foot, to curl up as end-boards. That at the head was elaborately decorated with symbols in bmdwork. The illustration (No. 5) shows a beautiful beaded ._‘ ,._ V No.6“ The beaded head. bed-head in my possession; not only the head, but the edges all around, are bound with red flannel. , When in use the bed is laid with the ends of the rods resting . on two 4-inch poles, which are set firmly twenty-six inches apart; and the bed is staked at the corners through the loops to hold it in place (Cut No. 6). Cut No. 7 shows a fine speci— men of an Arapaho bed all ready for use. When we can get no poles, we lay down a couple of boards or rods to carry the ends of the bed, and then dig the ground out in the middle. By means of two tall stakes the head part is held upright. 268) 236 Woodcraft Manual for Boys When packed up the bed is rolled. It weighs about five pounds Of course, you always need as much under you as over you. Couched on such a natural spring mattress as the willow bed you sleep in perfect comfort. Sffltlll ‘Illlll it‘ll“! .fnil-(letllll “51.1"“ No. ARAPAHO BED OF WILLOWS. Rep. Bur. Am. Ethn. p. 963, 14th Ann. For those who wish to complete its sumptuousness a rush or grass mat may be added. (See Camp Loom.) After long use the willows get bent, to prevent this the bed should be turned over every few days. Making A Teepee (From Ladies’ Home Journal, September, 1902) Many famous campers have said that the Indian teepee is the best known movable home. It is roomy, self-ventilating, _. {$.L. Uk‘n"--1&-u .’_=_ .n "t __4 .A -1' A-Ii-ig La ._._

  • L- J‘..4ln_ -4

269) v '7' “Ha... V Things to Know and Do :37 cannot blow down, and is the only tent that admits of a fire inside. Then why is it not everywhere used? Because or the difiiculty» A o n kh‘g'c C I 1 I O I lDoor l1 .1! , L 5-... . ..o'. I’M'Vft',’ ....... . .M~ .~ . .....'~<-. """" 9. it'srnsofiflaplfl ..°"“-..n C -......0' ’ FSWKHKP- 2"} H J “Scale six 1'63 r 1 Cut I Pattern o! 10-Fool Tecpee. The Cow-13; Teepee Cover—UM Cut II I - ' . mm (or Door. Completed. of the poles. If on the prairie, you must carry your poles. If in the woods, you must cut them at each camp. A 10-foot teepee is the smallest size worth having for practical use. A larger one is easier to keep clear of smoke, but most 270) 238— Woodcraft Manual for Boys boys will prefer the small one, as it is much handier, cheaper, and easier to make. I shall therefore give the working plan of a 10-foot teepee of the simplest form. It requires 22- square yards of 6- or S-ounce duck, heavy unbleached muslin, or Canton flannel (the wider the better, as that saves labor in making up), which costs about $6; 100 feet of 1!; inch clothesline, 25 cents; string for sewing rope, ends, etc., 5 cents. Total about $7.00. Get your material machine run together 20 feet long and 10 feet wide. Lay this down perfectly flat (Cut I). On a peg or nail at A in the middle of the long side put a 10-foot cord loosely, and then with a burnt stick in a loop at the other end draw the half-circle B C D. Now mark out the two little triangles at A. A E is 6 inches, A F and E F each one‘foo-t; the other triangle, A R G, is the same size. Cut the canvas along these dotted lines. From the scraps left over cut two ieces for smoke-flaps, as shown. In the long comer of each H in No._ 1, I in No. 2) a small three-cornered piece should be sewed, to make a pocket for the end of the smoke pole, or else a 2-inch hole right through. Now sew the smoke-flaps to the cover so that M L of No. 1 is neatly fitted to P E, and N O of No. 2 to Q D. ' Two inches from the edge B P make a double row of holes; each hole is 1% inches from its mate, and each pair is 5 inches from the next pair, except at the 2-foot space marked “door,” where no holes are needed. The holes on the other side, Q D, must exactly fit, on these. At A fasten very strongly a 4-foot rope by the middle. Fasten the end of a 10-foot cord to J and another to K; hem a rOpe all along in the bottom, B C D. Cut 12 pieces of rope each about 15 inches long, fasten one firmly to the canvas at B, another at the point D, and the rest at regular distances to the hem rope along the edge between, for peg loops. The teepee cover is now made. - For the door (some never use one) take a limber sapling % inch thick and 5%, feet long, also one 22 inches long. Bend the long one into a horseshoe and fasten the short one across the ends (A in Cut II). On this stretch canvas, leaving a flap at the top in; the middle of which two small holes are made (B, Cut II), so as to hang the door on a lacing-pin. Nine of these lacing-pins are needed. They are of smooth, round, straight, hard wood, a foot long and } inch thick. They skewer the overlapped edges together. A4 .4_‘ ‘ AAA i‘IL- Mg’»- A- < r 1 . Art.‘ I_ a Aa_1- . Ax_4i._ r- Eh... . 271) V

3:." * ”31*? w 1 Things to Know and Do 239 Storm Cap or Bull-boat During long continued or heavy rains, a good deal of water may come in the smoke-vent or drip down the poles. To pre- vent this the Missouri Indians would sometimes use a circular bull-boat of rawhide on a frame of willows as a storm cap. For a twelve-foot teepee the storm cap should be about four feet across and eighteen inches deep, made of canvas with a hem edge in which is a limber rod to keep it in circular shape. It is usually put on with a loose teepee pole, and sits on top of the poles as shown, held down if need be by cords to its edge. The poles should be short and even for this. Putting Up the Teepee Twelve poles also are needed. They should be as straight and smooth as possible; crooked, rough poles are signs of a bad housekeeper—a squaw is known by her teepee poles. They should be 13 or 14 feet long and about I inch thick at the top. Two are for the smoke-vent; they may be more slender than the_ others, and should have a 4-inch crosspiece lashed on them about 2 feet from the top. Last of all, make a dozen stout short pegs about I 5 inches long and about 1% inches thick. Now all the necessary parts of the teepee are made. This is how the Indian tent is put up: Tie three“ poles to- gether at a point about 1 foot higher than the canvas, spread them out in a tripod the right distance apart; then lay the other poles (except three including the two slender ones) in the angles, their lower ends forming a small circle. ,Bind them all with a rope, letting its end hang down inside for an-anchor. Now fasten the two ropes at A (Cut 1) to the stout pole left over at a point 10 feet up. Raise this into its place, and the teepee ' Some use four and find it stronger. 272) 240 Woodth Manual for Boys cover with it: opposite where the door is to be. Carry the two wings of the tent around till they overlap and fasten to- gether with the lacing-pins. Put the end of a vent-pole in each of the vent flap pockets or else through the holes there, outside of the teepee. Peg down the edges of the canvas at each loop. Stretch the cover by spreading the poles. Hang the door on a convenient lacing-pin. Drive a stout stake inside the teepee, tie the anchor rope to this and the teepee an." 3;: 4.41m we" V's tuna”? ‘fufméi t0 '* b} WNW!“ ‘Li-La' 's'.e a; W4 m r2114” M W. 5:1 P4“ is ready for weather. In the centre dig a hole 18 inches wide. and 6 inches deep for the fire. . The fire is the great advantage of the teepee, experience will show how to manage the smoke. Keep the smoke-vent swung down wind, or at least quartering down. Sometimes you must leave the door a little open or raise the bottom of the teepee cover a little on the windward side. If this makes too much ' draught on your back, stretch a piece of canvas between two 1- J.- 1..)’k.}40»4.43_-.‘ .4. —- 1‘ A; A (m. ¥ .«  L. 41 .— h.-. 273) ~v~‘— ‘ ‘— "i'i‘gfi Things to Know and Do 241 or three of the poles inside the teepee, in front of the opening made and reaching to the ground. The draught will go up behind this. . By these tricks you can make the vent draw the smoke. But after all the main thing is to use only the best and driest of wood. This makes a clear fire. There will always be more or less smoke 7 or 8 feet up, but it worries no one there and keeps the mosquitoes away. Archery The tribe should own a Standard Target—that is, 4 feet across, circular, made of straw, with a thin oilcloth cover, marked with a 9.6 inch centre of gold (called by some of our tribes “The Buflalo’s Eye”); outside of that a 4.8 inch band of red, next a similar band of blue, next of black, next of white. Some- times black rings of the right size are made to answer. In scoring, the gold is 9, the red 7, the blue 5, the black 3, the white I. The shortest match range for the target is 40 yards. If it is a 3-foot target the match range is reduced to 30 yards. A target can be made of a burlap sack about five feet square. This should be stuffed full of hay or straw, then flattened by a few quilting stitches put right through with a long packing needle. On this the target is painted of exact right size. Each boy should have a bow that pulls from 10 pounds up; about one pound for each year of his age is' a safe guide for boys up to sixteen. He should have at least 6 arrows and a quiver. The arrows 25 inches long, with 3 feathers, cone-points of steel or iron; brass points are useless. A guard or bracer for the left wrist is needed, and most boys require a glove to protect the fingers of the right hand. Bows can be bought for $1 to $5 and arrows from 15 cents to $3 each. But it is more creditable if you make them yourself. . How to Make a Bow Take a straight, sound piece of cedar, bodark, yew, sassafras, mulberry, apple tree, black locust, ironwood, ash, elm, hickory, or hemlock. Cut it so that it is half sap and half heartwood, flat on the sa wood side (or front) and round on the heartwood side (or back . It should be about an inch thick in the middle and tapered off to 3} inch at each end. Cut two notches and put on a strong linen cord, either a bought bow-string or one 274) 242 Woodcraft Manual for Boys ARCHERY a. The bow strung. b. The cord fast at the lower end. c. The cord with loop at upper end. d. Feather ready to tie on. e. Feathers lashed on. f. Holding. WFJ r SIX SAMPLE ARROWS, SHOWING DIFFERENT FEATHERS A is a far-flying steel~pointed bobtnil, very good in wind. Bis another very good ar- ~ row. with a horn point. This went even better than A if there were no.wind. C is an Omaha war and deer arrow. Both heads and feathers are lashed on with amew. The lon tufts of down left on the feathers me to help in finding it again, as they are snow-white and wave in the breeze. The roovea on the shut ere to e the victim bleed more freely and be more easily tracked. is another Omaha arrow wi a peculiar owner's mark of rings carved in the middle. 1:: is a bone-headed bird shaft made by the Indians of the Meeken- zie River F is a wgrr arrow made by Geronimo. the famous Apache chief. Its shaft is three joints of a s ht cane. The tip is of hard wood, and on that is a fine qmrtz point; all being lashed er with sinew. .foML 4} ~43... -_ ‘1‘ ———_v x 1 - x. 4,. x 5‘. 3. a. _I‘l’. 1.4.. 4/; l 41 275) F3 TV” *7”: C ‘ v» n Things to Know and Do 243 made of many twisted linen threads. At one end it is fast to the bow by a timber hitch, at the other by a hard loop. When strung the string should be about 5 inches from the w. Arrows should be 25 inches long, and % of an inch thick. They are made of pine or ash. The Eastern Indians made them usually of arrow-wood or Viburnum shoots. Each should have a conical steel ferrule for head and three ' feathers to make it fly true. The feathers are lashed on. Holding and Drawing It is very important to begin shooting in correct form and never change from that if you wish to become a good shot. Grasp the bow in the left hand. Put the arrow on the string with the right. Hook the first three fingers on the string one above, two below the arrow. The little finger and thumb do nothing. (f in upper cut, p. 242.) . Stand perfectly upright, left side toward the target, the heels 12 inches apart and in exact line from the target. Hold the bow upright and the arrow against the left side of it, resting on the hand. Draw the cord till the head of the arrow touches the bow and the top of your thumb rests on the corner of your mouth. You must sight along the arrow for direction, but guess for elevation. Hold it one second. Release the arrow by straightening your fingers and at the same time turn your hand back up, but keep the thumb tip at your mouth corner. Do not move the left hand a hair’s- breadth till the arrow has struck. Begin practising at very short range and slowly increase up to the standard, forty yards. Unstring the bow when not in use. Woodcraft Paints Paints for ornamenting robes are mixed with water. (Clark: “Sign Language”) Paints for the body are mixed with grease or tallow from some animal. Paints for lodges, totem poles, etc., were made durable by slowly melting or mixing into the grease enough rosin to make it sticky. This formed their paint oil. Red. Before the Indian had the white man’s vermilion he used a certain stifi yellow clay (brick clay) which, when burnt. - 276) 244 Woodcraft Manual for Boys turned dull red—i. e., brick color. This he powdered and mixed with the grease oil. In some parts of the country there are springs strongly im— pregnated with iron. A log of wood dug out of this—or fail- ing that an armiul of chips long soaked in it—when taken out, dried and burnt, yielded ashes of a beautiful rosy color. These worked up into a very pretty red. Yellow. Yellow clay or ochres are common in clay re ions and furnish a dull yellow. Clark says that the flower 0 the prairie goldenrod yields a good yellow; also the bright yellow I Inufimfllflm , M Zuni Eagles 23 Am. Rep. B.A.E. moss one sees on the trunks of pine trees in the Rockies When dried and powdered this makes a sort of chrome yellow, and is also used as a dye. “The Sioux use bull-berries” for yellow. (Clark) Blue. They had no good blue. Blue clays come nearest to the color. Sometimes - black and white mixed were used. Black. Soot and charcoal, ground into the paint oil, made a good black. White. For white they used white clays, which are com- mon in some regions, or burnt shells, finely powdered. “Generally speaking, Black means joy; White, mourning; Red, beauty; and an excessive use of any of these or other colors, excitement.” Painting or greasing was universal among Indians. They did it to beautify themselves and also to protect the skins from the weather. Though we condemn them for the practice, most of our women and a great many of our men do the same thing for the same reason. ‘tdtt .."I all . is... ‘?;_—:.'_a_ 1- - 5..-"; .a— n I ,_

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277) Things to Know and- Do 245 Woodcraft Dyes The dyes used to stain porcupine quills, spruce roots, and other strong material, of which they made ornaments and utensils, were very numerous, and some of them very beautiful. Red. Soak the roots in the juice of the Squaw-berry— Blitum or Mis-caw-wa. Many other berries give red or purple. Black. Boil the roots, etc., with the bark, branches, and berries of sumac, or the bark and chips of oak and soft maple, with some iron in the pot. Yellow. A beautiful yellow is made by boiling the inner bark of golden or black oak. Or the root of yellowroot or hydrastis. In the Rocky Mountains the yellow moss off pine trees serves. Orange. Orange is obtained by two dips—one in the red and one in the yellow after the first is dry. Lace or Thong If you need a lace or thong and have no leather long enough, take a square piece, round the corners, then cut it round and round, till it is all used up. Pull and roll the thong produced until it is small and even, without kinks. Woodcraft Buttons On the Plains, when a button is lost‘or needed, it is easy to make one of leather. Usually a piece of an old strap is used. Cut it the right size, make two holes in it, and sew Showmg lbow n he: may be cut ”from A' small INCCC filmnsmudc of . fh’ucK luflur 278) 246 Woodcraft Manual for Boys it on as an ordinary button. This never breaks or fails. As_ the old plainsman who first showed me, said, “There’s a button that’ll be right there when the coat’s all wore away from be- hind it." Handicraft Stunts Let each Woodcrafter carve a fork and spoon out of wood, with his band totem on the handle. 9/14/41”: rr‘ ' e a: . I: Mr. 7. Puck-stone "lg. '° 21hr box 'Puetun. frame of wood or butt. bard Wm H““ au‘rn cvlu'. . p ornamn-T: ". ' .z‘ ‘ . a 3'4? ,_ V w y. fl Make a needle case out of a fowl’s leg or wing bone, thus: - Clean and smooth about three inches of the bone, plug up one I 279) Things to Know and Do 247 end with a soft wood plug, and make a wooden stopper for the . other end. Then with the point of a knife decorate the bone. The lines should be scratched in deeply and then have black paint rubbed into them. If no black paint is handy make a mixture of soot and pine gum, with a little grease, butter, or oil. “V , f“- Make a tackle box or ditty box 2 x 2 x 6 inches carved out of solid wood. Make peach-stone baskets, of a peach-stone shaped with a file. Turkey call. An interesting curio is the turkey call. Take a small cigar box and cut ofi the end as in the figure. Get a piece of slate about 2 x 3 inches long, or, failing slate, take a flat piece of wood and rub it well with rosin. Draw the two curved edges of the box lightly up this one way, and it will make a wonderfully good imitation of a turkey call. A chicken squawk. This is another call easily made. Take any small round tin box—a condensed milk tin is good—and make a hole through the bottom and into this put a cord. A knot on the inside prevents the cord from slipping through. Rosin the cord and draw the fingers down it with short and long jerks. This gives a good imitation of a cackling hen. .-,) 280) 248 Woodcraft Manual, for Boys Picture frames as in the illustrations. Birch-bark boxes and baskets. These are easily made if 1. bark be softened in hot water before you shape it. The lacing is spruce roots, or raflia also softened with hot water. Noggin. A noggin is a wooden cup made out of a tree burl or knot polished outside and carefully scooped out so as to leave a thin shell. Books Recommended How To MAKE BASKETS, Mary White Doubleday, Page 81 Co. $1.00 plus to cents tage. Box murmur-z, Louise Brigham Century Co. 31. 60 How To MAKE POTTERY, Mary White. Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.00 WORKINGINMETAIS, CharlesConradStc..el. Doubleda ,Page&Co. 81. 00 FIELD AND FOREST HANDY Boox, Dan C. Beard. Scnbner’s. $1.50. THE JACK or ALL TnADEs, Dan C. Beard. Scribner’s. $1.50. I Souvenir Spoons A good indoor activity of Woodcraft is the making of souve- nir spoons. Some craftsmen are clever enough to make these out of wood or of silver. I havefound that the best, easy- . . _ l ' Skookum Wild Cat Owl Eagle Johnny Bear working material is bone, deer antler, or horn. Go to any big. drug shop and get one of the 2 5-cent horn spoons. It is already of a good spoon-shape, of course. The handle is hard, smooth, l—“AL L l l l l I (F1717; 281) Things to Know and Do 249 and ready to be ornamented with any device, cutt' it with knife or file, into the owner’s totem, or the band or e tribal totems'which naturally suggest themselves. At one time the wood of the laurel was much used for spoons, hence the bush is still called “ spoon wood” in some regions. The design should-be sketched on with pencil or ink, then realized by shaping the outline with file or knife. The inner lines are merely scratched on the surface. In general, one should avoid changing the main outline of the spoon handle or cutting it enough to weaken it. Always, rather, adapt the animal to fill the desired space. There are several purposes the spoon can answer: First, as a spoon in camp, especially when prizes are ofiered to the camp that makes most of its own equipment; next, as a salable article; third, as an exhibition article when it is'desired to get up a fine exhibit of handicraft products illustrating camp life. Bird Boxes or Houses A good line of winter work is making bird boxes to have them ready for the spring birds. Two styles of bird houses are in vogue: one a miniature house on a pole, the other is an artificial hollow limb in a tree. F irst—the miniature cabin or house on a pole. This is very good for martins, swallows, etc., and popular with most birds, because it is safest from cats and squirrels. But most of us consider it far from ornamental. ' To make one, take any wooden box about six inches square, put a wooden roof on it (a in cut), then bore a hole in the middle of one end, making it one and one half inches wide; and on the bottom nail a piece of 2 inch wood with an inch auger hole in it (b). Drive in a nail or a perch below the door and all is ready for a coat of soft, olive-green paint. After this is dry, the box is finished. When you set it in place, the end of the pole is shaved to fit tight into the auger hole in the bottom, and the pole then set up, or fastened to the end of the building. In the latter case a six or eight foot pole is long enough. In some neighborhoods it is necessary to put tin as a cat and rat guard, on the pole, as shown (c and d). Some elaborate these bird houses, _ making a half dozen compartments. When this is done the pole goes right through the lowest floor and fits into a small hole __in the floor above. These large apartment houses are very popular with the 282) 250 Woodth Manual for Boys purple martin, as well as with the English sparrow if they are set up in town. ' Alexander Wilson tells us that the Choctaw and Chicasaw Indians used to make bird houses for the purple martins thus: “Cut ofl all top branches from a sapling, near their cabins, leav- ing the prongs a foot or two in length, on each of which they hang Th MM rat-Viral. d. BIRD BOXES "m a gourd or calabash properly hollowed out for their conveni- ence.” But the wild-wood box or hollow limb is more sightly and for some birds more attractive. There are several ways of using the natural limb. One is, take a .seven or eight inch stick of chestnut about twenty inches long, split four slabs off it (0), then saw ofi three inches of each end of the “core” and nail the whole thing together again (p and q), omitting the middle part of the core. 283) Things to Know and Do 251 Another way is to split the log in half and scoop out the interior of each half (land in). When nailed together again it

makes a commodious chamber, about five inches wide and a 

foot or more deep. Another plan is: Take a five-inch limb of green chestnut, elm, or any other tough-barked tree. ' Cut a piece eighteen inches long, make a long bevel on one end (e). Now carefully split the bark on one side and peel it. Then saw the peeled wood into three pieces (f g h), leave out g and put the bark on again. Cut a hole in the bark on the longest side, at the place farthest from the beveled end (x in e), and your bird nest is finished. The beveled end is there to make it easily nailed up; when in place, it is as at i. The front—that is, the side where the door is— should always be the under one; and the door in each case should be near the top. But these methods presuppose a fine big stick of wood. I have more of ten found it convenient to work with scraps. Here is one easy way that I have long used: From a four or five inch round log saw ofi two sections each two inches thick, or failing a log, cut out two circles from a two-inch plank, for top and bottom parts (like i and h); then using six or seven laths instead of bark, make a hollow cylinder (j). Cover the hollow cylinder with a large piece of bark and cut the hole (k). Cut your entry at the top, half on each of a pair of laths. Cover the whole thing with bark nailed neatly on; or failing the bark, cover it with canvas and paint a dull green mottled with black and ay. This last has the advantage of giving most room in a small log. Of course, if one can find a hollow limb, all this work is saved. By way of variety this one can be put up hanging from a nail, for which the wire loop is made. To a great extent the size of hole regulates the kind of bird, as most birds like a tight fit. For wrens make it about one inch; for bluebirds and tree- swallows one and one half inches; for martins two and one half inches. Sparrow-proof Bird Box When I was a boy, I stumbled on a plan for keeping sparrows out of bird boxes and have recently revived it with success. It consists in making a conspicuous trap door to cover the entrance hole. Watch for a sparrow to enter, then pull the string, catch the sparrow and use him as seems best. After one or two sparrows have been captured in this 284) 252 Woodcraft Manual for Boys way, their friends become suspicious of the device over the door and will not enter a nesting box with such an obvious menace. Thus the sparrow ’3 intelligence: is turned against himself. Our native birds, having no evil experience with the trap, do not fear it. The trap door is shown on the Woodcraft Bird Box, which is one made as already described by slabbing a round log, cutting out the core, then nailing it together again. The twig or wire at one side carries the weight of the string which, otherwise, might close the door during a heavy wind. ,/ g M i g u, SE faction of 3': log Shun/11131 43$: how 7/": “365 E; Are 5]»! it Off 0 e19 When the string is firmly pulled, the twig gives and the door is pulled down over the hole. The advantages of the Woodcraft Bird Box over the other kinds are: It is cheap. It is picturesque. It is observational. It is sparrow-proof. Books Recommended MAKING or A HOLLOW TREE, by E. T. Seton, Country Life in America, November, 1908, andseq PUTTING UP Bran BOXES, by B. S. Bowdish (W1 leaflet), Audubon Society, 1974 Broadway, New York, 15 cents per ozen USEFUL Bums AND THEIR PROTECTION, by E. H. Forbush, Massachu- setts State Board Agriculture, p. 388. __ ‘. h 2-7" .-—b.—- l l_. Y Q

. ._. .h.-_.T—- v 0 I l n h .—_. 1—4—- I ._ .---i ..-. -1. _ __-_. / l i - P 285)

Things‘toKnow a‘ndDo... 253 

For latest ideas send to The Jacobs Bird House Company, 494 So. Washington Street, Waynesburg, Pa. Knots The following are standard knots that an accomplished camper - should know. Remember, a perfect knot is one that neither jambs nor slips. See pages 254, 25 5. Blazes and Signs , Blazes First among the trail signs that are used by Woodcrafters, Indians, and white hunters, and most likely to be of use to ‘the traveler, are axe blazes on tree trunks. Among these some may vary greatly with locality, but there is one that. I have found everywhere in use with scarcely any variation. That is the simple white spot moaning, “Here is the trail.” . The Indian in making it may nick ofi an infinitesimal speck of bark with his knife, the trapper with his hatchet may make it as big as a. dollar, or the settler with his heavy axe may slab ofl half the tree-side; but the sign is the same in principle and in meaning, on trunk, log, or branch from Atlantic to Pacific and from Hudson Strait to Rio Grande. “This is your trail,” it clearly says in the universal language of the woods. There are two ways of employing it: one when it appears on back and front of the trunk, so that the trail can be run both ways; the other when it appears on but one side of each tree, making a blind trail, which can be run one way only, the blind trail is often used by trappmnd prospectors, who do not wish any one to follow their bac. ' ,k. But there are treeless regions where we trail must be marked; regions of sage brush and sand, regions of rock, stretches of stone, and level wastes of grass or sedge. Here other methods must be employed. A well-known Indian device, in the brush, is to break a twig and leave it hanging (second line). Among stones and rocks the recognized sign is one stone set on top of another (top line) and in places where there is noth- ing )but grass the custom is to twist a tussock into a knot (third line . . These signs also are used in the whole country from Maine to California. 286) 254 Woodcraft Manual for @ Bowline: n noosfn that teefknotoraqum I 01.5!

3»??me m

The fishemnn'l knot. It never nl I pr b uni openu‘ by «the "05m" Boys Binder knot. for join- neiun " bend. Slip knot. “tannin-cog: Wuver' a knot or sheet dJot joining small colds. Two lull-hitches. Moldavy . em. if g fixedloopminmiddlo l? 287) Things to Know and D° ?"(f«’fi!’({r((fl’(/(I’Ii'17:??? - Yin-0M Influx: hidden “4' cm. hm. 288) I 256-3 Woodcraft Manual for. Boys SHGNS AND BLAZJES Sign: in J‘toncs Sign: in Twigs 'Dul I: the Tiuil Turn to the Right Turn to the Left WmWamiIg Sign: in Grass Tim I: the Tnil Turn to "It Right Turn to ”t Left [InportantVanIins SignJ' in Bla3es TM: I: Ihe TraIl Turn to "It Right Turn to flu Left ImportantWamins Code for J'moke -rJ'ignalJ , ‘3 ‘H Camp i: Her: Inn In“ Help! coca New All can: the Countil Me Special Bla3cs use}! by Hunter: (rimveyors mum A Tnp to ATnp tn Call! In» Canyiflh Jpn-kl Adlmmhek SW: Right Left Right Left Special Lin Herc Tim I': the Trul Tum to the Right Tum to the Left WIIIVIruII-s IL {L 1 Ma k3: 289) a HIV (Y Things to Know and Do 257.. In running a trail one naturally looks, straight ahead for the next sign; if the trail turned abruptly without notice one might easily be set wrong, but custom has provided against this. The tree blaze for turn “to the right” is shown in No.- 2, fourth row; “to the left” in No. 3. The greater length of the turning blaze seems to be due to a desire for emphasis as the same mark set square on is understood to mean “Look out, there is something of special importance here.” Combined with a long side chip it means “very import- ant; here turn aside.” This is often used to mean “camp. is close by,” and a third sign that is variously combined but always with the general meaning of “warning” or “something of great importance” is a threefold blaze. (No. 4 on fourth line.) The combination (No. 1 on bottom row) would read “Look out now for something of great importance to the right.” This blaze I have often seen used by trappers to mark the whereabouts of their trap or cache. Surveyors often use a similar mark—that is, three simple spots and a stripe to mean, “There is a stake close at hand,” while a similar blaze on another tree near by means that the. stake is on a line between. Stone Signs These signs done into stone-talk would be as in the top line of the cut. These are much used in the Rockies where the trail goes over stony places or along stretches of slide-rock. Grass and Twig Signs In grass or sedge the top of the tuft is made to show the direction to be followed; if it is a point of great importance three tufts are tied, their tops straight it the trail goes straight on; otherwise the tops are turned in the direction toward which the course turns. The Ojibways and other woodland tribes use twigs for a great many of these signs. (See second row.) The hanging broken twig like the simple blaze means “This is the trail.” The twig clean broken off and laid on the ground across the line of march means, “Here break from your'straight course and go in the line of the butt end,” and when an especial warn- ing is. meant, the butt' 15 pointed toward the one following the trail and raised somewhat,' in a forked twig if the- butt oh 290) 258 Woodcraft Manual for Boys the twig were raised and pointing to the left, it would mean Look out, camp, or ourselves, or the enemy, or the game we have killed is out that way." With some, the elevation of the butt is made to show the distance of the object; if low the object is near, if raised very high the object is a long way ofiE. These are the principal signs of the trail used by Wood- craf ters, Indians, and hunters in most parts of America. These are the standards — the ones sure to be seen by those who camp in the wilderness. Smoke Sisnals There is in addition a useful kind of sign that has been men- tioned already in these papers — that is, the Smoke Signal. These were used chiefly by the Plains Indians, but the Ojibways seem to have employed them at times. A clear hot foe was made, then covered with green stuff or rotten wood so that it sent up a solid colmnn of black smoke. By spreading and lifting a blanket over this smudge the column could be cut up into pieces long or short, and by a preconcerted code these could be made to convey tidings. But the simplest of all smoke codes and the one of chief use to the Western traveler is this: One steady smoke — "Here is camp." Two steady smokes — "I am lost, come and help me." I find two other smoke signals, namely: Three smokes in a row — "Good news." Four smokes in a row — "All are summoned to council." These latter I find not of general use, nor are they so likely to be of service as the first two given. Signal by Shots The old buffalo hunters had an established signal that is yet used by the mountain guides. If is as follows: Two shots in rapid succession, an interval of five seconds by the watch, then one shot; this means, "where are you?" The answer given at once and exactly the same means "Here I am; what do you want? " The reply to this may be one shot, which means, "All right; I only wanted to know where you were." But if the reply repeats the first it means, "I am in serious trouble; come as fast as you can." 291) f { • L. Things to Know and Do Tramp Signs ^59 Among the many signs and blazes doing active service in our cities, just as tJieir predecessors did in the wilderness, are the signs of tramps and Gypsies. These, no doubt, vary from time to time, but they must be fairly permanent and general; otherwise, they would not serve their purpose. An interesting article on Tramp Signs appears in the American Examiner of January 30, 1910. It is accredited to Professor Wallace Emster (Michigan University) and Chief of Police C. J. McCabe, of Poughkeepsie, N. Y. It gives the following as weU-established Tramp Signs: doTisiTkbl^ or This CAm^ li ^(^ ChiU> woma^n: fyr Tmt '»v WorK I A- OU womin. glv* ut> "Worth. roiAmj /VSAA ^ Vii/ous O r }lo we XrH » Mo^'tworKfolr To these, the Reverend Horace E. Clute, of New York, in December 6, 1914, issue of the same paper adds: 292) 36o Woodcraft Manual for Boys V/AW ^ Tell h.y^rn,ihett In Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1901, is an important article on Vagrants. The author is Chief Constable Henderson. He notes the fact that "The Book of Vagabonds and Beggars," edited by Martin Luther in 1529, is one of the most interesting and instructive records of Vagrants, and classifies them in twenty-eight well-known groups. He then gives the following blazes used by Vagrants, Tramps, or Mouchers in England. I do not know that these are used in America, but the same ideas are in use and some of these marks are much like the corresponding ones iu the American List. e Religious but kind. Stop. If you are selling what they happen to want, they'll Duy; they are cute. Mind the dog; may give you in chaige. Cross sticks put by Gypsies and tramps at the junction of roads to show in which direction their friends have gone before them; the long limb pointing the way.

X O Go in this direction; the other road not good. Spoiled; too many vagrants call. Dangerous; likely to be given in charge. Too poor; give nothing. Good; safe for some- thing, if you don't talk much. How to Raise Money A ^ood Woodcrafter always "travels on his own steam." When you want to go camping, don't go round begging for the cash, but 6am it. And a good time to do this is in the winter when you are forced to stay indoors. — How? One way, much in the line of our work, is making some bird houses. I know a number of persons who would gladly put up bird houses, if they could get them easily. You can either sell them in a lot to a man who has already a shop for garden stuff or hardware, or put them on a hand cart and sell diem at much better prices yourself . It is useless to i^ - ^ 'c 293) Things to Know and Do 261 take them to a farmer, or to folks in town, but a ready sale will be found among the well-to-do in the suburbs, in a country town, or among the summer residents of the country. The simple boxes might fetch 50 cents each, the more elaborate $1.00 or $2.00 according to the labor they have cost you. Another way is the manufacture of Indian stuff such as furniture, birch-bark boxes, baskets, rustic seats, etc. These methods may be used by the individual or by the tribe. Money may also be raised through many group activities such as plays, entertainments, dances, and bazaars. Mushroom growing is another good way to make some money, provided one has a cellar or roothouse at one's disposal. To learn how, send to the United States Department of ^riculture, for Farmers^ BtdlePin, No. 204, "The Cultivation of Mushrooms." 294) 295) CHAPTER IV FRIENDS IN THE OUT OF DOORS How to Know the Wild Things The Stars Sixty-four Common Wild Flowers Forty Birds The Woodcraft Boy in the Forest Snakes Good and Bad Fifty Common Forest Trees 296) 297) CHAPTER IV FRIENDS IN THE OUT OF DOORS How to Ejiow the Wild Things All bo5rs want to know the ways and thmgs of Nature. The difficulty is to know where to begin. There are so many kinds of flowers, ferns, birds, trees, grasses, bugs, insects, fish, rocks, etc., that one is confused and hardly knows where to begin his search for knowledge. The trail is not so hard to find as it was a few years ago, for to- day there are plenty of blazes on its trees and the footway is well worn and cleared of logs — ^that is to say, there are plenty of good handbooks, not to speak of fellow travellers, who help by pointing to the blaze that perhaps escaped our eye, and who are wearing the pathway smooth. But one must make a starts and it is well to get a few general rules in mind. First, take one thing at a time. Second, "Look in the book." Have a simple but comprehensive guide book (if possible one that you can own) that tells in simple, dear language the main facts. Later, you will want to go into more scientific study. Third, make a record in a notebook of what you see and either make drawings or preserve specimens. Fourth, if you have a friend "who knows" get information from him as to the specimen you have seen or have in your possession. The best way to begin, supposing you are alone, is with the flowers. They are so easy " to catch " and preserve. Get a good handbook of flowers. Reed's is the smallest, simplest, and best for beginners (Dana's, Blanchan's, or Lounsbury's are also good) and either a big scrap albvun or, better, a 1 2 by 18 inch portfolio with twenty or thirty loose sheets of heavy white or gray paper to fit; also a tin case, any big tin will do; but you can buy a properly made one for about a dollar. Botanical enthusiasm is always at its height just when you find the first spring flower. Suppose then, in March, you have found the liverleaf in its blue bloom. Take xip one, leaf and flower; put it in yovu: tin case; that will keep it perfectly fresh for many hours. At home, take a 298) 266 Woodcraft Manual for Boys bundle of old newspapers as dry as possible, lay the plant fiat on one of them, spreading the flower as you wish it to remain, put the other papers on top and then a board; last, a heavy weight. If the room and the papers are dry, the plant will be dried In three da3rs. Then stick it on one of the sheets in the portfolio with a few strips of paper across it here and there. Then write the time and place on the sheet, also the name as soon as you can find it. And it is easy to get the name when you have the speci- men. There is sure to be some botanist within reach. If you gather and preserve half a doz^n wild flowers each time you go out in the season, you very soon have the fifty that are needed to win you a coup. But you are also getting something else — a lot of pleasant friends that you will remember and be glad to see as long as you live. Of course, there are some plants that are much harder to handle than the Uverleaf , such as the jewelweed, which are so juicy that they must be reset on new dry paper perhaps two or three times. Some have roots so big that they are better left off, and some are so big that one must select a small example or take only a sprig; but always get the flowers, if possible. The Trees are also very easy because they may be found in town as well as in country. Their flowers are usually up high and come in the spring. They may be difficult to see, but if one studies the leaves, the bark, and Uie general shape of the tree, they will be readily identified, so that one can see and know an old friend at considerable distance. The leaves and flowers may be preserved in the same way as the flowers. The best tree books are by Keeler, Apgar, Hough, Sargent, Britton, etc. The Birds are the true love of every young naturalist, and the only reason for giving them third place is that they are harder to study than flowers and trees. You cannot walk up to the bird, at once note its every color spot, and so find who he is. You must make hasty notes through an opera glass and then turn to a handbook, unless you have a bird-sharp friend with you or a specimen in your hand. Therefore, oh, bird lover, begin with a notebook, a field glass, and a copy of Reed's Bird Guide. Later when you really get acquainted with the birds you will want Chapman's Handbook. These books give a sketch of the habit and range as well as a description of the plmnage, nest, and eggs. The Quadrupeds J or Animalsy as they are commonly called, are the most interesting of all to most people; but are the hardest of 299) Things to Know and Do 267 all to study because they are so seldom seen. Partly due to man's endless pursuit, the wild fourfoots are nearly all nocturnal now; but they are there, and far more numerous than you would Imagine. If you live in New York City, for example, you may be sure that within five miles of the City Hall you can find twenty wild quadrupeds living their lives as they always did. Thus, there are muskrats along the Bronx and Harlem rivers in the salt marshes; there are red, gray, and flying squirrels, as well as chip- munks, in most of the parks. There are plenty of woodchucks in Westchester County, although I do not know of any within the five-mile radius. Of course, there are deermice and short-tailed field mice, and jumping mice in most of the large parks or along the Jersey shore of the Hudson; and where there are mice there are weasels, and where there are weasels there are mink. The cottontail rabbit is common in some of the large parks and in most of the near woodlands, and there are at least three species of shrew and mole within the limits. If we go a little farther into Westchester County or Jersey, we shall enter the region of the skunk, the fox, the common deer, the coon, and the possum. So that the New York naturalist has a large opportimity among the quadrupeds; and the resident of Chicago, Boston, or Philadel- phia is just as well oflF; while, of course, the country girl has all the world before her. But we seldom see the things, how are we to know that they are there? By the tracks chiefly. The mud, the dust, or the snow will tell next morning much about the creature that passed in the night, and in time, about all that dwell near by. "Life Histories of Northern Animals," by Ernest Thompson Seton, is the only book that gives a full account of the conmion animals and their tracks; but a good book on Tracks and Track- ing has been published by J. Brunner. The diflficulties in the way of the student of mammals are per- haps the largest of all, but the rewards are as great; and every skull, every skin, every good track drawing, is a Uttle victory that will give you pleasure to see as long as you live. Insects are easily studied and preserved. A collection of butterflies, made according to instruction in the "Butterfly Book," Doubleday, Page & Company, is easily begun; wblk beetles and other orders of bugs, if less interesting, are yet more easily made. In general, to those who would know the wild things: Keep a 300) journal of your notes, sketches, and photos; get a good handbook; collect specimens — and you have the three basic things. All the rest will be in measure of your perseverance.

SIXTY-FOUR COMMON WILD FLOWERS

Of the United States and Southern Canada

In preparing this list, Britton and Brown's "Ill. Flora of the Northern U. S. and Canada" has chiefly been consulted, but free use has been made of the works of Neltje Blanchan, Alice Lounsbury, and Chester A. Reed.

The student is advised to color each flower from nature as the opportunity occurs, using water colors over the outline given. They are grouped here to correspond with the eight plates.

1. Blue Flowers

Liverleaf , or Hepatica (Hepatica triloba) . A lovely lilac or blue, the first of the spring flowers in most regions. Blooms in the woods from March to May, from Nova Scotia to Manitoba and southward.

Blue-eyed Grass, Blue Star, or Star Grass (Sisyrinchium angustifolium). A bright blue flower of the Iris family; found in rich meadows from Newfoundland to British Columbia and southward halfway to the Gulf; blooms May to August.

Bluebell, Harebell, or Hairbell (Campanula rotundifolia), Found on rocky places and uplands nearly everywhere south of the Middle States. Blooms all summer.

Common Violet, or Heartsease (Viola cuccullata). The heart shape of the leaf was held to be the proof of its power to set the heart at ease. In rich ground, Nova Scotia to Minnesota and southward nearly to the Gulf States. Blooms in spring.

Bird's foot Violet (Viola pedata). So called from the shape of its leaves. Dry ground; Maine to Minnesota and southward.

Lupine (Lupinus perennis). Dry soil,fromMaine to Minnesota and southward. Early summer.

Self-heal, or Heal-all (Prunella vulgaris). Dry ground everywhere; blooming May to October.

Vervain, Blue Vervain, or Wild Hyssop (Verbena hastata). In moist ground everywhere; blooms June to September.

Chicory, or Succory (Cichorium Intybus), Flowers bright blue or sometimes white. The roots roasted and ground make a wholesome substitute for coffee. Originally came here from 301) Things to Know and Do 302) 370 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Europe. Now found generally in the eastern U. S. Blooms July to October. Fringed Gentian {Gentianacriniia), Bright blue; rarely white. Rich meadows, Quebec to Minnesota and southward halfway to Gulf. Blooms September and October. II. White Flowers Bloodroot {Sanguinaria Canadensis). Noted for bleeding when cut. Its root furnished the Indians with a red paint. In rich woods, from Nova Scotia to Manitoba and southward. Blooms April and May. May Apple, or Wild Mandrake {Podophyllum pdiatum). In low woods; southern Ontario to Minnesota and southward. Flowers in May; fruit ripe in July or August and wholesome* Starflower {Trientalis Americana), In damp woods from Labrador westward and south to the Middle States. Blooms in May and June. Indian Pipe {Monotropa uniflora). In rich woods nearly all U. S. and southern Canada. Blooms from June to August. The whole plant white or occasionally pink. Saxifrage (Saxifraga Virginiensis). In dry rocky woods, New Brunswick to Minnesota and southward to Georgia. One of the early flowers of spring. Blooms March to May. Ox-eye* Daisy (Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum). In pastures throughout most of the area, as a troublesome weed from Europe. In bloom May to November. The white rays sur- round a bright yellow disk. Big White Trillium, or Wake-robin (Trillium grandiflorum). In woods, Quebec to Minnesota and southward. Blooming in May and June. Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliaPum). In wet places, New Brunswick to Manitoba and southward. Blooms July to Sep- tember; flowers white, but sometimes blue. ni. Pink, or White Streaked with Pink Trailing Arbutus (Epigcea repens). In sandy or rocky woods; generally distributed in eastern America. Blooms in spring, March to May. Twin-flower (Linnea borealis). In cold woods of the northern half of the continent and southward along the high mountains. Blooms June to August. 303) Things to Know and Do 271 Spring Beauty (Claytonia Virginica). In moist wood through- out eastern America. Blooms March to May. Queen Orchid, or Showy lady's Slipper (Cypripedium repnat). ^k'ltt fU-wers] Iq swamps, Nova Scotia to Mnnesota and south to Georgia. Blooms June to September, Purple Moccasin Flower {Cypripedium acaide). In sandy or 304) 372 Woodcraft Manual for Boys rocky woods; Newfoundland to Minnesota and south to the Middle States. Blooms May and June. Rose Pink (SaibaUa angularis). In rich soil New York to Ontario and south to the Gulf States. Blooms July and August. Showy Orchis {Orckis spectabitis). In rich woods, New Bruns- wick to Minnesota and southward to the Middle States. Blooms 305) Things to Enow and Do 273 in April and June. Flowers violet or purple streaked with white or light purple. Mountain Laiurel {Kalmia latifolia) . In sandy or rocky woods, New Brunswick and Ontario, southward. Blooms May and Jime. Pink Azalea {Azalea nudiflora). In dry woods, Maine to Illinois and southward. Blooms in April and May. IV. White, or Greenish White Flowers Plantain, Ribgrass, or Whiteman's Foot (PlatUago major). Everywhere in our region. Blooms all summer long as well as in spring. Queen Anne's Lace, or Wild Carrot {Daucus carota). Every- where; brought from Europe. "The original of the cultivated carrot," B. & B. Blobms all summer. Yarrow, or Milfoil {Achillea miUefolium), Generally dis- tributed. Blooms June to November. Grass of Parnassus {Parnassia Caroliniana) . In low meadows, New Bnmswick and Manitoba and southward to the Middle States. Blooms June to September. Solomon's Seal {Polygonaium biflorum). In woods. New Bnmswick to Ontario and southward. Blooms April to July. Its roots show seal-like impression, whence the name. False Solornon's Seal, Wild Spikenard, or Zigzag {Vagnera racemosa). United States and south Canada generally. Blooms May to July. Stickweed, Cleavers, or Bedstraw {Galium moUugo). Gen- erally distributed in -fields in the Northeastern States. It flowers all summer long. There is a kind with a yellow flower. Pennsylvania or Canada Anemone {Anemone Canadensis). Labrador to the Plains and southwacrd to Kansas on low ground. Blooms all sunmier. Wind flower {Anemone quinquifolia) . In low woods. General east of the Rockies. One of the early spring flowers. Blooms April to June. Rue Anemone {Syndesmon thalidroides). In woods, Atlantic to Minnesota and south to Kansas. White, but often pinkish. One of the earliest spring flowers. Blooms March to June. V. Yellow Flowers Celandine {Chdidonium majus) . A straggler from Europe now common along roadsides in eastern U. S. Blooms April to Sep- tember. Its juice is a strong yellow dye. 306) 274 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Black-eyed Susan, or Cone-fiower (Rudbeckea hirla). In fields Quebec to the Plains and southward. Blooms May to Septem- ber. Yellow Star-grass (Hypoxis hirsuta). In dry soQ, Maine to the Plains and southward. Blooms May to October. Jewelweed, Touch-me-not, or Silverleaf {ImpaUens bifiora). In 307) nUngs to Know and Do

moist ground, Nova Scotia, to Alaska and southward. Blooms July to October. Yellow Toadflax, or Butter and Eggs (Lirtaria Linaria). In dry waste places, Nova Scotia to Manitoba and south to the Middle States. Blooms June to October. Evening Primrose {Onagra biennis). In dry soil, Labrador to the Rockies and south to Florida . Blooms from June to October. Opens chiefly at night. Adder's Tongue, or Dog-tooth Violet (Erytkrotiium Ameri- canum). In mobt woods, Nova Scotia to Minnesota and south- 308) 276 Woodcraft Manual for Boys ward. One of the earliest spring flowers; blooms March to May. Possibly the name was Adderstung, from the blotched appear- ance of the leaves, Yellow Lady's Slipper (Cypripedium hirsuhim.) In woods, Newfoundland to British Columbia and southward at least to Middle States. A smaller variety is recognized. It blooms May to July. Goldenrod {Solidago Canadensis), Foimd from Atlantic to the Plains and southward. The emblem flower of America. Blooms August to November. Ther« are some fifty species of Goldenrod recognized in America, so that it is expert work to classify them. VI. Red| Purple, or Scarlet Flowers Cardinal Flower (Lobelia cardinalis). In moist soil, New Bnmswick to the Plains and southward. Blooms July to September. Brilliant red or scarlet, rarely white. Red Lily, or Wood Lily (Lilium Philadelpkicum). In dry woods, Maine to Manitoba and southward to Uie Middle States. Blooms June and July. Turk's Cap Lily (Lilium superbum). In wet meadows, Maine to Minnesota and southward halfway to the Gulf. Blooms July and August. Columbine (AquUegia Canadensis), In rocky woods. Nova Scotia to the Plains and southward. Blooms April to July. Fire Pink {Silene Virginica), In dry woods j New York to Minnesota and southward to Middle States. Blooms May to September. Painted Cup, or Indian Paint-brush {Casfilleja coccinea). In moist meadows, Maine to Manitoba and southward halfway to the Gulf. Blooms May to July. The flowers are yellowish and inconspicuous; the scarlet is chiefly on the upper leaves. «  A Secret You see that flaming painted cup The rich low wood beside; Remember this, wheree'er it grows A painted warrior died. Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia purpurea). In peat bogs, Labrador to the Rockie^s and southward up high. It blooms in May and Jime. < 309) Things to Enow and Do 377 Bee Balm, or Oswego Tea {Monardadidyma). In moist soil, in the East from Ontario to Georgia. Blooms July and Sep- tember. Redcap, or Purple Flowering Raspberry {Rubus odaratus). On the edge of woods, Nova Scotia, to Michigan and sou thward halfway to the Gulf. Blooms from June to August. Its blooms are worth far more than its berry, which is a thin red cap of fine gravel held together with a little fruit pulp. 310) 278 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Tnimpet Creeper (Tecotna radicans). In moist woods, New Jersey to Illinois and southward to Texas. Blooms August and September^ Vn. Brownish Purple Flowers Wild Ginger (Asarum Canadense). In rich woods, New Bnms- wick to Manitoba and southward halfway to the Gulf. Blooms April and May. Its roots are flavored like ginger. Jack-in-the-pulpit, or Indian Turnip {Arisaema triphyUium), In moist woods, Nova Scotia to Minnesota and southward to Gulf States. Its root is frightfully acrid and pungent when raw, but when boiled becomes wholesome food. Red TrilUum, or Smelly Wake-robin (Trillium erectum). In woods, Nova Scotia to James' Bay and Manitoba, thence south- ward halfway to the Gulf. Its color varies from dark purple to pink, green, or white. It blooms from April to June. The name Wake-robin is supposed to mean that it wakes when the robin comes. It has a very bad smell and in consequence country bovs call it by simple, sincere, but very vernacular names. Skunk Cabbage {Spathyema foetida). In swamps, Nova Scotia to Minnesota, southward to the Gulf States. Its bloom is the first of all the spring flowers, in moist localities, for it sends its big egg-shaped and purple-mottled bloom into the cold world as early as February, long before its leaves will venture forth. In March and April it is stiU in flower. Vin. Pink Flowers Wild Geranium, or Crane's Bill {Geranium maculalum). In woods, Newfoundland to Manitoba and southward nearly to the Gulf. Blooms from April to July. The name Crane's Bill is from the shape of the seed pod. Fire Weed, Epilobiimi, or Spiked Willowherb (Ckamaenerion angustifolium). In dry sunny places, Labrador to Alaska, and southward at least halfway to the Gulf. So called because of its conmaonly springing up after a forest fire. Blooms June to September. Milkweed (Asclepias purpurascens). In dry sunny places Massachusetts to Minnesota and southward halfway to the Gulf. Blooms June to August. Spotted Pipsissiwa {ChimaphUa'maculata). In dry woods. 311) Maine to Minnesota and southward nearly to the Gulf States. Blooms June to August.


Books Recommended

Flower Guide, Chester A. Reed. Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.00
Our Early Wild Flowers, Harriet L. Keeler. Scribners. $1.50
How to Know the Wild Flowers, Mrs. Wm. Starr Dana. $2.00
How to Know the Ferns, Frances Theodora Parsons. Scribners. $1.50

312) 28o Woodcraft Manual for Boys The Woodcraft Boy in the Forest I suppose there never was a boy or girl who did not love trees. I remember a little prairie boy in my young days whose idea of heaven was a big tree on the prairie with an angel under it, who never said, "I don't know" when asked a question. A tree has always been a blessed and glorious thing to me. Often I feel the axe chopping into my own soul when I see it laid to some splendid tree that has been selected for destruction. Let every Woodcraft Boy commit to mind that lovely little poem by Joyce Kilmer originally appearing in "PubUcations of Poetry," and printed in Boys^ Ltfe, October, 1913. » I think that I shall never see A poem lovely as a tree, A tree whose hungry mouth is pressed Against the Earth's sweet flowmg breast, A tree that looks at God all day And lifts her leafy arms to pray, A tree that may in summer wear A nest of robins in her hair, Xn whose bosom snow has lain: > intimately lives with rain. Poems are made by fools like me, But only God can make a tree. There are only three things that can justify the destruction of a tree. These are: we need its lumber, we need its room, or it is breeding plague. How very seldom nowadays are we justified in destroying Uttle trees, and above all, what a fearful crime becomes th^ roaring, racing, raging hell known as a, forest fire. Four fifths of America's forests have been destroyed by wild fires, which were in most cases preventable — ^in all cases lamen- table. For besides destroying the trees it destroyed thousands of human beings, miUions of beautiful, harmless birds and other wild creatures, and utterly ruined the soil of the country be- neath. No one with an ounce of patriotism will be responsible for a wild fire. Wild fire is the demon that we strike at in our sixth law. Oh, Woodcraft Boy, never, never forget your vow to face and fight all wild fire in the woods. It is far worse in some ways than fire in town. For there you are sure to have competent firemen ready at hand, but the forest fire may spread out over a county before its presence is fully realized, and yet a single Woodcraft Boy on the spot when first it begins may stop 313) Things to Know and Do 281 it with a bucket of water, the blow of a shovel, or even of a stick. These are some of the rules that lead to safety: Never build a big fire. There is a certain tj^e of madman who thinks a camp is incomplete without a "bonfire." All such folk should be in jail. No Woodcrafter ever builds a bonfire. It is wasteful, uncomfortable, unsocial, dangerous, and criminal. Let your fire be the Uttle fire of the cook or the Council Ring. Do not build it on piles of logs, rotten wood, or rubbish, nor near them, nor on bog. Try to have it on the bare ground; and so that you can go all around it on bare ground. In windy weather or dangerous places dig a hole or wall up the fire with stones, sods, green logs, sand, or other things that do not bum. Never leave a camp or the campfire without extinguishing every spark, using water and plenty of it, if you love your country or the good green woods. Never leave the campfire burning even for a short time without some one there to guard it. Never throw down burning matches or Ughted cigars or cigarettes. I suppose half of tihe fires come from this cause. These are offered you as Woodcraft rules, oflFered that your acceptation may rest on love of the thing protected. But do not forget that any breach of this is Usted as crime in the law of the land and may be visited by heavy pains and penalties. But we hope that the Woodcraft Boy will not need to think of anything but the beauty of the blessed woods and be ready and eager at all times to do his share toward keeping these for the joy of having them. 314) 315) FIFTY COMMON FOREST TREES OP EASTERN NORTH AMERICA White Pine Red Pine, Canadian Pine, or Norway Pine Long-leaved Pine, Georgia Pine, Southern Pine, Yellow Pine Tamarack, or Larch White Spruce Hemlock Balsam Tree Bald Cypress Arbor-vitfls, or White Cedar Quaking Asp, or Quiver Leaf Black Willow Balsam Poplar or Balm of Gilead Cottonwood Black Walnut White Walnut Pecan Shagbark or Shellbark Mockemut Pignut Hickory Gray Birch, or Aspien^eaved Birch White, Canoe, or Paper Birch Yellow Birch, or Gray Birch Ironwood, or Hop Hornbeam Blue Beech, or American Horn- beam White Oak Yellow Oak, or Chestnut Oak Red Oak Scarlet Oak Black Oak, or Golden Oak Pin Oak, or Swamp Oak Beech Chestnut White Elm, Water, or Swamp Elm Slippery Elm Osage Orange, or Bow- wood Tulip Tree, White-wood, or Yel- low Poplar Sassafras Sweet Gum, Star-leaved Gum, or Liquidambar Sycamore, or Buttonwood Red-bud, or Judas Tree Sugar Maple, Rock Maple or Hard Maple Silver Maple or Soft Maple Red, Scarlet, Water, or Swamp Maple Box Elder, or Ash-leaved Maple Basswood, White-wood, or Lin- den Sour Gum, Black Gum, Pepper- idge, or Tupelo White Ash Black Ash, Hoop Ash, or Water Ash 316) 317) FIFTY COMMON FOREST TREES OF EASTERN NORTH AMERICA White Pine, or Weymoutli Pine (Pinus Strobus) A noble evergreen tree, up to 175 feet high. The lumber- man's prize. Its leaves are in bunches of 5, and are 3 to 5 inches long; cones 4 to 8 inches long. Wood pale, soft, straight- grained, easily split. Warps and diecks less than any other of our timbers. A cubic foot weighs 24 lbs. (a cubic foot of water weighs 63 lbs.). Minnesota and Manitoba to Nova Scotia and Pennsylvania. Red Pine, Canadian Pine, or Norway Pine {Pinus resinosd) Evergreen; somewhat less than the White Pine, with leaves 4 to 6 inches long, in bunches of 2, comes i to 2§ inches long. Wood darker, harder, and heavier. A cubic foot weighs 30 lbs. Range as above. Long-leaved Pine, Georgia Pine, Southern Pine, Yellow Pine, or Hard Pine {Pinus palustris) A fine tree, up to 100 feet high; evergreen; found in greit forests in the Southern States; it suppUes much of our lumber now; and most of our turpentine, tar, and rosin. Wood strong and hard, a cubic foot weighs 44 lbs. Its leaves are 10 to 16 318) 286 Woodcraft Manual for Boys 319) Things to Know and Do 387 inches long, and are in bunches of 3's; cones, 6 to 10 indies long. Range, Virginia to Louisiana and Florida. Tamarack, Larch, or Hackmatack (Larix larkina) A tall, straight tree of the northern swamps yet often found flourishing on dry hillsides. One of the few conifers that shed all their leaves each fall. Leaves J to i inch long; cones i to finch. Wood very resinous, heavy, and hard, "a hard, soft wood" very durable as posts. In Manitoba I have seen tamarack fence posts unchanged after twenty years' wear. It is excellent for firewood, and makes good sticks for a rubbing-stick fire. A cubic foot weighs 39 lbs. Found north nearly to the limit of trees; south to nortfiem New Jersey and Minnesota. White Spruce {Picea Canadensis) Evergreen; 60 to 70 or even 150 feet high. Leaves ^ to I inch long; cones i^ to 2 incheslong, are at the tips of the branches and deciduous; the twigs smooth. ■ Wood white, light, soft, weak, straight- ^ grained, not dur- able; a cubic foot weighs 25 lbs. Its roots afford the wat- tap or cord^e for canoe-building and camp use generally. North to the limit of trees east of Rockies, south to Dakota, Wisconsin, and Maine. Hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis) Evergreen; 60 to 70 feet high; occasionally loo; wood pale, soft, coarse, splintery, not durable. A cubic foot weighs 26 lbs. Bark full of tannin. Leaves t.o inch long; cones about the same. Its knots are so hard that they quickly turn the edge of an axe or gap it as a stone might; these are probably 320) 388 Woodcraft Manual for Boys the hardest vegetable growth in our woods. Wisconsin to Nova Scotia and south on the mountains to Georgia. Balsam Tree, or Canada Balsam {Ahies bakamea) Evergreen; famous for the blisters on its trunk, yielding Canada bal^im which makes a woodman's plaster for cuts or a waterproof cement; and for the exquisite odor of its boughs, which also siq>ply the woodman's ideal hed. Its fiat leafage is distinctive. Wood pale, weak, soft, perishable. A cubic foot weighs 34 lbs. New Alberta to Newfoundland and south to Virginia. 321) Things to Enow and Do 38g Bald Cypress {Taxodium disHchum) A fine forest tree, up to 150 feet, with thin leaves somewliat like those of Hemlock, half an inch to an inch long; cones rounded about an inch through. Sheds its leaves each fall so is "bald" in winter. Noted for the knees or upbent roots that it develops when growing in water. Timber soft, v^eak, but durable and valuable; a cubic foot weighs 27 lbs. In low wet country <A Mississippi Valley and Southeast coast. Arbor-vitce, or White Cedar (Thuya occidentaiis) Evergreen; 50 to 60 feet hi^. Wood soft, brittle, coarse- grained, extiemety durable as posts; fragrant and very light (the }?C^ lightest on our hst). Makes good sticks tor rubbing-stick fire. A cubic foot weighs only lo lbs. The scale-like leaves are about 322) 390 Woodcraft Mantial for Boys

to 8 to the inch, the cones half an inch long or less. Man- 

itoba to Nova Scotia, and Pennsylvania; south on mountains to Vorth Carolina. Quaking Asp, Quiver Leaf, Aspen Poplar, or Popple {Pofnilus tremuloides) A small forest tree, but occasionally 100 feet high. Readily known by its smooth bark, of a light green or whitish color. The wood is pale, soft, close-grained, weak, perishable, and light. A cubic foot weighs 25 lbs. Good only for paper pulp, but burns well when sea- soned. When green it is so heavy and soggy that it lasts for days as a fire check or back-log. Leaves li to 2 indies long. Can- ada and Northern States. BUck Willow (SaHx nigra) The common Willow of stream-banks, usually 20 to 40 feet high, sometimes 100. Bark nearly black. Its long, narrow, 323) Things to Know and Do 291 yellow-green shining leaves are sufficiently distinctive. A decoc- tion of Willow bark and roots is said to be the best known sub- stitute for quinine. Noted for early leafing and late shedding; leaves 3 to 6 inches long. Wood pale, weak, soft, close-grained ; a cubic foot weighs 28 lbs. Manitoba to Nova Scotia and south to Gulf. Balsam Poplar, Balm of Gilead, or Tacamahac {Populus halsamifera) Fifty or 60 feet ordinarily, but sometimes 100 feet high. Bark rough and furrowed. The great size of the buds and their thick shiny coat of fragrant gum are strong marks. Wood much as in the preceding, but weighs 23 lbs. a cubic foot. Leaves 3 to 6 indies long. Canada and Northern States. Cottonwood {Populus ddioides) Small and rare in the Northeast. Abundant and large in West; even 150 feet high. Wood as m other poplars but weighs 24 lbs. a cubic foot. Leaves 3 to 5 inches long. Maine to Georgia and west to Alberta. Black Walnut {Juglans nigra) A magnificent forest tree up to 150 feet high; usually much smaller in the East. Wood a dark purplish brown or gray; hard, close-grained; strong; very durable in weather or ground 324) aga Woodcraft Manual for Boys 325) Things to Know and Do 293 worit, and heavy, A cubic foot weighs 38 lbs. Leaflets 13 to 23 ; and 3 to 5 inches long. Fruit nearly round, i^ to 3 inches in (Uameter. Massachusetts to Minnesota and south to Miss- issippi White Walnut, Oil Jfut, or Butternut {Juglans cinerea) Mudi smaller than the last, rarely 100 feet high; with much smoother bark and larger, coarser, compound leaves, of fewer l^ets but the petioles or leaflet stalks, and the new twigs, are covered with sticky down. The wood is Ught brown, soft, coarse, not strong but very enduring in weather and ground work; light; leaves 15 to 30 inches long; leaflets ri to 19 in number and 3 to 5 inches long; fruit oMong, 3 to 3 inches long. Nova Scotia to Minnesota and south to Mississippi. Pecan {Hicoria Pecan) A tali slender forest tree in low moist soil along streams, up to 170 feet in height: famous for its delicious nuts, they are smooth and thin shelled; fruit, oblong, cylindrical, ij to 2J inches long. Its leaves are smooth when mature; leaflets 11 to 15, and 4 to 7 inches long; wood hard and brittle, a cubic foot w^ghs 45 lbs. Central Mississippi Valley. 326) Woodcraft Manual for Boys Shagbark, ShellbaA, or White Hickory {Hkoria ovata) A tall forest tree up to

feet high. Known at 

once by the great angular slabs of bark hanging partly detached from its main trunk, forced off by the growth of wood, but too tough to fall. Its leaves are 8 to 14 inches long, with 5 to 7 broad leaflets. The wood is very light in color, close- grained, tough, and elastic. It makes an excellent bow; is the best of fuel, A cubic foot weighs 52 lbs. Dakota to Maine and south to Missis- sippi. Mockemut, White Heart, or Big-bud ffickory (Bicoria alba) A tall forest tree, up to 100 feet. Wood much like that of Shagbark, but not quite so heavy {51 lbs.). Its bark is smooth 327) Things to Know and Do 295 and furrowed like that of the Pignut, Its leaves are like those of the Shagbark, but it has 7 to 9 leaflets, instead of 5 to 7; it has a large terminal bud ^ to f of an inch long, and the leaves have a resinous smelL Its nut in the husk is nearly 2 inches long; the nut shell is 4-ridged toward the point, has a very thick shell, and small, sweet kernel Maine to Oklahoma and Florida. Pignut Sckoiy {Bicoria glabra) A tall forest tree; 100 and up to 120 feet high. Wood much as in the Mockeraut; bark smooth and furrowed; not locee plates. Leaves 8 to 12 inches long. Nut slightly or not at a angular, very thick shelled; the pear shape of fruit is a stror 328) 296 Woodcraft Manual for Boys feature, i} to 2 inches long. Maine to Nebraska and south to the Gulf. Gray Birch, or Aspen-leaved Birch {BePida populifolia) A small tree found on dry and poor soil; rarely 50 feet high. Wood soft, close-grained, not strong, splits in drying, useless for weather or ground work. A cubic foot weighs 36 lbs. Leaves 2 to 3 inches long. It has a black triangular scar at each armpit. Quebec south to Maryland. White, Canoe, or Paper Birch {Beiula papyrifera) A tan forest tree up to 80 feet high; the soiu-ce of bark for canoes, etc. One of the most important trees in the northern 329) Things to Know and Do 297 forest. Besides canoes, wigwams, vessels, and paper from its bark, it furnishes syrup from its sap and the inner bark is used as an emergency food. Every novice rediscovers for himself that the outer bark is highly inflammable as well as waterproof, and ideal for fire-lighting. Though so much like the Gray Birch, it is larger, whiter; and with but small black scars at each Umb. The timber is itiiuch the same, but this weighs 37 lbs. Its leaf and catkin distinguish it; the former is 2 to 3 inches long. All Canada and south to Illinois. Yellow Birch, or Gray Birch {Betida luted) A forest tree, of 30 to 50 feet in height. Bark obviously birch, but shaggy and gr^y or dull yellow. Wood as in»the others, but reddish. A cubic foot weighs 41 lbs. Leaves 3 to 4 inches long. Minnesota to Newfoundland and south to Virginia. Iron wood. Hard-hack, Leverwood, Beetle-wood, or Hop Hornbeam {Ostyra Virginiana) A small tree; 20 to 30, rarely 50, feet high; named for its hardness and its hoplike fruit. Bark furrowed. Wood tough, close-grained, unsplitable. One of the strongest, heaviest, and hardest of timbers. A cubic foot we^hs over 51 lbs. That is, it comes near to Shagbark Hickory in weight and perhaps goes beyond it in strength and hardness. Leaves 330) 298 Woodcraft Manual for Boys

to 5 inches long. Fruit i^ to 2A inches long. Dakota to 

Nova Scotia and south to Gulf. Ironwood Blue Beech, Water Beech, or American Hornbeam (Carpinus Caroliniana) A small tree, 10 to 25, rarely 40, feet high; bark smooth. Wood hardy dose-grained, very strong; mudi like Ironwood, but lighter. A cubic foot weighs 45 lbs. Leaves 3 to 4 inches long. United States east of Missouri River. White Oak (Quercus alba) A grand forest tree; over 100 feet up to 150 feet high. The finest and most valuable of our oaks. The one perfect timber 331) Hiings to Enow and Do 2g^ for shipbuilders, farmers, and house furnishers. Its wood is pale, strong, tough, fine-grained, durable, and heavy. A cubic foot weighs 46 lbs. I found that when green it weighed 6S lbs. to the cubic foot and of course sank in water tike a stone. Called white from pale color of bark and wood. Leaves s to 9 inches long. Texas to Minnesota and easterly. Yellow Oak, Chestnut Oak, or Chinqoai^ Scrub Oak (Quercus Muhlenbergii) 332) }

Woodcraft Manual for Boys 

water, and sinks at once. It is much like the Chestnut Oak but its leaves are narrower, more sharply saw-«dged, and its acorns much smaller, about half the size. Its acorns ripen in one sea- son. Leaves 4 to 6 inches long. Louisiana to Iowa and east- erly to Massachusetts. Red Oak (Quercus rubra) A fine forest tree, 70 to 80, or even 140, feet high. Wood reddish brown. Sapwood darker. Hard, strong, coarse-grained. heavy. A cubic foot weighs 41 lbs. It checks, warps, and does not stand for weather or ground work. The acorn takes two seasons to ripen. Apparently all those oaks whose nuts take two seasons to ripen have wood that soon rots. The low, flat« shape of the cup is distinctive; in fact, it has no cup, it has a saucer; leaves 4 to 8 inches long. Missouri to Minnesota and east to Atlantic. Scarlet Oak (Quercus coccined) Seventy to 80 or even 160 feet high. Scarlet from its spring and autumn foliage color. The leaves are a, little like those of the Black Oak, but are frondlike with three or four deep, nearly even, cuts on each side. The acorns of this can be easily matched among those of the Black Oak, but the kernel of the Scarlet is white, that of the Black is yellow; they take two seasons to ripen. Wood much as in Red Oak but weighs 46 lbs. per cubic 333) Things to Know and Do 301 foot Leaves 4 to 8 inches long. Massachusetts to Georgia and Iowa. Black Oak, Golden Oak, or Quercition (Quercus vduiina) Seventy to 80 or even 150 feet high. The outer bark b very rough, bumpy, and blackish; inner bark yellow. This yielife a yellow dye called quercitron. The leaf is of the Scarlet Oak style, but has uneven cuts and usually a large solid area in ttie outer half. The wood is hard, coarse-grained, checks. 334) 302 Woodcraft Manual for Boys and does not stand for weather or ground work. A cubic foot weighs 44 lbs. Wisconsin to Maine and south to Gulf. Pin Oak, or Swamp Oak (Quercus palustris) Fifty to 70 or even 120 feet high, in swampy land. Wood hard, coarse-grained, very strong and tough. Will not stand exposure next to ground. A cubic foot weighs 34 lbs. Its acorns take two seasons to ripen. Leaves 4 to 6 inches long. In moist woods and along swamp edges. Massachusetts to Iowa and Arkansas. Beech (Fagus grandifolia) In all North America there is but one species of Beech. It is a noble forest tree, 70 to 80, and occasionally 120, feet high; readily distinguished by its unfurrowed ashy gray bark. Wood hard, strong, tough, close-grained, pale, heavy. Leaves 3 to 4 inches long. A cubic foot weighs 43 lbs. Wisconsin to Nova Scotia and south to Gulf. 335) Things to Snow and Do 303 Chestnut (Castanea dmiata) A noble tree, 60 to 80 or even 100 feet high. A cubic foot of the wood weighs z8 lbs. Leaves 6 to 8 inches long. Mass- achusetts to Indiana and Mississippi. White Ehn, Water, or Swamp Elm (Ulmus Americana) A tall, splendid, forest tree; commonly 100, occasionally 120, feet Wood reddish brown; hard, strong, tough, very hard to split. A cubic foot weighs 41 lbs. Soon rots near the ground. Leaves 3 to 5 inches long. Manitoba to Nova Scotia and south to Gulf. Slippeiy Elm, Moose, or Red Elm (Ulmus fulva)

than White Ehn, maximum height about 70 feet.

Wood dark, reddish, hard, close, tough, strong; durable next 336) 304 Woodcraft Manual for Boys 337) Things to Know and Do 305 the ground; heavy; fi cubic foot weighs 43 lbs. Its leaves are larger and rougher than those of the former. Four to 8 inches long, and its buds at£ hairy, not smooth. Maine to Minnesota and south to Gulf. Osage Orange, Bodarc (Bois D'arc), or Bow-wood (Toxylon pomijerum) A small tree, rarely 6o feet high. Originally from the middle Mississippi Valley, now widely introduced as a hedge tree. Famous for supplying the best bows in America east of the Rockies. Wood is bright orange; very hard, elastic, enduring and heavy. Leaves 3 to 6 indies long. A cubic foot weighs 48 lbs. Tulip Tree, White-wood, Canoe Wood, or Yellow Poplar {Liriodendron tidipifera) One of the noblest forest trees, ordinarily 100 feet, and some- times 150 feet, high. Noted for its splendid, clean, straight column; readily known by leaf, 3 to 6 inches long, and its tulip- like flower. Wood soft, straight-grained, brittle, yellow, and very light; much used where a broad sheet easily worked is needed but will not stand exposure to the weather; is poor fuel; a dry cubic foot weighs 26 lbs. Mississippi to Atlantic, Lake Ontario to Gulf. See page 307. 338) 3o6 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Sassafras, or Ague Tree (Sassafras sassafras) Usually a small tree of dry sandy soil, but reaching 125 feet high in favorable regions. Its wood is dull orange, soft, weak, coarse, brittle, and light. A cubic foot weighs 31 lbs. Very durable next the ground. Leaves 4 to 7 indies long. Maine to Iowa and Texas to Atlantic See next page. Sweet Gum, Star-leaved, or Red Gunii Bilsted, Alligator Tree, or Liquidambar {Liquidantbar styraciflua) A tall tree up to 150 feet high of low, moist woods, remark- able for the corky ridges on its bark, and the unsplitable nature of its weak, warping, perishable timber. Heart-wood reddish brown, sap white; heavy, weighing 37 lbs. to cubic foot. Leaves 3 to 5 inches long. Massachusetts to Missouri and south to Gulf. Sycamore, Plane Tree, Buttonball, or Buttonwood (Platanm occidetUalis) One of the largest of our trees; up to 140 feet high; commonly hollow. Wood light brownish, weak; hard to split; heavy for 339) Things to Know and Do 340) 3o8 Woodcraft Manual for Boys its strength. A cubic foot weighs 35 lbs. Little use for weather work. Famous fw shedding its bark as well as its leaves. Leaves 4 to 9 inches long. Canada to the Gulf. Red-bud, or Judas Tree {Cercis Canadensis) Small tree of bottom lands, rarely 50 feet high; so called from its abundant spring crop of tiny rosy blossoms, coming before the leaves, the latter 2 to 6 inches broad. "Judas tree" because It blushed when Judas hanged himself on it (Keeler). Its wood is dai^, coarse, and heavy. A cubic foot weighs 40 lbs. Maryland to Iowa and southward. Sugar Maple, Rock Maple, or Hard Maple {Acer saccharuvt) A large, splendid forest tree, 80 to 120 feet high; red in au- tumn. Wood hard, strong, tough, and heavy but not durable. 341) Hiings to Know and Do

A cubic foot weighs 43 lbs. It enjoys with Beech, Hickory, etc., the sad distinction of being a perfect firewood. Thanks to this it has been exterminated in some regions. Bird's-eye and curled Maple are freaks of the grain. Leaves

to 5 inches long. Its sap produces the famous maple sugar. 

Manitoba to Nova Scotia and south to Gulf. Silver Maple, White, or Soft Maple (Acer saccharinum) Usually a little smaller than the Sugar Maple and much inferior as timber. Wood hard, close-grained. A cubic foot weighs 33 lbs. Leaves 5 to 7. inches long. This tree produces a little sugar. It is noted for its yellow foliage in autumn. 342) 310 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Nova Scotia to Minnesota and south to Oklahoma and Georgia. Red, Scarlet, Water, or Swamp Maple {Acer nibrum) A fine tree the same size as the preceding. Noted for its flaming crimson foliage in fall, as well as its red leaf-stalks, flowers, and fruit earlier. Its wood is light-colored, tinged reddish, close-giained, smooth with varieties of grain, as in Sugar Maple; heavy. A cubic foot wei^is 39 lbs. Leaves 1 to 6 inches loi^. Quebec to Miimesota and south to Gulf. Box Elder, or Ash-leaved Maple {Acer Negundo) A small tree, 40 to 50 up to 70 feet high, found chieflj; along streams. Wood pale, soft, close-grained, light. A cubic foot 343) Tilings to Enow and Do

weighs 27 lbs. Poor fuel. Makes paper-pulp. Leaflets 2 to 4 inches long. Massachusetts to British Columbia south to Mexico and Alabama. Basswoody White-wood, Whistle-wood, Lime, or Linden ' (Tilia Americana) A tall forest tree. 60 to 125 feet; usually hollow when old. Wood soft, straight-grained, weak, white, very light. A cubic foot weighs 28 lbs. It makes a good dugout canoe or sap trough. The hollow trimk, split in halves, was often used for roofing. Poor firewood, and soon rots, makes good rubbing-sticks for friction fire. Its inner bark supplies coarse cordage and mat- ting. Its buds are often eaten as emergency food. Leaves 2 to 5 inches wide. Manitoba to Nova Scotia and south to Texas. . ' 344) 313 ' Woodcraft Manual for Boys Sour Gum, Black Gunii Pepperi(Ig«t or Tupelo (Nyssa s^vaiica) A forest tree up to no feet high; in wet lands. Wood pale, very strong, tough, un^Utable, and heavy. A cubic foot weighs

lbs. Used for turner work, but soon rots next the ground. 

Leaves 3 to 5 inches long. Massachusetts to Wisconsin and south to Gulf. White Ash (Fraxinus Americana) A fine forest tree on moist soil; 70 to 90 or even 130 feet high. Wood pale brown, tough, and elastic. Used for handles, springs, bows, also arrows and spears; heavy. A cubic foot ' wdgSs 41 lbs. Soon rots next the ground. Called, white for 345) Things to Know and Do 313 the sQvery under sides of the leaves; these are 8 to 12 inches long; each leaflet 3 to 5 inches long. Mississippi Valley and east to Atlantic. Block Ash, Hoop Ash, or Water Ash {Fraxinus nigra) A tall forest tree of swampy places; 70, 80, or rarely 100 feet high. Wood dark brown, toi^h, soft, coarse, heavy. A cubic foot weighs 39 lbs. Soon rots next to the ground. Late in the spring to &d, and early to shed in the fall. The leaves are 1 2 to 16 inches long; its leaflets, except the last, have no stalk, they number 7 to 1 1 , are 3 to 6 inches long. Nova Scotia to Manitobui and souib to Virginia. Books Recommeaded Trees op Ihe Northern Untted States, Austin C. Apgar. Price, %i .00, American Book Co. The Forester's Manual, or Forest trees of Eastern North America, a fully illustrated Manual with map showing ratige of each species. By Emest Thompson Seton, published by Doubleday, Page & Co., net, $.50. Our Native Trees, by Harriet L. Keeler, iqq^, Clu(riea Scribner's Sons, New York aty. Pnce,$*.oo. 346) 314 Woodcraft Manual for Boys THE STARS AS THE CAMPER SEES THEM (See Plate of Stars and Principal Constellations) So far as there is a central point in our heavens, that point is the Pole-star, Polaris. Around this star all the stars in the sky seem to turn once in twenty-four hours. It is easily discovered by the help of the Big Dipper, or Great Bear, known to every country boy and girl in the northern half of the world. This is, perhaps, the most important star group in our sky, because of its size, peculiar form, "the fact that it never sets in our latitude, and that of its stars, two, sometimes called the Pointers, always point out the Pole-star. It is called the Dipper because it is shaped like a dipper with a long, bent handle. Why it is called the Great Bear is not so easy to explain. The classical legend has it that the nymph, Calisto, having violated her vow, was changed by Diana into a bear, which, after death, was immortalized in the sky by Zeus. Another suggestion is that the earliest astronomers, the Chaldeans, called these stars " the shining ones," and their word happened to be very like the Greek arkios (a bear). Another explanation is that vessels in olden days were named for animals, etc. They bore at the prow the carved eflSgy of the namesake, and if the Great Bear, for example, made several very happy voyages by setting out when a certain constellation was in the ascendant, that constellation might become known as the Great Beards constellation. Certainly, there is nothing in its shape to justify the name. Very few of the constellations, indeed, are like the thing they are called after. Their names were usually given for some fanciful association with the namesake, rather than for resemblance to it. The Pole-star is really the most important of the stars in our sky; it marks the north at all times; all the other stars seem to swing around it once in twenty-four hours. It is in the end of the Little Bear's tail; this constellation is sometimes called the Little Dipper. But the Pole-star, or Polaris, isnot a very bright one, and it would be hard to identify but for the help of the Pointers of the Big Dipper. The outside stars (Alpha and Beta) of the Dipper point nearly to Polaris, at a distance equal to about five times the space that separates these two stars of the Dipper's outer side. Indian names for the Pole-star are the " Home Star," and "The Star That Never Moves," and the Big Dipper they call the "Broken Back." 347) Things to Know and Do 348) 3i6 Woodcraft Manual for Boys The Great Bear is also to be remembered as the hour-hand of the woodman's clock. It goes once around the North Star in about twenty-four hours, the same way as the sun, and for the same reason — that it is the earth that is going and leaving them behind. The time in going aroimd is not exactly twenty-four hours, so that the position of the Pointers varies with the seasons, but, as a rule, this for Woodcraft purposes is near enough. The bowl of the Dipper swings four fifths of the width of its own opening in one hour. If it went a quarter of the circle, that would mean you had slept a quarter of a day, or six hours. Every fifteen days the stars seem to be an hour earlier; in three months they gain one fourth of the circle, and in a year gain the whole circle. According to Flammarion, there are about seven thousand stars .visible to the naked eye, and of these twenty are stars of the first magnitude. Fourteen of them are visible in the latitude of New York, the others (those starred) belong to the South Polar region of the sky. The following table of the brightest stars is taken from the Revised Harvard Photometry of 1908, the best authority on the subject. The First Twenty Stars in Order of Brightness . Siiius, the Dog Star. . *Canopus, of 3ie Ship. . *Alpha, of the Centaur. . Vega, of the Lyre. . Capella, of the Charioteer. . Arcturus, of the Herdsman. . Rigel, of Orion. . Procyon, the Little Dog-star. . *Achernar, of Eridanus. . *Beta, of the Centaur. . Altair, of the Eagle. . Betelgeuze, of Orion's right shoulder. . 13. *Alpha, of the Southern Cross. . Aldebaran, of the Bull's right eye. . Pollux, of the Twins. . Spica, of the Virgin. . Antares, of the Scorpion. . Fomalhaut, of the Southern Fish. . Deneb, of the Swan. . Regulus, of the Lion. 349) Things to Know and Do 317 Other ConstelUitions Orion Orion (0-ri-on), with its striking array of brilliant stars, Betelgeuze, Rigel, the Three Kings, etc., is generally admitted to be the finest constellation in the heavens. Orion was the hunter giant who went to Heaven when he died, and now marches aroimd the great dome, but is seen only in the winter, because, during the sunmier, he passes over during daytime. Thus he is still the hunter's constellation. The three stars of his belt are called the "Three Kings." Sirius, the Great Dog-star, is in the head of Orion's Hoimd, the constellation Cams Major, and following farther back is the Little Dog star, Procyon, the chief star of the constellation Canis Minor. In old charts of the stars, Orion is shown with his hounds, hunting the bull, Taurus. This constellation is recognizable by this diagram; the red star, Aldebaran, being the angry right eye of the Bull. His face is covered with a cluster of little stars called the HyadeSy and on his shoulder are the seven stars, called Pleiades, Pleiades Pleiades (Ply-a-des) can be seen in winter as a cluster of small stars between Aldebaran and Algol, or, a line drawn from the back bottom, through the front rim of the Big Dipper, about two Dipper lengths, touches this little group. They are not far from Aldebaran, being in the right shoulder of the Bull. They may be considered the seven arrow woimds made by Orion. Serviss tells us that the Pleiades have a supposed connection with the Great Pyramid, because "about 2170 b. c, when the beginning of spring coincided with the culmination of the Plei- ades at midnight, that wonderful group of stars was visible just at midnight, through the m3^terious southward-pointing passage of the Pyramid. Cassiopeia On the opposite side of the Pole-star from the Big Dipper, and nearly as far from it, is a W of five bright stars. This is called Cassiopeia's Chair, It is easily found and visible the year round on clear nights. Thus we have described ten constellations from which the Woodcraf ter may select the number needed to qualify, namely. 350) 3x8 Woodcraft Mantial for Boys the Little Bear or Little Dipper, the Big Dipper or Big Bear, Cassiopeia's Chair, Orion, the Bull, Orion's Hound, Orion's Little Dog, the Pleiades and the Hyades; the Lyre (later). The Moon The moon is one fourth the diameter of the earth, about one fiftieth of the bulk, and is about a quarter of a nuUion miles away. Its course, while very irregular, is nearly the same as the apparent course of the sun. It is a cold, solid body, without any known atmosphere, and shines by reflected simlight. The moon goes around the earth in twenty-seven and a quarter days. It loses about fifty-one minutes in twenty-four hours; therefore it rises that much later each successive night on the average, but there are wide deviations from this average, as, for example, the time of the Harvest and Himter's moons in the fall, when the full moon rises at nearly the same time for several nights in succession. According to most authorities, the moon is a piece of the earth that broke away some time ago; and it has followed its mother around ever since. The hole it left in its place is supposed to be the North Pacific Ocean. The Stars as Tests of Eyesight In the sky are several tests of eyesight which have been there for some time and are likely to be. The first is the. old test of Mizar and Alcor. Mizar, di^ Horse, is the star at the bend of the handle of the Dipper. Just above it is a very small star that astronomers call Alcor, or the rider. The Indians call these two the "Old Squaw and the Pappoose on Her Back." In the old world, from very ancient times, these have been used as tests of eyesight. To be able to see Alcor with the naked eye means that one had excellent eyesight. So also on the plains, the old folks would ask the children at night, "Can you see the pappoose on the old squaw's back?" And when ljie youngster saw it, and proved that he did by a right description, they rejoiced that he had the eyesight which is the first requisite of a good hunter. THE PLEIADES One of the oldest of all eye tests is the Pleiades. Poor eyes see a mere haze, fairly good see five, good see six, excellent see seven. 351) Things to Enow and Do 319 The rarest eyeisight, under the best conditions, see up to ten; and, according to Flammarion, the record with unaided eyes is thirteeen. VEGA, OF THE LYRE If one draw a line from through the back wall of the Dipper, that is, from the back bottom star, through the one next the handle, and continue it upward for twice the total length of the Dipper, it will reach Vega, the brightest star in the nordiern part of the sky, and believed to have been at one time the Pole-star — and likely to be again. Vega, with the two stars near it, form a small triangle. The one on the side next the North Star is called Epsilon. If you have remarkably good eyes, you will see that it is a double star. THE NEBULA IN ORION'S SWORD Just about the middle of Orion's Sword is a fuzzy light spot. This might do for blood, only it is the wrong color. It is the nebula of Orion. If you can see it with the naked eye, you are to be congratulated. ON THE MOON When the moon is full, there is a large, dark, oval spot on it to the left, as you face it, and close to the east rim, almost half- way up; this is the Plain of Grimaldi; it is about twice the size of the whole State of New Jersey; but it is proof of a pair of ex- cellent eyes if you can see it at all. Books Recommended The Book of Stars, by R. F jCollins. D. Appleton & Co. Piice, $i .00 Around the Year Wuh the Stars, by Garrett P. Serviss. Harpers. Price, I1.00 352) 353) BIRDS Forty Birds That Every Woodcrafter Should Enow The Bald Eagle, or White-headed Downy Woodpecker Eagle Golden, or War Eagle Redtailed Hawk, or Henhawk The Barred, or Hoot Owl Great Homed Owl, or Cat Owl Screech Owl Turkey Vulture, or Buzzard Loon Common Seagull Pelican Wild Duck, or MaUard Wood Duck, or Summer Duck Wild Goose, Canada Goose, or Honker Swan Bittern Great Blue Heron Quail, or Bobwhlte Ruffed Grouse, or Partridge Dove Flicker, or Highhole Ruby-throated Hummingbird Kingbird Bluejay Common Crow Bobolink, or Reedbird Baltimore Oriole Purple Grackle, or Crow Black- bird Snowbird Song-Sparrow Scarlet Tanager Purple Martin Bam Swallow Mockingbird Catbird Common House Wren Chickadee WoodThmsh Robin Bluebird 354) 355) BIRDS Forty Birds That Every Woodcrafter Should Enow The Bald Eagle^ or White-headed Eagle (Halmetus leucocep- halus)y is the emblem of America. It is three to four feet from beak to tail, and six or seven feet across the wings. When fully adult it is known by its white head, neck, and tail, and the brown body; but when young it is brownish black, splashed and marked with dull white. The only other eagle found in the United States is the Golden^ or War Eagle {AquUa chrysaetos). This is a httle larger. When fuU grown it is dark brown, with the basal half of tail more or less white. The plumage of the young birds is somewhat like that of the yoimg Bald Eagle; but the two species may always be distinguished by the legs. The War Eagle wears leggings — his legs are feathered to the toes. He is ready for the warpath. The Bald Eagle has the legs bald, or bare on the lower half. RedtaUed Hawk, or Henhawk (BtUeo borealis). The common hawks of America are very numerous and not easy to distinguish. The best known of the large kinds is the Redtail. This is about two feet long and four feet across the wings. In general it is dark brown above and white beneath, with dark brown marks; the tail is clear reddish with one black bar across near the tip. In yoimg birds the tail is gray with many small bars. It has four primaries notched on the inner web. The legs are bare of feathers for a space above the toes. It is common in North America east of the Rockies up to mid-Canada. It does much good, killing mice and insects. It is noted for its circling flight and far-reaching whistle or scream. The Barred, or Hoot Owl (Strix varia). This Owl is known at once by the absence of horns, the black eyes, and the plumage barred across the chest and striped below that. It is about twenty inches long, in general gray-brown marked with white. It is noted for its loud hooting; it is the noisiest owl in our woods. Found in the wooded parts of America up to about latitude 50 degrees, east of the Plains. 356) 324 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Great Horned Owl, or Cat Otd (Bubo Vtrgiftianus). This is the largest of our Owls. About twenty-four inches long and four feet across the wmgs. It is known at once by its great ear tufts, its yellow eyes, its generally barred plumage of white, black and buff, and its white shirt front. This is the winged tiger of the woods. Noted for its destruction of game and poul- try, it is found throughout the timbered parts of North America. Screech Owl (Otus asio). This is not unlike the Homed Owl in shape and color but b much smaller — only ten inches long. Sometimes its plumage is red instead of gray. It feeds on mice and insects and has a sweet mournful song in the autunm — ^its Bald Eagk SedtsiM BaiA oi Henlwwk lament for the falling leaves. It is found in the timbered parts of North America. Turkey Vulture, or Buzzard (Catharles aura). The Turkey Vulture is about two and a half feet long and about six feet across its wings. It is black everywhere except on the under side of the wing which is gray, and the head which is naked and red. It is known at once by the naked head and neck, and is famous for its splendid fli^t. It is found from Atlantic to Pacific and north to the Saskatchewan. It preys on carrion. In the Southern States is another species — the Black Vulture. 357) Things to Know and Do 335 358) 336 Woodcraft Manual for Boys or Carrion Crow — which is somewhat smaller and wears its coat collar up to its ears instead of low on the neck; also its com- plexion is dusky, not red. Loon (Gavia immer). The common Loon is known by its size — thirty-two inches long and about four feet across the wings — and its brilliant black-and-white pliunage. It is noted for its skill as a fisher and diver. Its weird rollii^ call is heard on every big lake in the country. CoffiffHTfj Seagull (Lotus argentatus). The common Seagull is twenty-four indies long and four feet across. The plumage is Common Seagull white with blue-gray back, when adult; but splashed brown when young, and with black tips to the wings. Its beak is yellow with red spot on the lower mandible. ' It is found throughout North America. Pelican (Fetecitnus erythrorkynchos). The white Pelicar is known at once by its great size — about five feet long ant^ feet across the wings — by its long beak, its pouch, and il.. . ,. fully webbed. Its plumage is white, but the wing tips are black. It is found in the interior oi America up to Great Slave Lake. 359) Things to Know and Do

^Pelican Wild Duck, or Mallard {Anas platyrhynchos). Of all our num- erous wild ducks this is the best known. It is about twenty-three inches long. Its bottle- green head, white col- lar, chestnut breast, penciled sides, and curled-up tail feathers Wild Duck or Mallard ^^^^u. identify it. The female ■^ is streaky brown and gray. It is found in all parts of the continent, up to the edge "' ^Je forest. This is the wild duck from which tame ducks are ^^WJiM Ducky or Summer Duck {Aix sponsa). This beautiful duck is about eighteen inches long. Its head is beautifully variegated, bottle-green and white. Its eye is red, its breast 360) 328 Woodcraft Manual for Boys purplish chestnut, checkered with white spots, while its sides are bufE with black pencilings. This is one of the wildest and most beautiful of ducks. It nests in hol- low trees and b found in North America up to 1 about latitude 50 degrees. Wild Goose {Branta Canadensis). This fine bird is about three feet long. Its head and neck are black ; its cheek patch white; its body gray; its tail black witli white coverts above and below. It is found up to the Arctic regions, and breeds north of about latitude 45 degrees. It is easily tamed and reared in captivity. Swan. There are two kinds of Swan found in America: The Trum- peter (Olor buccinator), which b ahnost extinct, b very lai^e and has a black bill, and the Whis- ^ tling Swan {Olor Columbp- anus), which b smaller — about five feet long and seven feet across. Its plumage b pure white; its bill black, with a yeUow spot near the eye. It is foimd generally throughout North America but b rare now. Bittern {Botauras lengHginosus) This bird of marshes b about twenty-eight inches long and can stand nearly three feet high. Its general color is warm yellowish brown splashed with d^k brown. The black mark on the side of the neck b a. strong feature, and its bright green legs and beak are very dbtinctive. It b famous for its guttural call notes in the maxshes, and is found throughout North America up to about latitude 60 d^;rees in the interior. Wild Goose, Canada Goose, or Honkei 361) Things to Enow and Do 339 Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias). This bird is commonly called Blue Crane. Its great size will distinguish it. It is about 4 feet from tip of beak to tip of tail. In general it is blue-gray above, white below; head, white, with black hind head, crest and marks on neck and shoulders. Its thighs are chest- Bittern Great Blue Heron out. It is found throughout North America to the limit of heavy timber. Quail, or Bobwkile (CoUnus Virginianus). This famous and delicate game bird is about ten inches long. Its plumage is beautifully varied with reddish brown, lilac, and black mark- ings, on a while ground. Its whistle sounds like "Bob White." It is found in eastern North America up to Massachusetts and South Ontario. Ruffed Grouse, or Partridge {Bonasa umhellus). It is known by its mottled and brown plumage, its broad and beautiful fan tail, and the black rufiFs on each side of the neck. It is noted for its drumming, which is usually a love song — a call to its mate. Found in the heavy woods of North America, north of the Gulf States. 362) 330 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Dove {Zenaidura macroura). This is an abundant inhabi- tant of the farming country as far north as wheat is now grown. It is about twelve inches long, and known by its pigeon-like look, and its long, wedge-shaped tail, with black and white marks on the feathers. Its breast b soft puqjlish gray. Its extinct relation, the once plentiful Passenger Pigeon, was eighteen inches long and had a reddish breast. Dovmy Woodpecker (Dryobates fmiescens). About six and a half inches long, blade and white. In the male the nape is Quail or Bobwhite RuSed Grouse or Partridge red, the outer tail feathers white with black spots. Carefully distmguish this from its large relation the Hairy Woodpecker, which is nine and a half inches long and has no black spots on the white outer tail feathers. A familiar inhabitant of orchards the year round, it is found in woods throughout eastern North America. Flicker, or Highhole (Colaptes auratus). This lai^e and beauti- ful Woodpecker is twelve inches long. Its head is ashy gray behind, with a red nape in the neck, and brown-giay in front. On its breast is a black crescent. The spots below and the little bars above are black, and the under side of wings and tail are bright yellow. The rump is white. Its beautiful plumage and loud splendid "clucker" cry make it a joy in every woodland. It is found throughout North America, east of the Rockies up to the limit of trees. Ruby-throated Hummingbird (TrochUus colubris). Every one knows the Hummingbird. The male only has the throat of nby color. It is about four inches long from tip of beak to 363) ThingB to Know and Do 331 tip of tail. This is the only Hummingbird found in the Northern States or Canada east of the Prairies. Kingbird {Tyrannus tyrannus). This bird is nearly black in its upper parts, white underneath, and has a black tail with white tip. Its concealed crest is orange and red. It is eight and a half inches long. Famous for its intrepid attacks on all birds, large and small, that approach its nest, it is found in North America east of the Rockies, into southern Canada. Bluejay (Cyanocitta cristata). This bird is soft purplish blue above, and white underneath. The wings and tail are bright 364) 333 Woodcraft Manual for Boys blue with black marks. It is found in the woods of America east of the Plains to about latitude 55 degrees. The Bluejay is a wonderful songster and mimic, but it is mischievous — nearly as bad as the crow indeed. Common Crow {Conns brachyrhynchos). The Ciow is black from head to foot, body and soul. It is about eighteen inches long and thirty wide. It makes itself a nuisance in all the heavily wooded parts of eastern North America. Bobolink, or Reedfnrd {Dolichonyx oryzivorus). This bird is about seven and a half indies long. The plumage is black and white, with brown or creamy patch on nape; and the tail feath- ers all sharply pointed. The female, and the male in autumn, are all yellow buff with dark streaks. Though famous for its wonderful song as it flies over the meadows in June, it is killed by the thousands to supply the restaurants in autumn and served up under the name Reedbird. It is found in North America, chiefly between north latitude 40 and 52 degrees. Baltimore Oriole {Icterus galbula). The Oriole is about eight inches kmg, flaming orange in color, with black head and back and partly black tail and wings. The female is duller in plum- age. Famous for its beautiful nest, as well as its gorgeous plum- age and ringing song, it is abundant in eastern North America in oprai woods up to northern Ontario and Lake Winnipeg. 365) Things to Know and Do 333 Purple Crackle, or Crow Blackbird (Quiscalus quiscala). This northern bird of paradise looks black at a distance but its head is shiny blue and its body iridescent. It is twelve inches long. When flying it holds its long tail with the edge raised like a boat, hence "boat tail." In various fonns it is found throughout the Extern States, and in Canada up to Hudson Bay. Baltimore Oriole Putple Crackle, or Crow Blackbiid Snowbird [Plectrophenax nivalis). About six and a half indies long, this bird is pure white, overlaid with brown on the crown, back, and sides. The wings, back, and tail are partly black. The Snowbird nests in the Arctic regions and is common in most of temperate agricultural America, during winter, wher- ever there is snow. 366) Woodcraft Manual for Boys Song-Spanow Scarlet Tanager Song-Sparrow (Melospiza tMlodia). The Song-Sparrow is about six and a half inches long — ^brown above — white under- neath. It is thickly streaked with blackish marks on flanks, breast, and all upper parts. All the tail feathers are plain brown. There is a black blotch on the jaw and another on the middle of the breast. Always near a brook. It is noted for its sweet 367) Things to Know and Do 335 and constant song, and is found in all well wooded and watered parts of North America. Scarlet Tanager (Piranga erythromdas). This gorgeous bird is about seven inches long. The plumage of the n^e is of a flaming scarlet, with black wings and tail; but the female is dull green in color. The Scarlet Tanager is found in the woods of eastern America, up to Ottawa and Lake Winnipeg, Purple Martin (Progne subis). About eight inches in length, with long wings and forked tall, the Purple Martin is everywhere of a shiny bluish or purplish black. Like the Kingbird it attacks any intruder on its lower range. This swallow is found in the wooded regions of east temperate America, north to Newfound- land and the Saskatchewan. Barn Swattow {Eirundro erythrogasler). About seven inches long, this bird is steel-blue above, chestnut on throat and breast, buffy white on belly. It is known by the long forked tail which is dark with white spots. Famous for its mud nest, it is found in open country about barns in America generally. Mockingbird {Mtmus polygloUas). About ten inches long, soft gray above, dull white beneath, wings and tail black and white, with no black on head— the Mockingbird is famous for its song, and is found in United States north to New Jersey. Catbird (Dumelella Carotinensis). This northern Mocking- J 368) 33^ Woodcraft Manual for Boys bird is about nine inches long, dark slate in color, with a black- brown cap, black tail, and a red patch "on the seat of its pants." It abounds in the Eastern States and Canada, north to Ottawa, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia. Common House Wren (Troglodytes aidon). This little fairy b about five inches long; soft brown above and brownish gray below, it is barred with dusky brown on wings and tail. It nests in a hole, and is found in wooded America east of the Plains, north to Saskatchewan, Ottawa, and Maine. Chickadee (Penthesles atrUapiUus). This cheerful little bird is five and a half inches long. Its cap and throat are black. Wood Thrush Chickadee Its Upper parts are gray, its under parts brownish, its cheeks irfiite, no streaks anywhere. It does not migrate, so it is well known in the winter woods of eastern America up to the Cana- dian region where the Brown-capped or Hudson Chickadee takes its place. Its familiar song chickadee dee dee has given it its name. Wood Thrush (Sylocickla mustelinus). About eight inches long, cinnamon-brown above, brightest on head, white below. 369) ThingB to Enow and Do 337 with black spots on breast and sides, this Thrush is distinguished from the many thrushes in America , much like it, by the reddish head and round black spots on its under sides. It is found in the woods of eastern North America up to Vermont and Minne- sota. JioHn (Planestkus migratorius). The Robin is about ten inches long, mostly dark gray in color, but with black on head Robin Bluebird and tail; its breast is brownish red. The spots about the eye, also the throat, the belly, and the marks in outer tail feathers are white. Its mud nest is known in nearly every orchard. Found throughout the timbered parts of America north to the limit of trees. Bluebird {Sialia sttdis). About seven inches long, brilliant blue above, dull red-brown on breast, white below. Found in eastern North America, north to about latitude 50 degrees in the interior, not so far on the coast. Books Recommended Water Bibds, Land Buds East of Rockies, and Land Bntos West OP Rockies, Chester A. Reed. Doubleday, Page & Co. Price, Ji.oo each volume. (Popular.) Handbook o? the BiBns op Eastern Nokth Auerica, by F. M. Chap- man. ApiJeton,N.Y. Price, $3.00. (Technical.) Handbook of BotDS of the Westebm United States, by FIokdcC Merriam Bailey. Houghton, MifBin k Co. Price, fj.jo. (Tectmical.) 370) 338 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Bird Homes, by A. R. Dugmore. Doubleday, Page & Co. Price, $3.50. (Popular.) Biros That Hunt and Are Hunted, by Neltje Blanchan. Doubleday, Page & Co. Price, $3.50. (Popular.) SNAKES, GOOD AND BAD Snakes are to the animal world what toadstools are to the vegetable world — ^wonderful things, beautiful things, but fear- some things, because some of them are deadly poison. Taking Mr. Ra)anond L. Ditmars* as our authority, we learn that out of one hundred and eleven species of snakes found in the United States, seventeen are poisonous. They are found in every state, but are most abundant in the Southwest. These may be divided into Coral Snakes, Moccasins, and Rattlers. The Coral Snakes are found in the Southern States. They are very much like harmless snakes in shape, but are easily distinguished by their remarkable colors, "broad alternating rings of red and black, the latter bordered with very narrow rings of yellow." The Rattlesnakes are readily told at once by the rattle. But the Moccasins are not so easy. There are two kinds: the Water Moccasin, or Cotton-mouth, found in South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and Louisiana, and the Copper- head, which is the Highland, or Northern Moccasin or Pilot Snake, found from Massachusetts to Florida and west to Illinois and Texas. Here are distinguishing marks: The Moccasins, as well as the Rattlers, have on each side of the head, between the eye and nostril, a deep pit. The pupil of the eye is an upright line, as in a cat; the harm- less snakes have a round pupil. The Moccasins have a single row of plates under the tail, while the harmless snakes have a double row. The Water Moccasin is dull olive with wide black transverse bands. The Copperhead is dull hazel brown, marked across the back with dumb-bells of reddish brown; the top of the head more or less coppery. Both Moccasins and Rattlers have a flat triangular head, which is much wider than the thin neck; while most harmless snakes have a narrow head that shades off into the neck.

  • This article is chiefly a condensation of his pamphlet on 'Toisonous Snakes of the

United States/' and is made with his permission and approval. 371) Things to Enow and Do Typ^s of Voisonovs £na*(es 372) 340 Woodcraft Manual for Bo]rs Rattlesnakes are found generally distributed over the United States, southern Ontario, southern Alberta, and Saskatchewan. How Does a Snake Bite? Remember, the tongue is a feeler, not a sting. The sting- ing" is done by two long hollow teeth, or fangs, through whidi the poison is squirted into the wound. The striking distance of a snake is about one third the crea- ture's length, and the stroke is so swift that no creature can dodge it. The snake can strike farthest and surest when it is ready coiled, but can strike a little way when travelling. You cannot disarm a poisonous snake without killing it. If the fangs are removed others come quickly to take their place. In fact, a number of small, half-grown fangs are always waiting ready to be developed. In Case of Snake Bite First, keep cool, and remember that the bite of American snakes is seldom fatal if the proper measures are followed. You must act at once. Try to keep the poison from getting into the system by a tight bandage on the arm or leg (it is sure to be one or the other) just above the wound. Next, get it out of the wound by slashing the wound two or more ways with a sharp knife or razor at least as deep as the puncture. Squeeze it — ^wash it out with permanganate of potash dissolved in water to the color of wine. Suck it out with the lips (if you have no wounds in the mouth it will do you no harm there). Work, massage, suck, and wash to get all the poison out. After thorough treatment to remove the venom the ligature may be removal. "Pack small bits of gauze into the wounds to keep them open and drying, then dress over them with gauze saturated with any good antiseptic solution. Keep the dressing saturated and the wounds open for at least a week, no matter how favor- able may be the symptoms." Some people consider whiskey or brandy a cure for snake bite. There is plenty of evidence that many have been killed by such remedies, and little that they have ever saved any one, except perhaps when the victim was losing courage or becoming sleepy. In any case, send as fast as you can for a doctor. He should 373) Things to Know and Do 341 come equipped with hypodermic syringe, tubes of anti-venomous serum, and strychnine tablets. ^ Harmless Snakes Far the greatest number of our snakes are harmless, beautiful, and beneficent. They are friendly to the farmer, because, although some destroy a few birds, chickens, ducklings, and game, the largest part of their food is mice and insects. The Blacksnake, the Milk Snake, and one or two others, will bite in self-defence, but they have no poison fangs, and the bite is much like the prick of a bramble. Books Recommended Tbe Reptile Book, Raymond L. Ditmars. Doubleday, Page & Co., X907 ; 465 pages, many ills. Price, $3.50. Poisonous Snakes of North America, Leonhard Stejneger. Gov- enmient Printing Office. The Crocodilians, Lizards, and Snakes of North America, Edward Drinker Cope. U. S. National Museum, Tune, 1898. Reptiles ofthe World (withreadablenistoriesof their habits) about3ooil' lustrations, Raymond L. Ditmars. The Sturgis & Walton Co. Price, $5.00. 374) 375) SECTION IV COUPS AND DEGREES 376) 377) CHAPTER IV COUPS AND DEGREES WOODCRAFT EXPLOITS AND ACHIEVEMENTS The Woodcraft League is organized on the idea that boys and girls who are interested in outdoor Ufe and in active living will continue along these lines as they grow older. Many of the Coups are such as to be within the reaph of Woodcraft Boys and Girls but the Degrees will in many cases be available only for the older members of the League. Woodcraft Exploits and Degrees are standard. They include work for both sexes, though each sex will find it desirable to select the ones most fitted to it. In many cases, however, both boys and girls may select the same Exploit or Degree. In fact, we believe that a sharing of many experiences would help greatly in solving some of the problems which we are facing at the present time. Exploits are indicated, by the wearing of the Coup or Grand Coup Badge each for a single exploit as listed. Achievement is indicated by the wearing of the Degree Badge for general proficiency in any one of the various Degrees in Woodcraft. Exploits The Exploits are intended to distinguish those who are first class in any department, and those who are so good that they may be considered in the record-making class. The French word " coup "* has been used by the Woodcraft Movement for i6years. No one can coimt both Coup and Grand Coup, or get a second similar badge in the same department except for heroism, mountain climbing, and others that are specified as "repeaters," in which each badge is added to that previously worn. No badges are conferred unless the exploit has been properly witnessed or proven, and approved by a careful conunittee. When it is a question of time under one minute, only stop watches are allowed. Badges, once fairly won, can never be lost for subsequent failure to reach the standard. Except when otherwise stated, the exploits are meant for all ages. •Pronounced "Coo." 378) 346 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Any one counting Coup, according to the class above him, may count it a Grand Coup in hisown class, unless otherwise provided. This list is made by the Council of Guidance. The exploits are founded on world-wide standards, and with the help of the best experts. The Cotmcil will gladly consider any suggestion, but it must be understood that no local group has any power to add to or vary the exploits in any way whatsoever. Badges for Coups (For form of conferring coup badges see page 32) Coup (above) and Grand Coup The badge for the Coup is an embroidered eagle feather. The badge for the Grand Coup has a red tuft embroidered on the end of the Coup badge. In the case of the Sagamore who has won twenty-four coups he or she is entitled to wear the twenty-four conventional eagle feathers on a Council Robe. Also the Woodcraft Boy is en- titled to wjsarawarbonnetof twenty-four eagle feathers on special occasions such as grand councils. A Sagamore must be at least fourteen years of age. CLASS I-EXPLOITS Athletic Coups and Grand Coups Badges are allowed for saving a human life at risk of one's own; it is a coup or a grand coup, at the discretion of the Council. A soldier's war medals count for a grand coup each. Courage. (The measure of courage has not yet been dis- covered.) 379) Coups and Degrees 347 To ride a horse one mile in three minutes, clearing a four- foot hurdle and an eight-foot water jump, counts coup; to do it in two minutes, clearing a five-foot hurdle and a twelve-foot w^ater jimip, grand coup. Trick riding. To pick up one's hat from the ground while at full gallop on a horse of not less than thirteen hands, counts coup. To do it three times without failure, from each side, with horse of at least fifteen hands, counts grand coup. General Athletics Those under ten are children; those over ten and under sixteen are boys or young girls; those over sixteen and imder eighteen are lads or girls; those over eighteen are men or women. Girls take the standards according to their ages up to eighteen, but for athletics are never over that. No matter what their age, henceforth they continue in the lad class," and in filing the claim need only mention their class. Men or women over seventy return to the lad class. The records are given according to Spalding's Almanac, where will be foimd the names of those who made them, with date and place. A dash ( — ) means "not open," No test requiring violent exercise should be taken unless the member has passed a general physical examination. The Guide of each group should see that tins precaution is observed, and especially so in the case of the girl members. Failure to observe the condition of the body may result in life- long harm. Don't try for any Coup in athletics without getting your Guide's approval. 380) 3*8 Woodcraft Manual for Boys 381) Coups and Degrees 382) Woodcraft Manual for Boys 383) Coups and Degrees 384) 352 Woodcraft Manual for Boys 385) Coups and Degrees 353 Athletic Specialties (Open to those only who are over 21.) Run zo mfles, coup. 80 m., g, coup, 70 m., Record 59 m. 38! s. " IS " "2 " " li h., " I h. 27 " iif " it 20 " " 3 " " 2j " " 2 " 13 " s " a 30 « « 4J " " 4 " "3 " 36 " 3J " « 40 " " 6J " " 6 " " s " 20J " — " 50 " " 9 " " 8 " " 7 " 29 " 47 " « 75 " " 16 " " 14 " "12 " 20 « 10 " " 100 •* " 24 " " 21 " " 17 " 36 " 14 " Walk 10 miles, coup, if a^.g,coup, i h. " i h. 17 m. 40} s. " 15 " 3 « " 2} " " 2 " 14 " 44 " " 20 " "4 " " 31 " " 3 " 8 " 10 " " 25 " " 5 " " 4f " " 4 " 3 " 35 " " 30 " " 7i " " 61 " " 5 " 33 " 8 " " 40 " " 10 " " 9 " "7 " 25 " 41 " «* 50 " " 13 " " 12 " " 9 " 29 " 22 ** <i y- CI a jg a u j^j a a j^ « ^ « j- a " 100 " " 30 " " 25 " " 21 " O " 42 «  Skate5o " " 5 " " 4 " " 3 " i5 " 59f s. « 75 " ** 7j « « 6 " "5 " 19 " i6| " " 100 " " 12 " " 10 " " 7 " " " 38i" Swim s " "4 " " 3* " " a " 58 " oi " " 10 " " in any time. 15 " grand coup in any time Bicycle xoo miles in 24 hrs., coup

    • 200 " in 24 hrs., grand coup

(Ace to L. A. W. rules) Weight-thramng. Throw the 56-pound weight from a 7 -foot circle: coup, 22 ft.; grand coup, 28 ft.; Rec. 38 ft. yf in. Dumlhbell, Push up one so-lb. dumb-bell with one hand to full arm length above the shoulder: 15 times for coup; 30 times, grand coup; Rec. 94 times. Ditto with loo-lb. dumb-bell: 5 times, coup; 10 times, grand coup; Rec. 20 times. Ditto with two loo-lb dumb-bells once; one in each hand, same time, grand coup. To turn a wheel, coup. Handspring, Throw a tumbler or 4-legged handspring, coup; throw a clean handspring, grand coup. Back handspring, A dean back handspring, grand coup. Water Sports and Travel (For swimming, rowing, etc., see classified athletics on a previous page.) Bathing, A coup for having bathed out of doors in water of natural temperature anywhere north of N. Lat. 30, or south 386) 354 Woodcraft Manual for Boys of S. Lat. 30, for 300 days in the year; a grand coup for 365 da3rs. Paddle. Row or pole five miles a day for five successive days, each day make a note and sketch (or photograph) of some in- teresting scene, coup. Sail a boat without expert help for fifty miles in one season, coup. Run a motor boat 100 miles on one occasion, that is, in one trip, coup. Log-riding. Tread a sawlog 100 yards in any time, without going overboard, for coup; do it 100 yards and back in thirty minutes, for grand coup. Canoeman. Single paddle a canoe on dead water. Spill the canoe and get into her again, and bale her alone counts coup. A grand coup, spill, right, and bale the canoe alone, three times in succession, and have run a rapid that falls six feet in 200 yards. Canoe-camper. Have made a continuous canoe trip of 500 miles, sleeping out every night, coup; 1,000 miles of the same, grand coup. Saddle-camper. Have made a continuous saddle trip of 500 miles, sleeping out every night, coup; 1,000 miles, grand coup. Lone-tramper. Travel alone, on foot, 100 miles, carry outfit, sleep out every night, coup; a grand coup for 200 miles. Gang-tramper. Travel 150 miles on foot with a party, carry own outfit, sleep out every night, coup; a grand coup for 250 miles. Ski-man. Travel six miles in an hour, forty miles in one day, cover forty feet in a jump, and travel 500 miles all told, coup; travel seven miles in an hour, fifty miles in one day, make a fifty-foot jump, and travel 1,000 miles all told, a grand coup. Arctic Traveler. A coup for entering the Arctic Cirde by . sesL;2i grand coup, hyhxid. Tropic Travder. Cross the Equator by sea or rail, coup; a grand coup, on foot. Motoring. Have covered 1,000 miles within thirty days, acting as your own chauffeur and mechanic, coup; have covered 1,000 miles in four days, 100 miles in two hours, acting as your own chauffeur and mechanic, grand coup. CIn both cases garage privileges allowed.) 387) Coups and Degrees 355 Mountain Climbing (all Afoot) (Not open to those under 14.) By Sir Martin Conway, ex-president of the Alpine Club. The exploits in this class are repeaters. The first one to climb a standard peak gets two badges: one for climb, one iox first dimb. For those over 14 and under z8. Coup In Great Britain — ^Ben Macdhuie, Ben Nevis, Ben Lomond, Ben Cruachan, Snowdon, Scarfell. In Europe — ^Vesuvius, Breithom. In North America — Mt. Washington, N. H.; Electric Peak, Wyo. Grand Coup In Europe — Mt. Blanc, Monte Viso, Etna, Monte Rosa. In North America — Pike's Peak, Shasta, Adams. In Asia — ^Fujiyama; Tabor. Add to this all the list of next group. For all those over 18. Coup In Europe — Mt. Blanc, Monte Rosa, Monte Viso, Ecrins, Grand Paradis, Jimgfrau, Finsteraarhorn, Wetterhorn, Bernina, Ortler, Gross, Glockner, Matterhorn from Zermatt. In North America — St. Helen's, Adams, Shasta, Hood, Rainier, Mt. Shaughnessy, Mt. Stephen, Popocatapetl; Orizaba. Grand Coup In Europe — Meije, Aig. du Grepon, Aig. du G&int, Aig. du Dm, Matterhorn (by Italian or Stockje ridges), Dent Blanche, Mischabelhomer from Seas, Schreckhorn, Monte di Scerscen, Funffinger Sp., Kleine Zinne. In North America — Mt. Sir Donald, Mt. Logan, Mt. As- siniboine, Mt. Fairweather, Mt. St. Elias, Grand Teton, Mt. McKinley. Any peak in Alaska over 13 ,000 feet high. In South America — Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, Illunani, Acon- cagua. 388) 356 Woodcraft Manual for Boys In Asia — ^Any peak 19,000 feet high. In Africa — ^Any peak over 15,000 feet high. Target Shooting (Open to men or women only.) Everything that can be said in favor of firearms for use in general sport applies to the rifle only (and its understud>r the revolver). The scatter-gun has no offidal existence for us. It is ruination to the marksman's power and should be abolished. A rifle range is a desirable adjunct to all grown-up camps. Badges awarded according to the army standards. Revolver-shot. Target 4x4 feet. Bull's-eye eight inches (counts four points). Inner ring two feet (three points). Outer, the rest of target (two points). Distance, thirty yards. Ninety-six shots divided in any number up to six da3rs, one hand, standing: 250 points count coup; 300, grand coup. Half with left hand only; half with right only: 230 points, coup; 260, grand coup. Rifleman. To be a marksman of the highest rank but one, according to militia standards, a coup; to be an expert rifleman %)i the highest rank, a grand coup. Eyesight Spot the Rabbit three times out of five at sixty yards, also distinguish and map out correctly six Pleiades and see clearly the "Pappoose (Alcor) on the Squaw's (Mizar) back" counts a coup; spot the Rabbit three times out of five at seventy y^xds and seven Pleiades and the Pappoose, counts a far-sight grand coup. (Those who habitually wear glasses may use them in this test.) (See "Far-sight," among the games.) Make a seventy-five score in ten tries in the game of Quick- sight, with ten counters, counts coup; a ninety-five score counts a grand coup. (See " Quick-sight," among the games.) CLASS n— CAMPERCRAFT Bee-line. Come to camp through strange woods from a point one mile oflf and return in thirty minutes, coup; in twenty, for grand coup. Match-fire. Light fifteen campfires in succession with fifteen matches, all in different places, all with stuff found in the woods by one's self, one at least to be on a wet day, coup; if all fifteen are done on wet days, or if one does thirty, of which two are on wet days, grand coup. 389) Coups and Degrees 357 Flint and Steel Fire, Light fifteen campfires in succession with wildwood timber, one at least on a wet day, and none to take over a minute from striking the flint to having the blazes, coup; if all fifteen are done on one day, or if one does thirty fires in unbroken succession, two at least on wet days, and in no case more than half a minute from strike to blaze, grand coup. RubUng'sHck Fire, Light a fire with a fire-drill or rubbing- sticks, with material of one's own gathering, coup;, to do it in one minute, grand coup. Water Boiling, Boil one quart of water in a two-quart pail in twelve minutes; in nine minutes, grand coup. Allowed one log, one match, one axe or hatchet. The water is boiling when jumping and bubbling all over the surface. Aoceman, Chop down three six-inch trees in succession in sixty seconds each, throwing them to drive each a given stake; in forty-five seconds each, grand coup. Knots. Make twenty-five different standard knots mounted and tagged for exhibition for coup; fifty for grand coup. Make an exhibition card of braiding and splicing ropes and lancy knots — twenty, coup; thirty, grand coup. Lasso, Catch ten horses or cattle in corral with ten throws of the lasso, coup; catch ten on the range in ten throws, grand coup. Lasso. Catch a horse or beef by each of his four feet in four successive throws, grand coup. Lasso. To catch, throw, and "hog-tie" a beef or horse in two and one half minutes; coup; in one and one half minutes, grand coup. The record is said to be forty seconds. Diamond Hitch. Pack a horse with not less than 100 pounds of stuff, with diamond hitch, to hold during eight hours of travel, coup; ten days in succession, grand coup. Size Guessing. Guess one inch, one foot, one yard, one rod, one acre, 100 yards, 200 yards, one quarter mile, one half mile, and a mile, within 20 per cent, of average error, for coup; 10 per cent, for grand coup. Height and Weight Guessing. Guess the height of ten trees or other high things, and the weight of ten stones or other things ranging from one ounce to 100 pounds, within 10 per cent, of average error, for coup; 5 per cent, for grand coup. Gauging Fatness. Measure the height of ten trees without climbing, or ten distances across a river without crossing, within 10 per cent, of average error, coup; 5 per cent., grand coup, tools: an axe and a pocket rule only. Star Gazing. Know and name fifteen star groups, for coup; 390) 358 Woodcraft Manual for Boys know twenty star groups and tell the names and something about at least one star in each, for grand coup. LaMude. Take the latitude from the stars at night with a cart wheel, or some home-made instrument, ten times from different points, within one degree of average error, for coup; one half degree for grand coup. Traveler. Take correct latitude, longitude, and local time, coup. Having passed the Royal Geographical Society's exam- ination of "expert traveler," grand coup. Boai-builder. Build a boat that will carry two men and that can be paddled, rowed, or sailed by them five miles an hour, coup; six miles an hour, grand coup. Birch Canoe. Make a birch canoe that has traveled, with at least one man aboard, loo mUes or more in safety, grand coup. Sign Talking. Know and use correctly 2*00' si^s, coup; 400 sigaSf grand coup. {'^ !' ,"' Wig;u)ag or Myer Signaling. Know this cbde^'^Jyl'si^^ as well as receive a message a quarter mile off, S,^ ^^d.^ct of ten words a minute, coup; the same, at a mile,^twehty-four words a minute, grand coup. Morse Code. The same. Trailing. Know and clearly discriminate the tracks of twenty- five of our common wild quadrupeds, also trail one for a mile and secure it without aid of snow, coup; similarly discriminate fifty tracks, and follow three tracks a mile as before, but for three different animals, grand coup. Camper. Pass thirty successive nights out of doors, never once sleeping under shingles, but in tent, teepee, or bivouac, every night, coup; sixty nights of the same, grand coup. Cooking. Cook twdve digestible meals for at least three per- sons, using ordinary camp outfit, coup; or twenty-one meals and in addition make good bread each day, grand coup. Wilderness Cooking. Make and bake bread, fry fish or meat, and boil potatoes or fish without pots or pans. Coup or grand coup, according to merit. Cabin. Build a habitable log cabin not less than 6x8, with wind-tight walls and waterproof roof. Coup or grand coup, ac- cording to merit. TetU or Teepee. Make a two-man tent or an 8-foot teepee or better, single handed, and set them up; coup or grand coup^ ac- cording to merit. Latrine. Make and run for three days a perfect latrine in army fashion, coup or grand coup, according to merit. CUy-hunter. Find and sketch twenty-five blazes and totems 391) Coups and Degrees 359 in town and tell where you found them. Indicate the distin- guishingmarksof policemen, park policemen, traffic squad,strong- arm squad, etc. Coup or grand coup, according to merit. £lazes and Signs. Make the four usual Indian Signs or Blazes on tree trunk, in twigs, grass, stones, give the smoke signals, and add twenty-five other signs or pictographs used by the Indians. Coup or grand coup, according to merit. Herald. Open and lead the Council, light the sacred fire, per- forming the Peace Pipe ceremony and the Naming ceremony. Know three Indian dances, songs, and the Omaha Invocation. Coup or grand coup, according to merit. Peace Messenger. Know 100 signs of the Sign Language and translate into English from any other language sentences amounting to 300 words, coup; know 200 signs and translate from Vno languageg;^fanJ coup. ,-> Have planned, made, and established a Council Ring, coup or grand coup according to merit. Map. ^ ' ' " correct map of a region one mile long, one quarter mile wide, such as a mile of highway, taking in one eighth of a mile on each side, marking every house, fence, hill, and prominent tree, etc. When there is a stream, indicate the size, speed, gallons it runs per hour, and bridges. Coup or grand coup, according to merit. Sweat Lodge. Make and use properly a Sweat Lodge three times in one week, in two of the times it may be given to another person for coup. Run a Sweat Lodge successfully for one month, treating at least a dozen patients, grand coup. Bow and Arrows. Make a bow and six arrows that will carry 100 yards, coup; 150 yards, grand coup. Tomtom. Make and decorate a tomtom; coup or grand coup, according to merit. Archery (Revised by Will H. Thompson, of Seattle, Wash.) Make a total score of 300 with sixty shots (in one or two meets) four-foot target at forty yards (or three-foot target at thirty . yacdii), for coup; make 400 for grand coup. Shoot so fast and far as to have six arrows in the air at once, for coM^/ seven for grand coup. (According to Catlin, the record iseighU)^ For children (under ten), to send an arrow ninety yards, coup; m 5 /yards, ^ranJ coup. For those ten to fourteen, to send an ^%itsw 125 yards, coup; 150, grand coup. For those fourteen to 392) 360 Woodcraft Manual for Boys eighteen, to send an arrow 175 yards, caup; 200, grand coup. For those over eighteen, to send an arrow 250 yards, coup; 275, grand coup. To hit the Burlap Deer in the heart, first shot: -14 at 45 yards, coup; 55 yards, grand coup -18 " 60 " "70 Over 18 " 75 " " 85 (The heart is nine inches across.) To cover a mile: Children in 19 shots for coup; 15 shots for grand coup (I «  -14 "14 it H ii II ii ii ii

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ii ii ii it Long Range, Clouti or Flight Shooting -18 Three-foot target at 130 yards, if possible on a steep hillside. In the target is a bull's eye, and counts Within 3 feet of outside of target 6 a a a

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I Grand coup is for Coup is for 300 at sixty consecutive shots. 400 at sixty consecutive shots. (In one or two meets.) Over 18 Four-foot target at 180 yards, if possible on a steep hillside. In the target is a bull's eye, and counts ... 9 Within 6 feet of outside of target li ^ a a a a a It .0 it it it it a it

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I Coup for 300 at sixty consecutive shots. Grand coup for 400 at sixty consecutive shots. (In one or two meets.) Fishing (By Dr. Henry van Dyke, Author of '^ttle Rivers," "Fishensan^s Luck," etc.) (Boys are those under 14; lads 14 to 18; men 18 and over.) (Young girls are those under 14; girls, 14 to 18; women 18 and over.) Tackle-making. Boys and young girls: To make a six-foot leader of clean gut, with smooth knots to stand a strain of 393) Coups and Degrees 361 five pounds, coup. To tie six different flies, of regular pattemsi on number eight-twelve hooks, and take trout with each of them, by daylight casting in clear water, grand coup. Lads and Girls: Make a bait rod of three points, straight and sovind, fourteen ounces or less in weight, ten feet or less in length, to stand a strain of one and one half pounds, at the tip, thirteen pounds at the grip, coup. Make a jointed fly-rod eight-ten feet long, four-six ounces in weight, capable of casting a fly sixty feet, grand coup. Fly-fishing. Boys and lads and young girls and girls: Take with the fly, unassisted, a three-pound trout or black bstss', on a rod not more than five ounces in weight, coup. Take a five-pound trout or black bass or a four-pound landlocked salmon under the same conditions, grand coup. Men and women: Hook and land with the fly, unassisted, with- out net or gaff, a trout or landlocked salmon over four poimds, or a salmon over twelve pounds, coup. To take, under the same conditions, a salmon over twenty-five pounds, grand coup. General Fishing. Boys, lads, men, young girls, girls, and women. Take on a rod, without assistance in hooking, playing, or landing, a trout, black bass, pike, muscallonge, grayling, sal- mon, bluefish, weakfish, striped bass, kingfish, sheepshead, or other game fi^, whose weight in pounds equals or exceeds that of the rod in ounces. Take under the same conditions a game fish that is double in pounds the ounces of the rod, grand coup. Indoor Fly-casting. Boys and young girls: To cast a fly with a rod of five ounces or less, not over ten feet long, forty feet, coup; fifty-five feet, grand coup. Lads and girls: Sixty-five feet, coup; eighty feet, grand coup. Men and women: Eighty feet, coup; ninety-five feet, grand coup. "Every fish caught and kept, but not used, is a rotten spot in the angler's record" (H. v. D.). Bait Casting (Revised by Lou S. Darling, of New York. Author of 'Tournament Casting and the Proper Equipment") With one-fourth ounce dummy frog, five-foot rod, indoors, overhead casting, tournament style: Child class 40 feet for coup; 50 feet for grand coup. Boys and young girls" 60 " " " 70 " " " " 394) 362 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Lads and girls class, 80 feet for coup; 90 feet for grand coup. Men and Women " 100 " " " 120 " " " If out of doors add 10 per cent, to each of the distances if cast is made with the wind. If a wooden plug is used instead of the dummy frog add 30 per cent to each distance. CLASS m— NATURE STUDY Vertebrates (Revised by Frank M. Chapman, of the American Museum of Natural History, New York City.) Know and name correctly twenty-five native wild quadrupeds, for coup; know and name correctly fifty, and tell something about each, for grand coup. Know and draw unmistakable pictures of twenty-five tracks of our four-foot animals, for coup; of fifty, for grand coup. Know and name correctly 100 of our native birds as seen mounted in a museum, the female and young to count separately when they are wholly different from the male. Two himdred birds, grand coup. Know and name correctly fifty wild birds in the field; 100, grand coup. Recognize fifty wild birds by note; 100 for grand coup. Know and name ten turtles; twenty for grand coup, with something interesting about each. Know and name ten different snakes, tell which are poisonous, for coup; twenty snakes for grand coup. Know and name correctly ten Batrachians; twenty for grand coup. Know and name twenty-five fish; fiity fish for grand coup. Lower Forms of Life (Revised by John Burroughs.) Know and name twenty-five native land and fresh-water shells, fifty for grand coup. Know and name twenty-five moths, fifty for grand coup. Know and name twenty-five butterflies, fifty for grand coup. Know and name fifty other insects, 100 for grand coup. Know and name correctly, i. e., with the accepted English names, according to any standard authority, twenty-five trees, and tell something interesting about them, fifty for grand coup. 395) Coups and Degrees 363 Know and name correctly fifty of our wild flowers, ioo for grand coup. Know and name correctly twenty-five of our wfld ferns, fifty for grand coup. Know and name correctly twenty-five of our native mosses, fifty for grand coup. Know and name fifty common toadstools or mushrooms, 100 for grand coup. Make and maintain a vivarium (aquarium with part land for turtles, frogs, etc.) successfully for six months and keep record of life of inmates. Dimensions two by four. Grand coup for one year success or unusual beauty or size. Keep ten records of different birds when first seen, nesting broods hatched, flying, etc., in one year. Grand coup for fifteen records. Dry and mount twenty-five ferns, properly identified. Fifty for grand coup. Geology, etc. (Revised by Prof. Charles D. Walcott, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution.) Paleontology. Know and name, referring to their proper strata, fifty native fossils, 100 for grand coup. Mineralogy. Know and name fifty minerals, for coup; or 100 for grand coup. Geology. Know and name and describe the fourteen great di- visions of the earth's crust, according to Geikie, also define watershed, delta, drift, fault, glacier, terrace, stratum, dip, and identify ten different kinds of rock, for coup. In addition to the first, define sediment metamorphic, anticlinal, synclinal, mo- raine, coal, metal, mineral, petroleum, and identify in all twenty kinds of rock, for grand coup. Photography (Revised by A. Radclyflfe Dugmore, of Country Life in America, New York.) (Photographs accepted and used at Headquarters count each a Coup or Grand Coup, according to merits.) Make a good recognizable photograph of any wild bird larger than a Robin while on its nest. With image three inches long grand coup. 396) 364 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Make a good photograph of a Ruffed Grouse drumming, a Prairie Chicken dancing, a Woodcock or a Wild Turkey strutt- ing, grand coup. Make a good recognizable photograph of a wild animal in the air, or grand coup, according to merit. Ditto for a fish. Get a good photograph of any large wild animal in its native siurroundmgs, and not looking at you, for coup or grand coup, according to merit. (As these are tests of woodcraft, menagerie animals do not count.) Photograph and negative of Council or Woodcraft activities that can be used (need not be developed by self) as lantern slide and accepted by National Headquarters. Coup or grand coup. according to merit. Photo and negative of descriptive dances as above (folk or Indian dances) — accepted and used by Headquarters, coup or grand coup. Photo and negative of insects and butterflies, moths, etc., in natural surroundings — ^as above — coup or grand coup, accord- ing to merit. Blueprints direct from flowers (in collection named and iden- tified as to locality and season) coup for twenty-five; grand coup for fifty. CLASS IV— CRAFTS Handicraft Coup or grand coup, according to merit Make a carved wood picture frame at least 8 x 10 inches ready for picture with glass and back — ^Indian carving suggested. Make model teepee, model log cabin, or good miniature model of Council Ring with removable furnishings. Make a model of camp — tents, teepees, fireplace. Make a four-poster for willow bed. Make and use a Navajo loom — ^for blanket weaving. Make a decorated noggin. Paint and decorate boards for Four Fires. Coup or grand coup according to merit. Make, decorate, and fire foiu- bowls (Zuni, Acoma, San Do- mingo, and Moquin style). Make a set of four candlesticks and fire bowl for Good-luck Fire. 397) Coups and Degrees 365 Make a set of tracking irons. Make a bracelet of hammered silver or piece of brass or copper work or silverwork. Make a set of three metal hubs, dies, or punches for stamping on metalwork. Indian Bed. Make an Indian bed of at least sixty rods, all tied tight for coup. Make one of eighty or more rods with four cords all straight, and bound at the edges, for grand coup. Basket. Make a serviceable basket of wildwood materials, not less than five inches across. Weaving. Weave a good grass or rush rug, square and even, not less than 2x5 feet. Indian Clock. Make an Indian clock, that is, a sun-dial, that works. Make a pair of tilting stools and spears according to rules i.e., stools circular on top, fifteen inches across, about twenty iiiches high on four widespread legs. Make a set of six plain cooking dishes of clay, dry and prepare by self. Agriculture Take honorable mention or second or third prize for exhibit of vegetables or fruits or cereal grains grown, at County, State, or National Fair. Grand coup for first prize. Take honorable mention or second or third prize for domestic animals exhibited at County, State, or National Fair. (Cats or dogs not included.) Grand coup for first prize. Take prize at any County, State, or National Fair for chickens, geese, ducks, guineas, bees, silk-worms, or animals. Grand coup for first prize. Milk a cow twice a day for a month. Know how to treat a caked bag. Identify six different kinds of cattle and tell their good and bad points. Have four window boxes of growing plants planted and cared for by self for four months of year. Boxes must be at least 24x8 inches. Have successful perennial vegetable garden for two years. Garden must contain eight of the following: asparagus, Swiss diard, sorrel (rumex), parsley, leeks, onions, spinach, sage, thyme, mint, horseradish, cornsalad, hardy chives, and rhubarb. Grand coup for twelve. Have grown for one year a cold-frame of pansies or violets. 398) 366 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Grand coup for having also started a friend with plants and helped make and fix cold-frame. Clear $25 on a half-acre garden, after paying for labor, etc., in one summer. Make a successful mushroom cellar. Home Craft Coup or grand coup, according io merit Train a class in cooking — showing the member3 and making them do it correctly — ^for six persons and give demonstration of success. Spin enough cotton, flax, wool, or hemp to make five yards of stuff or six pairs of socks. Weave ten yards of doth or rag-carpet rug or bedspread. Prepare, cook, and serve daintUy, four ten-course dinners for a party of not less than four people. Everything must be homr cooked. Serve practical and attractive meals to a family of six for one month at the rate of ten cents per meal per person, a total of $54. Prepare twelve meals on a tray for sick persons, using chicken broth, eggnog, milk toast, and show the value of bright and cheerful serving. Know and be able to buy and cook all of the best cuts of lamb, mutton, beef, and pork, making sure meat is fresh and cooked correcUy. Know value of cereals and proper preparation of com, wheat, rice, barley, and rye for bread and porridges. Also know about the care and feeding of infants from birth to three years. Have been a "litde mother," being a real daily guardian for three months — dressing, undressing, and caring for on time. Act as hostess at a formal luncheon, dinner, or party of some band to at least six people for which the invitations were self- made and menu supervised. Also plan and carry out three outdoor picnics or entertainments for a dozen or more girls, at which refreshments are served. Keep an eight-room house — used by not less than four people — clean and in order, caring for clothes, etc., arranging flowers, and assisting at meals for one month. Do a family washing and ironing for not less than four persons for one month and do all cleaning and pressing of suits, skirts, trousers, etc. 399) Coups and Degrees 367 Diying, Preservmg, and Canning Coups Dry three pounds (weight when dried) of apples, peaches, or other fruit, coup. Grand coup, five pounds. Glace three pounds of any kind of fruit (candied fruit) coup. Grand coup, five poimds (cherries, cranberries, pineapple, orange, etc.). Make three dozen glasses of jelly (without addition of any artificial jelly maker). Grand coup, five dozen glasses. Preserve or can three dozen quarts of any fruit, coup. Five dozen quarts, grand coup. Make one pound gumbo file' (sassafras buds and tender leaves dried and powdered), coup. Grand coup, two poimds. Can two dozen quarts any vegetable except tomatoes, coup. Grand coup, three dozen. Make two quarts (four ways) of tomato preserve and pickle. Canned ripe and unripe, coup. Six ways for grand coup. Preserve uncooked in cold water alone six quarts each of rhubarb and green gooseberries, coup. Take honorable mention or second or third prize for exhibit of Canned Goods or Preserves at Coimty, State, or National Fair. Grand coup for first prize. Take honorable mention or second or third prize for exhibit of cooked foods at County, State, or National Fair. Grand coup for first prize. Take honorable mention or second or third prize for exhibit of preserves at County, State, or National Fair. Grand coup for fiirst prize. Candy one j)ound each of grape-fruit, orange, and lemon-peel, coup. Candy one half pound each of mint leaves, rose leaves, violets, and calamus root, coup. Make one pint elder-flower water, cucumber juice toilet water, or witch-hazel extract. Materials must be gathered by self, coup. Make one pint mullein, camomile, ginger, and boneset tea. Materials gathered by self, coup. Make salve from brunella (self-heal), witch hazel, or marigold (calendula); materials gathered by self, coup. Curing Meat and Fish Catch and prepare for cooking 100 pounds, dressed weight, salt water fish. Fish must be used and not wasted. 400)

Catch, salt, and dry twenty-five cod, hake, or haddock, or five kits of mackerel (about 200 mackerel); fifty for grand coup.

Prepare and cure jerked, salted, smoked, or spiced, fifteen pounds of any meat or fish. Grand coup, twenty-five pounds.

Needle Craft

Unless otherwise stated coup or grand coup, according to merit

Make an evening, graduation, or party dress. Must be a complete success costing not less than $10 for materials.

Make a symbolic bead belt.

Bead a pair of moccasins in symbolic design, coup. If moccasins also are made by self, grand coup.

Make leather case decorated in beadwork to hold fire-stick outfit with extra leather bag to hold tinder with symbolic design.

Make a sleeping bag for winter sleeping outdoors.

Make a complete Council suit for Litde Lodge member. If of khaki should be trinmied in wash material or beads.

Knit a sweater suit for child; knit wristbands and collar in two colors.

Make a war shirt of good, authentic design and superior workmanship.

Make a pair of Indian leggings of good authentic design and superior work.

Make a leather dress of good design or a ceremonial robe.

Decorate a blanket — appUque designs similar to Sagamore.

Make a baby's outfit complete, including bedding, etc.

Show samples of the sixteen following stitches:

Coup': Basting, overhanding, hemming, running, felling, stitch and backstitching, gathering, overcasting, buttonholing, sewing on buttons, herringbone, feather, darning stocking, darning a tear, patching. Grand coup: The above stitches and double feather, tucking, French knots, hemstitching, cross-stitch, chain-stitch, buttonhole stitch on edge of blanket, and decorative fan of stitches. .

CLASS V — ENTERTAINER

Coup or grand coup, according to merit

Recite the "Star-Spangled Banner." The first ten paragraphs of the Declaration of Independence, the preamble to the Constitution, and Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. 401) Coups and Degrees 369 Teach a class of children successfully for six months in school, church, or recreation centre. Entertain younger people on five different occasions — ^intro- ducing song, story, dance, and manual training. Dance six good folk dances that are solo dances. Give a superlative performance of any of the standard dances on three public occasions. Give history of woman's movement in this country, telling what states have woman suffrage. Name the ten Americans whom you consider greatest in our history and say why. Do not include living people. Tell briefly of their lives and work. Dancer. Know three Indian dancing songs and be able to dance and teach three standard Indian dances. CLASS VI— LIFE CRAFT Red Cross. A grand coup for having passed the Red Cross examination of first aid to the injured. Life Saving, For passing the U. S. Vol. life Saving Corps diploma test for life saving in the water, a coup. For the same and an actual rescue, grand coup. Throwing Life Buoy. For those under eighteen: To throw it forty feet? within ten feet of the mark is coup; the same but forty-five feet within five feet of the mark is grand coup. In each case it must be thrown three out of five. For those over eighteen: To throw it fifty-five feet within ten feet of the mark is coup; sixty feet withm five feet of the mark is grand coup. In each case three times out of five. DEGREES IN WOODCRAFT The Degrees in Woodcraft are given because of general all- aroimd proficiency. They cover all phases of life and enable Woodcrafters to work along lines which arouse the most interest and give the greatest pleasure. Some subjects are of interest to only one sex, but all are open to both sexes. This list is made by the Council of Guidance. The degrees are foimded on world-wide standards, and with the help of the best experts. The Council will gladly consider any suggestion, but it must be understood that no local group has any power to add to or vary the degrees in any way whatsoever. 402) 370 Woodcraft Manual for Boys Degrees as Given in the Woodcraft League Art Craftsman Art Metal Worker Athlete Backwoods Handicraft Bird Sharp Brother-Sister Craft Business Camper Camp Cook Camp Craftsman Camp Doctor Canner Canoeman Carpenter . Citizen Colonial Housekeeper Conservator Cradle Craft Dancer Entertainer Farmer Fisherman Foodcraft Forester Frontiersman Gardener Gleeman E[andihelp Herald Home Cook Horseman Hostess Housekeeper Hunter Hunter in Town Indian Craftsman Indian Lore Laundry Expert Life Craft Lightning Wheeler Market Woman or Buyer Metal Worker Mountaineer Needle Woman Nurse Patriotism Potter Scout Scout-Runner Seamanship Sharpshooter Small Stock Farmer Star Wiseman Stock Farmer Swimmer Teacher Three Years' Service Thunder Handler Thunder Roller Traveler Village Scout White Man's Woodcraft Wise Woodman Woman's Power in History Degree Badge Degree Badges The Degree Badge is an embroidered square with a horn on each side. The Blanket Degree badge is the Zimi Coil. 403) Coups and Degrees

Art Cnftsman f Art Metal Worker Athlete Backwoods Handicraft

5 

Bird Sharp Brother-Sister Craft Business Camper Camp Cook Camp Craftsman Camp Doctor Canner OwiofiTiaii Carpenter Citizen Colonial Housekeeper Conservator Cradle Craft Dancer Entertainer Farmer Ffsherman f Foodcraft Forester fcs 404) 372 Woodcraft Manual for Boys TTT Frontieisman Gardener Oeeodsii Handihelp ^ [«1 El E Herald Home Cook Horseman Hostess Housekeeper Hunter Hunter in Town Indian Lore Indian Craftsman lAundry Expert Life Craft Lightning Wheeler Market Woman Metal Worker or Buyer Mountamea Needle Woman Nurse Patriotism O Potter Runner 405) Scout Coups and Degrees Seamanship Shaipshootcf

Small Stock Fanner StarWisemaa

Stock Fanner Swimmer Teacher Three YeanP Scrvico Thunder Handler Thunder Roller Iteveler

^ 

Village Scout White Woodcraft Wise Woodman II I ■■ ■ I Woman's Power in Ifistoiy Claiming Degrees A Degree may be claimed at Comicil after application has been made on a properly filled form which sets forth the claim with sufficient witnesses to prove legally that the test was fairly taken. (See page 32.) The Degree Claim is certified by the Chief and Tally Keeper of the Council conferring it, and returned to the applicant, but record is kept in the Tribal Tally. None but Chartered Tribes in good standing have power to award either Coup or Degree Badges. 406)

Art Craftsman

(Moninieio)

The Degree of Art Craftsman may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests:

1. Make a ceremonial suit for one's self.

2. Make a ceremonial belt of beadwork telling a story.

3. Make a ceremonial suit for younger Woodcraft Boy or Girl.

4. Dress a doll (not less than ten inches high) accurately in Woodcraft ceremonial suit, or some other distinct outfit.

5. Make a gardening or artist's smock with smocking.

6. Embroider a ceremonial dress, symbolic or Indian design.

7. Make a head band or shoulder strap or equivalent work in quill work.

8. Make five yards of handmade lace.

9. Make and decorate a pair of Indian leggings or moccasins.

10. Make a leather cushion cover with beadwork, or appliqué one of linen or a woven cover.

11. Weave a rug, Indian design preferred.

12. Make a box for coup feathers of leather or of birch-bark.

13. Make an attractive box or bag for rubbing-sticks and tinder.

14. Decorate a blanket, similiar to Sagamore's.

15. Make three useful articles with burnt work decorations.

16. Carve three useful articles such as spoons, forks, bowls, fire socket, and ornament with Indian designs.

17. Make a frame for picture out of a single piece of wood eight inches by ten inches.

18. Make a tray in basketry complete with glass mounting.

19. Make three pieces of silver work of good design.

20. Make three pieces of brass work of good design.

21. Make and decorate a brass or copper bowl, vase or plaque.

22. Make two hanging basket vases of willow or raffia suitable for porch decoration, fitted with holder of glass or tin.

23. Make a frame complete with glass and back, for Woodcraft charter.

24. Tell the meaning and name of ten beadwork designs used by American Indians such as rain, star, etc. 407)

ATHLETE, OR STRONGMAN

(Song-adis) 408)

Art Metal Worker

(Dasswabek)

The Degree of Art Metal Worker may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests:

1. Make set of six buttons and a pair of cufflinks to match in copper, brass, German silver, or precious metal.

2. Make chain with pendants of same metals as above. May be filigree, link, or braided.

3. Make a brass tray, picture frame, etc.

4. Make bracelet, band, link, or chain.

5. Make set of three metal d es or hubs or punches for stamping in the designs in metal (such punches or hubs or dies as the Pueblo Indians use).

6. Make belt of metal — may be engraved plates or links or filigree.

7. Make a ring with design intaglio, or semi-precious stone in setting, or enamel.

8. Make set of nut bowl and plates.

9. Make bowl ten inches in diameter.

10. Make tray at least ten inches in diameter.

11. Make large knocker — Indian design or Colonial.

12. Make four small knockers for study, bedroom, playroom, and music room, with appropriate design.

13. Make set of andirons.

14. Make set of fire shovel, tongs, poker, and hearthbrush and stand.

15. Make desk set.

16. Make electric lamp stand for table, Indian design.

17. Make metal vase, suitable for lampstand or for flowers.

18. Make candlestick and matchholder or snufiFers and extinguishers.

19. Make candlesticks and firebowl for the Four Fires.

Backwoods Handicraftsman

(Shaginapi)

The Degree of Backwoods Handicraftsman may be conferred on any one who takes seven of these tests:

1. Make a birch or hickory broom.

2. Make a hunter's lamp.

3. Make an Indian or willow bed.

4. Make a four-poster to carry the willow bed.

5. Make a wooden kneading trough. 409) 6. Make a noggin or wooden drinking cup of a tree burl.

7. Make a basket to hold at least a quart using raffia, spruce roots, rattan, or other strong material.

8. Make a box or vessel of birch bark tight enough to hold any ordinary grain.

9. Build a cabin.

10. Make a mouse-proof cupboard.

11. Build a boat.

12. Make a Navajo loom.

13. Build a stone or brick bake oven.

14. Tan a pelt with the furon.

15. Remove the hair from a calfskin without using a knife or injuring the skin.

16. Repair a boot with a patch.

17. Make a pair of moccasins.

18. Build an oven out of doors.

19. Weave a rug or mat.

Bird Sharp

(Bineshi)

The Degree of Bird Sharp may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests:

1. Identify fifty native birds in a collection. (When the sexes differ greatly, they count each as a bird.)

2. Identify twenty-five native birds in the field.

3. Identify twenty-five native birds by note.

4. Make a local list of twenty-five birds with remarks on arrival, departure, abundance, etc.

5. Mention twenty birds of great value to agriculture and say why.

6. Name ten birds that work in the orchard destroying the bark lice and other such pests.

7. Keep a journal with daily notes on the nesting of a pair of birds from setting to fledging.

8. Make and set up two successful bird boxes.

9. Make and set up a successful lunch counter.

10. Make and set up a successful bird bath.

11. Tell what bird sanctuaries are, and why they are being established.

12. Write an original essay of 500 words giving the life history of some native bird that you know well, telling when it arrives in the spring, how the male differs from the female, what its song is like, what are its haunts, where it nests, what its nests and eggs are like, when the young are raised and fly, what they are like at first plumage, how many broods are raised each season, what are its foods, its enemies, and its peculiarities. 410)

Brother or Sister Craft

(Awema)

I The Degree of Brother or Sister Craft may be conferred on any one who takes seven of these tests:

1. Regularly take younger members of the family for walks or hikes into fields or woods.

2. Take charge of younger members of the family for two weeks (not necessarily consecutive) in the year, supervising sleep, food, and recreation successfully.

3. Plan and give successfully three parties for the younger children (this includes supervising games and behavior).

4. Read regularly one hour a week for three months to younger child any two collections of children's stories.

5. Teach at least five stories of merit to sister or brother so that the child can in turn tell them.

6. Successfully tutor brother or sister in any study.

7. Is known as spending many hours with the younger members of the family in a helpful and kind way.

8. Train a brother or sister in Woodcraft work so that the child stands well in the Band or Tribe.

9. Be little mother, that is, the real daily guardian of one or more younger children for three months, dressing, undressing, and washing them in that time.

10. Teach two or more children to sing a song, or dance, or to act in some play for public presentation.

11. Teach one or more children the alphabet.

12. Teach one or more children the notes in music.

13. Lead an outdoor nature class of four or more childrenfor three months.

14. Teach any child the rudiments of another language.

15. Teach any child to make a basket, a bird box, a clay pot, a grass rug, or other useful article.

16. Teach a child to sew, knit, embroider, crochet, or weave.

Business

(Anokiwin)

The Degree of Business may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests :

1. Write a letter of application for a position; a letter ordering goods and a letter of acknowledgment.

2. Write good personal letters of acceptance, regret, and sympathy. 411) 3. Know simple bookkeeping, explaining interest, percentage, and discount.

4. Take dictation at the rate of fifty words a minute.

5. Transcribe letters on the typewriter at the rate of twenty-five words a minute.

6. Write a good clear hand.

7. Keep exact and full account of personal receipts and expenses for six months.

8. Have a clear record for punctuality for four months.

9. Be successful at a position for four months.

10. Be self-supporting.

11. Save 10 per cent of allowance or income for six months.

12. Plan detailed cost of living for a family of six, four being children.

13. Earn money enough to go on a vacation or to send some one else on a vacation for two weeks or more.

14. Act as treasurer of your Woodcraft Tribe, or Sunday-school class, etc., for six months, keeping correct accounts.

15. Keep a bank account, either for yourself or some other person, for six months; draw checks, endorse checks, make deposits, and balance check book with bank book each month.

16. Write an article of 1,000 words on Business Pensions and Insurance Systems.

17. Describe the work of three organizations interested in labor conditions of men or women, such as Trades Unions, National Consumers' League, National Civic Federation, etc.

18. Write a paper of not less than 1,000 words describing your State Laws affecting the property rights of women, and also inheritance laws, including right to sue for damages in case of accident to child.

19. Earn $25 by some industry — flowers, bees, tutoring, craftwork, etc.

20. Have earned Tribal and National dues by a Woodcraft exhibition of craftwork, etc.

Camper

(Gabeshiked)

The Degree of Camper may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests: (the first three being required)

1. Know how to choose a camp site and how to prepare for rain.

2. Know how to build a latrine (toilet). 412) 3. Know how to dispose of the camp garbage and refuse.

4. Light fifteen fires in succession with fifteen matches, at different places, one, at least, on a wet day.

5. Put up a two-man tent alone, ten times, for actual service, ready for storms.

6. Make the fire with rubbing-sticks of own preparation.

7. Boil water in fifteen minutes with one match, one log, one axe; one quart of water in a two-quart pail.

8. Make a willow bed, or a rush mat, or an equally good one of wild material.

9. Make a waterproof roof of wildwood materials.

10. Cook twenty-one digestible meals with ordinary camp outfits, for at least three persons.

11. Know how to make a raft.

12. Sleep out 100 nights (no roof but canvas); not necessarily consecutive nights.

13. Travel 500 miles, all told, in canoe, on foot, or in saddle, while sleeping out.

14. Have charge of a camp of five or more for seven suns (one week) and keep all going in good shape.

Camp Cook

(Chabakwed)

The Degree of Camp Cook may be conferred on any one who takes six of these tests:

1. Make a good fireplace of wood, of stone, or earth.

2. Light fifteen fires with fifteen successive matches, one on a wet day.

3. Bake five batches of good bread in a Dutch oven.

4. Bake five batches of good bread in a frying pan before the open fire.

5. Cook twenty-one digestible meals over campfire for a party of two or more.

6. Boil a quart of water in a two-quart pail in ten minutes.

7. Cook a meal consisting of baked bread, fried meat or fish, roast meat or boiled potatoes without any utensils or tools but a hatchet.

8. Train a class in cooking, showing and making them do it properly. 413)

Camp Craftsman

(Eokid)

The Degree of Camp Craftsman may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen out of these tests:

1. Have a knowledge of tanning and curing.

2. Sole and heel a pair of boots, or shoes, sewed or nailed, and generally repair footwear.

3. Dress a saddle, repair traces, stirrup leathers, etc., and know the various parts of harness.

4. Patch a garment.

5. Make a lace or a button of a leather patch.

6. Make set of six camp chairs and a camp table.

7. Make a waterproof vessel of birch bark.

8. Repair a broken boat or canoe.

9. Repair a tent cover so it will not leak.

10. Make an axe helve or a hoe handle.

11. Repair a leaky kettle or pot.

12. Solder a tin.

13. Make a basket of wildwood materials.

14. Make an Indian bed.

15. Make a grass mat.

16. Fell a six-inch tree in sixty seconds and drive with it a given stake.

17. Cut down a six-inch tree, and chop and split it into stove wood, using axe only.

18. Cut and flat with two true surfaces a log like a railway tie, eight feet long, nine-inch face, and six inches thick, using axe only.

19. Distinguish between rip saw, crosscut, keyhole saw, two-handed crosscut, and show how they are used.

20. Show the right and wrong way of putting nails into two boards, one of which is to be fastened across the other.

21 . Make a boat or a birch canoe.

22. Build a log cabin.

Camp Doctor

(Mashkiki)

The Degree of Camp Doctor may be conferred on any one who takes twentyoutof these tests: (the first four being required)

1. Demonstrate the Schaefer method of resuscitation. 414) 2. Pass first-aid tests of Red Cross Society.

3. Know how to treat for bad sunburn.

4. Know poison ivy, sumac, oak, etc., and the proper treatment for cases of poisoning by these.

5. Carry a person down a ladder.

6. Bandage head and ankle.

7. Demonstrate treatment of wound of the neck with severe arterial hemorrhage.

8. Treat mangled injury of the leg without severe hemorrhage.

9. Demonstrate treatment for ruptiu*e of varicose veins of the leg with severe hemorrhage.

10. Show treatment for bite of finger by mad dog.

11. Demonstrate rescue of person in contact with electric wire.

12. Apply tourniquet to a principal artery.

13. State chief difference between carbolic poisoning and intoxication.

14. Write a statement on the care of the teeth.

15. State a principle to govern in eating, and state in the order of their importance five rules to govern the care of the health.

16. Be able to tell the difference in effect of a cold and hot bath.

17. Describe the effect of alcohol and tobacco on the growing boy.

18. Tell how to care for the feet on a march.

19. Describe the effect of walking as an exercise.

20. Know how to treat sprains.

21. Tell how athletics may be overdone.

22. State what the chief causes of each of the following diseases are: tuberculosis, typhoid, malaria.

23. Tell what should be done to a house which has been occupied by a person who has had a contagious disease.

24. Tell how they may cooperate with the board of health in preventing disease.

25. Describe the method used in their community in disposing of garbage and the evil effect of flies.

26. Tell how a city should protect its foods: milk, meat, and exposed foods.

27. Tell how to plan the sanitary care of a camp.

28. State the reason why school children should undergo a medical examination.

29. Must know what wood herbs, etc., or camp staples will... 415) ...produce sweat, purge, vomit, or warmth; what will make a quick poultice, which will check diarrhoea, etc.

30. Make, use, and teach others to use, the Indian Sweat Lodge.

31. Teach a class in first aid.

Canner

(Atassowin)

The Degree of Canner may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests:

1. Gather or personally select and can twelve pints of strawberries or other small fruit so that six months later they have loist neither color nor flavor.

2. Ditto for other fruit such as peaches and quinces.

3. Ditto for vegetables, such as corn, green peppers, onions, etc.

4. Preserve, jam, or marmalade twelve pints of fruit.

5. Make three dozen glasses of jelly (without any artificial jelly maker).

6. Can or preserve successfully three kinds of fish.

7. Can or preserve successfully a chicken.

8. Can or preserve successfully three pounds of beef.

9. Win a prize for canning, jefly makmg, or preserving at any important fair.

10. Make three pounds of (any kind) glace or candied fruit, cherries, cranberries, pineapple, orange, nuts.

11. Spice three quarts of fruit, peaches, pears, cherries, etc.

12. Make four kinds of tomato preserve (two ripe and two green) and pickle watermelon rinds.

Canoeman

(Chemaunigan)

The Degree of Canoeman may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests:

1. Tie rapidly six different useful knots.

2. Splice ropes.

3. Find, collect, prepare, and use "wattap," that is spruce roots, for canoe binding, etc.

4. Find, collect, prepare, and use gum for canoe gumming.

5. Use a palm and needle.

6. Fling a rope coil. 416) 7. Row, pole, scull, and steer a boat; also bring a canoe or boat properly alongside and make fast.

8. Build a boat or canoe.

9. Make a paddle and paint it Indian fashion.

10. Repair a boat or canoe.

11. Know the laws of mooring, beaching, caching, or portaging a canoe, also how to sit in it and how to change seats with another when afloat.

12. Swim 100 yards.

13. Swim fifty feet with shoes, pants or skirt, and shirt on.

14. Sail any two-man craft for 200 miles in a season — the other man not a professional sailor.

15. Paddle (single) a canoe on dead water one mile in twelve minutes.

16. Spill a canoe, get in again and bale it out without help.

17. Take canoe camper's honor, that is, make a continuous canoe or rowboat trip of at least 500 miles, sleeping out every night.

18. Have a knowledge of weather-wisdom and tides.

19. State direction by the stars and sun.

20. Steer by compass.

21. Teach a class to handle a canoe. Mokodasso-Winini

Carpenter

(Mokodasso-Winini)

The Degree of Carpenter may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests:

1. Know how to drive a nail so as not to split a board, also how to sink, clinch, or draw the same.

2. Know the use of square, level, plumb line, mitre, and chalk line.

3. Lay out a right angle by the 3, 4, 5 plan.

4. Shingle a square — that is, a portion of roof — ten feet each way.

5. Make any plain, useful piece of furniture in good workmanship manner.

6. Make any piece of carved piece of furniture in good style.

7. Toys — make and paint a set of wooden toys for some child.

8. Repair atoy important piece of furniture seriously out of order.

9. Build a small shed or cabin so as to make it safe and weatherproof. 417) 10. Make a box of dovetailed comers.

11. Make a pair of tilting stools according to the rules; i.e., circular on top, fifteen inches across, about twenty inches high on four legs, so widespread at the bottom that they cannot upset.

12. Make a pair of tilting spears as per "Birch Bark Roll."

13. Make a rustic four-poster for a willow bed.

14. Make boards for Four Fires so that the sides fold up around candle-sticks. (See drawing, page 9, Girl's Manual.)

Citizen

(Kitchi-odena-winini)

The Degree of Citizen may be conferred on any one who takes eleven of these tests:

1. Have a record in your tribe as being an intelligent, thoughtful member who has at all times been public spirited.

2. Hold an office in your tribe, club, Sunday-school class, etc., and have a record of being efficient and of working for the best interests of the group.

3. Know the principal offices of your city or town, whether elected or appointed, and the term of office.

4. Describe the duties of these officers, also of the city or town departments such as police, fire, etc.

5. Do you have any relationship with these departments? Describe how a young person would have relationships without assuming the duties of manhood or womanhood.

6. How are the laws under which you live made? What bodies make laws for you? Describe the process.

7. How is crime punished in your city or town? Describe process, civil and criminal. In each case show steps till the case has reached the highest court.

8. Tell what effect the fear of "snitching" or tale bearing has on running of schools and of the government in general.

9. Name the principal offices of the state government. Describe their duties, term of office, also the duties of the various departments.

10. Name the principal officers of the National Government. Describe their duties, term of office, also the duties of the various departments.

11. Show yourself familiar with the history and provisions of the Declaration of Independence, also the Constitution of the United States. 418)


12. What are the qualifications of voter in your state or territory?

13. Name the states and territories in which women have equal rights with men.

14. Name those in which they have partial rights.

15. Tell how a foreigner may become a citizen of this nation.

Colonial Housekeeper

(Gaiat)

The Degree of Colonial Housekeeper may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests:

1. Gather bayberries and make four candles dipped or moulded, each six inches long, for the Four Fires.

2. Leach the ashes and make a pint of soft soap.

3. Dye evenly four pieces of dress goods not less than half a yard each of four different colors or four skeins of yam. Dyes may be bought.

4. Dye twelve squares of felt or white flannel each about 4 x 4 inches, each a different color with stuff found in the woods such as butternut bark, golden oak, sassafras, goldenrod tops, pokeberries etc. (Tea and coffee allowed.)

5. Make a lavender box, i.e., grow, gather, dry and use the lavender in a clothes chest. Same for lemon verbena (tripolium).

6. Potpourri — make one quart when dried and spiced.

7. Make one pint of elder-flower water or one pint cucumber juice toilet wash, or one pint of hazel extract.

8. Gather and make marigold salve (calendula) and prunella salve (self-heal) or witchhazel salve.

9. Make cherry balm of black cherry bark.

10. Gather sassafras leaves and make a gumbo soup.

11. Gather the sap and make of it a pound of sugar, either from maple or ash-leaved maple.

12. Make two pounds of lemon or orange sugar.

13. Make two quarts of lemon, citron, or orange peel or glace fruit.

14. Make four qxiarts of mincemeat.

15. Make four quarts of preserves, pickles, or jellies.

16. Brew sage tea, mullein tea, boneset tea, camomile tea, and ginger tea.

17. Gather and make half a pound candied sweet flag (calamus), mint leaves, rose leaves, or violets. 419)


18. Make one half gallon of tutti frutti.

19. Dry corn, spice, salt, or otherwise preserve three kinds of meat or fish for household larder.

20. Dry five quarts of fruit, or vegetables, for winter use.

21. State what fruits can be preserved in clear, cold water alone uncooked, and why.

22. Knit or crochet any usable article of wearing apparel.

23. Spin enough cotton, flax, wool, or hemp to make five yards of stuff or half a dozen pairs of socks.

24. Weave ten yards of cloth or rag carpet, or rug or bedspread.

25. Cut, select, sew, ball, and arrange for the making of a good rag carpet.

26. Make single-handed a rag rug, braided or hooked.

27. Make appUqu6 quilt or patchwork quilt.

28. Make a grandmother's sampler.

29. Make, decorate, and stuff a pincushion.

30. Ditto, hop pillow.

Conservator

(Ganawenima)

The Degree of Conservator may be conferred on any one who takes twelve of these tests:

1. Make and distinguish the most important lumber trees of your state.

2. Name and distinguish the three or four next in rank.

3. Name three trees that have neither lumber nor firewood value but are useful as shade trees, bird food, or bank binders.

4. Know the twenty-five principal song birds of your state.

5. Know the twelve principal game birds of your state.

6. Know the twelve principal four-foots of your state.

7. Mention three animals that serve no commercial purpose but which ought to be preserved because they are harmless and give pleasure to all who see them.

8. Be a member of the Audubon Society, or Agassiz Association.

9. Be a member of the local bird club.

10. Support such local societies as aim to preserve or re-introduce wild birds or desirable plants.

11. Make and put up ten bird boxes at least one of which must be nested in.

12. Make and run a bird's lunch counter all winter, feeding at least four kinds of birds not counting the English sparrow. 420) 13. Make and run a bird bath successfully.

14. Make and run a bird restaurant.

15. Write a soo-word essay on the value of birds to crops (See Bulletin of Department of Agriculture).

16. Write a soo-word essay on value of forests to insure water supply (See Forestry Bulletins).

17. Mention the four chief natural resources of your state.

18. Mention and give figures on the four chief natural resources of the United States.

19. Describe the Sanctuary Scheme of which tte Yellowstone Park was the first great example, and tell how it has succeeded, and how far it has been copied.

Cradle Craft

(Oshki-Abinodji)

The Degree of Cradle Craftsman may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests:

1. How much should a baby grow in weight each week for the first six months? Keep record of some baby for this length of time.

2. How much should a baby grow in height during this time?

3. Give symptoms of fits or convulsions. State what to do in either case.

4. Give symptoms of croup. How treated.

5. State how to tell if a baby is uncomfortable from light clothing, pins, etc.

6. Give three common complaints of babies, and your reasons for diagnosis and treatment of each.

7. State how often a baby one month old should be fed. Three months; six months; one year.

8. State how many hours a baby should sleep at one month; three months; six months; one year.

9. Take charge of two children for one week so the mother can take a holiday.

10. Act as Mother's Helper for one month.

11. Make a baby's outfit complete.

12. State which are healthier and why, breast or artificially fed babies.

13. State how much feeding a baby should be given in twenty-four hours at six months; one year.

14. State what is the best kind of milk. How cared for after delivered. 421) 15. State how milk is pasteurized.

16. State at what age a baby should be given meat juices and how much daily. Prepare a meat juice.

17. Tell the value of fruit juice (orange, pnmes, etc.) to a baby's diet. At what age should a baby be given fruit juice and how much daily?

18. State how carrots, spinach, and potatoes should be prepared for a baby and at what age a baby should eat vegetables.

19. Give the care of nursing bottles and nipples, and a good solution to keep nipples in.

20. State what is the best way to care for artificially prepared food, and how much should be made at one time.

21. State why nitrate of silver should be dropped into every new-bom baby's eyes.

22. Describe proper way of bathing a month-old baby — when it should be bathed, temperature of water, room, etc. How to test the water without a thermometer.

23. State what should be the care of a baby's eyes, mouth, etc.

24. Know value of fresh air for baby; danger of too much clothing; of bouncing; rocking; pacifiers.

25. State at what age children begin to form habits. And methods of training for three habits.

Dancer

(Namid)

The Degree of Dancer may be conferred on any one who takes six of these tests:

1. Dance four folk dances such as beansetter, ox-dance, Morris dance. Maypole, ribbon dance, etc.

2. Dance a good cakewalk.

3. Dance two gypsy dances. (Spanish or Himgarian gypsy.)

4. Dance four standard ballroom round dances, such as waltz, polka, Boston, three-step, etc.

5. Dance five modern dances.

6. Dance one standard Scottish dance, such as Highland fling, Scottish reel, sword dance, and fire dance, or dance two Irish dances, as jig, reel, hornpipe, double shuffle, clog, etc.

7. Dance two standard Indian dances — as Lone Hunter, Storm Cloud, Caribou dance, Zuni spring dance, etc.

8. Dance two Greek dances.

9. Dance the minuet.

10. Dance the quadrille, lancers, and Virginia reel. 422) 11. Lead in two children's dances such as Sally Waters, chair dance, Mulberry Bush, A Hunting We Will Go.

12. Teach a class at least four dances representing four different departments as above.

13. Dance two Japanese dances. (One posture dance and one spear dance.)

14. Dance the dance of the Golden Sari, and a fire dance.

Note: Music of folk dances and Indian dances can be had on Columbia records, Education Department list.

Entertainer

(Tchessakid)

The Degree of Entertainer may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests:

1. Tell entertainingly a good story to a group of young people five different times.

2. Tell standard children's stories to a group of not less than five one hour a week for two months.

3. Recite well five poems, orations, or stories which are in keeping with the occasions and entertaining.

4. Sing alone from memory the five American folk songs you like best. Tell why you like them.

5. Ditto for five English folk songs.

6. Ditto for five Scotch folk songs.

7. Ditto for five Irish folk songs.

8. Ditto for five folk songs of any other nation.

9. Act as accompanist at least six times for some public event in school, church, etc.

10. Take part on three or more occasions as a member of a quartet, glee club, chorus, or as a member of an orchestra, band, etc.

11. Play an instrumental solo at three public occasions.

12. Give a party, arranging program of entertainment and refreshments, the latter not to cost more than fifteen cents per person.

13. Entertain yoimger people on five different occasions — introducing song, story, dance, or manual training.

14. Write a play which is used for public performance.

15. Do successfully six parlor tricks in sleight of hand.

16. Do successfully six parlor tricks of impersonation.

17. Do successfully six moving pictures of given subjects... 423) ...such as Sleeping Beauty, Red Riding Hood, Old Mother Hubbard, etc. (acting the story or rhyme out in pantomime).

18. Put on shadow charades in camp or shadow moving pictures with sheet and lantern.

19. Take part in folk dancing at three public events.

Farmer

(Kitigewin)

The Degree of Farmer may be conferred on any one who takes nineteen of these tests:

1. Explain the nature of soil, its texture and need of water and air.

2. Describe four different kinds of soil; explain what these lack, and how it should be added to make agriculture successful.

3. State how to decide what fertilizer is needed in a given soil.

4. Mention ten leading standard fertilizers, and indicate their peculiar quaUties and value.

5. Mention all the leading crops of your neighborhood. Tell how you would rotate them and why.

6. State when to sow wheat, oats, rye, barley, buckwheat, and when to reap each.

7. State when to sow peas, corn, millet, kaffir corn, and when to reap each.

8. State when to plant turnips, potatoes, and carrots; tell how you would rotate them and why?

9. State when to sow clover alfalfa, timothy, tobacco, and tell how you would rotate each and why.

10. Plow ten acres of land.

11. Harrow ten acres of land.

12. Seed down ten acres of land.

13. Weed down ten acres of land.

14. Harvest ten acres of land.

15. Cut, make, and harvest ten acres of hay.

16. Describe the methods and value of drainage.

17. Explain the value and best use of stable manure.

18. Make a seed tester and test the germination of three kinds of crop seeds, one hundred seeds of each kind. "Rag-baby" tester for corn.

19. State why a farmer should watch the United States weather reports.

20. State why a farmer should watch the market. 424) 21. State how chickens can be made to pay on a farm.

22. State how cows can be made to pay on a farm.

23. State how pigs can be made to pay on a farm.

24. Identify ten conmion weeds and tell how to get rid of them.

25. Identify ten bad bugs and tell what they do and how to get rid of them.

26. Plan a bam and tell why bank barns have lost favor.

27. Plan and construct successfully a silo. Explain its advantages.

28. State what is the advantage of fall plowing.

29. State when and why one should summer-fallow.

30. State what is the advantage of pedigreed over rough stock.

31. State how you would decide whether a given field was fitted for profitable agriculture, grazing, or forestry.

32. Explain the reason clovers and certain legumes restore nitrogen to the soil.

33. Have inoculated seeds of clovers, cowpeas, etc., and grown demonstration strips and compared the increase of nodules on roots of inoculated plants.

34. Explain the value of lime on poor land.

Fisherman

(Gagoiked)

The Degree of Fisherman may be conferred on any one who takes nine of these tests:

1. Catch and name ten different species of fish: salmon or trout to be taken with flies; bass, pickerel, or pike to be caught with rod or reel, muskallonge to be caught by trolling.

2. Make a bait rod of three joints, straight and sound, fourteen ounces or less in weight, ten feet or less in length, to stand a strain of one and a half pounds at the tip, 13 pounds at the grip; or else make a jointed fly-rod 8 to 10 feet long, 4 to 8 ounces in weight, capable of casting a fly sixty feet.

3. Name and describe twenty-five different species of fish found in North American waters, and give a complete list of the fishes ascertained by himself to inhabit a given body of water.

4. Give the history of the young of any species of wild fish from the time of hatching imtil the adult stage is reached.

5. Make a net and catch a fish in it. 425) 6. Make a turtle trap and catch a turtle in it.

7. Make a six-foot leader of clean gut^ with smooth knots to stand a strain of five pounds.

8. Take with the fly, unassisted, a three-pound trout, land-locked salmon, or bass, or a twelve-pound salmon, on a rod not more than five ounces in weight.

9. Or else take on a rod, without assistance in hooking, playing, or landing a trout, black bass, pike (muskallonge), grayling, salmon, bluefish, weakfish, striped bass, kingfisb, sheepshead, or other game fish, whose weight in pounds equals or exceeds that of the rod in ounces.

10. Cast a fly with a rod of five ounces, or less, not over ten feet long, sixty-five feet. Or, with one quarter of an ounce dummy frog, five-foot rod, outdoors overhead casting, tournament style, send it eighty feet if under eighteen, one hundred and ten if over.

11. Swim a hundred yards.

12. Paddle (single) a canoe one mile in twelve minutes.

13. Row without help one mile in ten minutes.

Food Craft

(Midjim)

The Degree of Foodcrafter may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests:

1. Know a balanced diet for daily living that will meet requirements of the body.

2. Know the value of cereals and the proper preparation of corn, wheat, rice, barley, and rye for bread and porridges, etc.

3. Cook in camp or at home for a week for four people.

4. Understand the terms proteids, carbohydrates, and tell which foods contain them, in what proportion, and whether available for the human body and whether easily assimilated.

5. Know a balanced vegetarian diet and prepare menus for same for a week.

6. Know the local wild plants available for salads and prepare a salad of same.

7. Dry sweet green com for winter use, either in sun or in oven. Other vegetable may be substituted, if dried in same way.

8. Dry any fruits for winter use — apples, peaches, cherries, etc. 426) 9. Know how to prepare kumysa and whey.

10. Know how to prepare "cottage cheese."

11. Bake five batches of good bread, one to be raisin bread.

12. Train a class in cooking, showing and making them do it properly.

13. Tell how a city should protect its foods, milk, meat, and exposed foods.

14. Write a statement on the various digestive processes — in the mouth, in the stomach, in the intestines.

15. Know what fruits and vegetables can be put up for winter use by the "cold water process" sealing without cooking. Explain why these fruits will not spoil.

16. Put up for family use fifty quarts of fruits or vegetables in one year.

17. Put up fifty glasses of jelly, using no commercial article to make the fruit "jell, " but if necessary using a second fruit in combination for that purpose. Explain the process of jellying.

Forester

(Mitigwakid)

The Degree of Forester may be conferred on any one who takes eighteen of these tests:

1. Identify twenty-five kinds of trees when in leaf, or fifteen kinds of deciduous (broad leaf) trees in winter, and tell some of the uses of each.

2. Identify twelve kinds of shrubs.

3. Collect and identify samples of thirty kinds of wood and be able to tell some of their uses and peculiar properties.

4. Determine the height, and estimate the amount of timber, approximately, in five trees of different sizes.

5. State the laws for transplanting, grafting, spraying, and protecting trees.

6. Make a collection of sixty species of wild flowers, ferns, or grasses dried and mounted in a book and correctly named.

7. Recognize in the forest all important commercial trees in one's neighborhood.

8. Distinguish the lumber from each and tell for what purpose each is best suited.

9. Tell the age of old blazes on trees which mark a boundary or trail.

10. Recognize the difference in the forest between good and... 427) ...bad logging, giving reasons why one is good and another bad.

11. Tell whether a tree is dying from injury by fire, by insects, by disease, or by a combination of these causes.

12. Know what tools to use in lumbering.

13. Know how to fight fires in hilly or in flat country.

14. Know the effect upon stream-flow of the destruction of forests at head waters.

15. Know what are the four great uses of water in streams.

16. Know what causes the pollution of streams, and how it can best be stopped.

17. Know how, in general, water-power is developed.

18. Tell, for a given piece of farm land, whether it is best suited for use as a farm or forest, and why.

19. Point out examples of erosion, and tell how to stop it.

20. Estimate closely how much timber and how much cord-wood is in a given acre of woods.

21. Name six trees that will float when green, and six that will not.

22. Know something of the relation of birds and quadrupeds to forest trees.

23. Fell a six-inch tree in sixty seconds, driving with it a given stake.

24. Make 100 trees grow where none grew heretofore.

25. Camp in the woods for thirty nights.

26. Teach a class the rudiments in forestry.

Frontiersman

(Gimab)

The Degree of Frontiersman may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests:

1. Milk a cow.

2. Interpret from any one language into English.

3. Fell a tree in a given place.

4. Weld an iron.

5. Temper a knife.

6. Solder a tin.

7. Shoot to win honors with a rifle.

8. Tie six kinds of knots.

9. Make a thread lashing.

10. Use an axe correctly. 428)

Gardener

(Kitigan)

The Degree of Gardener may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests:

1. Do all the work in a successful flower garden not less than twenty feet by twenty feet.

2. Do the same for a fruit and vegetable garden.

3. State what are the ten most common weeds. Describe and tell how to overcome them.

4. State what are the ten most harmful insect pests. Describe and tell how to combat them.

5. Raise a crop of flowers or berries for market and show by a balance sheet that it has paid.

6. Make a successful window box.

7. Raise a crop of potatoes on a patch of one twentieth of an acre.

8. Raise half a dozen each of two of the following: cucimiber, tomatoes, egg plant, pumpkins.

9. Distinguish twenty different kinds of garden flowers and tell where they grow best and when.

10. Distinguish twenty different kinds of small garden fruits and tell how to manage them.

11. Distinguish six different kinds of apples and tell of their qualities.

12. Describe a cold frame and its use.

13. Describe a hothouse and its use.

14. State what is layering.

15. State what is budding.

16. State what is grafting.

17. State what is root pruning.

18. Which do you prefer to have in the garden — ducks or hens? — and why?

19. Plant a plot with pedigreed seed (furnished by the Department of Agriculture) and report fully on the results.

20. Make a garden calendar, stating the order of bloom, so that from April to September there is a flower for each week.

21. Have a successful perennial vegetable garden — rhubarb, asparagus, mint, horseradish, etc.

22. Take a prize at National, State, or county fair for flowers or vegetables grown by self.

23. Send a bouquet a week to hospital or "shut-in" or Flower Guild from own flower-beds for six months. 429) 24. Keep the front garden in good shape, clean and trim all summer.

25. Keep the back garden in shape.

26. Build a summer house in it.

27. Plant and grow vines or trailers enough to cover the summer house.

Gleeman, or Camp Conjurer

(Nagamed)

The Degree of Gleeman may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests:

1. Open and lead the Council.

2. Light the Sacred Fire with rubbing-sticks.

3. Know the Indoor and Outdoor Council Ceremony.

4. Know the ceremony of giving names.

5. Sing many songs, including the Muje Mukesin, Omaha, Zon-zi-mon—de, Bark Canoe, alone or as a leader.

6. Dance the three standard Indian dances.

7. Tell many stories.

8. Know the art of "making medicine", which is the making of goodfellowship by seeking out talent, selecting and leading it and stopping without offending those who are not helpful.

9. Know how to conduct in initiations and have the wisdom to stop them in decent season.

10. Know when to sing the Good-night Song when good-night time has come.

11. Camp out thirty nights.

12. Teach some one else to run the Council.

13. Teach a dance to a sufficient number to give it.

Handihelp

(Wadokaged)

The Degree of Handihelp may be conferred on any one who takes eighteen of these tests:

1. Paint or varnish a door, wall, floor, table, chair, or any large piece of furniture.

2. Whitewash or kalsomine a ceiling or wall.

3. Replace a gas mantle.

4. Solder a joint and solder some broken metal toy.

5. Pack a spigot.

6. Repair electric bell.

7. Lay carpets and mattings. 430) 8. Repair furniture or china.

9. Sharpen five knives.

10. Make flour paste for wall papering and for photo-pasting that keeps.

11. Fix fly-screens in windows or doors and repair two or more screens.

12. Adjust a lock so the latch works.

13. Put a new pane in the window, puttying neatly.

14. Know how to putty up nail holes and fill cracks in floors.

15. Build a henhouse for six or more fowls.

16. Make a successful bird house.

17. Make a cement bird bath.

18. Lay a straight stone and cement walk with a corner.

19. Make mortar.

20. Build a dry stone wall.

21. Make whitewash that will not rub off (Government recipe).

22. Wall paper a room.

Herald, or Crier

(Bibaged)

The Degree of Herald may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests:

1. Walk one mile in eleven minutes.

2. Walk thirty miles in twelve hours.

3. Run 100 yards in thirteen seconds.

4. Run one mile in five and one third minutes.

5. Swim 100 yards.

6. Sleep out thirty nights.

7. Send and receive a message in one of the following systems of signaling: Semaphore, Morse, or Myer, not fewer than twenty-four letters per minute.

8. Make correct smoke signals meaning “Camp is here”, “I am Lost”, “All well”, “All’s come to Council”.

9. Talk Sign Talk, knowing at least 200 signs.

10. Know the twenty-five signs and blazes of the Indian code.

11. Read and translate into one’s own language a page or conversation from some other language.

12. Conduct a Council.

13. Know the ordinary rules of courtesy, precedence, introduction, salutation, etc. 431) 14. Know the history of the National Flag and the proper way of saluting, etc.

15. Teach half a dozen persons to qualify in No. 14.

Home Cook

(Tchibakwe-wigamag)

The Degree of Home Cook may be conferred on any one who takes fourteen of these tests:

1. Make up an appetizing and satisfactory vegetarian diet for one week for a family of four persons.

2. Do all cooking at home, three meals a day, for one week for a family of not less than four persons.

3. Make up satisfactory menus and superintend cooking for family of three or four persons for one month, preparing at least one meal a day.

4. Prepare and pack a dainty, satisfying picnic lunch for four persons.

5. Demonstrate fireless cooker successfully on meats, vegetables, cereals, and fruits.

6. Demonstrate paper-bag cookery and explain its value on not less than four foods.

7. Prepare and serve from chafing dish four appetizing dishes.

8. Wash all dishes and utensils for the household using especial methods for silver, brass, glass, china, aluminum, copper etc.

9. Arrange flowers and foliage for the dining table, also for sick rooms, trays, etc.

10. Understand proper hydration of cereals, that is, what proportion of water to use in cooking rice, oats, etc.

11. Bake three batches of light yeast-raised bread and tell importance of thoroughly baking same.

12. Bake three batches of biscuits, soda raised.

13. Bake two batches of pancakes, one using fresh sweet milk and the other sour or butter milk.

14. Make plain and French pastry that will digest readily.

15. Make bread or biscuits using methods of fou: different nationalities.

16. Bake four good sweet cakes: layer, loaf, ginger, and cookies.

17. Cook meat in four ways: roast, broil, fricassee, and stew or boil. Know which cut is most suitable for each way.

18. Cook fish three different ways: broil, fry, and bake. 432) 400 Woodcraft Manual for Boys . Cook up in four acceptable ways left-over meats sucn as croquettes or en casserole. . Make veal loaf or beef loaf, chicken jelly, or other meats known as delicatessen specialties.

1 . Make two meat soups ; one must be clear. 

. Make two vegetable soups; one pur6e. . Make two mUk soups; one tomato bisque. . Make a Welsh rarebit; must be short and digestible. . Make eight salads: three fruit, two vegetable, two meat or fish, and one plain lettuce. Prepare two different dressings. . Cook eggs for family of four in six different ways. Must include poached, two-minute boiled, and two different omelets. . Prepare eight desserts: one gelatine, two boiled, two baked, two frozen, and one mixed fruit dessert. . Prepare four cold drinks: lemon or orange ade, gingerpop, oatmeal water; four different salads; six different sandwidies; two kinds of candy or nuts ; tea, coffee, and demi tasse. . Make fudge, peanut brittle, butter scotch, pulled molasses candy, and one candied fruit.

Horseman (Bebamomigod)

The Degree of Horseman may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests: I. Show that you are at home m a saddle and can ride at a walk, trot, and gallop. . Know how to saddle and bridle a horse correctly. . Catch six horses in corral or on range with twelve throws of the lasso. . Show how to water and feed and to what amount, and how to groom a horse properly. . Show how to harness a horse correctly in single or double harness and to drive. . Pack 100 lbs. of stuff with diamond hitch, to stay during four hours of travel or two miles of trotting. . Have a knowledge of the power of endurance of horses at work and know the local regulations concerning driving. . Identify unsoundness and blemishes. . Know the evils of bearing or check reins and of ill-fitting harness or saddlery. . Know two common causes of, and proper remedies for, 433) Coups and Degrees 401 lameness, and know to whom such cases of cruelty and abuse should be referred, . Be able to judge as to the weight, height, and age of horses. . Know three breeds and their general characteristics. . Be able to treat a horse for colic. . Describe S3anptoms and give treatment of horses for the following: wounds, fractures and sprains, exhaustion, choking, lameness. . Understand horseshoeing. . Clear a four-foot hurdle and an eight-foot water jump. . Pick up hat from the ground going at full gallop on a horse not less than thirteen hands high.

Hostess (Ashangekive)

A I The Degree of Hostess may be conferred on any one ■ ^ who takes ten of these tests : ^^* I. Know the ordinary rules of courtesy, prece- I dence, introduction, salutations, toasting. . Have written correct notes of invitation, acceptance, declination, sympathy, congratulations. . Act as host at a formal luncheon, dinner, or party of some kind to at least six people for which tiie invitations were self- written and menus supervised. . Plan and carry out an outdoor picnic or entertainment for a dozen or more guests at which refreshments are served. . State the reciprocal duties of host and guest during a visit of a week — meeting trains punctually, consideration of servants, etc. . Cook a chafing-dish supper for four people which is digestible and sufiicient in quantity. . Tell stories and keep the guests interested, can sug- gest congenial amusements, seeing to it that no one person is left out of things, can also listen appreciatively and stimulate the entertaining powers of others. . Rise to emergencies and take charge of party or enter- tainment during absence of master of cer^mojiies, and carry same to successful finish. . Preside at a Council of Woodcraft Boys or Girls, open- ing and leading the Council. . Conduct initiations with discretion and kindness. 434) 402 Woodcraft Manual for Boys . Is known as a dependable helper in entertainments of various kinds — ^not only in the amusement making, but in the work of preparation and cleaning up and general quiet useful- ness. . Know how to prepare ten cooling drinks, ten salads, ten candies, ten sandwiches, tea, coffee, and cocoa. . Arrange flowers artistically, also table and house decora- tions for different seasons and occasions, making use of material available out of doors and not from florists. . Arrange special home entertainments for holidays, etc., knowing the history, games, foods, and drinks proper to each occasion. . Know how to give and receive a toast to a person or an occasion. . Know the rules of visiting and card leaving, P. P. C. cards, and bread-and-butter letters.

Housekeeper (Ostiwin)

The Degree of Housekeeper may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests: I. Know how to care for floors — ^hardwood and carpeted — ^for walls, rugs, draperies, furniture — ^up- holstered and varnished — ^f or pictures and books. . Ejiow how to prepare a room for general cleaning, in- cluding windows; what cleanser to U3e; also method for the daily putting room in order and dusting; also use of vacuum cleaner. . Know how to care for articles of silver, copper, glass, and marble. . Properly dispose of waste and garbage for the home for one week and know its proper disposal by the city and its proper disposal in the country. . Make up a bed witn draw sheet for very sick patient and know how to properly^air and change a bed, including the care of bedding from outdoor sleeping porches. . Air and make up a bed for a baby for a month or for an adult; to include changing of position of mattress, changing of springs, and sunning of piUows. . Wash and wipe dishes and leave dining-room in order after one meal a day, for one month. Air after each meal. . Take entire care of one room for one month, to include 435) Coups and Degrees 403 sweeping, dusting, washing of windows, care of flowers or plants, and what may be desirable for attractiveness of the room, and its proper ventilation. . Put away clothing, rugs, furs, blankets for the summer in proper manner so they will not be moth eaten or wrin- kled. . Take care of a cat, dog, bird, or a tame animal for one month. . Know what harm they may do, what diseases each may carry, and how these should be treated. . Know how to get rid of moths, statmg seasons at which the larvae eat. . Know how to get rid of rats, including the modern germ inocidation method. . Know how to get rid of mice, roaches, blackbeetles or cockroaches and bedbugs. . Scrub a wooden floor once a week for one month, or linoleum for two months. . Take entire charge of a pantry for one month, seeing that all shelves are absolutely clean and dishes spotless. . Clean ice-chest thoroughly twice a week for two months during the summer, and state how meats and foods should be arranged in the ice-chest. . Keep bureau drawers in order and dust shelves of book- case, wiping off books for one month. . Care for at least two kerosene lamps every day for a month, leaving no oil to smell, and trimming wicks so lamps do not smoke. . Know how to take care of the milk and cream from at least one cow, and see that the pails and pans, or bottles, are properly cleaned; state method. . Take care of a Unen closet for a month, that is take care of four laundry bundles; return and check up with Ust, putting things away in order, and making out Usts for following week's wash. . Have growing plants in house in winter, planted and taken care of by self. . Plan work for household of five (three children) so that two servants may do the work. What should be eliminated, and what insisted upon in such a household? . Make fire in coal range, and cook with it, at least ten times per year. . Make a supply for a family, of fruits and vegetables, canned, preserved, dried, or jellied. 436) 404 Woodcraft Manual for Boys . Know how to prepare five cooling drinks, five sandwiches, five candies, five salads, and tea and coffee. . See that the family sleep with open windows all the ^^ear round, arranging for screens, and proper position of beds. . Understand gas range, and how to economize gas by use of lids and asbestos covering on top.

Hunter (Gaossed)

The Degree of Hunter may be conferred on any one who takes fourteen of these tests: . Walk one mile in eleven minutes. . Walk thirty miles in twelve hours. . Run 100 yards in thirteen seconds. . Run one mile in five and one third minutes. . Swim 100 yards. . Spot the rabbit (see Games) three times out of five at sixty yards. . See and map out six Pleiades. . See the Pappoose on the Squaw's back (spectacles al- lowed if habitually worn). (See "Stars as Test of Eyesight.") . KiQ, according to the Campfire Law, any one big game animal. . Get a good photograph of a big game animal wild in its native surroundings. . Know and name correctly twenty-five native wild quad- rupeds. . Know and name correctly fifty wild birds in the field and their nests. . Know and Ciearly discriminate the tracks of twenty-five oi QUI common wild quadrupeds. . Trail an animal or else iron track prints for half a mile without aid of snow. . Win honors with rifle. That is, be a marksman accord- ing to the rules of the National Rifle Association. . With bow make a total score of 300 points at sixty yards, standard target. . Catch alive and uninjured with own make of trap one wild quadruped and one wild bird. . Know the Pole Star and fifteen star groups. . Teach any one of these but the first nine to some other person. 437) Coups and Degrees 405

Hunter in Town (Odena-Gaossed)

The Degree of Hunter in Town may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests : Xjjjjj^ I. Find and sketch twenty-five blazes in town 1 and say where you found them. A blaze is a mark that conveys information without using words or letters. . Find twenty-five totems in town. A totem is the emblem of a man, group of men, company, or idea. It is not formed of words or letters and letters are not an essential part, even if they are associated. Some trademarks are of this class. . Indicate the distinguishing marks of policemen, park poUcemen, traffic squad, strong arm squad, etc. . Rid a house of flies for one month. . Rid a house of rats for one month. . Rid a house of mice for one month.

. Trap or otherwise secure thirty English sparrows in a month . 

. In cities where they are outlawed trap or otherwise secure fifteen English starlings in a month. . Draw life-size, recognizable tracks of a man, woman, child, dog, cat, and mouse. . Draw life-size, recognizable tracks of a rat, rabbit, gray squirrel, sparrow, crow, chicken. All of these can be secured in and about the city, especially in the large parks, and are easiest when the snow is on the ground, but possible in mud or with even wet tracks on dry pavements. . Make and set up at some suitable place and operate for at least a week a flytrap. (On the screen-cone principle.) . Know gypsy moth and report finding of any to state entomologist.

. When muzzling laws are passed report all infractions topolice. 

. Provide satisfactory records of the tracks of three animals, according to the following method: cover a stiff sheet of paper with printers' ink and so place it that the animal runs over it and on to a fresh sheet of paper, which receives the tracks.

Indian Craftsman (Inanokiwin)

The Degree of Indian Craftsman may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests: I. Follow a track one mile without help. Snow or tracking irons allowed. 438) j The Degree of Indian Lore may be conferred on any

one who takes sixteen of these tests: 

I. Outline the religion of the high-class Indian. I (See "Book of Woodcraft," page 21.) . State what were the Indian's special virtues. . State what were his special vices. . State what was the great mistake of his creed.

Woodcraft Manual for Boys 

. Know fifty signs of the sign language. . Know six standard blazes. . Know the equivalent stone signs^ Demonstrate in Co)m- cil. . Know the equivalent twig signs. Demonstrate in Coun- cil. . Know the equivalent grass signs. Demonstrate in Coun- cil. . Know two standard tests of eyesight used by Indians. . Make a bead band at least eight inches long and one inch wide. -• . Make a piece of porcupine quillwork at least one inc by eight. . Make and paint an Indian four-post bed. . Carve and paint a totem pole, Chiefs seat, or Tally Keeper's table. j . Make and decorate a bench for Council Ring. . Make and decorate an Indian teepee. . Make and use a willow bed. . Make a pair of decorated leggings of good design. . Make a shield and spear for the Lone Hunter f^^]:. . Make an Indian drum with decorations and^stick or plete. . Make a Navajo loom and weave a rug on it (grass iv^joi with thirty warp strings is allowed). . Be responsible for locating, planning, and completing a Council Ring. . Make a dry painting for "Four Fires." Demonstrate at Council. . Construct a burlap deer according to "Book of Wood- craft." . Construct a burlap bear according to "Book of Wood- craft."

Indian Lore (Anishinabe) 439) Coups and Degrees 407 . State why William Penn was peculiar in having no trouble with Indians. . Be the possessor of three genuine articles of old style Indian make, such as basket, beadwork, quillwork, silver work, pottery, stone work, blankets, war club, bow, quiver, arrows, peace pipe, etc.; and know to what tribe the makers belong, what materials were used in their construction, and how they were made. These may be got from the Mohonk Lodge Colony, Oklahoma, and so help the Indians. . Know the original hunting grounds, and give an outline of the history and present condition of the tribe where your ndian article was made. . Know the uses and meaning of the design or symbols on your Indian article, or something of the ceremony in which it is used. Q.^'Sing six genuine Indian songs in Council. . Tell six Indian legends at the Council. . Draw ten genuine Indian symbols and explain them. . Name the Indian tribes that originally inhabited your state. Give their present numbers and location, also their eco- ^ nc pnd religious condition. .3. uiv . brief sketch of the lives, aims, and achievements of great or well-known Indian chiefs. I A. Give brief sketch of the Uves, aims, and achievements of four great or well-known Indian women. . Be able to distinguish from each other four types of baskets characteristic of four different tribes. . Distinguish in general the pottery of four different tribes,

7. Beable to indicate and discuss the genuineNavajo blankets. 

. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Balleta. . Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Chimayo. . Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Hopi. . Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Chilkat. . Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Germantown. . Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Serape. . Tell approximately the age of a blanket. . Distinguish the three or four general styles of beadwork and the regions of which they were characteristic. . Visit in person and stay at least a week with some tribe that is not scattered. . Name the Six Nations, the Plains Indians, the diflferent tribes of Pueblo Indians, the coast (California) tribes, the Alaskan Tribes, or the Central American Tribes. . Know fifty signs of the sign language. 440) o8 Woodcraft Manual for Boys

Laundry Expert (Kisibigaige-Winini)

The Degree of Laundry Expert may be conferred on any one who takes fourteen of these tests: I. Do a family washing of mixed white and colored clothes ; know how sorted, soaked , boiled, etc. (Modern washing machinery allowed.) . Do family ironing for total time of eight hours in two months. . Cover two ironing boards or one ironing table ready for use. . Use yellow and white soap, explaining different qualities of each. Use two other means besides soap for softening water. . Prepare and use, satisfactorily, hot and cold starch.|^ . Use two methods of blueing, tell which is more successful and find out why. . Use one method for bleaching, also use Javelle Water and explain results. . Remove successfully such stains as coffee, tea, rust, and oil from the family washing. . Explain iron mould; what is the cure for it? 10. Explain blue mould; what is the cure for it? ii. Wash and launder a dozen dress ties. . Wash and launder six soft collars for men. . Wash and launder six sport shirts. . Wash and launder three negligee shirts with coUars and cuffs attached. . Wash and launder a waist and skirt using starch suitable to material. . Wash and launder a fancy or lingerie dress.

7. Why do we hang white goods in the sun and colored goods 

in the shade? . Know how blankets should be washed and dried and also other woolens. . State how silk should be laundered and know why it should not be thoroughly dried. . State the advantage of dry cleaning and how is it done? . Remove four different kinds of spots from woolen and silk. . Press a skirt and coat and teach some one else to do so. . Press a man's suit four times, thoroughly cleaning before pressing.


  1. U vydání z r. 1918 zní tento odstavec takto (změna zvýrazněna): Know the Four Watchwords and the Twelve Laws and state the advantages of them.
  2. U vydání z r. 1918 odstavec pokračuje: It has been found very essential to have the applicant fill out an application blank which may be obtained at Headquarters. See cut page 39. – na této stránce jsou pak ukázky vyplněných dekretů.