The Birch Bark Roll – Memorial edition (1948)

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Contents

The Birch Bark Roll of Woodcraft

For Boys and Girls from 4 to 94

BY

ERNEST THOMPSON SETON

1860-1946

CHIEF OF THE WOODCRAFT LEAGUE OF AMERICA. INC.

Author of “Wild Animals I Have Known”, “Two Little Savages”, “Life Histories of Northern Animals”, ”Game Animals and the Lives They Live”, etc.

COUPS AND DEGREES

MEMORIAL EDITION

1948

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Copyright 1948 by Grace Thompson Seton

Copyright 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907,
1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1914, 1915, 1916,
1917, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924,
1925, 1927, 1930, by Ernest Thompson Seton

All rights reserved including that of
translation into foreign languages,
including the Scandinavian

Printed IN USA at the Press of Maurice Taylor

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Grateful acknowledgement is made to Mr. Stephen M. Jessup, President of the Woodcraft League of America, who acted as Chairman of the Revision Committee and gave unstintingly of his time and talent in the preparation of this Memorial Edition; also to the many Woodcrafters for their contributions. 7)

THE PASSING OF “THE CHIEF”

It seems I hear old “Lobo” howl far off along the ridge,
And in my own heart echoes too the sadness of his dirge.
As he bespeaks in mournful tones the sorrow of his kind,
His grief is not a bit more keen than is my own, I find.

He grieves the passing of a man whose great and kindly heart,
Made him the champion of the low, portraying with his art
The beauties nature gave to us that we might fully live,
And the many many joys that a simple kindness gives.

While “Lobo” mourns a champion I keenly mourn a friend,
Whose council I shall surely miss until my life must end.
And yet for me there is surcease from this deep pain I bear,
For at each council fire I know his spirit will be there.

And as the curling smoke does rise to those far heights above,
To me comes recollection of his all embracing love.
And to me from some other land beyond this earthly sphere,
Will come his inspiration; his spirit will be here.

I will see him in the embers at the close of every day,
And renew my soul with courage for my trip along the way,
Until that council fire above I will at length attain,
To sit within the circle of his fellowship again.

WASIAKA, (Stephen M. Jessup.) 8)

Photo by Harold Kellogg "THE CHIEF" 9) 10)

CLIMBING THE MOUNTAIN

Afar in our dry Southwestern country is an Indian village, and in the ofling is a high mountain towering up out of the desert. It was considered a great feat to climb this mountain, so that all the boys of the village were eager to attempt it. One day the Chief said, “Now, boys, you may all go today and try to climb the mountain. Start right after breakfast and go each of you as far as you can. Then when you are tired, come back, but let each one bring me a twig from the place where he turned.”

Away they went, full of hope, each feeling that he surely could reach the top.

But soon a fat, pudgy boy came slowly back and in his hand he held out to the Chief a leaf of cactus.

The Chief smiled and said, “My boy, you did not reach the foot of the mountain; you did not even get across the desert.”

Later a second boy returned. He carried a twig of sagebrush.

“Well,” said the Chief, “you reached the mountain’s foot, but you did not climb upwards.”

The next had a cottonwood spray.

“Good," said the Chief, “you got up as far as the springs.”

Another came later with some buckthorn. The Chief smiled when he saw it, and spoke: “You were climbing; you were up to the first slide rock.”

Later in the afternoon one arrived-with a cedar spray, and the old man said, “Well done. You went half-way up.” An hour afterwards, one came with a sprig of pine. To him the Chief said, “Good; you went to the third belt, you made three-quarters of the climb.”

The sun was low when the last returned. He was a tall, splendid boy of noble character. His hand was empty as he approached the Chief, but his countenance was radiant, and he said, “My father, there were no trees where I got to — I saw no twigs, but I saw the Shining Sea.”

Now the old man’s face glowed, too, as he said aloud and almost sang. “I knew it! When I looked at your face, I knew it. You have been to the top. You need no twigs for token. It is written in your eyes, and rings in your 11) voice. My boy, you have felt the uplift, you have seen the glory of the mountain.”

Oh, ye Woodcrafters, keep this in mind, then – the badges (the coups and degrees) we offer for attainment are not “prizes” — they are merely tokens of what you have done, of where you have been. They are mere twigs from the trail to show how far you got in climbing up the mountain.

BLACK WOLF, Chief. 12)

THE FOURFOLD WAY

The Woodcraft Way is the Fourfold Way of life. These four pathways of life are portrayed graphically for all by the symbolism of the sand painting used as the Great Central Fire. This Great Central Fire is the emblem of The Great Spirit, The All Father; The Great Creator of us all. The four ways set forth by the program are as follows:

THE BODY WAY embracing those things which have to do with the health of both ourselves and those around us. It involves cleanliness both of body, thought and action. “The body is the temple of the Spirit, hence should be of primary concern, and without health can neither strength nor beauty be.” What is true of the body would seem to be likewise of the physical world in which we live; therefore the conservation angle is amply justified.

THE MIND WAY seeks to lead us into a better understanding of the world and the society in which we live. This includes the whole realm of knowledge of things as they are, and seeks to establish a relationship between these manifestations of The Great Spirit and the individual. Knowledge in itself is not complete. Only knowledge in its application to the problems of living is effective.

The relationship of the person to life and all its contacts leads directly to the next pathway of the fourfold plan.

THE SPIRIT WAY seeks to develop within the individual those deep appreciations of life and what it has to offer. There is sought for all a spiritual bond and inspiration with the source of Life in that we may most fully enjoy and develop not only for ourselves but for others as well what life has to offer. In seeking for ourselves we invariably find that only in the sharing with others is there a full realization of the inspiration of spiritual things. For complete growth we then must continue along our fourfold way.

THE SERVICE WAY attempts to develop in all Woodcrafters the desire to share the joys of life with those about them. The truly cultured and civilized man learns that he does not live fully when living for self alone. He learns that he must “do his part” in making for the fullness of life. 13) 14)

ORGANIZATION

To Become a Woodcrater

One may become a Woodcrafter, either by joining a tribe already organized or by forming a new tribe. Get together six boys or girls, between twelve and eighteen years of age if for the Big Lodge, and a man or woman to act as Guide. If for Little Lodge the children are under twelve, and boys and girls may combine in one Tribe. If for Adult Lodge, the members are eighteen or over, and men and women may join the same tribe. Let each read the Birch Bark Roll of Woodcraft carefully, so that they may know what Woodcraft is. Send to Headquarters for Application for Charter.

Then select a name for the tribe, usually of historic or special interest, and often an Indian name; also select a totem. Have the Guide sign the Application for Charter. Send the Application with registration fee to Headquarters, where the Council of Guidance will act on your Application, and give your tribe a charter.

Charter

The Charter certifies that the Tribe is registered at Headquarters, and entitles the Tribe to a definite place in the Woodcraft League, to recognize achievements according to the Birch Bark Roll of Woodcraft, and to wear the badges of the League. With the Charter comes a Guide's Scroll of Authority. The Charter must be renewed each year.

To Form a Tribe

The unit of organization is the Tribe, consisting of not less than six, nor more than fifty members. The Tribe is under the control of the Head Guide, who is responsible to Headquarters. The Head Guide of a Big Lodge must be at least 21 years of age; the Head Guide of a Little Lodge, 18. It is not necessary that the Head Guide be 15) previously experienced in Woodcraft work; but he must have a willingness to quickly become so, a desire to forge ahead in the work, an active sympathy with children in general, and the children of this special group in particular.

The Head Guide may be assisted by a Guide who is willing to give of his time and energy under the leadership of the Head Guide. The Guide must be at least 18 years of age in the Big Lodge, 16 in the Little Lodge.

The Head Guide may be further assisted by a Chief, elected or appointed from the tribal ranks, who will occasionally conduct Councils, plan programs, etc. The Head Guide may be also the Chief, if desired. The individual who is actually running the Council in hand is Chief for the time being.

A Tally Keeper and Wampum Keeper should be elected. The Tally Keeper is the Secretary of the meeting and should keep the minutes. The Wampum Keeper is the Treasurer. Both of these officers are directly responsible to the Head Guide.

The Tribe should soon be divided in Bands. Each Band consists of not less than 3 or more than 10 members. They operate under the same Head Guide; but may each have a Band Leader, elected by the Band members and approved by the Head Guide.

Each Band should have a name and totem, apart from the Tribal name and totem; for instance it may be the Blue Heron Band of the Ojibway Tribe.

If a Band desire, it may have meetings between the times of the tribal meetings, provided they are approved by the Head Guide. There should, however, be a weekly meeting of the Tribe, which all members should attend.

Requirements

As soon as the Application for Charter has been sent to Headquarters, there should be a meeting of the group, at which the Head Guide takes the following oath:

Vow: I give my word of honor that I will maintain the Laws, see fair play in all the doings of the Tribe, and protect the weak; and I will not ask anyone to do what I am not willing to do myself.

Each member then swears as follows:

Vow: I givemy word of honor that in all matters of 16) Woodcraft, I will obey the Chief and Council of my Tribe; and if I fail in my duty, I will appear before the Council when ordered, and submit without murmuring to their decision.

(These vows should be signed with name in the Tally Book.)

It is now necessary that each member qualify for membership in the League by fulfilling the requirements for the first rank, Wayseeker for the Big Lodge, Brownie for the Little Lodge. These are:

1. Learn the Woodcraft Laws.

2. Pass an Initiation Test.

The Sand Painting

For the pictorial presentment of our Laws, we use an adaptation of a Navajo Sand-painting. This is done on the floor in the centre of the circle formed by the members present, and is made not more than 3 feet across. It may be permanently painted on a board or a pieces of asbestos, and ceremonially placed in position at the beginning of each Council; or it may (and this is preferable) be drawn each time on the floor with white sand, flour, lime, or best of all, salt. Every member should soon be able to do this sand-painting without further preparation.

A circle about 8 inches in diameter is drawn in the centre. This is the place for the fire, either in a bowl or perhaps an electric light bulb covered with orange tissue paper. Of course, if the Council be outdoors, the circle is large enough to encompass a real fire which, with replenishment of wood, will last through the whole meeting. But even in this case, beware of too large a fire. A bonfire would spoil the symbolism, and be uncomfortable for the group.

This fire is the Symbol of the Great Spirit. From the circle, there lead off four pathways, slightly triangular in form with the point at the outer side. These pathways are the 4 trails along which a man or woman must travel in order to achieve perfect manhood or womanhood. They 17) are named: the Body Way, the Mind Way, the Spirit Way, and the Service Way. They are drawn always in the same position and order. The sand painting is drawn so the Council Rock and the Chief will be at the angle between the first and the fourth pathways — that is the Body Way is to the Chief’s near left, the Mind Way at his far left, the Spirit Way at his far right, and the Service Way at his near right.

At the end of each of these pathways there is a small circle representing the Lamp to which the trail leads. The Body Way leads to the Lamp of Beauty; the Mind Way leads to the Lamp of Truth; the Spirit Way leads to the Lamp of Fortitude; and the Service Way leads to the Lamp of Service.

From each of these lamps there are three laws, making in all the 12 laws of Woodcraft.

Laws

We have two forms of the Big Lodge Laws, either of which may be accepted in the requirement for Wayseeker.

The first is shorter, and is used when one individual is to recite all 12 laws. It is as follows:

The Law reciter kindles a torch at the Central Fire, and with it lights the First Lamp:

“From the Great Central Fire, I light this, the Lamp of Beauty. From it are these three rays:

1 Be clean; both yourself and the place you live in.

2 Understand and respect your body. It is the Temple of the Spirit. 18)

3 Be the friends of all harmless wild life. Conserve the woods and flowers, and especially be ready to fight wild-fire in forest or in town.

“From the Great Central Fire, I light this, the Lamp of Truth. (He lights the Second Lamp) . From it are these three rays:

4 Word of honor is sacred.

5 Play fair; foul play is treachery.

6 Be reverent. Worship the Great Spirit, and respect all Worship of Him by others.

“From the Great Central Fire, I light this, the Lamp of Fortitude. (He lights the Third Lamp) . From it are these three rays:

7 Be brave. Courage is the noblest of all attainments.

8 Be silent while your elders are speaking and otherwise show them deference.

9 Obey. Obedience is the first duty of the Woodcrafter.

“From the Great Central Fire, I light this, the Lamp of Service. (He lights the Fourth Lamp). From it are these three rays:

10 Be kind. Do at least one act of unbargaining service each day.

11 Be helpful. Do your share of the work.

12 Be joyful. Seek the joy of being alive.

The longer form of the laws is the one used for Grand Council; and for this, usually each Lamp is recited by one member, making a group of 4 about the fire.

The four Reciters enter the Council Ring, face the Chief each at his own Lamp, salute with the flat hand held up palm forward; then, facing the fire, get down on both knees and squat back.

The first Reciter now rises to one knee, lights his torch at the Central Fire, and says:

“From the Great Central Fire I light this the Lamp of Beauty. From it are these three rays:

1 Be clean, both yourself and the place you live in. For there is no perfect beauty without cleanliness of body, soul and estate. The body is the sacred temple of the spirit, therefore reverence your body. Cleanliness helps first yourself, then those around; and those who keep this law are truly in their country’s loving service.

2 Be strong. Understand and respect your body. It is the temple of the spirit; and without health can neither strength nor beauty be. 19)

3 Protect all harmless wild life for the joy its beauty gives. Conserve the woods and flowers, and especially be ready to fight wild-fire in forest or in town.”

The second Reciter now rises to one knee, lights his torch at the Central Fire, and says:

“From the Great Central Fire, I light this, the Lamp of Truth. From it are these three rays:

4 Hold your word of honor sacred. This is the law of truth, and any one not bound by this cannot be bound, and truth is wisdom.

5 Play fair, for fair play is truth, and foul play is treachery.

6 Be reverent. Worship the Great Spirit, and respect all worship of Him by others, for none have all the truth; and all who reverently worship have claims on our respect.”

The third Reciter (as above):

“From the Great Central Fire, I light this, the lamp of Fortitude. From it are these three rays:

7 Be brave. Courage is the noblest of all attainments. Fear is in the foundation of all ill; unflinchingness is strength.

8 Be silent while your elders are speaking, and otherwise show them deference. It is harder to keep silence than to speak in the hour of trial; but in the end, it is stronger.

9 Obey. Obedience is the first duty of the Woodcrafter. Obedience means self-control, which is the sum of the law.”

Fourth Reciter (as above):

“From the Great Central Fire, I light this, the Blazing Lamp of Service. From it are these three rays:

10 Be kind. Do at least one act of unbargaining service each day, even as ye would enlarge the crevice whence a spring runs forth to make its blessings more.

11 Be helpful. Do your share of the work for the glory that the service brings, for the strength one gets in serving.

12 Be joyful. Seek the joy of being alive — for every reasonable gladness that you can get or give, is treasure that can never be destroyed; and, like the springtime gladness, doubles every time with others it is shared.” 20)

Initiation

When brought into some new group such as the school or club, one is naturally anxious to begin by making a good impression on the others, by showing what one can do, proving what one is made of, and by making clear one’s seriousness in asking to be enrolled. So also those who form the group wish to know whether the newcomer is made of good stuff, and is likely to be a valuable addition to their number. The result is what we call initiation trials, the testing of the newcomer.

The desire to initiate and be initiated is a very ancient, deep-laid impulse. Whenever one tries to suppress it by regulations, it becomes secret and dangerous. Handled judiciously and under the direction of a competent adult guide, it becomes a powerful force for character building, for inculcating self-control.

In Woodcraft, we carefully select for these tryouts a test to demonstrate the character and ability of the newcomer, and the initiation becomes a real proof of fortitude, so that the new boy is as keen to face the trial, as the Tribe he would enter is to give it.

The trial should be something bearing on the candidate’s besetting sin. It should be incapable of causing injury. It should be approved by the Council. The following have been used with success, but are mere suggestions:

1 Silence. Keep absolute silence for six hours during the daytime in camp, while freely mixing with the life of the camp. In the city, keep silence from after school till bedtime.

2 Keep good-natured. Keep absolutely unruflied, for one day of twelve hours, giving a smiling answer to all.

3 Exact obedience. For one week, give prompt, smiling obedience to parents, teachers, and those who have authority over you. This must be certified to by those in question.

4 Make a useful woodcraft article, such as a basket, a bench, a bed, a bow, a set of fire-sticks, etc.

5 Sleep out, without a built roof overhead, for seven nights consecutively, or 30, not consecutively. (Sleeping porch allowed by special permission of Council.)

6 Business Test. Bring to a given place at a given time, two (or more) willow rods exactly alike, straight, peeled and smooth, of a stated length. If a minute late, 21) or a fraction of an inch wrong, or a trifle different, it is a failure.

7 Give up all such indulgences as chocolate, candies, ice cream, sodas, etc., for two weeks.

8 Lone Camp. Go forth alone into the woods at sunset, out of sight and sound of camp, or human habitation. Take blankets, axe and matches, etc., and make yourself comfortable overnight, not returning till sunrise. 22)

WOODCRAFT COUNCIL PROGRAM

1. Open Council with Council Calls

2. Pledge of Allegiance to flag

3. Lighting of the Council Fire

4. Reciting of Laws

5. Roll call and collection of dues

6. Tally report

7. Report of Wampum Chief

8. Ranger Reports

9. Left-over business

10. For the good of the tribe (complaints, etc.)

11. Claiming of Honors

12. New business

13. Application for membership

14. Announcements and Questions

15. Removal of the Fire

16. Games, challenges, etc.

17. Closing of the Council.

Council Calls

SIOUX: Yo Heyl Y0 Hey! Meetah Kola Na-hoonpe Om-neechee ayee Nee Chopee!

ENGLISH: My friends, give ear, we are about to hold a council!

INTRODUCTORY SALUTATION TO THE LAWS: Oh, Chief! Four torches are there on our great central fire, and from them reach twelve rays: twelve golden strands of these the laws we hold.

Closing Ceremonies

ENGLISH: My friends, again we have met in council, a meeting of success and happiness. May all future councils be the same. It is now time for us to return to our lodges. May the Great Spirit guide our foot steps here again. My friends, I bid you goodnight. Lo-lo-mi!

Omaha Tribal Prayer English Translation
Wa-kon-da dhe-dhu Father, a needy one
Wa-pa-dhin a-ton-he Stands before Thee.
Wa-kon-da dhe-dhu I that sing am he.
Wa-pa-dhin a-ton-he.

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COUPS AND DEGREES

The honors of the Woodcraft League are standard, not competitive. For example, we do not give an honor to the boy who wins a running race; but to all the boys who can run a certain distance in a given time. We believe, not in downing the other fellow, but in raising yourself.

A Coup is a single exploit for which the feather badge is given. It is meant to be a really meritorious exploit in a given department. A Grand Coup of the same department is similar, but of such excellence that a person achieving it, is in the highest class, short of the record makers.

Any lowering of these standards would rob the Coups of their value. The committee has steadfastly aimed at raising the standards, but has added greatly to the number of departments of activity.

A degree is an honor which is evidence of all-round proficiency in a given department.

No badges are conferred unless the exploit has been properly witnessed or proven, and approved by a careful local committee. When it is a question of time under one minute, only stop-watches are allowed.

Badges, once fairly won, can never be lost for subsequent failure to reach the standard.

Three witnesses are preferred as sponsors for the achievement; but obviously, in some cases, this is impossible. In such cases, it is sufficient if claimant convinces the committee in charge that Coup has been fairly won — what would be considered legal evidence in the courts of law.

No two Coups can be claimed for one exploit. For example, there is a Coup for swimming 200 yards, in time, and another for swimming 220 yards, no time limit. You cannot swim the 200 yards in time, and then swim 20 yards more and claim two Coups. Each Coup must be a separate exploit.

A Coup is sometimes listed as a repeater, and a second Coup claimed for it, provided entirely new material is offered on the repeat. For example, if you identify 25 birds in the field, according to the conditions attached, you claim a Coup. If you identify 50, you claim a Grand Coup. If you keep on, and identify another 25, all different from 24) the first 50, you may claim another Coup. But please note that, in a case like this, a second Coup may not be claimed before the first Grand Coup is attained. None are repeaters except those so noted; and a repeater may not be claimed within six months of the first claim on that Coup.

We are well aware that there is a certain group of educators who decry the awarding of any honors or the tangible recognition of any exploit, claiming that virtue is its own reward — the sense of accomplishment is adequate recompense for the performance of a deed.

We have considered this attitude very seriously; and by the light of much experiment and observation, have been forced to the following conclusions:

1. An individual who would feel that the power to identify 25 birds is enough reward for the study given up to such identification, is an ideal figure.

2. We are all aiming to be and to train ideal figures.

3. The world has not yet reached the stage where all are ideal figures; some of us are still human.

4. In order to compass quickest results, we must deal with humanity as we find it, not as we would like it to be.

5. Human nature, as it exists, demands some sort of recognition for its efforts.

6. Therefore, we signalize achievement by a mark of attainment, valueless in itself, but priceless in the spur it gives to further development. Such has been the custom of every great teacher of humanity on record.

This is the basis of our Coup system; and our members very soon realize that the idea back of a piling up of Coups is not the embellishment of our honor bands with pretty little feathers, but the bigger, broader thought of further attainment and fuller knowledge. Therefore, we find that, though, for instance, the Coup asks for the identification of 40 wild flowers, our people are not content with claiming said Coup for 40, but go on to 50 or more before they receive the Coup. Thus, the award has accomplished its purpose. That boy (being human) may have started out learning wild flowers in order to be awarded another feather, but he surely ends up with the desire to know flowers.

Such an attitude in the claiming of honors has another very practical value. When your claim is turned in to the 25) Honors Committee, they may reject one or two of your list as being improperly identified. However, you have given perhaps 5 more than we required so you still are within the law, and are awarded the Coup without delay. So also in the claiming of ranks: do not be satisfied to turn in 24 Coups for the rank of Sagamore, though, strictly, that is all that is required. Have a couple extra to allow for some which the Committee may not accept.

Your Tribal Honors Committee should consist of three persons with the broadest knowledge available. It should always be of adults, possessed of good judgment and of the strong desire to keep up the standards of the League. All honors must be submitted to these three persons who pass not only on the material submitted, but on the form in which the claim is made out. This saves endless time and trouble later, when the claims are submitted to the National Honors Committee for the higher ranks.

All Coup claims should be carefully preserved either by the individual attaining them; or in the case of children, by the Guide. They should also be recorded in the Tribal Tally, which would be accepted as legal evidence, should they, by some unfortunate accident, be lost.

Ranks in the Big Lodge

The ranks must be taken in order.

WAYSEEKER. To qualify for the Big Lodge — that is, to enter as a Wayseeker — one must:

Be over 12 years of age.

Know the 4 Torches or Lamps, and the 12 laws.

Take one of the initiations.

Be voted in unanimously by the other members of the group.

Having passed this, the candidate becomes a Wayseeker and receives the Big Lodge badge of the lowest rank.

PATHFINDER. This is the next higher rank. To win the rank of Pathfinder, the Wayseeker must have won 12 Coups, 3 under each Lamp; know and tell publicly the story of the First Fire; make and explain the Sand Painting; be a Woodcrafter at least three months.

When these tests have been satisfactorily passed, the member is called out in Council, the Guide then in charge reads a list of the Coups won, cuts from the horned shield 26) the green tassels and burns them, hands the candidate a thread of scarlet silk to be embroidered — a red spot — in the doorway of the teepee, saying as he does so: “Thus do I, acting for the Council, take away the green tassels of inexperience, and with this silk, I light your teepee fire. You are now a Pathfinder.”

A SAGAMORE is one who has won 24 Coups, 6 under each Lamp, must be at least 14 years of age; and be a Woodcrafter at least six months.

A GRAND SAGAMORE is one who has won 24 Grand Coups.

An EAGLE SAGAMORE is one with 36 Coups.

A GRAND EAGLE SAGAMORE is one with 36 Grand Coups.

A SACHEM is one with 48 Coups.

A GRAND SACHEM has 48 Grand Coups.

An EAGLE SACHEM has 72 Coups.

A GRAND EAGLE SACHEM is one with 72 Grand Coups.

A SACHEM IPAWA is one with 100 Coups.

A GRAND SACHEM IPAWA is one with 100 Grand Coups.

An EAGLE SACHEM IPAWA is one with 200 Coups.

A GRAND EAGLE SACHEM IPAWA is one with 200 Grand Coups.

Local tribes are authorized to confer the ranks of Wayseeker and of Pathfinder. Before taking any action on claims for the rank of Sagamore or higher ranks, the Head Guide must forward to the Field Council of the District (if in the district of a Field Council; otherwise to National Headquarters) the original Coup claims. The Committee on Honors will there pass upon them, make record of same and return them to the local group. Without their action, these titles may not be approved or conferred.

Woodcraft Honor Band

When one is received into membership, he should have placed on his shoulders the Woodcraft Honor Band which must be secured from the Great Central Lodge (Headquarters).

The Woodcraft has never emphasized a uniform in the ordinary sense, chiefly because of the expense entailed. Its 27) two visible and personal symbols have always been the Honor Band and the Sagamore Robe. On them, we display our honors. On them, we lavish effort to achieve a brilliant effect.

The Honor Band of the Big Lodge is of flame colored felt, 3 inches wide, with a 6-inch shield on the breast. Those who wish may add fringes of buckskin, leather, or other material. The band is secured on the left hip by a button which each one will prefer to make for himself. Some use a bear’s tooth, some a piece of deer’s antler, carved, some a bone or wooden button, or perhaps a piece of shell, shaped to his own fancy.

The Honor Band accommodates the honors of a Sachem, and yet looks well when first hung on the shoulder of the Wayseeker. At once, it turns any costume into a uniform. No matter how differently those in a group are dressed, the Honor Band on each makes all seem to be in uniform, light or dark, — a uniform with a flaming shoulder strap and shield. It is visible afar off. It is unlike the regalia of any other organization.

When the rank of Sachem is reached and passed, a second Honor Band is needed and allowed. This is worn from the opposite shoulder, crossing the first band under the shield. (See dotted line.) It needs no shield of its own; that is, one shield is all that is ever allowed.

The Little Lodge Honor Band is flame color felt 2 1/4 inches wide, worn across the right shoulder and fastened on the left hip, with the badge of the Little Lodge in the center.

Badges

The symbol of the Woodcraft League is a white shield with blue horns.

The banner is the Horned Shield on a flame-colored background with buckskin fringe.

The badge of the Big Lodge has in addition a blue teepee with a white doorway on it.

That of the Coup is a black and white eagle feather embroidered in wash silk or made of celluloid. 28)

WOODCRAFT BADGES

  • Wayseeker
  • Pathfinder
  • Sagamore
  • Grand Sagamore
  • Eagle Sagamore
  • Grand Eagle Sagamore
  • Sachem
  • Grand Sachem
  • Eagle Sachem
  • Grand Eagle Sachem
  • Sachem Ipawa
  • Grand Sachem Ipawa
  • Eagle Sachem Ipawa
  • Grand Eagle Sachem Ipawa
  • Guide
  • Shaman
  • Ranger
  • Coup Badge
  • Grand Coup
  • Zuni Coil Degree Badge

29) That of the Grand Coup is the same with a red or yellow tuft or a bead on the end.

That of the Sagamore has a crown with five points.

Those of the Grand Sagamore, Eagle Sagamore, Sachem, Grand Sachem, Eagle Sachem and Sachem Ipawa are made in the same way as the Sagamore badge with the addition of tufts, etc. See ill.

The badges for degrees are squares (with a design in black) on the Zuni coil.

The robe badge for degree is the Zuni Coil of a larger size in the centre of which is the emblem of the degree.

That of the Guide has a trail on it.

That of the Shaman has on it the four mountains of attainment.

That of the Ranger has the trail and a horseshoe.

The Meaning of the Badges

The badge of the Woodcraft League is an ancient Indian totem composed of a pair of horns attached to a shield; the horns meaning “attack” and the shield “defense”; the idea symbolized being, “trained and ready”. This is used by all in the League, whether boy or girl, man or woman.

The blue on the badge is to remind us of “Blue Sky”, which is our watchword. For under the blue sky, in the sunlight, we seek to live our lives; and our thoughts are of “Blue Sky,” for that means “cheer;” and when there are clouds, we know that the blue sky is ever behind them, and will come again. The flame background is to remind us that the Council Fire is the focus of all our thought. It is the flame of the Spirit.

The blue teepee reminds us that the teepee, the only movable dwelling that permits of any open fire inside, was the abode of the first Woodcrafters of this country. It always faced the east with the sunrise that symbolizes the ever-renewed promise of the day. The fire within it was the symbol of the Great Spirit and the smoke was the established emblem of prayer, ascending from the mystery of the Fire below to be lost in the mystery of the far above.

The two green tassels are the badges of inexperience; and when by achievements the Woodcrafter is entitled to have them removed, the meaning of the symbolism is as evident as it is happy. 30)

THE ATTAINMENT OF THE SHIELD

Entering the Big Lodge

When a young man in the days of Chivalry reached the years of discretion, his admission to the High Order of Knighthood was solemnized with many ceremonies. He fasted, prayed, took vows of clean living; he consecrated his powers to the service of his country and of his God. Then he received the sword, the spear, and the shield. On the latter was blazoned the fame of his family and the watchwords of their noblest aspirations.

Among the Plains Indians, very similar ceremonies took place. As soon as the young brave had demonstrated his manhood in his war—party, or other great undertaking, he was formally initiated into the lodge of Warriors. He was no longer a child, but judged fit to sit among the men of the Big Lodge. Before being installed he made careful preparations. He had, by fasting and vigil, to establish the domination of his spirit over his body. Then in the presence of the Council, he was invested with his shield, decorated with the symbols of his attainment, as well as his aspirations. Henceforth, through life, that shield was his most sacred possession.

Thus, through all the ages, the conferring of the shield has symbolized the attainment of manhood, the evidence that henceforth the bearer is to be numbered among those that accept the responsibility of strength and experience. In the Woodcraft League, there is retained as much as can be of the sacred ceremony of the Redmen on this occasion.

In the Little Lodge, the Woodcrafter wears an honor band, but no shield. When he is turned 12 years of age, he is judged to be worthy of a place in the Big Lodge.

In preparation for this, he takes the Sweat Lodge, if there be one in camp; or failing that, a hot and purifying bath. Then he puts on clean clothes. He is now led to the place of vigil which is secluded and remote from the crowd, preferably a small fire, a vigil fire. While there he must not eat, or sleep, or talk, or read, or have anyone visit him. The Indian did it at least all night. We ask that the candidate 31) do it not less than three hours, in the dawn, or at dusk, or night, but not when the sun is high. If it be impossible to sit in the woods, he may sit in a room silent and by himself, and for a fire, he may use a candle in a fire bowl.

He is then brought back to the Council Ring. The Guide or Chief explains to him the new responsibilities which come with his new position. The Candidate recites the Twelve Laws of the Big Lodge of Woodcraft, indicating their relation to the sand-painting. Then the Guide places upon his shoulder the Big Lodge Honor Band, saying:

“In the conferring of this, the shield of the Order of Woodcraft, I declare your installation complete as a member of the Big Lodge.”

He shakes him by the hand and adds the Woodcraft greeting “How Kola!” (Hail Brother.)

The member may place upon his Big Lodge Honor Band, the totem of the Little Lodge, clipped from the center, and sewn just above the shield. 32)

COUNCIL ROBES

Tribal Robe

Many tribes have made tribal robes. They are best made of some bright colored material, since they are essentially a display property. Their usual place is hung banner-like behind the Council Rock or on the wall. The proper ornaments are the Woodcraft shield, the tribal totem, any pictographic incidents of local history and any Coups or degrees that have been won by every member of the tribe, provided there are not less than six members enrolled.

The Sagamore Robe

The proudest visible ornament of the Woodcrafter is the Sagamore robe, the right to wear which is bestowed at the time of installation as Sagamore and continues thereafter.

The robe is designed to be, first, a comfortable blanket or wrap; second, a bedspread; third, a wall drape, or a banner background in council. But its ornaments are the Woodcraft record of the wearer, and may be embellished and beautified to any desired extent. The robes of our Sagamores, are, perhaps, the most picturesque adjuncts of all our Woodcraft work.

While much of its plan is left to individual taste, there are one or two essentials that all must accept.

First, it is a robe, and when spread out, lies flat.

Second, it must have on it the crown of 24 white feathers about the wearer’s personal symbol or totem, and somewhere also the horned shield, the symbol of Woodcraft, also the wearer's tribe totem.

To all this, you add as won your additional Coup feathers and your degree emblems, also other decorative features desired, arranged according to your own taste.

The circle within the crown of 24 feathers must be reserved for the owner’s Council Fire Name.

These are the essentials, but it is urged that the robe be of soft, beautiful material, any color you please so it be beautiful. The best pattern or cut is the one given in the illustration. This is 41/2 feet wide and 61/2 feet long. Its peculiar features are as follows: The head hole which is 33) 15 inches long and begins 4 1/2 feet from the bottom, and which, when worn, is closed by the buttoned throat latch, CD. At E and F, but on the under side, are two tie strings, fastened on. They are about 18 inches long each, and are meant to tie around the wearer's waist under the robe while it is worn with the head through the head hole.

Individual taste finds full scope in the decoration. Buckskin fringes, shoulder bands, borders of beadwork or quill work, spangles of wampum beads, shells or imitation elks’ teeth, pockets or pouches, painted, appliqued or embroidered pictcgraphic records, — all are used and allowed, so long as the above named essentials are adhered to.

But above all, first, last and all the time, remember that the robe is made a thing of beauty. 34) 35) 36)

Big Lodge Coups and Degrees

  37)

TABLE OF CONTENTS BIG LODGE COUP SECTION

CAMPING AND HIKING Camp Cooking Campercraft Camp Specialties Fire Making Forestry Regulations Hiking and Travel Map Reading and Signs Motoring . Mountain Climbing HANDICRAF‘T ACTIVITIES Backwoods Craft Basketry. . Bone and Horn work Book Binding Beading . Carpentry Ceramics . Home Crafts Indian Crafts . Knots and Ropes Leather Work . Metal Work Plastics . VVoodcarving . ATHLETICS AND GAMES Archery Athletic Specialties. Axemanship Bicycling Dancing . Eyesight . Fishing Horsemanship Marksmanship Roping . Water Skills . . Table of Athletic Coups 36 38) SERVICE ACTIVITIES Church Participation Community Service First Aid and Health Home Service Activities . School Cooperation Tribal Service NATURE STUDY Astronomy Bird Lore General Nature Study Geology . Insects Mammals Marine Life Meteorology Reptiles . Taxidermy Plant Life AGRICULTURE Animal Husbandry Farming. Gardening Insect and Pest Control HOBBIES Aeronautics Models Photography Radio CULTURAL ACHIEVEMENTS Art . Entertaining Literature 1 History Music . Religion and Spiritual Life Science DEGREES IN WOODCRAFT . 37 83 83 85 87 87 88 88 89 90 90 91 92 93 94 94 96 97 98 101 102 102 103 104 105. 105 106 107 39)

NOTE

Following each exploit listed in the following pages will be found a Roman numeral or numerals, which will indicate the Lamp or Lamps under which the said exploit may be claimed. These are I for the Lamp of Beauty, II for the Lamp of Truth, III for the Lamp of Fortitude, and IV for the Lamp of Service. It may readily be seen that a coup for some of the handicrafts, for example, may either be claimed under the Lamp of Truth or under the Lamp of Service.

The coups listed are not to be considered as final. That is, comparable exploits may be submitted to National Headquarters for approval.


The Woodcraft Way embraces the idea and philosophy that self-expression is the true way of growth; that it is better to make and to do than to buy. He who shapes and fashions those things the Great Spirit has placed at his disposal, thereby shapes, to some extent, his own destiny.

We are all creators to some extent, and the development of skills and the results thereof, the perception of ideas of merit, or the conception of such, is the measure of our worth. 40)

Camping and Hiking

CAMP COOKING

Build out of doors, a clay, stone or brick oven which will bake good bread, for coup. Make and bake good, digestible bread in such an oven after building it, for grand coup. I—II

Make one pint of edible acorn flour, and prepare same for eating. Grind one pound of corn meal in a self-made mortar, prepare for cooking, and cook into good edible cakes. Either for coup. Both for grand coup. II

Make for actual use 5 pounds of jerky, or 5 pounds of pemmican, for coup. Make 5 pounds of each, all to be used, for grand coup. II

Make an “Indian well” and get clean water from a swamp or other place where the water is undrinkable, for coup. Build six such wells, each in a different swamp, for grand coup. II

Collect maple juice, and make 1 quart of maple syrup, and one pound of maple sugar, for coup. In addition, make 1 pint of syrup from box elders, birches, or hickory trees, or from honey locust pods, for grand coup. II

Do all the cooking for a week-end camp of not less than 10 people for 2 days. Prepare the menu, select the material, and do the buying for such a camp. Either for coup; both for grand coup. I-II-IV 41)


Mix and bake 12 batches of good bread by a camp fire in a Dutch oven, frying pan or reflector, for coup; 12 such batches, including all 3 methods, for grand coup. Patent flour not to be used. I-II

Identify 25 wild plants having edible roots, shoots, leaves, fruit, seed or nuts, and describe the method of preparing each for eating, for coup. Identify 50 such plants, submit recipes for cooking 10 of them, and actually prepare 5, for grand coup. III

Boil 1 quart of water without a kettle or other metal or bought vessel, for coup. Do this in 2 different ways, for grand coup. II

Boil 1 quart of water in a 2-quart, uncovered pail in 12 minutes, for coup, or in 9 minutes for grand coup. Allowed, 1 unsplit log and one axe or hatchet; fire to be made by self, and time to be counted from the beginning of the wood cutting until the water boils. The water is boiling when it is bubbling all over the surface. All work must be done by self. II

Cook 12 digestible meals using ordinary camp equip- ment, of various menus to serve 2 or more persons, properly disposing of waste, for coup. 24 such meals, for grand coup. I-II—IV

Without pots or cans, cook a digestible meal including fish or meat, potatoes or some other vegetable, and bread, for coup. Cook 3 such meals with dilferent menu each time, for grand coup. II

CAMPERCRAFT

Guess 1 inch, 1 foot, 1 yard, 1 rod, 1 acre, 100 yards, 200 yards, IA mile, 1/2 mile and 1 mile, for coup, total average within 20% of accuracy; within 10% for grand coup. I-II

Guess the height of 10 trees or other high things, and the weight of 10 stones or other things ranging from 1 ounce to 50 pounds, total average within 10% of accuracy, for coup; within 5% for grand coup. I-II

Measure the height of 10 trees without climbing, or 10 distances across a river without crossing, total average within 10% of accuracy, for coup; within 5% for grand coup. Tools: an axe and a pocket rule or tape line only. I-II 42)

CAMP SPECIALTIES

Make a sweat lodge, and use it properly for 3 times a week (in 2 of which it may be used by another person), for coup. Run a sweat lodge successfully for a month, giv- ing at least 12 treatments, for grand coup. I-IV

Make and run for 7 days a flyless and practically odor- less latrine, for coup; 30 days for grand coup. I

FIRE MAKING

Make a set of fire sticks from material of ones own gathering (except that thong may be bought), and get with it a fire, for coup. Get a fire in one minute from such a set, and tell the story of the first fire, for grand coup. I-II

Make a fire set for lighting a fire without the use of a bow, and get a fire with it, for coup. Get a fire in 2 minutes with such a set, for grand coup. I-II

Match fire. Light 15 camp fires in succession, with 15 matches, all in different spots, and all made with stuff of one's own gathering and found in the woods, one at least to be on a wet day, for coup. If 15 are on wet days, or 30 lighted in succession, 2 at least on wet days, grand coup. I-II

Flint and steel. Light 10 camp fires in succession with flint and steel, all 1n different spots, and all made with stuff gathered by self 1n woods, 1 at least to be on a wet day, and none to take more than 2 minutes from striking the flint to having the blaze, for coup. If 10 are lighted on wet days, or 20 lighted in succession, 2 at least on wet days, grand coup. I-II

Fire drill, or rubbing sticks. Same as flint and steel.

Make a torch of wildwood material which will burn for half an hour, for coup. Make 2 such, each of dilferent material, to burn for an hour each, for grand coup. I-II

Make a fire bow of ivory or bone (such as a rib), pol- ished, engraved, and painted with a symbolic design, for coup. Make a fire in one minute with such a bow, for grand coup. I-II-III

Make a tinder horn like the old powder horns, for coup. If attached by a carrying strap made by self, of rawhide, plaited thongs, or horsehair, etc., grand coup. II 41 43)

FORESTRY REGULATIONS

Know the Forest Service regulations governing building of camp fires in your own region. Know 3 different types of forest fires and tell how to combat each. Either for coup. Both for grand coup. II

HIKING AND TRAVEL

Walk 1 unbroken mile a day, outdoors (not track walk- ing) for 60 successive days, for coup. 120 days, for grand coup. I

Take a hike of not less than 4 miles once a week for 20 consecutive weeks, for coup. Same for 40 weeks, for grand coup. I

Walk 5 miles a day for 5 successive days, and make a sketch or photograph of some interesting natural object or view each day, for coup. Walk 5 miles a day for 10 succes- sive days, making sketch or photograph as above, for grand coup/i I

Make a compass, and travel by it over a tract of wild land for 2 miles, for coup; for 5 miles, for grand coup. I Travel without a trail through a wilderness without getting lost for 8 hours of travel, for coup. For 20 hours of travel, and through various kinds of country, for grand coup. I

Follow an established trail in the mountains for 2 days, carrying all personal equipment, without going to or near any restaurant or hotel or resort of any kind, or traversing trails previously covered by coup claimant, sleeping out in the open both nights, for coup. D0 same for 5 days, for grand coup. I

Enter the Arctic Circle as captain or leader of expedi- tion by sea, for coup. By land, for grand coup. I-IV

Follow a trail alone, or as leader of a party, through a wilderness for 2 days, without losing the trail, for coup. Same for 7 days, part of which travel has been through woods and part through open territory, for grand coup. I-IV

Lay out a trail through new territory for 2 miles, mark- ing the same with blazes or monuments, so that others can easily follow from either direction, for coup; for 5 miles, for grand coup. I-IV 42 44)

SIGNS AND BLAZES

Signs in Stones &. iéav 663 & Thi: i: the Trail Tum to the Right Tum to the Laft Importantwarnlns Signa‘ in Twigs 93* “5%“ w Wk: Thi: i: the Trail Turn to the Right Turn to the Left ImportantWaming Signs in Grass I , ‘l :" -i@h v.1“: Mtg ThiJT is thy; Trail Tuin to'the Right Turn to the Left ImportantVarnins Signs in Bia3es '4 / . '- L, ‘ Thi: is the Trail Turn to the Right' Turn to the Left- ImportantWamins Code for Jmoke :S'ignals

_ 4—:— 

_,_,_. /j __ _. 35 Camp 5: Here' lam lott. Help! Good New: All come to Council WWW .S'omc Special Blajes use}! by Hunters @Jurveyors lflflflfll A Trip to ATrap hp CampiIto Cimyizto Special Adimndack Surveyor? Right Left Right Left Special Line Hen 43 45)

Cross the Equator by sea or rail as captain or engineer, for coup. On foot, for grand coup. I-IV

Take a country hike of at least five miles, prepared with case or press for specimens. Unmistakably identify 25 specimens of different species, on this hike, for coup. Grand coup, for 50 specimens, comprising 15 animal, 30 vegetable, and 5 mineral. I-II

Travel on foot for 50 miles with not more than 2 com- panions, neither of whom is a professional guide, through strange territory, carrying outfit, and sleeping out every night, each person planning and cooking meals for at least 1 day, for coup. 100 miles for grand coup. I

Travel 100 miles on foot with a party which may be guided, carrying own outfit, and sleeping out every night, for coup. 200 miles, for grand coup. I

MAP READING AND SIGNS

City Hunter. Find and sketch 25 blazes and totems in town, and tell where you found them; add the distinguish- ing marks of policemen as used in your town, for coup. Find and sketch 50 such totems, and include a short his- tory of totems in general (not less than 300 words), for grand coup. 11

Make a correct map of a region 1/2, mile long by 1/4 mile wide (such as half a mile of highway with an eighth of a mile on each side) ; marking each house, fence, hill, promi— nent tree, stream and bridge, for coup. Map in such a way a territory 1 mile long by 1/4 mile wide, map to be drawn approximately to scale, for grand coup. II

Draw and know 25 of the conventional signs on maps, as listed by the Topographical Survey of the United States, for coup. 50 for grand coup. II

MOTORING

Motor, doing all the driving, at least 50 miles per day for 5 successive days, and make each day 2 sketches or photos, of some interesting natural history object or view, for coup. Camp out at least 4 of the 5 nights, and cook at least one meal a day over camp fire, for grand coup. 1-11 46) Motor, doing all the driving, 200 miles in a week, in not less than 4 days, each day identifying, photographing or sketching 5 natural objects or views, for coup. D0 same for 2 weeks, in not less than 4 days each week, for grand coup. I-II

Motor across the Continent, camping out at least half the nights, and making 20 photos or sketches of things of national fame, for coup. If all the driving is done by self, grand coup. I—II

MOUNTAIN CLIMBING

This is a repeater; that is, climbing 2 different moun- tains counts 2 coups, but climbing l mountain twice is only I coup. All mountain climbing must be on trails and high- ways, and 8 miles must be made on foot. I 45 47)

Handicraft Activities

BACKWOODS CRAFT

Do one of the following for coup; 2 for grand coup:

Make a noggin out of a tree boll, and decorate it. 11

Make solid “four-poster” for a willow bed, and make a stout bench from split logs, with driven legs (no nails). 11

From a log, hew a plank (not a slab), not more than 3 inches thick in any part, and not less than 10 feet long. 11

Make an old-fashioned lanthorn with horn sides. 11

Make a set of wooden hinges and a latch, and fit these to a door so that it hangs true and latches well. 11

Build, single-handed, without help, a canoe or boat which will carry a man safely, for coup. If the same can be paddled, rowed or sailed by one person 2 miles an hour on dead water, grand coup. 11

Build, single-handed, without help, a raft which will carry safely 300 pounds, for coup. Add support for keeping baggage dry, and paddle 0r pole the raft for 5 miles con- tinuously, for grand coup. 11

Build, single-handed, without help, across a stream or gully, a safe footbridge with piers, or a safe suspension bridge, or a safe pontoon bridge, 15 feet or more long, for coup. Build any 2 of these for grand coup. 11

Build single-handed, without help, a good dam at least 3 feet high in the center, across a stream at least 6 feet 46 48) wide, of wildwood material, for coup. If it be thoroughly watertight, grand coup. II

Without breaking forestry laws, build a useable log cabin, with walls plumb and true and rainproof, at least 6x8 in size, for coup. In addition, build a fireplace that will draw, opening to be not less than 24x24 inches and 16 inches deep, for grand coup. II

Make a rainproof shelter other than the above, of wild- wood material, at least 6x8 feet in size, 3 times for actual service, for coup. If equipped with windproof walls and wildwood bed, suitable for 2 or more campers, grand coup. II

Make a 2-man tent or an 8-foot tepee or better, from cloth dyed and waterproofed by self, for coup. In addition, set up alone a 2-man tent with walls taut, sides true, bottom pegged, and trenches dug, 20 times, for grand coup. 11

Make a serviceable watertight bucket or wash basin, of wildwood material, at least 5x8 inches, for coup. Make both each to be at least 7x10, for grand coup. II Make a serviceable basket of wildwood material, not less than 6 inches in diameter, for coup. If made with a handle, and not less than 10 inches in diameter, and will carry 25 pounds, grand coup. 11

Unless forbidden by forestry laws, make a comfortable bough bed, properly laid. Make a grass rug, at least 2x5 feet on a string camp loom. Both to be made of material gathered by self. Either for coup. Both for grand coup. II

Make an Indian bed of at least 60 rods, all tied tight for coup. Make one of 80 or more rods, with 4 cords all tied tight and straight, and with a decorated head, for grand coup. II

Make a good, serviceable camp chair, picturesque and decorated, entirely from wildwood material. Make a serv- 47 49) iceable hammock or bed of wildwood material. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make a hunter’s lamp, a set of tilting spears, and a totem, for tribe or band, all of wildwood material, except oil for lamp and colors for painting, for coup. If entirely of wildwood material, grand coup. II-IV

Make a wooden kneading trough, of smooth interior surface, not less than 6x12 inches, or make a waterproof vessel of wildwood material to hold at least 2 quarts, and attach handle to same (spruce gum allowed). Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Grow, gather, dry and use a half a pound of lavender flowers, or of lemon verbena (tripolium), for coup. 11

Make 1 pound of hard and 1 pound of soft soap, from material prepared by self. (For hard soap, lye may be bought.) Construct a lye gum or leach tub with properly constructed filter. of wildwood material, and with this lye gum, make enough lye from wood ashes to make 1 gallon of soft soap. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 11

Make 1 pint each of 6 different dyes from wildwood material. Dye 6 squares of white woolen material, each not less than 4x4 inches, or 6 bunches of porcupine uills (2O quills in each bundle), each a different color, an use a mordent, all to be found in the woods. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make 3 pounds of any 3 of the following: butter, cheese, sausage, head cheese, lard, tallow, neatsfoot oil. Dry 3 pounds (weight when dried) of some fruit or vegetable, to include at least 3 varieties. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

BASKETRY

Make two baskets of different designs and shapes (each large enough to hold 2 quarts) out of rope, ralfia, grass, rattan, splits, pine needles, or willow. Weave a hat of straw or corn husks. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make a broom from broom corn, raised and prepared by self. Make a "Boonder broom” (scouring brush) in floor-scrubbing size, with a one-piece handle, total length of handle and broom, 4 feet. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II 48 50)

Using raffia, rattan, reed or art fiber, weave the follow- ing: Set of three table mats. Flower pot holder. Hanging flower basket. Set of 6 coasters. Set of 6 nut cups. Any two for coup, any three for grand coup. II

As above, except the following may have plywood bot- toms: Sewing tray. Letter basket. Bonbon tray. Shopping basket. Picnic basket. Double decked sandwich tray. Waste paper basket. Any two for coup, any three for grand coup. 11

Using wood splinters or art fiber, wood bottom: Laundry basket. Clothes hamper. Pack basket. Window box. Fern- ery. Any one for coup, two for grand coup. 11

Using straw or corn husks or art fiber: Door mat. Bath mat. One for coup, both for grand coup. II

BONE AND HORN WORK

Make 6 small handicraft articles of bone or horn, such as ring, bracelet, napkin ring, belt buckle, etc., for coup. If engraved and colored, grand coup. II

Make from a cow’s horn, by one’s self, a huntsman’s horn that will sound, for coup. If engraved with personal record, grand coup. 11

Make a horn cup with a handle, decorated, or with feet and decorated, for coup. In addition, make a hunter’s lamp or a torch, entirely of wildwood material, that will burn steadily for an hour, for grand coup. II

BOOKBINDING

Bind a book, not less than 100 pages, with stilf covers, properly stitched and hinged, for coup. If with tooled leather, grand coup. II

Bind a Tally Book, containing at least 48 pages, with a decorative cover, painted, beaded or tooled, etc., for coup. II-IV

Decorate a Coup Book, containing at least 48 pages, with designs appropriate for each honor claim (not less than 48). Hand bind such a book, with cover decorated with beading, paint, tooling, or similar method. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II 49 51)

BEADING

With tube beads bead 60 square inches, for coup; 100 square inches for grand coup. II

With seed beads, by the wrapping method, bead thongs to the length of 24 inches, for coup. With seed beads, bead a rabbit’s foot with two flaps, or the handle of a rattle or club, for grand coup. 11

With seed beads, bead a pair of rosettes at least 11/2 inches 1n diameter, for coup. By two different methods, for grand coup. II

With bone beads or long paper beads, bead a breast plate, for coup. If beads are made by self, grand coup. II 52)

Make a loom, and on it bead a headband, belt, chain, bag, or other article, containing at least 20 square inches, with a good design. Make a piece of quill work, not less than above size, quills to be dyed by self with wildwood dyes made by self. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

CARPENTRY

Demonstrate the use of the square, level, plumb line, mitre, chalk line, plane, brace and bit, saw, hammer, chisel, draw-knife, and driving nails, for coup. In addition, lay out a right angle by the 3, 4, 5 plan, and orient a founda- tion, for grand coup. II

Build a cabin at least 12x18x7 feet, to be used in camp as bunk house, kitchen, long house, store house, or similar purpose, for coup. In addition, furnish it with shelves, bunks, or whatever is necessary for its purpose, for grand coup. II

CERAMICS

Do one of the following for coup; two for grand coup: Make and decorate four small pieces, one a bowl and the Others optional, clay to be gathered and dishes fired by self. II. Make by coil process four bowls, each decorated with a different authentic Indian design, such as Zuni, Hopi, Acoma, etc. Make a practical potter’s wheel. With this wheel make 12 different pieces of pottery. II

Do one of the following for coup; two for grand coup: Make a practical potter’s kiln. In this kiln fire successfully 12 pieces of pottery. II. Make a rectangular shallow dish, glazed to prevent leakage, at least 10x6x2 inches, and deco- rated with original design. II. Make a set of four candle- sticks and fire bowl for the altar fire. II

Make a bowl or vase with lip, for coup. In addition, describe the principal varieties of native clays, tell where they are found and what colors they take when baked. Tell how ancient and prehistoric pottery of America may be distinguished from that made today, and describe the Pueblo method of firing, for grand coup. II

Paint “overglaze” a set of six china dishes, using a native 51 53)

American design. Ditto for “underglaze” painting. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make a pottery or cement bird bath, at least 12 inches in diameter, which is used by birds. Make a cement flower box, at least 6x8x20, waterproofed and drained. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make five pieces of pottery with some commercial clay, decorating each with an authentic Indian or Mexican de- sign, for coup. Ten pieces, of which five are Indian and five Mexican, for grand coup. II

Make 500 adobe bricks, 9”x15”x4”, or equivalent, for coup. Construct with adobe bricks a two—roomed house not less than 12’x18’x7’, with rain-proof roof, for grand coup. II

Make an imitation of the Ming period porcelain. Make and fire a piece of pottery decorated in the Chinese fashion. Make and fire a piece of pottery in the Greek fashion. Any two of these for coup; three for grand coup. 11

HOME CRAFTS

Knit a pair of socks or stockings for someone other than self, for coup. With tops in a design of more than one color, grand coup. II-IV

Knit or crochet a sweater with sleeves, for someone other than self, for coup. If at least half is in a fancy stitch, grand coup. II-IV

Crotchet a bedspread for a single bed, for coup. As above for a double bed, for grand coup. II

Crochet an Afghan for a single cot or bed, for coup. As above for a double bed, for grand coup. II

Crotchet a luncheon set for serving four, for coup, at least 200 square inches. As above for serving six or more, for grand coup, at least 300 square inches. II

Crotchet a chair back set (three pieces), for coup. At least 150 square inches. Crochet two such sets, of different designs, for grand coup. II

Make two yards of tatting, 1/2 inch wide or over, for coup. Tat a collar, doilie, or equivalent, for grand coup. II

Make an applique cover for a uilt, 72 by 90 or over, for coup. Quilt the above in some ancy design, for grand coup. II

As above for a patchwork quilt. II 54)

Make a luncheon set for four or more of drawn work, at least 150 square inches. Make a chair back set (three pieces) of drawn work, at least 100 square inches. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 11

As above for Italian cut work. II

Make a baby crib set (one pillow case and two sheets), decorated with embroidery or with crocheted edging or insertion, for coup. (To extent of at least 144 square inches.) Make two or more such sets, for grand coup. II

Crochet (a) a pair of mittens, (b) hood, (c) scarf, any two in a plain pattern, for coup; any two in a difficult pattern, grand coup. II

Knit (a) a pair of mittens, (b) hood, (c) scarf, any two in a plain pattern, for coup; any two in a difficult pattern, for grand coup. II

Knit an afghan for a single cot or bed, for coup. As above for a double bed, for grand coup. II

Knit a dress, with sleeves, for a child. Knit a sweater, with sleeves, for an adult. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Card, spin, and dye enough cotton, wool, flax, or hemp to make five yards of goods. Weave one square yard of cloth (or equivalent), half to contain design. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Weave, knit or crochet scarfs containing at least 10 square feet, or a bedspread. Arrange warp in a loom for weaving, with two harnesses and two treadles. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Weave a hammock or fish-net, knots to be not more than two inches apart, for coup. With knots one inch apart or less, for grand coup. II

Make a Navajo loom for blanket weaving; and on same make a rag, grass, or yarn mat, not less than 2x5 feet, or its equivalent in smaller mats, to be used for three months and remain intact. Make a hand loom for weaving braid or tape, half an inch wide, and use it successfully, making at least one yard of braid or tape on it. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Weave an Afghan for a single cot or bed, for coup. As above for a double bed, for grand coup. II

Weave a baby’s crib or bed blanket with pillow top to match in a simple design, for coup. As above, but woven in a difficult design, for grand coup. Simple design, but 55)

with lining and edges finished with crocheting or binding, for grand coup. II

Plan, make, and fit up complete for outdoor sleeping, a sleeping bag that can be easily ventilated, for coup. In addition, plan and make complete outfit for the sleeper, including bed-sox, for grand coup. II

Decorate a Sagamore blanket or robe, containing at least 24 coup feathers and six other symbols or emblems, for coup. In addition, make a Sachem or tribal robe, con- taining at least 48 coup feather, and 10 other symbols or emblems, for grand coup. II

Show hand-made samples of the following stitches: bast- ing, hemming, running, felling, back-stitching, gathering, overcasting, buttonholing, sewing on buttons, herringbone, feather, darning stocking, darning a tear, patching, double feather, tucking, French knots, hemstitching, cross-stitch- ing, blanket stitching, eyelet, blind loop, French hem on damask, and mitering a corner, for coup. In addition, make a well-made dress entirely by hand, for grand coup. II

Make a costume for each of five different Council ac- tivities, costumes to be the property of the tribe, for coup. For each of 10 as above, grand coup. These need not be entirely by hand. II

Make a handbag of attractive design, all knots pulled evenly, the work being smoothly and neatly done, for coup. As above, using square knots, half hitches, spirals and double carrick bends, with tassels, for grand coup. 11

Make a belt at least 30 inches long and 11/2 inches wide, in two or more colors, without varying in width through- out, the work neatly done, knots pulled evenly, and edges regular, for coup. As above, with detachable buckle, sliding belt loop and worked eyelets, with balanced worked design, for grand coup. II

Make a center piece of attractive design, at least 18 inches in diameter (or equivalent), the work being regu- larly and neatly done, for coup. As above, with six indi- vidual doilies to match, for grand coup. II

Make, and mount for exhibition, properly labeled, the following: Turk’s head, a row of square knots, a row of half-hitches, a flat, a spiral, for coup. In addition, make six small articles, such as a shade pull, for grand coup. II

Hem a tablecloth and six napkins by hand, for coup. If initialed in letters at least one inch high, grand coup. II 54 56)

Cut and make four different pieces of baby clothes, all by hand, for coup. Six pieces, embroidered 0r lace trimmed, for grand coup. II

Cut and make a dress, middy blouse 0r smock for someone other than self, for coup. If entirely by hand, and embroidered 0r appliqued, grand coup. II-IV

Cut and make a boy's suit, trimmed. Cut and make a girl's dress, trimmed. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 11

Dress a doll, not less than 10 inches high, in clothing complete and removable, for coup. In national or distinctive costume, grand coup. 11

Make a piece of needlepoint, for chair, stool, or pillow cover, to be at least one foot square, or its equivalent, for coup, two feet square, or equivalent, grand coup II

Make and hang drapes Either for coup. Both for grand coup. II

Dye five yards or equivalent of drapery material, for coup. If dye is made of wildwood material, grand coup. II

Cover a hat frame and trim hat, for coup. Make a complete hat, frame, trimming and lining, for grand coup. II

Remodel a felt or wool hat and trim it, for coup. Make a felt hat from a felt hood, block into shape and trim, for grand coup. II

Cover a hat frame with straw cloth or equivalent and trim hat, for coup. Make a complete straw hat of straw braid or equivalent, and make trimming, for grand coup. 11

Make a rug, at least 2x5 feet, or equivalent, woven, knitted, crocheted, braided or hooked. Cut, select, sew, ball, and arrange rags for making one yard of rag carpet. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 11

INDIAN CRAFTS

Make a pair of leather or skin moccasins of Plains pat- tern, for coup. In addition, bead a design on these, for grand coup. II

Make a pair of Navajo moccasins, for coup. If the sil- ver buttons are made by self, grand coup 11

Make buckskin from a green hide, without the use of any bought chemicals. Prepare the skin of some other ani- 55 57)

mal from the green state until ready for use in some form of clothing. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make a pair of leather or skin moccasins of Ojibway pattern, for coup. Bead a design by the parallel row method on these, for grand coup. 11

Make an Indian woman's costume, in one or two pieces, of leather or buckskin, for coup. Decorate it with beading, quill work, applique, or other method, to the extent of at least 100 square inches, for grand coup. 11

Make an Indian war shirt, for coup. Decorate it with a symbolic pattern, for grand coup. II

Do 20 square inches of porcupine quill work by the method of sewing with two needles, for coup. Add 20 square inches by the wrapping method, and have a pattern worked in two colors on either one, quills to be dyed by self, for grand coup. II

Make a war bonnet of at least 24 feathers, with flufled bases and tips, horsehair tufts at ends of feathers, for coup. As above, with beaded brow band, rosettes at ears, ear pendants made by self (not ribbons) , for grand coup. II

Make six dancing rattles of various materials, each deco- rated with Indian design, for coup. In addition, dance a solo Indian dance, or the principal part in a group dance, using one of these, for grand coup. II

Make two parfleche bags or boxes, 6x12 inches each, or equivalent, of rawhide, for coup. If decorated with au- thentic Indian designs in colors, grand coup. 11

Make a pair of leggings of leather or buckskin, with decoration of Indian method. Make a dancing bustle, of at least 12-inch diameter, and at least three concentric rows of feathers. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make a medicine bag of buckskin or leather, at least four inches long, exclusive of fringe, five inches wide, deco— rated in some standard Indian fashion. Make an altar cloth, and four prayer rugs of any strong material, representing the Sand Painting and the Four Torches. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make a headdress for the Devil Dance, headdress to be at least 18 inches high, and 18 inches at widest points, after the manner of the Apaches, for coup. (See Rhythm of the Redman.) Also make the wands, devil rattle, and bell strings for the warrior, and take part in the dance, for grand coup. II 56 58)

Make a totem pole, at least 15 feet high, eight inches thick at butt, carved and painted in authentic Indian man- ner. Make a shield with the Horns of the High Hikers, shield to be at least 12 inches in diameter, horns each at least six inches long, and emblazoned with the tribal or other totem. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make and decorate a tom tom or war drum, for coup. If log is burned or hollowed out, and skin prepared from green state by self, grand coup. 11

Make four articles of parchment or clarified rawhide, such as Iampshades, miniature tepees, etc., for coup. Deco- rate these with authentic Indian designs, for grand coup. II Make the four usual Indian signs and blazes on tree trunks, in twigs, grasses, and with stones, and give smoke signals. Add 25 other signs or pictographs used by the Indians, for coup. Mark a path or road with these (except- ing smoke signals) for two miles, so that a party can follow the path marked, for grand coup. II

Chip a flint or bone scraper, and dress the skin of an animal with it. Make a fishbone needle, and use it to sew skin or bark into a costume or vessel, such as used by prim- itive man. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make a small clay statuette (human figure or animal), like those made by primitive man, carefully finished, de- tailed, and recognizable. On a piece of bone, scratch a series of animal drawings, depicting a hunt, not less than six figures, sufficiently detailed for recognition. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II-III.

Get a handful of wheat or other grain, and plant it. Tend it till it grows, grind it between stones to make flour for coup. Also bake it in the campfire to make biscuits, for grand coup. II

Do one of the following for coup; two for grand coup: Make a harp by stretching strings across a bent stick, reed pipes, a bone whistle, or a tom tom, using nothing but what you can find in the woods. II

Spend a day in company without speaking or writing a word, communicating only by sign language or by making rough sketches. 11

Make a canoe paddle, for coup. If decorated with Indian design, grand coup. 11

Make a pair of snowshoes. Make a pair of skiis, including bending. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II 57 59)

Make a pair of tilting stools, according to description in the BIRCH BARK ROLL. Construct a burlap deer, or a burlap bear, according to BOOK OF WOODCRAFT. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 11

Make a rush seat of rushes gathered and prepared by self. Cane a chair seat. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 11

Copy 10 animal paintings made by primitive man, using the same sort of paint that he used—red clay and charcoal mixed with grease. Copy them on skins, or mate— rial resembling skin, and use them for decoration of your camp. II—III-IV

Make four javelins, each with an ownership mark of some kind. Make a dummy bear, for game of Hunting the Big Bear. Either for coup. Both for grand coup. II

KNOTS AND ROPES

Tie from memory, know the name and use of 20 dif- ferent standard knots, mounted and tagged for exhibition, for coup; 40 for grand coup. 11

Know and demonstrate from memory the following: short splice, long splice, chain splice, back splice, eye splice, cut splice, loop splice, and cringle, for coup. In addition, know and demonstrate wall and crown, double wall, double crown, shroud knot, Mathew Walker, and rosebud; also 3- and 4—strand plaiting, for grand coup. 11

Make 10 feet of rope, 1/2” thick, from bark, vine, grass, root or horsehair, which will in actual demonstration sup— port 100 pounds, for coup. Make 15 feet of such rope from materials all gathered and prepared by self, for grand coup. 11

Make 15 feet of rawhide riata, preparing the necessary hide from which to make this riata, as well as making the riata itself, for coup. Make a rawhide lasso, not less than 25 feet long, equipped with rawhide hondo, all fit and strong for service, for grand coup. II

Make, mount, and label for exhibition (1) a 3-strand 2-bight knot; (2) a 5-strand 2-bight knot; (3) a 9-strand 2-bight knot. Make, mount, and label for exhibition (1) a 7-bight 5-strand single thong knot; (2) a 3-bight knot; (3) a 4-bight knot. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 11

Make a 4-plait round hat band, finishing both ends with 58 60)

terminal Turk’s head, and a sliding knot. Make a plaited watch fob, well finished. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make, mount, and label for exhibition (1) a 4-plait round, rolled; (2) a spiral design; (3) a 4-plait crown; (4) a terminal Turk’s head; (5) a crown-on-crown termi- nal; (6) sliding knot. Make, mount, and label for exhibi- tion flat plaits of 7, 9, 11, and 13 thongs; also a 6-plait round and an 8-plait round. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make a plaited quirt. Make a rawhide lariat with hondo. Either for coup; both for grand coup. Make a plaited bridle, complete, and well made, for grand coup. II

LEATHER WORK

Half—sole and heel one pair of shoes, using ordinary camp equipment, for coup. Same for three pairs of shoes, for grand coup. II

Make a box or bag for a rubbing stick set, with an extra compartment to hold tinder, attractively decorated with bead or quill work, to the extent of four square inches. Make limp leather covers for two books, such as tally book, well decorated with appropriate designs in tooling, etching, applique, painting, quill, bead, or burnt work. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make a purse, at least 3x6 inches, of leather, felt, or other such durable material, for coup. Decorate it to the extent of 1A of its area, for grand coup. II

Make a belt of braided split strap, for coup. If buckle is also hand made, grand coup. II

Make a knife sheath, with fringe. Make an axe sheath, with fringe. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make a linked leather belt. Make a linked leather wrist band, hat band, and head harness. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make, and mount for exhibition, six methods of edge lacing. Make a leather book cover with edges laced. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make a set of blotter corners, or side panels for a desk, or a pair of bookends of tooled, embossed or stamped leather, for coup. All three for grand coup. II 59 61)

METAL WORK

Make an article in etched metal work, such as a sun- dial or an ornamental name plate. Make a set of four small knockers, for study, play-room, bedroom, etc., each with an appropriate design, or make a large knocker of Colonial or Indian design. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make four of a set of fire shovel, tongs, poker, hearth brush, stand and scuttle. Make a set of andirons, or a swinging crane with hooks. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make a toasting fork, warming pan, corn popper, and trivet for tea kettle. Make a decorated brass tankard with cover. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make a hall or porch lantern with its bracket. Make a set of ornamental door hinges, key escutcheons, door latch or door handle. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make a set of tracking irons. Make a set of four candle- sticks and a fire bowl for the altar fire. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make a piece of silver jewelry, such as ring, brooch, bracelet, by the Navajo method, for coup. If the silver is melted and cast, drawn, shaped, decorated, cleaned and at least one piece mounted with turquois, grand coup. II

Make 10 useful articles of tin cans, for coup. Make 10 articles like the Navajo silver out of tin cans, for grand coup. II

PLASTICS

Make six handicraft articles of celluloid, or plastic, such as shade pulls, napkin rings, pendants, paper knives, book marks, etc., for coup. If engraved or painted, and at least two are bent into required shape, grand coup. II

WOODCARVING

With no tool but pocket knife, make five different arti- cles of wood for coup. Make 10 for grand coup. Identify several different kinds of wood that are good for wood- 60 62)

craft and know type of work for which each is suited. Know how to handle grain of wood. Show ability properly to sharpen pocket knife and woodcraft materials for grand coup. II

Using either hand carving tools or pocket knife, carve from wood two small plaques (50 square inches or under) or one medium size plaque (over 50) for coup. Carve four small or two medium for grand coup. II

Using either hand carving tool or pocket knife carve from wood one small statue (four inches or under) for coup. Carve one medium size statue (up to eight inches) for grand coup. II

With no tool but a pocket knife, make: two toasting forks; one 2-prong for broiling meat, with tines long and stiff enough to go into the meat; other, a 3-tined fork for toasting bread, center tine pointed to pass through the bread, the two outer ones flattened to lie against the bread and keep it from turning on the center tine. II Two spoons: one, straight grained; the other, from the crotch of a small tree, taking advantage of the natural grain of the wood. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make 15 different small articles, such as candleholders, tie racks, coat hangers, pot hangers, etc., for coup. Thirty for grand coup. II

Carve a relief totem, and color same. Carve an Indian totem pole of at least 14 inches in height, and finished in three colors. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Carve a chain out of a solid piece of wood, of five links, all to be intact. Carve a peace pipe. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make a picture frame, at least 8x10 inches, with back and inset for glass, out of a single piece of wood, and deco- rate same with carving. Make two picture frames out of wildwood material, each to be not less than 8x10 inches, or equivalent. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Make three useful articles, such as spoon, fork, firesocket, bowls, etc., and decorate same with Indian designs. Carve a relief design of the Woodcraft emblem, at least 8x10 inches, and color same. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

Carve a motto or signboard, of at least 15 letters, for coup. One of 30 letters, or two such as above, for grand coup. II 61 63)

Athletics and games

ARCHERY

Construct a target, not less than 30 inches in diameter with accurate pattern, and bull's eye of six inches, for coup. In addition, hit the bull’s eye three out of six shots at 20 yards, for grand coup. I

Make a bow and six arrows that will carry 100 yards, for coup. To carry 150 yards for grand coup. I

Make six properly feathered, flint-headed arrows, shap- ing the flint one’s self, for coup. In addition make a rain- proof, decorated quiver and bowcase for same, for grand cou . I

Make 24 arrowheads—six of glass, six of flint, six obsid- ian, and six optional, for coup. If tools are made by self of bone or horn, grand coup. I

Over 18 years of age: Four-foot target at 180 yards on steep hillside: Target counts 9; within six feet of outside of target counts 7; within 12 feet of outside of target counts 5; within 18 feet of outside of target counts 3; within 24 feet of outside of target counts 1. Coup is for 300 in 60 con— secutive shots; grand coup is for 400 in 60 consecutive shots. (In one or two meets.) I

Make a total score of 300 with 60 shots (in one or two meets), four-foot target at 40 yards (or three-foot target at 30 yards), for coup. Make 400 for grand coup. I 62 64) Shoot so fast and far as to have three arrows in the air at once, for coup; four for grand coup. I

Twelve to 14 years of age: Send an arrow 125 yards, for coup; 150 yards, for grand coup. I

Fourteen to 18 years of age: Send an arrow 175 yards, for coup; 200 for grand coup. I

Over 18 years of age: Send an arrow 250 yards, for coup; 275 yards, for grand coup. I

Hit the Burlap Deer in the heart, first shot:

12 to 14 years of age: at 45 yards, coup; 55 yards, grand coup. 14 to 18 years of age: at 60 yards, coup; 70 yards, grand coup. Over 18 years of age: at 75 yards, coup; 85 yards, grand coup. (The heart is nine inches across.)

To cover a mile:

12 to 14 years of age: in 16 shots, coup; 13 shots, grand coup. 14 to 18 years of age: in 12 shots, coup; 11 shots, grand coup. Over 18 years of age: in 10 shots, coup; 9 shots, grand coup. I

Three-foot target at 130 yards, on a steep hillside; 14 to 18 years of age: Target counts 9; within three feet of outside of target counts 7; within 6 feet of outside of target counts 5; within 9 feet of outside of target counts 3; within 12 feet of outside of target counts 1. Coup is for 300 in 60 consecutive shots; grand coup is for 400 in 60 consecutive shots. (In one or two meets.) I

ATHLETIC SPECIALTIES

Turn a cartwheel, for coup. Do it both right and left, for grand coup. (A cartwheel: Stand erect, left hand at side, palm down, right hand raised over head. Bend directly to the left, throw right foot in air, left hand striking the ground. The right hand touches the ground next, as the left foot comes up, then the right foot touches, and lastly the left foot. The body is kept rigid, and the feet must travel straight up in the air over the head, with no bend at the hips.) I

Throw a tumbler or four-legged handspring, for coup. Do it backward for grand coup. (A tumbler or four-legged handspring: Only the hands and feet touch the ground— not the head.) I

Turn a somersault, forward or backward, for grand 63 65)

coup. (Somersault: Stand erect, turn in air, and finish standing; nothing but the feet touch the ground.) I

Tread a barrel, for 100 yards, forward or backward, for coup. Tread forward 100 yards, then tread backward to starting point, for grand coup. (Treading barrel: Lay barrel on its side, stand on it and go through walking movement, moving the barrel in direction required with— out falling off.) I

AXEMANSHIP

Cut (and split if need be) sufficient rails to enclose an adequate horse corral 60 feet across. Build the corral. Either for coup; both for grand coup. I

Chop down three six-inch trees in succession in 60 sec- onds each, throwing them to drive each a given stake, for coup. In 45 seconds each, for grand coup. I

In accordance with forestry laws, fell a dead tree in the forest, of at least one foot diameter, and cut same into fire wood of approved lengths, for coup. Six such trees, and cut up into fire wood, for grand coup. I

BICYCLING

Ride 40 miles on bicycle every week for four weeks, riding at least three days each week, for coup. Ride 70 miles every week for four weeks, riding at least five days each week, for grand coup. I

Ride bicycle on a 15-mile trip once a week for 20 suc- cessive weeks, for coup. For 40 successive weeks, for grand coup. I

DANCING

All of the following dances must be presented on some public occasion; and all except the European folk dances, must be of not less than 2 minutes' duration:

Dance correctly 10 European folk dances, for coup. In addition, dance the Virginia Reel, and barn dance; also teach all of these to at least one other person, so it is cor- rectly performed, for grand coup. I-IV

Act as a leader in 8 different dances, and teach a class 64 66) 67)

of at least six pupils eight dances, representing at least four of the departments mentioned above. I-IV

Compose, teach and present publicly a dance for a group of not less than six, to take at least 3 minutes. Either for coup; both for grand coup. I-IV

Write and present a dance drama, to take not less than 15 minutes to present. Compose, and dance publicly, four different solo dances. Either for coup; both for grand coup. I-II

Perform five authentic Indian dance steps, and do three solo Indian dances, or principal part in group dances, for coup. Teach the above to at least six others, so they per- form it creditably in public, for grand coup. I-IV

Dance a different solo dance on each of eight public occasions, without pay. Teach another eight solo dances, performed on eight public occasions. Either for coup; both for grand coup. I-IV

EYESIGHT

Spot the Rabbit three times out of five at 30 yards, also distinguish and map out correctly six Pleiades, and see clearly the “Papoose (Alcor) on the Squaw’s (Mizar) back,” for coup. Spot the Rabbit three times out of five at 40 yards, and as above for seven Pleiades and Papoose, for grand coup. (Those who habitually wear glasses may use them in this test.) I

Make a 75 score in 10 tries in the game of Quick-sight, with 10 counters, for coup. A 95 score, for grand coup. I

FISHING

(Boys and young girls are those under 14; lads and girls, 14 to 18; men and women, over 18.)

Bait casting. With %-ounce dummy frog, five-foot rod, overhead casting, tournament style:

Boys and young girls 75 feet, coup; 125 feet, grand coup. I Lads and girls 100 feet, coup; 150 feet, grand coup. I Men and women 125 feet, coup; 175 feet, grand coup. I (If a wooden plug is used instead of a dummy frog, add 20 per cent to each distance.)

Tackle making. Make a six-foot leader of clean gut, 66 68) with smooth knots to stand a strain of five pounds, for coup. Tie six different flies, of regular patterns, on No. 8 to 12 hooks, and take trout with each of them, by daylight cast- ing in clear water, for grand coup. II Make a bait rod of three joints, straight and sound, 16 ounces or less in weight, 10 feet or less in length, to stand a strain of 11/2 pounds at the tip, 13 pounds at the grip, for coup. Make a jointed flyvrod eight to 10 feet long, four to eight ounces in weight, capable of casting a fly 60 feet, for grand coup. II Fly fishing. Take with the fly, unassisted, a three—pound trout, or black bass, on a rod not more than five ounces in weight, for coup. Take a five-pound trout or black bass or a four-pound landlocked salmon under the same conditions, for grand coup. I Hook and land with the fly, unassisted, without net or gaff, a trout or landlocked salmon, over four pounds, or a salmon over 12 pounds, for coup. Take, under the same conditions, a salmon over 25 pounds, for grand coup. I General fishing. Take on a rod, without assistance in hooking, playing, or landing, any game fish, whose weight in pounds equals or exceeds that of the rod in ounces, for coup. Take under the same conditions, a game fish that is double in pounds the ounces of the rod, for grand coup. I Fly casting. Cast a fly with a rod of five ounces or less, not over 10 feet long: Boys and young girls 65 feet, coup; 85 feet, grand coup. I Lads and girls 75 feet, coup; 90 feet, grand coup. I Men and women 80 feet, coup; 95 feet, grand coup. I

HORSEMANSHIP

Pack a horse or mule with not less than 100 pounds, with the single or double diamond, miner’s, squaw, square, or any other standard hitch, to hold during six hours of travel, for three consecutive days, for coup. Do the same for 30 days’ journey, not necessarily consecutive, and using three different hitches, for grand coup. I-II Pack a burro with not less than 50 pounds, with the single or double diamond, miner’s, squaw, square, or any other standard hitch, to hold during six hours of travel, for three consecutive days, for coup. Do the same for 30 days’ 67 69) journey, not necessarily consecutive, and using three dif- ferent hitches, for grand coup. I-II Take entire charge of a horse or mule, including catch- ing, during 10 days of wilderness travel. Hobbles and bell allowed, but no picketing, for coup. Take such care of one horse for 30 days or five horses for 15 days, and put a shoe on a horse, mule, or burro five times for grand coup. I-II Catch 10 different horses in a corral with 10 throws of the lasso, for coup. Catch five horses on the range with 10 throws of the lasso, for grand coup. I—II Catch a horse or beef by each of his forefeet in turn, for coup. Catch him by each of his forefeet with four successive throws of the lasso for grand coup. I-II Make a serviceable pair of kyacks, or side-panniers, of rawhide or canvas reinforced with leather, and make a pack saddle which will fit some particular animal, for coup. Add to this the breechings and breasting needed to hold it in place, all properly fitted, and make a pair of serviceable, strong-lined hobbles, for grand coup. III Make a comfortable pack harness which will carry 50 pounds for coup. If, in addition, this be properly fitted with breast straps and tump line, and used by self daily for two weeks (not necessarily successive), carrying not less than 30 pounds, grand coup. Not open to those under 18. III Pack two burros or pack animals with equipment, per- sonal or otherwise, not less than 100 pounds, and transport by trail through mountains to destination of not less than four miles, for coup. D0 same three times for grand coup. I-II Ride a horse one mile in three minutes, clearing a four- foot hurdle and a 10-foot water jump, coup. Do it in two minutes clearing a five-foot hurdle and a 15-foot water jump, grand coup. I Rope your mount out of a bunch without swinging the rope and in not more than three throws, bridle him prop- erly, the whole to be done in not more than one minute, coup. Catch your horse as above, but with only one throw, saddle and ride him 20 miles, the whole to be within 21/2 hours and the horse brought back in good condition at the finish, for grand coup. I-II Pick up a hat from the ground while at full gallop on a 68 70) horse of not less than 13 hands, coup. Do it three times without failure, from each side, with horse of at least 15 hands, grand coup. I-II Groom, hitch and drive a trotter a mile in 2.40, coup. Do this with 3 different trotters, grand coup. I-II Act as a teamster, unaided, during 30 successive days of travel on Western trails with a team and wagon, loaded at least half the time, coup. With a four-animal team for 60 successive days, grand coup. I-II Make a continuous saddle trip of 100 miles, with not more than two companions, neither of whom is a guide, through strange territory, sleeping out every night, for coup. Two hundred miles, for grand coup. I Make a continuous saddle trip of 150 miles with a party which may be guided, sleeping out every night, for coup. Three hundred miles, for grand coup. I

MARKSMANSHIP

Revolver shot. Target 4x4. Bull’s-eye eight inches (counts four points). Inner ring two feet (three points). Outer, the rest of the target (two points). Distance, 30 yards. Ninety—six shots divided in any number up to six days, one hand, standing, 250 points, for coup. Three hundred points for grand coup. I Half with left hand only, half with right only, 230 points for coup. Two hundred and sixty points for grand cou .I Esing the National Rifle Association target at 50 feet, with a .22 riflle, pump or bolt action, in the following po- sitions, make a score of 280, for coup; 320 for grand coup: 10 shots standing. I 10 shots kneeling. I 10 shots sitting. I 10 shots prone. I Medals of accomplishment, won in accordance with the National Rifle Association standards, or in military service such as National Guards, or in the U. S. Army or Navy, may be submitted to the National Honors Committee for recog— nition as coup or grand coup. I 69 71)

ROPING

Do the flat spin for 11/2 minutes, for coup. Do both right and left circles, each two minutes, for grand coup. I Do the body spin or wedding ring correctly for one minute, using a rope up to 35 feet in length, for coup. Do same for 11/2 minutes, with rope 40 feet or longer, first right hand, then left, then back to right, without stopping between, for grand coup. I Pass the stem from one hand to the other below the belt, for one minute, for coup. Do the hurdle, five times, for grand coup. (A hurdle is jumping over the stem or spoke as the rope is being spun below the belt.) I Jump into 100p and out three times without missing, for coup. Five times for grand coup. I Do the juggle or spring four times without missing, for coup. Seven times for grand coup. (The juggle is done by spinning the rope around the body in a horizontal position, and throwing it about the head; then letting it come to a horizontal position again.) I From a flat spin, bring the rope up over your head to a horizontal position around body, for coup. As above, then back again to flat spin, for grand coup. I While lying down, spin the rope for one minute, for coup. For two minutes, then stand and do the wedding ring for one minute, for grand coup. I Do the merry-go-round four times, for coup. Two-handed merry—go-round four times, for grand coup. I Do a butterfly for one minute, for coup. Do any trick such as skip and ocean wave, having the butterfly as founda- tion, for grand coup. I Any trick with two or more ropes, grand coup. 1

WATER SKILLS

Only two of these may be counted toward Sagamore. Perform standing front dive and swim in good form 75 yards using: (a) Breast stroke 25 yards. (b) Back stroke with inverted back kick, spiral or combination frog scissors, 25 yards. (c) Side stroke for last 25 yards. I Swim 25 yards on back, using legs only, 25 yards on back, using arms only, float motionless for three minutes, and tread water with hands out for three minutes. I 70 72) Be dumped from canoe unexpectedly, clothed in camp costume, undress in deep water without touching boat and swim 25 yards. Also break wrist hold and front neck hold, of subject same weight and strength in deep water. 1 Perform surface dive in six feet of water and bring up definite object. Also, demonstrate side stroke carry, 30 feet, and tired swimmer carry, 30 feet. I Swim 220 yards, no time limit. I Perform running plain dive from springboard, or rac— ing dive in at least fair form, and swim in good form 150 yards, using: (a) Breast stroke for first 50 yards; (b) Back stroke with inverted frog kick, s iral kick or combination frog-scissors kick for next 50 yar ; (c) Side stroke for last 50 yards. I Swim 50 yards using legs only, crawl kick debarred; swim 50 yards, using arms only, and tread water for three minutes with both hands above water. I Swim 50 yards in camp costume, undress without sup- port in at least seven feet of water, then swim 50 yards more. Also, break following holds of swimming instructor, or other well-qualified assistant: (a) Wrist hold, single and double, each against one or both hands of opponent, by means of legs. (b) Front neck hold. (c) Back strangle hold. I (Each hold must be broken at least five times in correct form, and against real opposition.) Perform surface dive in at least seven feet of water and bring up human subject from bottom in side stroke carry. Demonstrate unconscious or slightly resisting subject carry, also tired swimmer or cramp carry, swimming 25 yards, subject lying on back with arms straight and hands on car- rier’s shoulders and legs spread around carrier’s hips, carrier using breast stroke. I Perform well any two standard dives, for coup. Any four standard dives for grand coup. I Fetch a given object in six feet of water, for coup. In eight feet of water, for grand coup. I Bathe out of doors in water of natural temperature anywhere north of N. latitude 30 degrees, or south of S. latitude 30 degrees, for 300 days in any one year, for coup. 365 days for grand coup. I Measure 10 distances across a river without crossing, averaging within 10 per cent of accuracy, for coup. 'Within 71 73) 5 per cent of accuracy, for grand coup. Only axe and pocket rule or tape line permitted. I Log-riding. Tread a saw—log 100 yards in any time, with- out going overboard, for coup. Do it 100 yards and back in 30 minutes, for grand coup. This means standing. A pole may be used to balance, but not to be rested on shore or another log. I Paddle 1 mile alone, using single blade, in canoe not less than 15 feet long, on water without favoring wind or current: Under 14: 14 min., coup; 13 min., grand coup. I 14 to 16: 13 min., coup; 12 min., grand coup. I Over 16: 11 min., coup; 10 min., grand coup. I Alone, or as active member of a crew, paddle, row or pole 5 miles a day for 5 successive days, each day making a note and sketch or photo of some interesting scene, for coup. Paddle, row, or pole 10 miles a day for 10 days within 21 day limit, making each day note and sketch or photo of some interesting scene, for grand coup. I Canoeman. Alone in a canoe, single paddle, in deep water with fair breeze, fall overboard with paddle, replace paddle properly in canoe, climb in without shipping water, and paddle to shore for coup. In addition to this, turn over canoe, right it and empty it while still in deep water, canoe to be at least 16 feet long, for grand coup. (This should not be attempted by any but adults, because of physical strain of emptying canoe.) I Canoe Voyager. Do equal share of paddling on trip that includes paddling 80 miles within 5 days, making own camp every night, and carry all necessary duffle, for coup. 150 miles within 10 days, for grand coup. I Tandem Paddling. Paddle stern over a triangular course, keeping boat under control, and giving all commands to bow, shifting sides not more than twice, for one-half hour, in rough weather, and make a safe landing, for con . Do same alone in canoe, for grand coup. (Stern paddling is not done by using paddle as a rudder, but by scientific “tripping.” Rough weather means wind blowing hard enough to raise whitecaps.) I Paddle bow, steering well without waiting for orders from stern, 2 miles upstream (with decided current), at least some twisting portion of which is too narrow to turn canoe around in, returning immediately 2 miles down, 72 74) without touching the bank with paddle or canoe at all during the trip, for coup. Do same alone in canoe, for grand coup. I Same, paddling stern, for coup. Alone in canoe for grand coup. I Paddle stern in rough weather, and, without shifting paddle, describe a figure 8 within the space of 100 yards square, ending at point of beginning. Repeat with paddle on other side, for coup. Alone in canoe for grand coup. I Paddle bow under same conditions, except that ”cross bow" stroke is permitted, for coup. Alone in canoe, for grand coup. I Carrying. (Not permitted for girls under 18.) Overhead carry: Canoe must be handled from ground without as- sistance. 1/4 mile over trail, or 1/2 mile over road. Two per- sons, coup. One person, grand coup. (Canoe not to be less than 15 feet.) I Poling. Pole in quick water (running at least 4 miles an hour) 5 miles down stream and 5 miles return, without rest in three hours, with assistance of bow paddler, with- out bumping or grounding canoe, for coup. Without bow paddler, f or grand coup. I Gunwales. Alone in 18-foot canoe, get up on gunwales within 2 feet of one end, one foot on each gunwale, without aid of paddle, walk the gunwales to within 2 feet of the other end, without upsetting canoe, for coup. As above, in a 16-foot canoe or less, turn about on the gunwales at the far end, and return to starting point, for grand coup. I Make a continuous canoe trip of 100 miles with not more than 2 companions, neither of whom is a guide, through strange waters, sleeping out every night, for coup. 200 miles. for grand coup. I Make a continuous canoe trip of 150 miles, with a party which may be guided, sleeping out every night, for coup. 300 miles, for grand coup. I Sail a boat without expert help for 50 miles in 1 season, for coup. 100 miles, for grand coup. I-II 73 75)

CLASSIFICATION CHART FOR BOYS’ ATHLETIC COUPS

Exponents based upon a three point system of height, age and weight. Height Age Weight Sum of Under Under Exponent Exponents Under 50 in. 10 yrs. 60 lbs. 1 (6 or less) 51-53 11 yrs. 70 lbs. 2 Class B 54-55 12 yrs. 80 lbs. 3 (7 to 12) 5667 13 yrs. 86 lbs. 4 Class A 58-59 14 yrs. 95 lbs. 5 (13-18) 6061 15 yrs. 114 lbs. 6 Class B 62-63 16 yrs. 125 lbs. 7 (19-21) Junior 64-65 17 yrs. 137 lbs. 8 Class A 66-68 18 yrs. 145 lbs. 9 (2228) 69-72 19 yrs. 152 lbs. 10 Class B 73 plus 19 yrs. 165 lbs. 11 (29-33) Senior and over and over Class A Example: Villiam Jones is 54 inches tall, age 12 years and weight 70 pounds. Height 54 in. Exponent 8 Weight 70 lbs. ” 2 Age 12 years ” 3 Total 8 Classification Class A. Little Lodge John Brown is 68 inches tall, age 17 years and weighs 139 pounds. Height 68 in. Exponent 9 Age 17 years " 8 Weight 139 lbs. ” 9 Total 26 Classification Class B. Big Lodge For girls: Get the sum of the exponents as above; then, in the Big Lodge, drop back one class. That is, a girl with 20 would fall into Class B of Juniors; 3 girl with 22 would be in Class A of Juniors, etc. NOTE: For this chart, and for many of the athletic requirements for boys, we are indebted to Mr. Stephen M. Jessup, Assistant Super- visor, Physical Education, Los Angeles Public Schools. 74 76) >HEFMHHO OOGmum E H “rm fiOUOm wHO VOUOM wHO fiOUOm Had/Sow mmnufimoz mmZHOW mfiOHHOZ Macao: w m¢nzo= > manna: w mnomoa > moose: w manna: > m<mZHm mucosa”: a 9603:» «Lu Mango—3 if; mung—nun 5-»— quoagn Nwa Mano—.55» 8.: 096 O. 095 096 0. 09.6 096 O. 095 noun O. 096 09.6 0. 025 Conn O. 02.6 _. mm Std mum: ....... 3. wk? uxu. 20... 9.52 23 03...: 23. 032 n. we <wa mum: . . . q Kw. V X? g Km. a X? mu. m X? m wmu. 20... 0:2 20... 032 u. um <Bd gnu: . 20... Cum: cm. me. wk? m Km. 20... 032 20... 032 20... 0:: ¢ wow <2.“ “mm” . . . m3. Wmmz no... vaz SW“? 05 Km. Em? C: X? Jammy mwvmu. m»? wwwmr m N <2. wm . 0... ~52 0H vmz OH mmz 0... an: m. m. n. a. o $0 «63 a3: . . 20... 9.62 23. Ovmz 23. 03:... 20... Can: mm Kw. mum. up Ru. xx... 9. $6.95"; :5. . . . . 20» 03.2 20». 962 20... 03.2 20... mez u Ema. n 5%? pew. n 35.3? n 3w? no? w..rfl.....m.w...._:.... k... on... 2.“. 9%.. :2... on... 32... gm... fl... . 4...“... was. A“... 3.. .o.._.W==3=w IE: HE: . «5“ Q Eu: fimu Q5. 531‘ m. mg; ma: mix m3. mGt

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Service Activities

CHURCH PARTICIPATION

Be an active member of a church school class for six months, for a coup. One year for a grand coup. IV Serve as a teacher for such a class for three months, for a coup. Serve for one year for a grand coup. IV Render service as an officer of a regularly organized church club, one year for a coup. Head such a club for a year for grand coup. IV Regular attendance in any of the above, ninety percent for a coup; one hundred percent for grand coup. This to be based upon a period of one year. Repeat for any addi- tional year. IV Take part for at least six months of the year in the activities of a church choir, for a coup. If perfect attendance for both rehearsal and performance, grand coup. IV Take part actively in at least three church programs such as Christmas, Easter, or similar observance, for a coup. Same for six such programs for grand coup. IV Participate in an annual church camp-out or retreat for a period of two weeks for coup. Attend such a conference for two successive years for a grand coup. IV Read some portion of your church scriptures or Bible each day for a year for a coup. Read the total scripture, 77 79) Bible, Koran, etc. (depending upon your faith) for grand coup. IV Qualify and hold office for a regular term in your dis- trict church or religious organization for young people for a grand coup. IV Memorize and be able to sing ten religious songs for a coup honor. Twenty such songs for a grand coup. IV

COMMUNITY SERVICE

Act as umpire or referee in 16 practice games and 8 match games of baseball, football, volley ball, basket ball, or similar game for coup. Same for 2 different kinds of games, grand coup. IV Take complete charge of a seasonal Play Day for school, playground, or Club group; at least 20 events, coup. 2 play days, grand coup. IV Adapt 6 games to a crippled or a blind child. Both for grand coup. IV Take charge of children’s swimming groups 8 or more to a group, for 8 afternoons during the summer vacation, coup. Same for rowing, for grand coup. IV

FIRST AID AND HEALTH

Within 1 year, pass 30 nights out of doors (at least 14 of these successive), never once sleeping under a roof, but in a tent, tepee, or open, for coup. 60 nights of same (30 of which must be consecutive), and tell story of the Angel of the Night, for grand coup. I (The following coups are to be all according to the standards of the American Red Cross.) Describe in detail the treatments for the bites of a poisonous snake, dog, or other animal with septic possi- bilities; and for a severe hemorrhage; and apply correctly a tourniquet to an arm or a leg, for coup. Grand coup for the successful treatment of an actual case of either. I-II Demonstrate the treatment for 3 varieties of fracture, and apply a good bandage to each of 5 different parts of the body, for coup. Demonstrate treatment for 6 varieties of fracture, and apply a good bandage to 10 different parts of body, for grand coup. I-II Pass the Red Cross or other standard Life Saving Test 78 80) for life saving in the water, for coup. For an actual rescue, even though the victim die after or during the rescue, grand coup. I-II-IV Demonstrate the Schaefer method of resuscitation from drowning, and describe in detail the whole treatment of a drowned person from the time of taking from the water until he can be left alone, for coup. In addition, describe in detail first aid treatment for 8 of the following: sun- burn, sunstroke, chill from exposure, colic, diarrhea, tooth- ache, earache, poison ivy or oak, insect bites, hiccough, eating poisonous plants, burns or scalds, nose bleed, bruises, sprains, foreign bodies in the eye, for grand coup. I-II Throwing life buoy. For those under 18: throw it 40 feet within 10 feet of the mark, for coup. Throw it 45 feet within 5 feet of the mark, for grand coup. In each case, 3 times out of 5. I For those over 18: throw it 55 feet within 10 feet of the mark, for coup. Throw it 60 feet within 5 feet of the mark for grand coup. In each case, 3 times out of 5. I

HOME SERVICE ACTIVITIES

In person (not over the telephone) do all the market- ing for 1 week, keeping account of things bought and things used from supply on hand, for coup. For 1 month, keeping a budget of all finances for a family of at least 3, for grand coup. IV ‘ Make 2 different kinds of bread with yeast. Make 2 different kinds of baking powder gems or muffins. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 11 Do all cooking at home for 3 meals a day for not less than 4 persons for 1 week, or its equivalent, for coup. For a month, for grand coup. II-IV Cook and serve 7 dinners, including soup, salad, meat or fish, vegetable, and dessert, for at least 4 people, for coup. If all buying has been done by self, and kitchen cleaned afterwards, grand coup. II-IV Using no canned ingredients, make 6 different nourish- ing soups, for coup. Make 9 as above, but using in each some left-over of a previous meal, for grand coup. II Plan menus for 1 week, choosing at least 5 dishes that can be made from left-overs, for coup. If all prepared by self also, grand coup. II 79 81) Buy, prepare, and cook 2 different cuts each of beef, pork, lamb, and veal, for coup. In addition, buy, prepare and cook properly a fowl and a fish, each in 3 different ways, for grand coup. 11 Prepare and serve 6 different salads, for coup. 10, in- cluding 2 vegetable, 2 fruit, 2 meat, 2 fish, and 2 optional, for grand coup. II Prepare and cook wholesomely 10 different kinds of Vegetables. Prepare and cook wholesomely 10 different kinds of fruits, not to include jellies or jams. Either for coup. Both for grand coup. 11 Prepare and serve 6 different desserts, for coup. 9 as above, including pie, cake, custard, and frozen dessert, for grand coup. 11 Make 1 pound each of 4 different kinds of candy, sub- mitting samples to your Guide. Make 1 quart each of 4 different cold drinks, submitting samples to your Guide. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II Glace or candy 1 pound each of any 3 kinds of fruit, for coup. If the fruit is grown and collected by self, grand coup. II Collect the fruit and can 6 quarts each of 4 different kinds of fruit for coup. If the fruit is grown by self also, grand coup. 11 Can 1 dozen quarts of produce raised by self, for coup. 3 dozen including 4 different kinds of produce, for grand coup. II Prepare and can 6 quarts each of 4 different vegetables, for coup. If vegetables are grown and collected also by self, grand coup. II Prepare and can 6 quarts each of 4 different kinds of pickles or relish, for coup. If main ingredients are grown and collected by self, grand coup. 11 Take honorable mention or 2nd or 3rd prize for exhibit of canned goods or preserves, at any fair or exhibit, for coup. First prize, grand coup. II 80 82)

SCHOOL COOPERATION

Maintain perfect attendance for one term or semester for a coup. For a full year for grand coup. May be re- peated for any new period of time. IV Maintain an average of B, according to standard sys- tems of grading, for a semester or term for a coup. For the full school year for a grand coup. Repeater as above. IV Successfully discharge the duties of a Student Body ofiice for a term for a coup. Do the same for the office of President of Student Body for grand coup. IV Serve on a student committee in some field of com- munity service, such as Red Cross, Community Chest, etc., for a coup. Direct, as chairman, such a drive for grand coup. IV Win a school letter or insignia for serving in a school band, orchestra, glee club, debate team, or athletic team. Coup for any one, grand coup for any three, either varied or in same field for three successive seasons. IV Win your diploma as a graduate from high school for a coup. Serve as valedictorian, or as a graduation speaker for a grand coup. IV

TRIBAL SERVICE

Herald. Open and lead council, light the sacred fire with rubbing sticks, make the sand painting, recite the ceremonial (Grand Council) form of the laws, know the Omaha Tribal Prayer, and 3 Woodcraft songs, for coup. In addition, perform 3 Indian dances, and know well the Pathfinder, Sagamore, Naming, Installation, Fire Maiden, and Peace Pipe Ceremonies, for grand coup. IV Plan a correct Council Ring, according to this edition of the Birch Bark Roll, and supervise and help in the work of preparing the ground and building the seats, for coup. Plan the Ring, and do all the work of building the seats by self, for grand coup. IV Charter a tribe and act as its guide for 2 years (not less than 12 regular meetings a year, or equivalent) , for coup. Same for 4 years, for grand coup. IV Charter a tribe and act as its guide for 2 camping sea- sons (not less than 7 week a year, or equivalent), with cor- 81 83) rect Council Ring and successful councils at least once a week, for coup. Same for 4 years, for grand coup. IV Organize and take part in some pageant or other out- door function, to take at least 1 hour to present. Write and direct, or write and take part in the acting of an epi- sode whose scene is laid in one of the following early civili- zations, such story or act to be not less than 15 minutes: In- dian, Mayan. IV Write a poem in Psalm form, dealing with modern affairs, and recite it to your group, such poem to be not less than 200 words. Tell a story, or take principal part in the acting of an episode from the Bible, such story or act to be not less than 15 minutes. Either for coup; both for grand coup. IV Relate parts of one of the early sagas—Beowulf, Iliad, Odyssey, to your group, or take principal part in the acting of an incident from one of these, same to take not less than 15 minutes to perform. Compose verses (not less than 500 words), dealing with modern exploits in the style of one of the early sagas. Either for coup; both for grand coup. IV Tell a story, or take principal part in the acting of an episode from Herodotus, Marathon, Thermopylae, Croesus, Homer, Greek or Roman mythology, such story or act to take not less than 15 minutes. As above for story of Mo- hammed or Omar, or episodes taken from the Arabian Nights. Either for coup; both for grand coup. IV As above for episodes from life of Robin Hood, King Arthur, or other romances of the period. As above for episodes from travels from Marco Polo. Either for coup; both for grand coup. As above for episodes from lives of Indian heroes, like Hiawatha, Tecumseh, etc. Write a play, dealing with such characters. Either for coup; both for grand coup. IV As above, for War of Independence, Revolution, Civil War, for coup. Any 2 of these wars, for grand coup. Recite from memory 6 nature songs of the Shakespear- ean period for coup. 10 for grand coup. IV Originate and prepare material for a game to be used in learing 25 Indian Symbols and Pictographs. Make use of it for 10 Tribes in Woodcraft for coup. Same for learn- ing Totems, grand coup. IV 82 84)

Nature Study

ASTRONOMY

Know and name 15 star groups, for coup. 20 star groups, and tell something about at least 1 star in each group, for grand coup. III Take a latitude from the stars at night with a cart wheel or some home made instrument, 10 times from dif- ferent points of the compass, averaging within 1 degree of acuracy, for coup. Within 1/2 degree of accuracy, for grand coup. 111 Take correct latitude, longitude and local time with instruments, for coup. Pass the Royal Geographical So- ciety’s examination for ”expert traveler” for grand coup. III

BIRD LORE

Make careful observations and records of the building of a bird’s nest. Records should include description of location of nest, date when started, materials used, how the work was done, and date of completion, for coup. In addition, observe the feeding of the young of a pair of birds for 8 continuous hours. Record the time of beginning of observations, time of visit of each parent bird, whether made by male or female, if distinguishable; character of 83 85) food if possible; location of feeding ground, for grand coup. III Identify 100 native birds as seen mounted in a museum, the female and young to count separately when they are wholly different from the male, for coup. 200 for grand coup. II Identify in the museum the nests of 25 species of wild birds. After the nesting season, collect 25 nests of wild birds, and correctly label. Either for coup; both for grand coup. III Identify in the museum the eggs of 25 species of wild birds, for coup. 50 for grand coup. II Make and maintain for a season a bird bath. Record the visits of at least 10 species, including the dates when seen, for coup. Maintain the bath for 6 months, and record visits of at least 15 species. Tell about 10 methods of bath- ing and the birds that do them, for grand coup. III Build and put up a birds’ nesting box which is used by a pair of birds, and keep a record of its tenants for one season, for coup. 5 such boxes and records, for grand coup. III Build 5 birds’ boxes or shelters, and set them up, to be tenanted by at least 3 different species of birds, for coup; 10 boxes or shelters, tenanted by 6 different species, for grand coup. III Establish a bird sanctuary, with dog—proof fence if nec- essary, at least 20 bird houses used by not less than 10 different kinds of birds, and equipped with water (at least a bird bath), for coup. With 40 bird boxes, and the place used for nesting by at least 20 species of birds, for grand coup. II Make a record of at least 25 birds, identified and ob- served in the field, recording name, date, where seen, and what doing, for coup. 50 for grand coup. II Identify in the field 35 wild birds, for coup. 75 for grand coup. II Identify in the field 25 wild birds by note, for coup. 50 for grand coup. II Make a successful swallow bank, not less than 10 feet long and 4 feet high, for coup. It is successful when 3 pairs of swallows or other birds, have used it. Twice the size, with 6 pairs of swallows or other birds, or two such above, for grand coup. II 84 86) Build an artificial hollow tree, with nesting places for various kinds of wild creatures, to be used by 6 different species of animals (not counting insects) , either for nesting or for winter shelter, for coup. As above, to be used by 12 species; to be at least 15 feet high, and big enough for ob- server to go inside, for grand coup. (See Bird Lore, Jan, 1909.) II Establish a wild rice or water celery bed, of not less than IA acre, in a new region, to be visited as a feeding ground by at least 6 kinds of wild ducks or geese, for coup. 1/2 acre, or two such above, with 12 kinds of wild ducks or geese, for grand coup. II-III Establish and maintain for three months a feeding sta- tion, to be visited by at least 6 species of bird, noting the first appearance of each species, for coup. As above for 6 months, including 3 winter months, to be used by at least 10 species, for grand coup. II-III

GENERAL NATURE STUDY

Draw from observation made in the field, and identify the tracks of 15 wild or domesticated animals for coup. 25 for grand coup. II Make black tracks of 15 wild or domesticated animals, for coup. 25 for grand coup. 11 As above for plaster casts of tracks. II Identify by leaf or fruit, or both, according to any stand- ard authority, 25 trees and tell something interesting about each, for coup. In addition, identify by twigs and bark in winter 20 trees, for grand coup. III Identify, according to any standard authority, 20 shrubs, for coup. In addition, identify by twigs and bark in winter 15 shrubs, for grand coup. List must not contain any species for which credit has been given in tree coup. 111 Make a set of blue prints, ink prints or smoke prints of the leaves of 25 species of trees and correctly label. Make a set of blue prints, ink prints or smoke prints of 25 shrubs and correctly label. Either for coup; both for grand coup. This coup may be taken instead of the first one in this department, but both may not be counted by the same person for Sagamoreship .or lower degree. III Make a collection of the woods of 20 native trees, sam- 85 87) ples to be not less than 2 inches in diameter, and of uni- form length, for coup. In addition, make an exhibit of 10 different forest trees, mounting in permanent form, leaf. flower, fruit, bark, twigs, to show the method of branching and specimen of wood in each species, for grand coup. II-III Collect, identify, and mount, the blossoms (with twigs) , of 15 different forest trees, for coup. 25 for grand coup. (Do not include any included in the following coups.) II Collect, identify, and mount the blossoms (with twigs), of 7 different varieties of oaks, for coup. 12 for grand coup. II As above for maples. II Collect, identify, and mount the seed pods of 15 forest trees, for coup. 25 for grand coup. II (Do not include any used in the following.) Collect, identify, and mount 10 varieties of evergreens by twigs and needles. Collect, identify, and mount 12 va- rieties of evergreens by blossoms or fruit. Either for coup, both for grand coup. II Identify 10 trees, and tell the advantages and disad— vantages of the wood from each, to the camper, for coup. 20 for grand coup. II-III Train some wild bird or animal so it will come when called, and eat from your hand, for coup. Both a bird and an animal, for grand coup. II—III Make a nature trail of not less than 100 yards, properly and clearly labelling 10 species of the animal world, 10 of the vegetable and 5 of the mineral, for coup. Maintain this trail for 2 months, changing the labels whenever necessary because of deterioration of labels, or progress of season, for grand coup. II-IV Make a Lubbock’s ant nest, install a colony of ants, and keep under observation for 2 months, making a record of what was observed for coup. Of 2 species of ants, for 2 months, for grand coup. III Identify 15 butterflies in the field for coup. 40 for grand coup. II Keep a nature calendar in diary form, writing down one natural history observation for each day of a year, for coup. Also illustrate with at least 100 pictures, original or other- wise, for grand coup. III Take a country hike of at least 5 miles, prepared with 86 88) case or press for specimens. Unmistakably identify 25 speci- mens of different species on this hike, for coup. (These may be animal, vegetable or mineral.) Grand coup, for 50 specimens, composed of 15 animal, 30 vegetable, and 5 mineral, all identified and found on such a hike. I-II

GEOLOGY

Identify 30 minerals, for coup. In addition, make a properly classified and labelled collection of same, for grand coup. III Know, name, and describe the great divisions of the earth's crust (not less than 10) according to any established authority; also define watershed, delta, drift, fault, glacier, terrace, stratum, dip, and identify 10 different kinds of rock, for coup. In addition, define sediment, metamorphic, anticlinal, synclinal, moraine, coal, metal, mineral, petrol- eum, and identify in all 20 kinds of rock, for grand coup. III Note in person, and locate so that others may find them, the following: 10 geological formations, such as lava beds, granite cliffs, dikes, sills, faults, landslides, outcrops of various kinds of rocks denoting sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous formations, evidences of erosion by wind or water, for coup; 20 for grand coup. III Identify 10 ores of your region. Identify 10 minerals of your region. Either for coup; both for grand coup. III Identify 20 fossils, for coup. In addition, make a pr0p- erly labelled collection of same, for grand coup. III

INSECTS

Identify 8 species of spiders and observe and record the steps in the Spinning of a spider’s web. The record should contain the name of the spider observed, dates of record, location of web, exact time each observation was made and sketch of the appearance of the web at each observation, for coup. Study and record the web building of 5 species, for grand coup. III Identify 25 butterflies in the museum for coup. 50 for grand coup. III Identify 25 moths for coup. 50 for grand coup. III 87 89) Identify 50 insects other than those included in the above coups, for coup. 100 for grand coup. III Collect and mount for comparison the cocoons of 4 well- known species of moth, and give life cycle, for coup. Also same for caterpillar and moth of each, for grand coup. III Take full charge of a swarm of bees for 2 months, and record habits of bees observed, amount of honey made, con- dition of swarm at close of period, for coup. 6 months for grand coup. III Trail (not casually discover) a colony of honeybees to a bee tree, for coup. Transfer the bees to a modern hive acceptable to the bees, for grand coup. III

MAMMALS

Identify 25 wild or domesticated mammals which have been observed in the field, for coup. 45 for grand coup. II Identify 50 mammals observed in museum or zoo, for coup. 100 for grand coup. II Identify 25 fur-bearing animals used commercially, ob- served in the field, museum, or fur market, for coup. 40 for grand coup. II Know the following items about 10 of our wild animals, for coup. 25 for grand coup: General color, average size and weight, range, haunts, den, food, enemies, voice, mating habits, character and number of young, home life of the animal, and its use to man. 111 Identify from living plants 18 ferns, for coup. 35 for grand coup. II

MARINE LIFE

Make a careful record from observation of the develo - ment of an amphibian from an egg to adult, for coup. A d careful observations upon the habits of the adult, for grand coup. III Identify when seen alive 10 species of amphibian, for coup; 15 for grand coup. II Identify 8 crustaceans observed alive in nature, for coup. 12 for grand coup, with a description of the habits and economic importance of 2 of them. 111 88 90) Identify 7 species of turtle found in field, for coup. 15 in field, museum or aquarium, for grand coup. II Catch and identify 8 species of fish, and give an account of where and how each was caught. Know the main pro- visions of the game laws of your State, concerning fish, for coup. As above, with 16 species of fish, for grand coup. III-II Identify 25 species of fish seen alive or in the market, for coup. 40 for grand coup. II Go in a canoe, rowboat or sail boat, on stream, pond, or sea, and collect, mount and identify, or make accurate drawings to scale, 25 specimens of aquatic life, either ani- mal or vegetable for coup. 50 specimens, mounted, identi- fied or drawn as above, part to be animal and part vege- table, for grand coup. I-II Find in the field and identify 25 salt water shells for coup. 40 for grand coup. II Identify 10 other sea animals observed alive and give an account of 2 of them, for coup. 20 for lgrand coup. Lists must not contain any animals for whic credit has been received elsewhere. 111 Make and maintain successfully for 8 weeks a salt or fresh water aquarium containing not less than 3 gallons of water and not less than 5 forms of animal life. Keep a care- ful record of how the aquarium was cared for and of the habits of the animals, for coup. l year’s success for grand coup. III Mount in dust-proof cases, 25 salt water shells, properly labelled with technical name and common name of the field in which it is found, for coup. 40 for grand coup. II

METEOROLOGY

Be able to explain the scales used in measuring tem- peratures by both centigrade and farenheit thermometers, for a coup. Make a record by using either for a period of a year compiling daily readings and obtaining a yearly av- erage, for a grand coup. 111 Be able to explain the principle of the barometer and its use and significance in weather forecasting, for a coup. As in 1 above, for grand coup. III Identify four major types of clouds, and explain their significance, for a coup. III 89 91) Explain the principle of both isotherms and isobars for a coup. In addition make a series of charts showing the same for a given area at any given time, for a grand coup. III Be able to explain the formation and nature of frost, sleet, snow, dew, and rain, for coup. Add to the above an explanation, and the application to crops, of the “dew point,” for grand coup. III What is meant by high and low pressure areas? Explain for coup. Know the difference between a cyclone, hurri- cane, and tornado with their relation to the pressure areas above for grand coup. III Write an essay of not less than five hundred words showing how the knowledge of the above things are of use to man, for a coup. III

REPTILES

Identify 5 species of lizards found in field or museum, for coup. 10 for grand coup. II Identify 7 species of snakes found in the field and know which are poisonous, for coup. 15 for grand coup. II Identify 15 species of snakes seen living in field or zoo- logical park, for coup. 25 for grand coup. II

TAXIDERMY

Skin and mount, according to accepted standards of taxi- dermy, a specimen of a bird, fish, or mammal, for coup. One each, of bird, fish and mammal, for grand coup. III Tan a skin of some wild animal, smaller than a fox, so that the leather is soft and the fur will not slip, for coup. Of 4 animals, as large or larger than a fox, also sew- ing them together for a robe, for grand coup. III Make good skins, properly labelled, of 5 birds and 5 mammals, for coup. In addition, skin and mount, accord- ing to accepted standards of taxidermy, l specimen of birds, 1 of mammals, and l of fish, for grand coup. III Tan a skin of some wild animal, smaller than a fox, so that the leather is soft and the fur will not slip, for coup. Of 4 animals as large or larger than a fox, also sewing them together for a robe, for grand coup. III 90 92) PLANT LIFE Identify from living plants, 15 mosses and lichens, for coup. 30, including at least 4 club mosses, for grand coup. II Dry and mount 25 ferns, properly identified, for coup. 50 for grand coup. II Identify 25 mushrooms, stating which are poisonous. Identify 10 species of under-water plant. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 11 Find in the field 40 wild flowers and record for each species, the name, date when seen, place where seen, char- acter of habitat, abundance, and know what wild flowers need protection, for coup. 80 for grand coup. III Identify 40 garden flowers for coup. 60 for grand coup. III Collect and identify 20 weeds found in garden or culti- vated crops, for coup. 40 for grand coup. III Make blue prints of 30 wild flowers which have been identified for coup. 50 for grand coup. II Collect and identify 8 rushes, for coup. 16 for grand coup. II Collect and identify 8 sedges, for coup. 16 for grand coup. II Collect and identify the seeds of 40 plants including the fruit where possible, for coup. 75 for grand coup. II Make 25 drawings from life of wild flowers, birds, fishes, moths, butterflies, insects, etc., properly labelled, for coup. 50 such for grand coup. II 91 93)

Agriculture

ANIMAL HUSBAN DRY

Build a correct bee-hive and an approved rabbit hutch. for coup. In addition, raise a swarm of bees and a pair of rabbits, using same, for grand coup. II Hatch and raise a brood of a dozen chickens, turkeys, ducks, or geese. Coup for any 2, grand coup for 4. II Care for a team of horses or mules for 3 months, includ- ing bedding, currying, feeding, watering, etc., every day, for coup. Same for 6 months, for both horses and mules, for grand coup. II Raise at least 4 beeves, hogs or sheep for market or for home consumption, for coup. Any 2 of these for grand coup. II Successfully raise 1 animal, such as pig, lamb, or calf, from 3 days to 3 months, without its mother, for coup. For 3 different kinds of animals, for grand coup. II Identify 6 kinds of chickens and domestic ducks, giving treatment for roup, lice, and diarrhoea. Same for geese and turkeys (may include swans), giving treatment for any 2 diseases common among these. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II Identify 4 varieties of cattle commonly known as beef type, and 4 of dairy type; give points and characteristics of 92 94) each type. Identify 3 breeds of draft horses, and 3 of har- ness or road horses, giving points and characteristics of each. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II Identify 5 breeds of swine, tell which are lard and which are bacon type. Identify 3 varieties of sheep, and tell dif- ferences in their wool. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

FARMING

Make a seed tester, and test the germination of 3 kinds of seeds, 100 of each kind, and report results, for coup. Make 2 different kinds of testers, and test 6 kinds of seeds, 100 of each, for grand coup. II Work 8 hours a day for 1 month, as hleper on com- mercial ranch producing commercial crop of fruit, grain, vegetables, dairy or floriculture products, for coup. 2 months, for grand coup. II Seed 5 acres of land or weed 5 acres with cultivator. Cut, rake, and bunch 3 acres of hay, or haul and store hay from 3 acres, either in mow or in stack. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II Describe in full when and how to plant peas, lima beans, string beans, turnips, carrots, potatoes, parsnips, kohlrabi, and beets; and successfully raise any 5 of these. Tell when and how to sow and reap wheat, oats, barley, rye, buck- wheat, red clover, white clover, alfalfa, timothy, and 2 other kinds of grasses, and successfully raise any 5 of these. Either for coup. Both for grand coup. II Grow, harvest, and market any 5 of the marketable products grown in your area, such as prunes, peaches, pears, apricots, oranges, lemons, grapefruit, asparagus, lettuce, onions, gladiolus bulbs, narcissus bulbs, freesias, peppers, artichokes, rhubarb, celery, walnuts, almonds, for coup; 10 for grand coup. II Make a complete drawing or lay-out for modern farm plant, according to approved sanitary engineering, and landscape methods, for coup. In addition, make blue print of same properly labelled with legend, for grand coup. II-III Describe in full when and how to plant peas, lima beans, string beans, turnips, carrots, potatoes, parsnips, kohlrabi, 93 95) and beets, and successfully raise 5 of these. Tell when and how to sow and reap wheat, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, red clover, white clover, alfalfa, timothy, and 2 other kinds of grasses and successfully raise 5 of these. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

GARDENING

Once a week, for 25 weeks in 1 year, cut the grass, trim the edges, clean the walks, loosen the ground around hedges, bushes, etc., on a space not less than 25x25 feet, for coup. Same for two years, for grand coup. 11 D0 2 of the following for coup; 3 for grand coup: Have 4 window boxes, at least 24x8 inches, or equivalent, of successful growing plants, planted and cared for by self for four months. 11 Plant and raise successfully by self a dozen plants each of 5 of the following: cucumbers, to- mato, egg plant, pumpkin, watermelon, muskmelon, pep- pers, cabbage, cauliflower, headed lettuce, Swiss chard. II Identify 20 different kinds of garden flowers, tell where they grow best and when, and raise 10 of them. 11 Do all the work of a successful flower garden, contain- ing not less than 10 different kinds of flowers and 3 dif- ferent kinds of shrubs, for 2 years. As above for a successful perennial vegetable garden, containing not less than 6 different kinds of vegetables. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 11 Plant successfully, and tend for 2 seasons, 15 different species of wild flower in new locality. 10 different species of tree. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

INSECT AND PEST CONTROL

Know the life cycle, and take part in the actual cam- paign to destroy any one of the following pests: mealy worm, nematode, aphis, cut worm, wire worm, boll weevil, Mediterranean fly, narcissus fly, red spider, or any other pest that is subject to quarantine, and has been quarantined in your state, for coup. As above for any 3 pests, for grand coup. II-III-IV Save trees by destroying 500 of the tents or 1000 egg 94 96) clusters of the tent caterpillar, for coup. Double the num- ber for grand coup. (100 separate worms or 25 of the moths may be counted as l tent.) II-III-IV As above for gypsy moth. II-III—IV As above for brown tail moth. II-III-IV Identify 10 common weeds, and tell how to get rid of them, or identify 10 harmful insect pests, tell what they do, and how to destroy them. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II 95 97)

Hobbies

AERONAUTICS

Make an airplane flying model that will fly 200 feet, with a wing-spread of 24 to 48 inches, either mono or bi- plane type; rubber-band motor only. Make a model plane that will fly 100 feet with a motor other than rubber-band. Either for coup; both for grand coup. (These must take off from the ground, and, after flying the distance, must land in good form.) II Draw plans for the construction of an airplane, ap- proved by competent authority. Use these plans, or have some other member use them, to construct a plane, the finished plane to fly 200 feet. Either for coup; both for grand coup. III Construct a model parachute, at least 2 feet across, of china silk, with cover of muslin or light canvas, and having all the main features of a commercial chute. Make a fly— ing stick that will fly 200 feet. Either for coup; both for grand coup. Same for models with motors, grand coup. III Know and give the distinctive features of three different types of airplane motors, for coup. Hold a license as pilot, for grand coup. III 96 98)

MODELS

Make a miniature council ring, not less than 15 inches across, with 3 rows of seats, council rock, tribal robe, tribal shields, and standards, sand painting, fire, etc. Make a model sail boat, with one or more masts, correct spars, and orthodox sails and rigging. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II Make a model of a windmill that works. Make a model of a water mill that works. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II Make a model bridge, of wood, stone, or concrete, prop- erly timbered or reinforced, with good parapets, the span to be at least 1 foot in length, and sufficiently detailed so it could be used to guide a builder, for coup. Make 2, of different materials, for grand coup. II Make a miniature tepee, at least 1 foot high, with cor- rect poles, smoke flaps, lacing, decoration, etc., for coup. Make a model Indian village, at least 2 feet square, with not less than 5 painted tepees, smoke house, long house, 2 bunk houses, 2 toilets, council ring, sweat lodge, diving board, totem pole, all embellished in Indian fashion, for grand coup. II Make a drawing in colors of the habitat of lake dwell- ing Indians of Venezuela for coup. Also make a model habitat of same for grand coup. II Same for Plains Indians of North. II Same for Plains Indians of South. 11 Same for primitive Argentina Indians. 11 Same for Pima Indians of desert of Arizona. II Same for Haidi Indians—totem builders. II Same for Labrador Indians. II Same for Eskimos. 11 Same for Hopi Indians. II Same for Pueblo Indians. II Same for Maya civilization. II Make a model of a Phoenician galley for coup. Also of Roman galley for grand coup. II 97 99)

PHOTOGRAPHY

(All photos must be submitted to Headquarters or the regional Field Council before coup can be granted.) Make a good, sharp, recognizable photograph of a ruffed grouse (partridge) drumming, a prairie chicken dancing, a woodcock, sage, cock or wild turkey strutting, a white crane dancing, or anything of similar nature or value. 5 such, if captive, for coup; 1, if wild, for grand coup. II Make 10 clear, recognizable photographs of our dif— ferent native adult animals not in captivity, for coup. 20 for grand coup. II Make 10 good, recognizable photographs of birds’ nests, either with eggs or young showing, for coup. 20 for grand coup. II Make a series of 5 photographs of any wild bird, show- ing a habitat view, nest egg or eggs, and development of the young, for coup. As above for each of 5 birds for grand coup. II As above for wild animals. II Make a good, recognizable photograph of a wild animal in the air, that is, jumping clear off the ground, for coup. With 2-inch image, for grand coup. II Make 10 good photographs of any wild animal in its native surroundings, for coup. If the animal is not looking at you, grand coup. II Make 15 clear, recognizable photographs of insects, butterflies, moths, etc., in natural surroundings, for coup. 25 for grand coup. 11 Make 10 good, recognizable photographs of different kinds of adult birds, for coup. 20 for grand coup. II Make 3 photos, clear and recognizable, 0f 5 varieties of nut or fruit bearing trees, showing the following stages: in winter, with foliage and blossoms, or singly as the case may be, and with the mature crop, for coup. 10 varieties for grand coup. II Make at least 5 clear photos, showing the evolution of the tilling processes, as: the use of the sharpened stick, the hoe, the rude one-shovel plow, the horse—drawn gang, the modern tractor gang plow. Make at least 5 clear photos, as above, for transportation methods or vehicles, as the rude sled, the two-wheeled cart, the horse-drawn wagon, the 98 100) modern tractor or truck train. (Electric and steam may be included.) Either for coup; both for grand coup. III Make 10 charts of trees, all on the same scale, each chart to contain photo of tree in summer, tree in winter, leaf, flower, seed, and trunk, for coup. 20 for grand coup. II Make a set of 8 photos, clear and recognizable, showing automobile road signs, with their meaning. As above for the Forest Service trail signs. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II Make a set of 4 photos, showing different distinct styles of architecture of established use in North America, as Mayan, Spanish Colonial, Pueblo, New England Colonial, adapted Gothic, Dixie Colonial, West Coast, adapted Tu- dor, reinforced concrete, etc., for coup. 8 different types for grand coup. II Make good Clear recognizable photographs of following: 10 species of dogs (may be with owners), coup. 20 species, for grand coup. II Make same for cats. II Same for any other animal pets. II Good photographs of 10 historical landmarks, of your city, for coup. 20 for grand coup. II Good photographs of 10 live sea animals, for coup. 20 for grand coup. II Make 5 good, recognizable photographs of different kinds of snakes in natural surroundings, for coup. 10 for grand coup. II Make 5 good, recognizable photographs showing wild creatures of at least 2 different species in 1 picture, as tur- tle and wild duck, frog and snake, muskrat and heron, fish and osprey, for coup. 10 for grand coup. Same combination not to be repeated in 2 pictures. 11 Make photographs of the life history of any insect, showing the food plant, larva, pupa, male and female, for coup. 5 such series for grand coup. III Make a series of not less than 3 photographs illustrating Council or Woodcraft activities that can be used as lantern slide, for coup. As above for descriptive dances. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II Make 6 photographs outlining the peaks of mountains of at least 6000 feet elevation, which are made as a result of separate hikes to the mountains, for coup. 10 for grand coup. II 99 101) Make 20 photos of flowers that can be identified from the pictures, for coup. 30 for grand coup. II Make 10 pictures of obnoxious weeds that will serve to identify them, for coup. 20 for grand coup. II Make 3 photos each of 5 field crops, showing seed bed in preparation, the growing crop, and the harvested prod- uct, for coup. 10 crops for grand coup. II Make 2 photos each of 5 of the following varieties or breeds: horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, mules, rabbits, and chickns, for coup. 10 for grand coup. II Make a camera with a “pinhole lens” and take accept- able pictures with it, for coup. If pictures are developed and printed by self, grand coup. II Make 10 color slides of different wild flowers, for coup; 20 for grand coup. II Make 5 color slides of different mushrooms, for coup; 10 for grand coup. II Make 5 color slides of different native wild animals (200 pictures permitted), for coup; 10 for grand coup. 11 Make 5 color slides of different birds (200 or sanctuary pictures permitted) , for coup. 10 for grand coup. II Make 5 pictures (black and white or color) of inter- esting geological formations, such as dikes, faults, anti- clines, synclines, outcrops of rock strata, erosion by wind or water, etc., for coup; 10 for grand coup. II Make 5 pictures (black and white or color) of fossils, for coup; 10 for grand coup. 11 Make a series of 10 pictures of winter silhouettes of different trees, preferably isolated, showing the characteris- tic shape and system of branching of the tree, for coup; 15 for grand coup. II Make a series of 10 pictures of trees in summer similar to the above (preferably the same trees), to show the sum— mer characteristics, for coup. 15 for grand coup. II Have a nature picture, either black and white or color, accepted for exhibition by a national or international pho- tographic salon. One such acceptance for coup, two for grand coup. II Notez—All the above photographic coups (except the last one) may be repeaters. 100 102)

RADIO

Make a simple crystal radio set, and log at least 6 sta- tions. Make a regenerative tube set (one or more tubes), and log 12 stations. Either for coup: both for grand coup. 11 Make a multi-tube set (4 or more), using radio fre- quency amplification. Wind the coils for any of the above sets constructed. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II Know and be able to explain at least 24 common sym- bols used in radio construction. Make a chart and explain. Draw a diagram, and use it in building a successful crystal set. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II Construct a workable speaker unit of magnetic type. Construct a successful unit for cone type. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II Build a complete radio cabinet with built-in horn of expotential type. Build a complete radio cabinet, and mount a dynamic speaker in same. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II Build a successful B battery eliminator. Build a suc- cessful A battery charger. Either for coup; both for grand cou . Build a spark coil transmitter for C.W. transmission. Know the Morse or international code for use with the same. Obtain an amateur license to operate a transmitting station. Either for coup; both for grand coup. III 101 103)

Cultural Achievements

ART

Make illustrated booklet showing comparisons between objects made by sedentary Indians and those made by Nomadic Indians for coup. Add illustrations of carvings which tell a story as compared with natural design as used in pottery, etc., and geometric design as used in weaving, etc., for grand coup. III For other art coups see the degree requirements for Art-Craftsman. Meet any one of the twenty-two require- ments for a coup. Any three for a grand coup. III Be able to identify by their artistic designs and decora- tions, the work of three tribes of Indians, for coup. Three from each of three areas, such as Eastern, Plains or South- west, for grand coup. III

ENTERTAINING

On 5 different occasions, do all the planning of a pro- gram, training of entertainment, and presiding over a grand council of not less than 25 people, to take at least 2 hours, entertainment on each occasion to be entirely dif- ferent; and council to include business, song, dance, chal- 102 104) lenges, etc., for coup. On 10 occasions as above, for grand coup. III-IV Recite the Battle Hymn of the Republic, first 2 and last 2 paragraphs of the Declaration of Independence, the Preamble t0 the Constitution, and Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address. Recite 5 poems or prose selections, relating to the outdoors or other eminently Woodcraft subjects, aggregat- ing in all 200 lines. Either for coup; both for grand coup. III-IV Tell entertainingly a different story on each of 10 dif— ferent occasions, to take not less than 10 minutes each. Write an original story of not less than 2000 words, and read it to a group which declares it interesting. Either for coup; both for grand coup. Write an original play, based on a folk legend, to in- clude at least 1 dance; to take not less than 15 minutes to present. Write an original pantomime, based on some historical or legendary story, and train it so it can be pre— sented, same to take not less than 5 minutes to present. Either for coup; both for grand coup. III-IV

LITERATURE

Read the Talmud, and make a digest of it, in not less than 2000 words, for coup. Not less than 5000 words, for grand coup. III As above for Old Testament. III As above for New Testament. III As above for Apocrypha. III As above for Koran. III As above for Zoroaster. III As above for Confucius. 111 As above for Edwin Arnold’s “Life of Buddha.” 111 As above for Papini’s ”Christ," or equivalent. III Make a digest, in 2000 words, of either of the follow- ing for coup; both for grand coup. James’ “Psychology.” Hall’s “Youth." 111 As above for 2 of the following for coup; 3 for grand coup: Plato’s “Dialogues," “Golden Sayings of Epictetus,” “Meditations” of Marcus Aurelius. III As above for either of the following for coup; 2 for grand coup: Iliad, Odyssey, and Aeneid. III 103 105) As above for the following, for coup: Izaak Walton’s “Complete Angler.” III Make a digest of Plutarch’s “Lives,” giving a summary of 20 of the lives, for coup. Of 40 of the lives, for grand coup. III Write in not less than 1000 words each, a summary of what was done for natural science by 5 of the following men, for coup. 10 for grand coup: Linnaeus, Nuttall, Audu- bon, Brehm, Darwin, Russell Wallace, Charles Waterton, Sir John Richardson, Alexander Humbolt, Dr. Elliott Coues, Fabre. III Name the 10 Bible characters whom you consider great- est; tell briefly of their lives and work, for coup. 20 for grand coup. III As above for spiritual leaders of the world, other than Biblical. Make a digest of some American Indian study given in any volume of the Annual Reports of the Bureau of Eth— nology, in 5000 words, for coup. With an adequate in- dex, approved by Headquarters, for grand coup. III Submit 25 careful drawings which have been made to illustrate a theme concerning anthropology, ethnology, or archaeology of the primitive of your country, or any allied subject of special interest to Woodcrafters. Submit thesis on subject as above, of at least 5000 words. Either for coup; both for grand coup. III

HISTORY

Make a digest of some American Indian study given in any volume of the Annual Reports of the Bureau of Ethnology, in 5000 words, for coup. With an adequate index, approved by Headquarters, for grand coup. III Name 10 Americans whom you consider greatest in our history, and tell why you consider them great. Tell briefly of their lives and work, for coup. 20 for grand coup. (Do not include living people.) III Make a comparison of 25 or more American Indian symbols with pictographs of 1 other primitive civilization, for coup. 3 other civilizations, grand coup. 111 Interview personally members of local Indian tribe. Learn number of members, background, economic condi- tions, etc., for coup. 2 tribes for grand coup. III 104 106)

MUSIC

Play a different instrumental solo on each of 8 public occasions, or act as accompanist at least 8 times for some public event, without pay. Take part on 8 or more oc- casions as a member of a quartette, glee club, choir, etc., or as a member of an orchestra, band, etc., without pay. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II Sing solo, and from memory, 5 different American folk songs and 5 non-American folk songs. (A folk song is a song which was evolved by the people—not by a person— expressing the genius or life of the people. Thus, Old Black Joe is not a folk song. The non-American songs must be sung with words in the original language, and all the verses given.) Write an original song with words and music, not less than 16 lines, or equivalent. Either for coup; both for grand coup. 11 Sing solo, and from memory, 10 songs of the Civil War period. Sing solo, and from memory, 10 cowboy songs. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II Sing 10 authentic Indian songs (not adaptations), with correct music and Indian words, for coup. In addition, tell the story connected with each of these songs, for grand coup. II Write new words to an old tune (not less than 24 lines) , teach it to a group so it is successful. Write a new tune to old words (not less than 24 lines), teach it so it is suc- cessful. Either for coup; both for grand coup. II

RELIGION AND SPIRITUAL LIFE

Read the Talmud, and make a digest of it, in not less than 2000 words, for coup. Not less than 5000 words, for grand coup. 111 As above for Old Testament. III As above for New Testament. 111 As above for Apocrypha. III As above for Koran. III As above for Zoroaster. 111 As above for Confucius. III Name the 10 Bible characters whom you consider great- est; tell briefly of their lives and work, for coup. 20 for grand coup. III 105 107) Give 10 illustrations, scriptural or otherwise, of men getting closer to God, by prayer, fasting and vigil, alone in the wilderness. Give an account of the annual camp-out instituted by Moses as the Feast of the Tabernacles. De- scribe its social and hygienic significance. (Not less than 1000 words.) Either for coup; both for grand coup. III Wholly abstain for 3 months from your besetting sin, for coup. 6 months for grand coup. (You need not tell what it is, but be able to give word of honor to those in charge.) III Speak no sullen, impatient, angry or unkind word, for 1 month, for coup. 3 months for grand coup. III Cheerfully perform some unpleasant duty each day for 3 months, for coup. 6 months for grand coup. III Deny one‘s self some material thing which is much liked but not needed, for 3 months, for coup. 6 months, for grand coup. III The following is open only to those over 15; grand coup open only to those over 18: Watch and wait alone, preferably in some high sheltered place in the wilderness, by a fire, without reading, smoking, eating or drinking (except water) , from sunset to sunrise, for coup. As above for 36 hours, comprising 2 nights and 1 day, for grand coup. III The following coup is open only to those over 18, and under the advice of a physician: Fast alone, and in a high place if possible, for 48 hours, for coup. 3 days and nights, for grand coup. May read and sleep; water permitted. III

SCIENCE

Make illustrated chart of comparative cranial develop- ment of various races for coup. Also make chart of com- parative development (cranial) in man from primitive civilization, grand coup. III Same for any other anatomical development. 111 Same for specific organic development. 111 Submit 25 careful drawings which have been made to illustrate a theme concerning anthropology, ethnology, or archaeology of the primitive of your country, or any allied subject of special interest to Woodcrafters. Submit thesis on subject as above, of at least 5000 words. Either for coup; both for grand coup. III 106 108)

Degrees in Woodcraft

The Degrees in Woodcraft are given because of general all-around proficiency. They cover all phases of Woodcraft and enable Woodcrafters to work along lines which arouse the most interest and give the greatest pleasure. Some subjects are of interest to only one sex, but all are open to both sexes.

This list is made by the Manual Committee. The degrees are founded on world-wide standards, and with the help of the best experts. The Council will gladly consider any suggestion but it must be understood that no local group has any power to add to or vary the degrees in any way whatsoever.

Animal man
Art Craftsman
Athlete
Backwoods Handicraft
Bird Sharp
Bug man
Camper
Camp Cook
Camp Craftsman
Camp Doctor
Canoeman
Colonial Housekeeper
Dancer
Entertainer
Farmer
Fisherman
Foodcraft
Forester
Friend of the Little Brothers
Friend of Wild Life

109)

Gleeman
Herald
Horseman Dedicated to Wade Dudley
Hunter
Hunter in Town
Indian Craft
Indian Lore
Little Planter
Moccasin Runner
Mountaineer
Planter
Potter
Scout
Seamanship
Sharpshooter
Star Wiseman
Swimmer
Teacher
Three Years’ Service Dedicated to Carl E. Ekstrand :Traveler
Village Scout
Whiteman’s Woodcraft
Wise Woodman
Wood Music

Claiming Degrees

A Degree may be claimed at Council after application has been made on a properly filled form which sets forth the claim with sufficient witnesses to prove legally that the test was fairly taken.

The Degree Claim is certified by the Chief and Tally Keeper of the Council conferring it, and returned to the applicant, but record is kept in the Tribal Tally.

None but Chartered Tribes in good standing have power to award either Coup or Degree Badges. 110)

ANIMAL MAN

(Wamakaskan)

The degree of Animal Man may be conferred upon any who takes 10 of these tests.

1. Draw from observation and identify the tracks of ten species of mammals.

2. Make a black track of four mammals (see Totem Board, January, 1925).

3. Follow the track of an animal or person (snow or mud allowed) for a mile and identify the species trailed.

4. Mount a mammal, according to the accepted standards of taxidermy.

5. Tan the pelt of some animal larger than a fox, so that the fur will not slip.

6. As above for a fox or a smaller animal.

7. Take a good recognizable photo of some wild animal in the field.

8. Take 10 good recognizable photos of ten species of wild mammals in captivity.

9. Tame some free wild animal so that it will come when called.

10. Identify 20 wild or domesticated mammals which have been observed in the field.

11. Identify 50 mammals in a Museum.

12. Identify and give the life history of five species of mammals which spend most of their time in the water.

13. Identify 20 fur bearing animals used commercially, observed in the field, museum or fur market.

14. Identify the horns from 10 species of wild animals and tell the distinguishing marks of each (antlers included).

15. Observe and study carefully the habits of some wild animals for two or more years, and write a record of your observations.

ART CRAFTSMAN

(Moninieio)

The Degree of Art Craftsman may be conferred on anyone who takes fifteen of these tests:

1. Make a ceremonial belt of beadwork telling a story.

2. Make a costume for some Woodcraft activity. 111)

3. Embroider a ceremonial dress, symbolic or Indian design.

4. Make a head band or shoulder strap or equivalent work in quill work.

5. Make and decorate a pair of Indian leggings or moccasins.

6. Make a leather cushion cover with beadwork, or applique one of linen, or a woven cover.

7. Weave a rug, Indian design preferred.

8. Make a box for coup feathers of leather or of birch-bark.

9. Make an attractive box or bag for rubbing sticks and tinder.

10. Decorate a Sagamore or Tribal robe or blanket.

11. Make three useful articles with burnt work decorations.

12. Carve three useful articles such as spoons, forks, bowls, fire socket, and ornament with Indian designs.

13. Make a frame for picture out of a single piece of wood at least eight inches by ten inches.

14. Make a tray in basketry complete with glass mounting.

15. Make three pieces of silver work of good design.

16. Make three pieces of brass work of good design.

17. Make and decorate a brass or copper bowl, vase, or plaque.

18. Make two hanging basket vases of willow or raffia suitable for porch decoration, fitted with holder of glass or tin.

19. Make a frame complete with glass and back, for Woodcraft charter.

20. Tell the symbolism of ten beadwork designs used by American Indians such as rain, star, etc.

21. Make set of three metal dies or hubs or punches for stamping in the designs in metal (such punches or hubs or dies as the Pueblo Indians use).

22. Make candlesticks and firebowl for the Four Fires. 112)

ATHLETE OR STRONGMAN

(Song-adis)

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BACKWOODS HANDICRAFTSMAN

(Shaginapi)

The Degree of Backwoods Handicraftsman may be conferred on any one who takes seven of these tests:

1. Make a birch or hickory broom.

2. Make a hunter’s lamp.

3. Make an Indian or willow bed.

4. Make a four-poster to carry the willow bed.

5. Make a wooden kneading trough.

6. Make a noggin or wooden drinking cup of a tree burl.

7. Make a basket to hold at least a quart using raffia, spruce roots, rattan, or other strong material.

8. Make a box or vessel of birch bark tight enough to hold any ordinary grain.

9. Build a cabin.

10. Temper a knife.

11. Build a boat to carry one or more.

12. Make a Navajo loom.

13. Build a stone or brick bake oven.

14. Tan a pelt with the fur on.

15. Remove the hair from a calfskin without using a knife or injuring the skin.

16. Repair a boot with a patch.

17. Make a pair of moccasins.

18. Use an axe correctly.

19. Weave a rug or mat.

BIRD SHARP

(Bineshi)

The Degree of Bird Sharp may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests:

1. Identify fifty native birds in a collection. (When the sexes differ greatly, they count each as a bird.)

2. Identify twenty-five native birds in the field.

3. Identify twenty-five native birds by note.

4. Make a local list of twenty-five birds with remarks on arrival, departure, abundance, etc.

5. Mention twenty birds of great value to agriculture and say why. 114)

6. Name ten birds that work in the orchard destroying the bark lice and other such pests.

7. Keep a journal with daily notes on the nesting of a pair of birds from setting to fledging.

8. Make and set up two successful bird boxes.

9. Make and set up a successful lunch counter.

10. Make and set up a successful bird bath.

11. Tell what bird santuaries are, and why they are being established.

12. Write an essay of at least 500 words giving the life history of some native bird that you know well, telling when it arrives in the spring, how the male differs from the female, what its song is like, what are its haunts, where it nests, what its nest and eggs are like, when the young are raised and fly, what they are like at first plumage, how many broods are raised each season, what are its foods, its enemies, and its peculiarities.

BUG MAN

(Tapopuska)

The Degree of Bug Man may be conferred upon any one who accomplishes 14 of these tests.

1. What is an insect? Is a spider an insect? Give a reason for your answer. How about a centipede? Milliped? “Sow-bug”? In each case, why? What is meant by an “order”?

2. Tell how you would distinguish any eight of the following from each other and from other insects: Butterfly, moth, beetle, wasp, bee, ant, grasshopper, cricket, roach, dragon-fly, a true fly, a true bug; a spider.

3. Collect, preserve, mount and correctly identify at least five species in each of at least three orders of insects. Label each specimen as to locality and date of capture. Describe in a general way the sort of places in which each of these species lives.

4. Describe the life history of an insect which is injurious to man or to man’s property. Of an insect which is beneficial to man. Of one that is not decidedly either injurious or beneficial.

5. Describe at least five different things insects make, telling what kind of insect made each, but not counting cocoons. (Examples: nests of paper, mud, leaves or silk; 115) traps to catch prey; burrows in wood, leaves or earth that have some character distinguishing them from other burrows; galls; special protection of eggs, etc.) Present one specimen of each.

6. Insects grow and many, but not all, change greatly just before they become adult. Rear at least three different species of insect from the stage preceding the adult one to that stage. Preserve the cast nymphal skin or pupal shell as well as the adult.

7. Make a Lubbock ant’s nest, install a colony of ants and record observations for one month.

8. Take full charge of a swarm of bees for one season.

9. Identify 8 species of bees, wasps or ants and describe the distinguishing character of each.

10. Make good recognizable photos of five species of spider nests.

11. Record the steps in the spinning of a spider’s web, giving date, name of spider, location of web and description of the various steps.

12. Identify eight species of spiders.

13. Identify 10 species of butterflies.

14. Identify 20 species of moths.

15. Collect a moth cocoon and take entire charge of the product of this cocoon through its entire life history until another cocoon is produced.

16. As above for a butterfly.

17. Make three serviceable six foot leaders for a fish line from gut raised by self.

18. Make good recognizable photos of 10 species of moths or butterflies.

19. Make a series of good recognizable photos showing the life history of a butterfly or moth; including its emergence from the cocoon.

20. Identify 3 species of mosquitoes; describe the life history of one, and tell how best to rid a place of mosquitoes.

21. Identify 20 species of insects not included in the above. 116)

CAMPER

(Gabeshiked)

The Degree of Camper may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests (the first four being required):

1. Choose a one night camp site, preparing for rain and protection from insects. See Totem Board.

2. Describe in detail how to build a latrine (toilet).

3. Describe in detail how to dispose of the camp garbage and refuse.

4. Light fifteen fires in succession with fifteen matches, at different places, one at least on a wet day.

5. Put up a two-man tent alone, ten times, for actual service, ready for storms.

6. Make a fire with rubbing-sticks of own preparation.

7. Boil water in fifteen minutes with one match, one log, one axe; one quart of water in a two-quart pail. All work to be done alone.

8. Make a rod bed, or a mat, of wild material.

9. Make a rainproof roof of wildwood materials.

10. Cook twenty-one digestible meals with ordinary camp outfit, for at least three persons, or equivalent.

11. Describe in detail how to make a raft.

12. Sleep out 100 nights (no roof but canvas, not necessarily consecutive nights), or 30 consecutive nights.

13. Travel 500 miles, all told, in canoe, on foot, or in saddle, sleeping out.

14. Have charge of a camp of five or more for seven suns (one week) and keep all going in good shape.

CAMP COOK

(Chabakwed)

The Degree of Camp Cook may be conferred on any one who takes six of these tests:

1. Make a good fireplace of wood, of stone, or earth.

2. Light fifteen fires with fifteen successive matches, one on a wet day.

3. Bake five batches of good bread in a Dutch oven.

4. Bake five batches of good bread in a frying pan before the open fire.

5. Cook twenty-one digestible meals over campfire for a party of two or more, or equivalent. 117)

6. Boil a quart of water in a two-quart pail in ten minutes. without help.

7. Cook a meal consisting of baked bread, boiled fish, or fried or roast meat, vegetable, without any utensils or tools but a hatchet.

8. Train a class in camp cooking, showing and making them do it properly.

CAMP CRAFTSMAN

(Eokid)

The Degree of Camp Craftsman may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen out of these tests:

1. Demonstrate a knowledge of tanning and curing.

2. Sole and heel a pair of boots, or shoes, sewed or nailed, and generally repair footwear with ordinary camp outfit.

3. Keep in repair a saddle, traces, stirrup leathers, etc., and know the various parts of harness.

4. Patch a garment.

5. Make a lace or a button of a leather patch.

6. Make set of six camp chairs and a camp table.

7. Make a waterproof vessel of birch bark.

8. Repair a broken boat or canoe.

9. Repair a tent cover so it will not leak.

10. Make an axe helve or a hoe handle.

11. Repair a leaky kettle or pot.

12. Solder a tin.

13. Make a basket of wildwood materials.

14. Make an Indian bed of not less than 60 rods.

15. Make a grass mat not less than 2 x 5.

16. Fell a six-inch tree in sixty seconds and drive with it a given stake.

17. Cut down a six-inch tree, and chop and split it into stove wood, using axe only.

18. Cut and flat with two true surfaces a log like a railway tie, eight feet long, nine-inch face, and six inches thick, using axe only.

19. Distinguish between rip saw, crosscut, keyhole saw, two-handed crosscut, bucksaw and show how they are used.

20. Show the right and wrong way of putting nails into two boards, one of which is to be fastened across the other.

21. Make a boat or a birch canoe.

22. Build a log cabin. 118)

CAMP DOCTOR

(Mashkiki)

The Degree of Camp Doctor may be conferred on any one who takes eighteen out of these tests (the first four being rquired):

1. Demonstrate the Schaefer method of resuscitation.

2. Pass first-aid tests of Red Cross Society, or other standard.

3. Know how to treat for bad sunburn.

4. Know poison ivy, sumac, oak, etc., and the proper treatment for cases of poisoning by these.

5. Carry a person down a ladder.

6. Bandage head and ankle.

7. Tell the best remedy for skunk smell and bee stings.

8. Describe treatment for body lice and fleas.

9. Describe the treatment for hives and ringworm.

10. Show treatment for bite by mad dog or poisonous snake.

11. Demonstrate rescue of person in contact with electric wire.

12. Apply tourniquet to a principal artery.

13. Describe in detail the proper care of the teeth.

14. What medical outfit would you take for a month’s sojourn in the wilderness? Why was each article chosen?

15. Be able to tell the difference in effect of a cold and hot bath.

16. Tell how to care for the feet on a march.

17. Describe the effect of walking as an exercise.

18. Know how to treat sprains.

19. Tell the effect of over-exercise.

20. State the chief causes of tuberculosis, typhoid and malaria.

21. Tell what should be done to a house which has been occupied by a person who has had a contagious disease.

22. Describe the best methods of disposing of garbage, and the evil effect of flies.

23. Tell how a camp should protect its foods: milk, meat, and exposed foods.

24. Tell how to plan the sanitary care of a camp.

25. Know what wood herbs, etc., or camp staples will produce sweat, purge, vomit, or warmth; what will make a quick poultice, which will check diarrhoea.

26. Make, use, and teach others to use, the Indian Sweat Lodge. 119)

CANOEMAN

(Chemaunigan)

The Degree of Canoeman may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests:

1. Tie rapidly six different useful knots.

2. Splice ropes.

3. Find, collect, prepare, and use ”watap”, that is spruce roots, for canoe binding, etc.

4. Find, collect, prepare, and use gum for canoe gumming.

5. Use a palm and needle.

6. Fling a rope coil.

7. Row, pole, scull, and steer a boat; also bring a canoe or boat properly alongside and make fast.

8. Build a boat or canoe to carry at least one person.

9. Make a serviceable paddle and paint it Indian fashion.

10. Repair hole in the side, below water line, of a boat or canoe.

11. Know the laws of beaching, caching, or portaging a canoe, also how to sit in it and how to change seats with another when afloat.

12. Swim 100 yards.

13. Swim fifty feet with shoes, pants or skirt, and shirt on.

14. Sail any two-man craft for 200 miles in a season —

the other man not a professional sailor.

15. Paddle (single) a canoe on dead water one mile in fourteen minutes.

16. Spill a canoe, get in again and bale it out without help.

17. Take canoe camper’s honor, that is, make a continuous canoe or rowboat trip of at least 100 miles, sleeping out every night.

18. Be able to tell direction by the stars and sun.

19. Steer by compass.

20. Teach a class to handle a canoe.

COLONIAL HOUSEKEEPER

(Gaiat)

The Degree of Colonial Housekeeper may be conferred on any one who takes twelve of these tests: 120)

1. Gather bayberries and make four candles dipped or moulded, each six inches long, for the Four Fires.

2. Leach the ashes and make a pint of soft soap.

3. Dye evenly four pieces of material not less than half a yard each of four different colors, or four skeins of yarn. Dyes may be bought.

4. Dye twelve squares of felt or white flannel each about 4 x 4 inches, each a different color with stuff found in the woods, such as butternut bark, golden oak, sassafras, goldenrod tops, pokeberries, etc. (Tea and coffee allowed.)

5. Make a lavender box, i. e., grow, gather, dry and use the lavender in a clothes chest. Same for lemon verbena (tripolium).

6. Gather and make marigold salve (calendula) or prunella salve (self-heal) or witchhazel salve.

7. Gather sassafras leaves and make a gumbo soup.

8. Gather the sap and make of it a pound of sugar, either from maple or other sugar trees.

9. Brew sage tea, mullein tea, boneset tea, catnip tea, camomile tea, and ginger tea.

10. Dry, corn, spice, salt, or otherwise preserve three kinds of meat or fish for household larder.

11. Dry five quarts of fruit, or vegetables for winter use.

12. Knit or crochet any usable article of wearing apparel.

13. Spin enough cotton, flax, wool, or hemp to make five yards of stuff or half a dozen pair of socks.

14. Weave 2 1/2 yards of cloth or rag carpet, rug or bedspread.

15. Cut, select, sew, ball and arrange for the making of a good rag carpet 2 1/2 yards long.

16. Make single-handed a rag rug, braided or hooked.

17. Make applique quilt or patchwork quilt.

18. Make a grandmother’s sampler.

DANCER

(Namid)

The Degree of Dancer may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests:

1. Dance four folk dances such as beansetter, ox-dance, Morris dance, Maypole, ribbon dance, etc.

2. Dance a good cakewalk. 121)

3. Dance two gypsy dances. (Spanish or Hungarian gypsy.)

4. Dance one standard Scottish dance, such as Highland fling, Scottish reel, sword dance, and fire dance, or dance two Irish dances, as jig, reel, hompipe, double shuffle, clog, etc.

5. Dance two standard Indian dances — as Lone Scout, Solo Snake, Storm Cloud, Caribou dance, Zuni spring dance, etc.

6. Dance two Greek dances.

7. Dance the minuet.

8. Dance the quadrille, lancers, and Virginia reel.

9. Lead in five children’s dances such as Sally Waters, chair dance, Mulberry Bush, A Hunting We Will Go.

10. Teach a class at least four dances representing four different departments as above.

11. Dance two Japanese dances. (One posture dance and one spear dance.)

12. Dance the dance of the Golden Sari, and a fire dance.

Note: Music of folk dances and Indian dances can be had on Victor and Columbia records, Education Department list.

ENTERTAINER

(Tchessakid)

The Degree of Entertainer may be conferred on any one who takes thirteen of these tests:

1. Tell entertainingly a good story, of not less than ten minutes, to a group of young people five different times.

2. Tell standard Indian stories to a group of not less than five one hour a week for two months, or equivalent.

3. Recite well five poems, orations, or stories which are in keeping with the occasions and entertaining.

4. Sing alone from memory five American folk songs.

5. Ditto for five English folk songs.

6. Ditto for five Scotch folk songs.

7. Ditto for five Irish folk songs.

8. Ditto for five folk songs of any other nation.

9. Act as accompanist at least six times for some public event in school, church, etc.

10. Take part on three or more occasions as a member of 122) a quartet, glee club, chorus, or as a member of an orchestra, band, etc.

11. Play an instrumental solo at three public occasions.

12. Give a party, arranging program of entertainment and refreshments, the latter not to cost more than fifteen cents per person, and for at least six people.

13. Entertain younger people on five different occasions — introducing song, story, dance, or manual training.

14. Write a play which is used for public performance.

15. Do successfully six moving pictures of given subjects such as Sleeping Beauty, Red Riding Hood, Old Mother Hubbard, etc. (acting the story or rhyme out in pantomime).

16. Do ten recognizable bird or animal imitations.

17. Put on shadow charades in camp or shadow moving pictures with sheet and lantern.

18. Take part in folk dancing at three public events.

FARMER

(Kitigewin)

The Degree of Farmer may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests:

1. Explain the nature of soil, its texture and need of water and air.

2. State how to decide what fertilizer is needed in given soil.

3. Plow, harrow and seed down two acres of land.

4. Weed and harvest two acres of land.

5. Cut, make and harvest five acres of hay.

6. Make a seed tester and test the germination of three kinds of crop seeds, one hundred seeds of each kind. “Rag-baby” tester for corn.

7. Identify ten common weeds and tell how to get rid of them.

8. Identify ten bad bugs and tell what they do and how to get rid of them.

9. Have inoculated seeds of clovers, cowpeas, etc., and grown demonstration strips and compare the increase of nodules on roots of inoculated plants.

10. Do all the work in a successful flower, or fruit and vegetable garden, not less than twenty feet by twenty feet. 123)

11. Raise half a dozen each of five of the following plants: cucumber, tomato, egg plant, pumpkin, melon, pepper, cabbage, cauliflower, celery.

12. Have four window boxes, at least 24 x 8 inches, or equivalent, of successful growing plants, planted and cared for by self, for four months.

13. Make a garden calendar, stating the order of bloom, so that from April to September there is a flower for each week.

14. Have a successful perennial vegetable garden — rhubarb, asparagus, mint, horseradish, etc.

15. Send a bouquet a week to a hospital or ”shut-in” or Flower Guild, from own flower-beds for six months.

16. Keep a garden in good shape, clean and trim all summer.

FISHERMAN

(Gagoiked)

The Degree of Fisherman may be conferred on any one who takes nine of these tests:

1. Catch and name ten different species of fish: salmon or trout to be taken with flies; bass, pickerel, or pike to be caught with rod or reel, muskallonge to be caught by trolling.

2. Make a bait rod of three joints, straight and sound, fourteen ounces or less in weight, ten feet or less in length, to stand a strain of one and a half pounds at the tip, 13 pounds at the grip; or else make a jointed fly-rod 8 to 10 feet long, 4 to 8 ounces in weight, capable of casting a fly sixty feet.

3. Name and describe twenty-five different species of fish found in North American waters, and give a list of at least five of the fish ascertained to inhabit a given body of water.

4. Give the history of the young of any species of wild fish from the time of hatching until the adult stage is reached.

5. Make a net and catch fish in it.

6. Make a turtle trap and catch a turtle in it.

7. Make a six-foot leader of clean gut, with smooth knots to stand a strain of five pounds.

8. Take with the fly, unassisted, a three-pound trout, 124) land-locked salmon, or bass, or a twelve-pound salmon, on a rod not more than eight ounces in weight.

9. Take on a rod, without assistance in hooking, playing, or landing a trout, black bass, pike (muskallonge), grayling, salmon, bluefish, weakfish, striped bass, kingfish, sheepshead, or other game fish, whose weight in pounds equals or exceeds half that of the rod in ounces.

10. Cast a fly with a rod of five ounces, or less, not over ten feet long, sixty-five feet. Or, with one quarter of an ounce dummy frog, five-foot rod, outdoors overhead casting, tournament style, send it eighty feet if under eighteen, one hundred and ten if over.

11. Swim a hundred yards.

12. Paddle (single) a canoe one mile in fourteen minutes.

13. Row without help one mile in ten minutes.

FOOD CRAFT

(Midjim)

The Degree of Foodcraft may be conferred on any one who takes nine of these tests:

1. Know a balanced diet for daily living that will meet requirements of the body.

2. Know the value of cereals and the proper preparation of corn, wheat, rice, barley, and rye for bread and porridges, etc.

3. Cook in camp for a week for four people.

4. Understand the terms proteids, carbohydrates, and tell which foods contain them, in what proportion, and whether available for the human body and whether easily assimilated.

5. Know a balanced vegetarian diet and prepare menus of same for a week at camp.

6. Know the local wild plants available for salads and prepare a salad of same.

7. Dry sweet green corn for camp use, either in sun or in oven. Other vegetable may be substituted, if dried in same way.

8. Dry any fruits for camp use — apples, peaches, cherries, etc.

9. Know 25 edible mushrooms.

10. Know how to prepare “cottage cheese”. 125)

11. Bake five batches of good bread, one to be in reflector baker; one to be in frying pan.

12. Train a class in camp cooking, showing and making them do it properly.

13. Tell how a camp should protect its foods, milk, meat, and exposed foods.

FORESTER

(Mitigwakid)

The Degree of Forester may be conferred on any one who takes eighteen of these tests:

1. Identify twenty-five kinds of trees when in leaf, or fifteen kinds of deciduous (broad leaf) trees in winter, and tell some of the uses of each.

2. Identify twelve kinds of shrubs.

3. Collect and identify samples of 20 kinds of wood and be able to tell some of their uses and peculiar properties.

4. Determine the height, and estimate the amount of timber, approximately, in five trees of different sizes.

5. State the laws for transplanting, grafting, spraying, and protecting a tree.

6. Make a collection of smoke or blue prints of sixty species of wild flowers, ferns, or grasses dried and mounted in a book and correctly named.

7. Recognize in the forest all important commercial trees in one’s neighborhood.

8. Distinguish the lumber from each and tell for what purpose each is best suited.

9. Recognize the difference in the forest between good and bad logging, giving reasons why one is good and another bad.

10. Tell whether a tree is dying from injury by fire, by insects, by disease, or by a combination of these causes.

11. Know what tools to use in lumbering.

12. Know how to fight fires in hilly or in flat country.

13. Know the effect upon stream-flow of the destruction of forests at head waters.

14. Know what are the four great uses of water in streams.

15. Know what causes the pollution of streams, and how it can best be stopped.

16. Know how, in general, water-power is developed. 126)

17. Tell, for a given piece of farm land, whether it is best suited for use as a farm or forest, and why.

18. Point out examples of erosion, and tell how to stop it.

19. Estimate closely how much timber and how much cord-wood is in a given acre of woods.

20. Name six trees that will float when green, and six that will not.

21. Know something of the relation of birds and quad-rupeds to forest trees.

22. Fell a six-inch tree in sixty second, driving with it a given stake.

23. Make 100 trees grow where none grew heretofore.

24. Camp in the woods for thirty nights.

25. Perform the Tree Planting Ceremony.

26. Perform the Flower Planting Ceremony.

FRIEND OF THE LITTLE BROTHERS

(Watutka)

The Degree of Friends of the Little Brothers may be conferred upon any one who accomplishes 13 of these tests.

1. Find in the field and identify five species of snakes.

2. Identify 15 species of snakes in a 200 or museum and tell which are poisonous.

3. Join an organization for the protection of snakes and help educate others as to the economic value of non-poisonous snakes.

4. Find and identify 10 species of turtles.

5. Find and identify 8 species of lizards or salamanders.

6. Make a careful record from observation of the development of an amphibian from the egg to the adult stage.

7. Observe and record the habits of some adult amphibian and tell of its economic value.

8. Identify five species of frogs.

9. Identify five species of toads (may be in museum).

10. Make good recognizable photos of any five of the following found in the field: Turtle, snake, lizard, salamander, frog, toad, fish, crab.

11. Identify 20 species of fish either alive or in the market.

12. Catch 8 species of fish and give an account of how and where each was caught. 127)

18. Make a fish pond, and in it raise at least two species of fish for two seasons.

14. Make a spawning bed for fish and have it used by them.

15. Find and identify 20 species of salt water shells.

16. Identify four species of crabs found alive.

17. Identify 8 other species of crustaceans, and describe the habits and food value of two of them.

18. Identify 10 other species of water animals, observed alive, not included in above.

19. Make and maintain successfully for three months a fresh water aquarium, containing at least three forms of animal life.

20. As above for a salt water aquarium.

FRIEND OF WILD LIFE

(Ganamenima)

The Degree of Friend of Wild Life may be conferred on any one who takes eleven of these tests:

1. Name and distinguish the three most important lumber trees of your state.

2. Name three trees that have neither lumber nor firewood value but are useful as shade trees, bird food, or bank binders.

3. Know the twenty-five principal song birds of your state.

4. Know the twelve principal game birds of your state.

5. Know the twelve principal four-foots of your state.

6. Mention three animals that serve no commercial purpose but which ought to be preserved because they are harmless and give pleasure to all who see them.

7. Be a member of the Audubon Society, or Agassiz Association.

8. Be a member of the local bird club.

9. Support such local societies as aim to preserve or re-introduce wild birds or desirable plants.

10. Make and put up ten bird boxes at least one of which must be nested in.

11. Make and run a bird’s lunch counter all winter, feeding at least four kinds of birds not counting the English sparrow.

12. Make and run a bird bath successfully. 128)

13. Write a 500-word essay on the value of birds to crops (See Bulletin of Department of Agriculture).

14. Write a 500-word essay on value of forests to insure water supply (See Forestry Bulletins).

15. Mention the four chief natural resources of your state.

16. Mention and give figures on the four chief natural resources of the United States.

17. Describe the Sanctuary Scheme of which the Yellowstone Park was the first great example, and tell how it has succeeded, and how far it has been copied.

GLEEMAN, OR CAMP CONJURER

(Nagamed)

The Degree of Gleeman may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests:

1. Open and lead the Council.

2. Light the Sacred Fire with rubbing-sticks.

3. Know the Indoor and Outdoor Council Ceremony.

4. Know the ceremony of giving names.

5. Sing ten Woodcraft songs, alone or as a leader.

6. Dance five standard Indian or other folk dances.

7. Tell five stories of not less than five minutes each.

8. Know the art of “making medicine”, which is the making of goodfellowship by seeking out talent, selecting and leading it and stopping without offending those who are not helpful.

9. Know how to conduct initiations and have the wisdom to stop them in decent season.

10. Take the leading part (medicine man) in the Peace Pipe Ceremony.

11. Camp out thirty nights.

12. Teach some one else to run the Council.

13. Teach a dance to a sufficient number to give it.

HERALD, OR CRIER

(Bibaged)

The Degree of Herald may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests:

1. Walk one mile in twelve minutes.

2. Walk thirty miles in twelve hours. 129)

3. Run 100 yards in fourteen seconds.

4. Run one mile in five and one-third minutes.

5. Swim 100 yards.

6. Sleep out thirty nights

7. Send and receive a message in one of the following systems of signaling: Semaphore, Morse, or Myer, not fewer than twenty-four letters per minute.

8. Make correct smoke signals meaning “Camp is here”, ”I am Lost”, “All well", “All come to Council”.

9. Talk Sign Talk, knowing at least 200 signs.

10. Know twenty-five signs and blazes of the Indian code.

11. Read and translate into one’s own language a page or conversation from some other language.

12. Conduct a Council.

HORSEMAN (Cowboy)

(Bebamomigod)

This degree is dedicated to the memory of Wahdaga (Wade Dudley of Wabanaki School, Greenwich, Conn.), who, under the careful guidance of his mother and in spite of physical handicaps, attained high excellence in the Horseman (Cowboy) Degree and found in it a world of happiness that never failed him.

The Degree of Horseman may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests:

1. Show that you are at home in a saddle and can ride at a walk, trot, and gallop.

2. Know how to saddle and bridle a horse correctly.

3. Catch six horses in corral or on range with twelve throws of the lasso.

4. Show how to water and feed and to what amount, and how to groom a horse properly.

5. Show how to harness a horse correctly in single or double harness and to drive.

6. Pack 100 lbs. of stuff with a diamond hitch, to stay during four hours of travel.

7. Have a knowledge of the power of endurance of horses at work and know the local regulations concerning driving.

8 Identify unsoundness and blemishes.

9. Know the evils of bearing or check reins and of illfitting harness or saddlery. 130)

10. Know two common causes of, and proper remedies for lameness, and know to whom cases of cruelty and abuse should be referred.

11. Be able to judge as to the weight, height, and age of horses.

12. Know three breeds and their general characteristics.

13. Be able to treat a horse for colic.

14. Describe symptoms and give treatment of horses for the following: wounds, fractures and sprains, exhaustion, choking, lameness.

15. Understand horseshoeing.

16. Clear a four-foot hurdle and an eight-foot water jump.

17. Pick up hat from the ground going at full gallop on a horse not less than thirteen hands high.

HUNTER

(Gaossed)

The Degree of Hunter may be conferred on any one who takes fourteen of these tests:

1. Walk one mile in twelve minutes.

2. Walk thirty miles in twelve hours.

3. Run 100 yards in fourteen seconds.

4. Run one mile in five and one-third minutes.

5. Swim 100 yards.

6. Spot the rabbit (see Games) three times out of five at thirty yards.

7. See and map out six Pleiades.

8. See the Pappoose on the Squaw’s back (spectacles allowed if habitually worn). (See “Stars as Test of Eyesight”.)

9. Get a good photograph of a big game animal wild in its native surroundings.

10. Know and name correctly twenty-five native wild quadrupeds.

11. Know and name correctly fifty wild birds in the field and their nests.

12. Know and clearly discriminate the tracks of twenty-five of our common wild quadrupeds.

13. Trail an animal or else iron track prints for half a mile without aid of snow. 131)

14. Win honors with rifle. That is, be a marksman according to the rules of the National Rifle Association.

15. With bow make a total score of 300 points at forty yards, standard target.

16. Catch alive and uninjured with own make of trap one wild quadruped and one wild bird.

17. Know the Pole Star and fifteen star groups.

18. Teach any one of these but the first nine to some other person.

HUNTER IN TOWN

(Odena-Gaossed)

The Degree of Hunter in Town may be conferred on any one who takes eight of these tests:

1. Find and sketch twenty-five blazes in town and say where you found them. A blaze is a mark that conveys infomation without using words or letters.

2. Find twenty-five totems in town. A totem is the emblem of a man, group of men, company, or idea. It is not formed of words or letters and letters are not an essential part, even if they are associated. Some trademarks are of this class.

3. Indicate the distinguishing marks of policemen, park policemen, traffic squad, strong arm squad, etc.

4. Rid a house of flies for one month.

5. Rid a house of rats for one month.

6. Rid a house of mice for one month.

7. Rid the house of cockroaches for one month.

8. Rid the premises of mosquito breeding pools for a season.

9. Draw life-size, recognizable tracks of a man, woman, child, dog, cat, and mouse.

10. Draw life-size, recognizable tracks of a rat, rabbit, gray squirrel, sparrow, crow, chicken. All of these can be secured in and about the city, especially in the large parks, and are easiest when the snow is on the ground, but possible in mud or even with wet tracks on dry pavements.

11. Make and set up at some suitable place and operate for at least a week a flytrap. (On the screen-cone principle.)

12. Know gypsy moth and report finding of any to state entomologist, also browntail moth. 132)

13. When muzzling laws are passed report all infractions to police.

14. Provide satisfactory records of the tracks of three animals, according to the following method: cover a stiff sheet of paper with black ink and so place it that the animal runs over it and on to a fresh sheet of paper, which receives the tracks.

15. Know 100 signs of the Sign Language, including 10 traffic signals.

INDIAN CRAFTSMAN

(Inanokiwin)

The Degree of Indian Craftsman may be conferred on any one who takes fifteen of these tests:

1. Follow a track one mile without help. Snow or tracking irons allowed.

2. Know 100 signs of the sign language.

3. Know six standard blazes.

4. Know the four stone signs. Demonstrate in Council.

5. Know the four twig signs. Demonstrate in Council.

6. Know the four grass signs. Demonstrate in Council.

7. Know two standard tests of eyesight used by Indians.

8. Make a bead band at least eight inches long and twelve beads wide.

9. Make a piece of porcupine quillwork at least one inch by eight.

10. Make and paint an Indian four-post bed.

11. Carve and paint a totem pole, Chief’s seat, or Tally Keeper’s table.

12. Make and decorate a bench for Council Ring.

13. Make and decorate an Indian teepee. Full size.

14. Make and use a willow bed.

15. Make a pair of leggings decorated in good design.

16. Make a shield and spear for the Lone Hunter dance.

17. Make an Indian drum with decorations and stick complete.

18. Make a Navajo loom and weave a rug on it (grass woof with thirty warp strings is allowed).

19. Be responsible for locating, planning, and completing a Council Ring.

20. Make a dry painting for “Four Fires”. Demonstrate at Council. 133)

21. Construct a burlap deer according to “Book of Woodcraft”.

22. Construct a burlap bear according to ”Book of Woodcraft”.

INDIAN LORE

(Anishanabe)

The Degree of Indian Lore may be conferred on any one who takes twenty of these tests:

1. Outline the religion of the high-class Indian. (See “Book of Woodcraft”, page 21.)

2. State what were the Indian’s special virtues.

3. State what were his special vices.

4. State what was the great mistake of his creed.

5. State why William Penn was peculiar in having no trouble with Indians.

6. Be the possessor of three genuine articles of old style Indian make, such as basket, beadwork, quillwork, silver work, pottery, stone work, blankets, war club, bow, quiver, arrows, peace pipe, etc.; and know to what tribe the makers belong, what materials were used in their construction, and how they were made. These may be got from the Mohonk Lodge, Colony, Oklahoma, and so help the Indians.

7. Know the original hunting grounds, and give an outline of the history and present condition of one tribe of Indians.

8. Know the uses and meaning of the design or symbols on some Indian article, or something of the ceremony in which it is used.

9. Sing six genuine Indian songs in Council.

10. Tell six Indian legends at the Council.

11. Draw ten genuine Indian symbols and explain them.

12. Name the Indian tribes that originally inhabited your state. Give their present numbers and location, also their economic and religious condition.

13. Give brief sketch of the lives, aims, and achievements of four great or well-known Indian women.

15. Be able to distinguish from each other four types of baskets characteristic of four different tribes.

16. Distinguish in general the pottery of four different tribes.

17. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Navajo blankets. 134)

18. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Balleta.

19. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Chimayo.

20. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Hopi.

21. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Chilkat.

22. Be able to indicate and discuss the Germantown.

23. Be able to indicate and discuss the genuine Serape.

24. Tell approximately the age of a blanket.

25. Distinguish the three or our general styles of bead-work and the regions of which they were characteristic.

26. Visit in person and stay at least a week with some tribe that is not scattered.

27. Name the Six Nations, the Plains Indians, the different tribes of Pueblo Indians, the coast (California) tribes, the Alaskan Tribes, or the Central American Tribes.

28. Know fifty signs of the sign language.

LITTLE PLANTER

(Watokpana)

The Degree of Little Planter may be conferred upon any one who accomplishes nine of these tests: 1. Demonstrate by specimens the characteristic differences between mosses, lichens and liverworts.

2. Identify ten species of mosses.

3. Identify five species of lichens or liverworts.

4. Describe in detail the life history of a slime mold, and identify five species.

5. Identify five species of poisonous mushrooms, and tell how they may be recognized.

6. Identify 15 species of edible mushrooms.

7. Identify ten species of non-edible, non-poisonous mushrooms.

8. Make spore prints of ten species of mushrooms or ferns.

9. Identify fifteen species of ferns.

10. Make blue or ink prints of ten species of ferns.

11. Describe in detail the life history of some fern, and discover and identify a protrallium.

12. Find and identify four species of horse-tails.

13. Find and identify four species of club-mosses.

14. Identify five species of sea weeds.

15. Make a mushroom bed and raise at least a half bushel of edible mushrooms. 135)

MOCCASIN RUNNER

(Kee-mo-sah'-bee)

The Degree of Moccasin Runner may be conferred on any one who takes nine of these tests:

1. Walk one mile in eleven minutes.

2. Walk thirty miles in twelve hours.

3. Run 100 yards in fourteen seconds.

4. Run fifty yards in seven and four-fifth seconds.

5. Run one mile in five and one-third minutes.

6. Swim 100 yards.

7. Paddle a canoe one mile in twelve minutes in dead water.

8. Know the Semaphore or Wigwag or Myer code and take as well as receive a message at the rate of at least twenty-four letters a minute.

9. Know 200 signs of the Sign Language.

10. Know twenty-five secret signs and blazes of the Indian code.

11. Have slept out thirty nights.

12. Know and clearly discriminate the tracks of twenty-five of our common wild quadrupeds; also trail for a mile without snow, till near enough to photograph or bag one.

13. Must have carried a letter three times over a mile of enemy’s country with at least twenty hostiles out against him, of his own class.

MOUNTAINEER

(Wadjiwed)

The Degree of Mountaineer may be conferred on any one who takes seven of these tests:

1. Take two honors at least in the list of mountain climbing.

2. Camp out at least thirty nights in the mountains.

3. Know, name, and describe the fourteen great divisions of the earth’s crust (according to some standard authority).

4. Know and name twenty-five different kinds of rock.

5. Define watershed, delta, drift, fault, glacier, terrace, stratum, dip.

6. Know at least twenty mammals that live in the mountains. 136)

7. Know at least fifty mountain birds.

8. Know at least twenty-five mountain trees.

9. Make a journey on foot through the mountains of at least 100 miles, sleeping out every night.

10. Swim 100 yards.

PLANTER

(Wozuti)

The Degree of Planter may be conferred upon any one who accomplishes 12 of these tests:

1. Find in the field and identify 40 species of wild flowers.

2. Collect and identify 20 species of weeds.

3. Collect, press, mount and identify eight species of grass.

4. Make five square yards of wild flowers grow where none grew before, including at least five species.

5. Plant successfully five trees.

6. Identify by leaf or fruit, 20 species of deciduous trees.

7. Identify 10 species of evergreen trees.

8. Identify by leaf or fruit, 20 species of shrubs.

9. Identify by bark or twigs in winter, 20 species of trees.

10. As above for 20 species of shrubs.

11. Make an exhibit of 10 species of trees, mounting in permanent form leaf, flower, fruit, bark and twigs to show method of branching.

12. As above for 10 species of shrubs. (Shrub lists are not to include any species included in tree lists.)

13. Collect and identify fruits or seeds from 40 species of wild plants.

14. Identify specimens of wood from 15 species of trees.

15. Make blue prints or ink prints of the leaves from 30 species of trees or shrubs.

16. As above for 30 species of wild flowers.

17. Find and identify 20 species of wild plants with edible leaves or shoots.

18. Find and identify 20 species of plants with edible seeds, or fruits.

19. Plant at least 6 species of shrubs which will bear seeds or fruits for birds during the winter.

20. Perform the Tree Planting Ceremony.

21. Perform the Flower Planting Ceremony. 137)

POTTER

(Nampeyo, Famous Pueblo Indian Potter)

The Degree of Potter may be conferred on any one who takes ten of these tests:

1. Make bird's drinking fountain or basin, twelve or more inches across.

2. Make set of four bowls: decoration in Zuni style, Hopi style, Acoma and Santo Domingo styles.

3. Make jardiniere at least ten inches across.

4. Make hanging vase to hold pint or more of water, Japanese design.

5. Make set of six plain cooking dishes of clay dug and prepared by self.

6. Make rectangular shallow dish for holding Japanese miniature garden 10 x 6 x 2 inches. Must be glazed to prevent leakage.

7. Make, dry, and bake eight little plain bowls all the same or of various shapes hard enough to hold water, and without flaw that would prevent their being of practical use.

8. Make with coil process, dry and bake, foul pots of Zuni shape with Zuni decorations, each large enough to hold two quarts and close enough to hold water, without flaw that would prevent its practical use.

9. Make a potter’s wheel and turn out eight pieces of pottery on the same. (See “Chamber’s Encyclopedia”)

10. Make a potter's kiln and demonstrate it. (See “Chambers’s” or “American Encyclopedia”)

11. Paint a set of eight china dishes using native American designs.

12. Paint a set of eight china dishes using any standard design.

13. Describe and fully distinguish six great types of Old World pottery.

14. Describe and fully distinguish four types of native American pottery.

15. Tell how the ancient and prehistoric pottery of America may be distinguished from that made today.

16. Make a set of candlesticks and firebowl for Four Fires.

17. Describe the principal varieties of native clays and tell what colors they bake; describe the Zuni method of firing. 138)

SCOUT

(Mikan)

The Degree of Scout may be conferred on any one who takes twelve of these tests:

1. Know two miles of bypaths in and around your local headquarters in the country.

2. Have a general knowledge of the district within a five-mile radius of local headquarters, so as to be able to guide people at any time, by day or night.

3. Know the general direction and population of the five principal neighboring towns and be able to give strangers correct directions how to reach them.

4. Know the country in two-mile radius, or in a town know in a half-mile radius what taxi stands, garages, and gasoline stations there are.

5. Know the location of the nearest meat markets, bakeries, groceries, and drug stores.

6. Know where the nearest police station, hospital, doctor, fire alarm, fire hydrant, telegraph, and telephone offices, and railroad stations are.

7. Know something of the history of the place, its principal public buildings, such as town or city hall, post-office, schools, and churches.

8. As much as possible of the above information should be entered on a large scale map.

9. Fell a six-inch tree or pole in a prescribed direction so as to fall between two stakes two feet apart, within sixty seconds.

10. Tie six kinds of knots quickly.

11. Lash spars properly together for scaffolding.

12. Build a bridge or derrick.

13. Make a camp kitchen.

14. Build a shack or cabin of one kind or another suitable for three occupants.

15. Walk one mile in eleven minutes.

16. Run 100 yards in 14 seconds.

17. Run fifty yards in seven and four-fifth seconds.

18. Swim 100 yards. 139)

SEAMANSHIP

(Nebikwa-Ninini)

The Degree of Seaman may be conferred on any one who takes eighteen of these tests (17 and 22 compulsory):

1. Tie ten different standard knots.

2. Make a finish knot at the end of a rope.

3. Make long and short splices and demonstrate covering an eye splice.

4. Use palm and needle.

5. Fling a rope coil.

6. Fling a life buoy.

7. Demonstrate that you can row and steer a boat.

8. Pole and scull a boat and demonstrate bringing it alongside safely, then make fast.

9. Box the compass.

10. Read a chart.

11. Show a knowledge of weather wisdom and tides.

12. Show how sun and stars are of service as guides.

13. Swim fifty yards with clothes on.

14. Sail a two-man boat for 100 miles without a professional sailor for companion, but yourself holding the tiller and directing its sail adjustment, etc. This need not be in one trip.

15. Demonstrate by description and sketch or actually demonstrate correct method of reefing a fore and aft sail including sequence of passing the tack lashing, earing and knotting reef points, and turning out the reef.

16. Describe the proper method of coming to anchor so as not to foul anchor; state proper amount of rope to be paid out in proportion to depth of water. Also show method of stopping anchor line down to flukes and ring to anchor on rocky bottom.

17. Know the rules of the road; proper action to be taken on approach of other vessel of any character.

18. Show that you have won first, second, or third place in a race of any of the recognized yacht clubs or associations, with yourself as skipper.

19. Make a model of a sloop or schooner yacht or other vessel fully rigged.

20. Tell the bells and watches kept on board ship.

21. Know the usual flag signals for owner and crew, location of owner’s and club signal and night pennant. Also 140) proper method of displaying the yacht ensign when at anchor and under way.

22. Describe signal lights used at night on barges, sailing power and steam vessels according to United States Regulations. Also tell what lights are used by yachts showing fleet officers, meals, owner’s absence, etc.

23. Name and describe ten different sailing rigs: ship, bark, barkentine, brig, brigatine, schooner, topsail schooner, sloop, yawl, ketch, knockabout, sharpie, buckeye, catboat, lateen rig.

SHARPSHOOTER

(Gadaakwed)

The Degree of Sharpshooter may be conferred on any one who takes six of these tests:

1. Qualify as ”marksman” with the rifle in accordance with the regulations of the National Rifle Association.

2. Make a bow and arrow which will shoot a distance of 100 feet with fair precision.

3. Make a regulation archery target—four feet across, with the nine-inch center and four rings, each four and three-quarter inches wide.

4. Make a total score of 350 with sixty shots of bow and arrow in one or two meets, using standard four-foot target at forty yards or three-foot target at thirty yards.

5. Make a total score of 300 with seventy-two arrows, using standard four-foot target at a distance of fifty yards, or three-foot target at thirty-six yards.

6. Shoot so far and fast as to have four arrows in the air at once.

7. See and map out six Pleiades with naked eye.

8. See the Pappoose on the Squaw’s back in the Dipper Handle.

9. Spot the rabbit three times at thirty yards.

STAR WISEMAN

(Gijiged)

The Degree of Star Wiseman may be conferred on any one who takes seven of these tests:

1. Have a general knowledge of the nature and movements of the stars. 141)

2. Point out and name ten principal constellations.

3. Find the north by means of other stars than the Pole Star.

4. Tell the hour of the night by the stars and moon.

5. Know and name twenty of the chief stars.

6. Know, name, and can point out three of the planets.

7. Have a general knowledge of the positions and movements of the earth, sun, and moon.

8. Have a general knowledge of tides, eclipses, meteors, comets, sun-spots, and planets.

9. Take the latitude from the stars with homemade instruments, within one degree of error.

10. Make a sundial that works.

SWIMMER

(Shingebis)

The Degree of Swimmer may be conferred on any one who takes twelve of these tests:

1. Perform running plain front dive from springboard, or racing dive in at least fair form, and swim in good form 150 yards using:

a. Breast stroke for first 50 yards.
b. Back stroke with inverted frog kick, spiral kick or combination frog-scissors kick for next 50 yards.
c. Side stroke for last 50 yards.

2. Swim 50 yards using legs only, crawl kick debarred.

3. Swim 50 yards using arms only.

4. Tread water 3 minutes with both hands above water.

5. Swim 50 yards in camp costume and undress without support in at least 7 feet of water, then swim 50 yards more.

6. Break following holds of swimming instructor, or other well-qualified assistant:

a. Wrist hold, single and double, each against one or both hands of opponent, by means of legs.
b. Front neck hold.
c. Back strangle hold.
Each hold must be broken at least five times in correct form and against real opposition.

7. Perform surface dive in at least seven feet of water and bring up human subject, or equivalent, from bottom in side-stroke carry.

8. Unconscious or slightly resisting subject carry. 142)

9. Tired swimmer or cramp carry: swimming 25 yards, subject lying on back with arms straight and hands on carrier’s shoulders, and legs spread around carrier’s hips, carrier using breast stroke.

10. Struggling subject carry, swimming 10 yards on back towing subject with double arm lock, using frog kick or combination frog-scissors kick or spiral kick, resorting to full arm lock each time until subject ceases struggle, subject struggling violently at least three times.

11. Demonstrate for three minutes in correct rhythm the Schaefer method of artificial respiration, and explain the process of resuscitation from time subject is removed from water until consciousness is restored.

12. Pass satisfactorily an oral examination on Schaefer method of artificial respiration and after-treatment of the apparently drowned, or on any other phase of life-saving.

13. Distance swim without time limit at least 440 yards, using at least one speed swimming stroke in good form for one-fourth distance.

14. Warding off with arms and legs when attacked

a. From front.
b. From rear, each 2 minutes.

15. Swim 100 yards.

16. Demonstrate safely crossing thin or rotten ice.

17. Teach three persons to swim.

TEACHER

(Kikinowina)

The Degree of Teacher may be conferred on any one who takes seven of these tests:

1. Teach at least five stories of merit to younger member so that the child can in turn tell them.

2. Teach a class of children to sing, dance, or act for some patriotic, school, or charitable entertainment.

3. Teach a class of children in athletics for three months dancing, swimming, riding, fencing, boxing, hiking, rowing or paddling.

4. Lead an outdoor nature class of four or more children for three months.

5. Teach any child to make a basket, a bird box, a clay pot, a grass rug, a bead head band or other useful handicraft article. 143)

6. Teach six or more young people two Indian dances so that they can perform them at request.

7. Teach six or more children three folk dances.

8. Organize and lead a Tribe in Woodcraft for a year.

9. Lead an outdoor nature study class of four or more children for a year, so that class has collected twenty-five butterflies or moths, twenty-five wild flowers, ten ferns; knows fifteen trees by leaf and bark.

10. Have a class of four or more in popular astronomy for a winter or a summer, so that class can pass test for knowing Pole Star and fifteen star-groups.

11. Teach a handicraft class such as beadwork, baskets, quillwork, metal work, pottery, woodcarving, etc.

12. Teach two or more children to sing without accompaniment any three ballads (solos or duets) of known merit, such as folk songs or standard songs.

13. Bring group of children trained by self to entertain Council by dancing, singing, talk-fest, or acting.

THREE YEARS’ SERVICE

(Nisso-bibon)

This degree is dedicated to the memory of Carl E. Eckstrand, the first Treasurer of the Woodcraft League, and the first Woodcrafter to give his life in the World War.

The Degree of Three Years’ Service may be conferred on any one who has been a member of a Woodcraft Tribe for three years, never missing a tribal campout in that time, attending at least half of the tribal meetings at other times, and having a clear record for law and order.

TRAVELER

(Bebamadisid)

The Degree of Traveler may be conferred on any one who takes nine of these tests:

1. Walk one mile in eleven minutes.

2. Tramp twenty miles a day.

3. Climb one of the standard peaks. (See mountain climbing.)

4. Know at least fifteen star groups, including the Dipper and Little Bear.

5. Camp out in at least ten different states or countries. 144)

6. Enter the Arctic or Antarctic circles.

7. Cross the equator.

8. Take exact latitude and longitude with instruments.

9. Take latitude within two degrees of error, with homemade instruments.

10. Make a compass survey of 100 miles of country.

11. Travel at least 100,000 miles by rail or steamship or other means.

12. Travel 500 miles on foot, by bicycle, by canoe, or in saddle, camping out.

13. Know 200 signs of the Sign Language.

14. Make one’s self comfortable in the woods over night without tent or bedding.

15. Swim 100 yards.

16. Sleep out thirty nights.

WHITE MAN’S WOODCRAFT

(Dibaakid)

The Degree of White Man's Woodcraft may be conferred on any one who takes nine of the following tests:

1. Take, develop, and print photographs of twelve separate subjects, three interiors, three portraits, three landscapes, and three instantaneous “action photos”.

2. Make a recognizable photograph of any wild bird while on its nest.

3. Make a recognizable photograph of a wild animal in its native haunts.

4. Make a recognizable photograph of a fish in the water.

5. Map correctly from the country itself the main features of half a mile of road, with 440 yards each side, to a scale of two feet to the mile, and afterward draw same map from memory.

6. Measure the height of a tree, telegraph pole, and church steeple without climbing.

7. Measure width of a river without crossing.

8. Estimate distance apart of two objects a known distance away and without approaching, within an average of 10 per cent of error in ten different trials.

9. Measure a gradient.

10. Gauge accurately the speed of a stream. 145)

11. Tell the number of gallons of water going over a fall or down a stream.

12. Gauge the horsepower of a given fall.

13. Teach the last seven to someone else.

VILLAGE SCOUT

(Odena-winini)

The Degree of Village Scout may be conferred on any one who takes fourteen of these tests:

1. Know how to turn in an alarm for fire.

2. Know how to enter burning buildings.

3. Know how to prevent the spread of fire.

4. Understand the use of hose: unrolling, joining up, connecting two hydrants, use of nozzles, etc.

5. Understand the use of escapes, ladders, and chutes.

6. Know how to improvise ropes and nets.

7. Know what to do in case of panic.

8. Understand the fireman’s lift and drag.

9. Know how to work in fumes.

10. Understand the use of fire-extinguishers.

11. Know how to rescue animals from fire.

12. Know how to prevent a running fire on the ground.

13. Know how to organize a bucket brigade.

14. Describe and give history of the seal of your State.

15. Know how to ride a wheel.

16. Repair a puncture.

17. Walk four miles in one hour.

18. Know the signs:


Meaning respectively:

Official mark, fire-plug 8 feet out, please remove dust, add, subtract, divide, multiply, equals, parallel, plumb, circle, more than, less than, triangle, right-angle, square, because, therefore, this direction, male, female, young. 146)

WISE WOODMAN

(Nikwaka-winini)

The Degree of Wise Woodman may be conferred on any one who takes twelve of these tests:

1. Have a list of 100 different kinds of birds personally observed on exploration in the field.

2. Have identified beyond question in the field by appearance or by note, 30 different kinds of wild birds in one day.

3. Have made a good clear photograph of some wild bird as in coup.

4. Have secured at least two tenants in bird boxes erected by self. i.e., 2 species, excluding English sparrow and starling.

5. Have daily notes on the nesting of a pair of wild birds from the time the first egg is laid until the young have left the nest.

6. Have attracted at least three kinds of birds, exclusive of the English sparrow, to a “lunch counter.”

7. Have a knowledge of the game laws of the state in which you live.

8. Preserve and mount the skin of a game bird, or animal, killed in season.

9. Mount for a rug the pelt of some fur animal.

10. Know twenty-five different kinds of trees.

11. Know thirty different wild flowers.

12. Know ten different snakes.

13. Know ten different fungi

14. Know not less than 6 observational weather signs of local application.

15. Know 5 weather signals of the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.

16. Make fire with rubbing sticks.

WOOD MUSIC

(Chibiabos)

The Degree of Wood Music will be conferred on any one qualifying in ten of the following:

1. Qualify as song leader in Council by leading on at least 15 occasions 147)

2. Tell the difference between a poem, a ballad, a lyric, a round, and a song, giving examples, and show why a true song is best for the camp.

3. Describe the negro spiritual and show why it is a true song, however crude.

4. What is the musical place and value of the college and camp yell?

5. What is the psychological value and place of the tom-tom?

6. Explain honor chants and shame rhymes and give examples.

7. Give one or more musical calls to Council.

8. Vhat is the value and place of rousers?

9. Distinguish 25 birds by their song.

10. Distinguish 5 kinds of frogs and toads by their song.

11. Name 4 wild creatures that use a drum.

12. Name 2 animals, other than birds, that whistle.

13. What wild creatures use a fiddle and what a rattle?

14. Be a bugler.

15. Use the lumberman’s horn for camp calls.