The Birch-Bark Roll 1906 (kniha)

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Páté, ale první aktualizované knižní vydání Svitku vyšlo v první polovině r. 1906. Jeho cena byla 25 centů.

V The Ladies' Home Journal r. 1902 byly uvedeny pouze vybrané činy a u prvního knižního vydání z r. 1903 přehled činů nebyl uveden vůbec. Až v roce 1904 vyšlo první kompletní knižní vydání (stálo 15 centů). A následující rok (1905) publikoval magazínu YMCA Association Boys jen organizační část s aktualizovaným přehled činů – ovšem zcela bez ilustrací.

Toto vydání z r. 1906 vycházelo jen mírnými aktualizacemi až do r. 1910. Toto 8. vydání z r. 1910 spolu s vydáním Two Little Savages získal – pravděpodobně z Anglie – na jaře r.1913 Miloš Seifert - Woowotanna a na základě těchto knih začal při organizaci chlapců berounského gymnázia aplikovat woodcrafterské prvky.



1) The

Birch-Bark Roll

OF THE

WOODCRAFT INDIANS

PRICE, 25 CENTS

1906 2) 3) THE BIRCH-BARK ROLL 4) By

ERNEST THOMPSON SETON

Biography of a Grizzly
Krag and Johnny
Lives of the Hunted
Monarch, the Big Bear of Tallac
Two Little Savages
Wild Animal Play
Wild Animals I have Known
Trail of a Sand-Hill Stag
Lobo, Rag and Vixen
Studies in Art Anatomy of Animals

5)

The Birch-bark Roll

of the
WOODCRAFT INDIANS
Containing their Constitution, Laws,
Games, and Deeds
By
ERNEST THOMPSON SETON
New York
Doubleday, Page & Company
1906

6)

1st Edition in Ladies' Home Journal
Copyright, 1902, by
THE CURTIS PUBLISHING COMPANY

2d Edition
Copyright, 1903, by
THE CURTIS PUBLISHING COMPANY

3d Edition
Copyright, 1904, by
ERNEST THOMPSON SETON

4th Edition in "Association Boys" for June
Copyright, 1905, by
ERNEST THOMPSON SETON

5th Edition
Copyright, 1906, by
ERNEST THOMPSON SETON

7)

The Birch-Bark Roll

Of the Woodcraft Indians

THIS is a time when the whole nation is turning toward the outdoor life, seeking in it the physical regeneration so needful for continued national existence — is waking to the fact long known to thoughtful men, that those live longest who live nearest to the ground, that is, who live the simple life of primitive times, divested, however, of the evils that ignorance in those times begot.

Half our diseases are in our minds and half in our houses. We can safely leave the rest to the physicians for treatment.

Sport is the great incentive to outdoor life; nature study is the intellectual side of sport. Camping is the simple life reduced to actual practice, as well as the culmination of the outdoor life.

Camping has no great popularity to-day, because men have the idea that it is possible only after an expensive journey to the wilderness, and women that it is inconvenient, dirty, and dangerous.

These are errors. They have arisen because camping as an art is not understood. When intelligently 8) followed camp life must take its place as a cheap and delightful way of living as well as a mental and physical saviour of those strained and broken by the grind of the over-busy world.

Consumption, the white man's plague since he has become a house race, is vanquished by the sun and air, and many ills of the mind also are forgotten when the sufferer boldly takes to the life in tents.

The wilderness affords the ideal camping, but many of the benefits can be got by living in a tent pitched on a town lot, piazza, or even house-top.

I should like to lead this whole nation into the way of living out-doors for at least a month each year, reviving and expanding a custom that as far back as Moses was deemed essential to the national well-being.

These bands have been organized to spread the taste for camping, by showing how it can be done to best advantage. They are simply outdoor clubs; the Indian name and style were given chiefly because they add the charms of color and romance, and because they are so appropriate.

When two or three young people camp out, they can live as a sort of family, especially if a grown-up be with them, but when a dozen or more go, it is necessary to organize.

There are four possible forms of government: First, the patriarchal, as above; it answers fairly for two or three, but fails with a considerable party. Second, 9) the school system, which, for several reasons, has not succeeded out of doors. Third, the Brigade, which many object to, chiefly because it fosters militarism; and last, the Tribal or Indian form.

Fundamentally this is a republic or limited monarchy, and has proved far the best. It makes its members self-governing. It offers appropriate things to do outdoors; it is so plastic that it can be adopted in whole or in part, at once or gradually; its picturesqueness takes immediate hold of the boys, and it lends itself so well to existing ideas that soon or late most camps are forced into its essentials, call them what they will.

No large band of boys ever yet camped out for a month without finding it necessary to recognize leaders, a senior form, or ruling set whose position rests on merit, some wise grown person to guide them in difficulties, and a place to display the emblems of the camp; that is, they have adopted the system of Chiefs, Council, Medicine-man and Totem-pole. Moreover, the ideal Indian, whether he ever existed or not, stands for the highest type of the primitive life, and he was a master of Woodcraft, which is our principal study. By Woodcraft we mean nature-study, certain kinds of hunting, and the art of camping, but we add all good outdoor athletics to our pursuits.

Photography is recognized as a branch of nature-study, and camper-craft is made to include the simplest 10) methods of triangulation, star-craft, finding one's way, telling direction, sign-language, as well as many branches of Indian-craft.

Two other important ideas underlie the scheme. The first is personal decoration for personal achievements; second, no competitive honors[1]. All our honors are bestowed according to world-wide standards.

In our colleges to-day every effort is made to discover and develop a champion. The great body of the students are neglected. That is, the ones who are in need of physical development do not get it, and those who do not need it are over developed. The result is much unsoundness of many kinds. A great deal of this would be avoided if we strive to bring all the individuals up to a certain standard. In our non-competitive tests the enemies are not "the other jellows", but time and space. We try not to down the others, but to raise ourselves. A thorough application of this principle would end many of the evils now demoralizing college athletics.

About one hundred and fifty deeds or exploits are recognized in these various departments, and the braves are given decorations that show what they have achieved. The plan aims to give the young people "something to do, something to think about, and something to enjoy in the woods," with a view always 11) to character building, for manhood not scholarship is the first aim of education.

And we would make the outdoor the real life, the indoor the incident, reversing the present way.

We do not, however, disband when the camping season is over. As will be seen, ample provision is made in the games and honors for continuing the organization the whole year round. Most of the Tribes find abundant amusement throughout the winter in preparing their weapons, dress, teepees, ornaments, and songs for the summer camp.

By leading the young people along these lines we shall be helping the whole nation on the road to health.

TO ORGANIZE A BAND

First get the young people together, any number from ten up — fifteen to fifty are best for a beginning — and with them at least one experienced grown-up person, who will act as Medicine-man in the Council, and as teacher when needed.

Outfit for Small Tribe

Birch-bark Roll, or Book of Laws.
Blank book for tally.
Teepees or tents enough to house the Tribe.

12)

A totem-pole.
A supply of scalps, at least one for each.
A supply of about 100 feathers or other honor tokens.
A red horse-tail for feather tips and medicine scalp.
A drum.
A target, and range.
Cooking outfit and food.

Also the things for the games they wish to play (see later), the Deer-hunt for land, and the Sturgeon spearing for water, being especially recommended.

Each Brave Needs

1 good 5-foot bow, complete with string.
6 standard arrows, 25 in. long; 3 feathers, steel points.
1 quiver of waterproof canvas.
1 plain arm-guard.
1 head band.
1 pair trunks.
1 waterproof sheet, 6 ft. x 5.
2 woollen blankets.

To these he may add as much Indian costume as he likes. But costumes, feathers, etc., are non-essentials. Many tribes wear only the ordinary clothes of out-door life. 13) The Birch-Bark Roll

TRIBAL CONSTITUTION

Article I

Name

This organization shall be known as the[2]

Tribe of Woodcraft(or Seton Indians as many have preferred to call themselves).

Article II

Objects

The objects of this organization are the promotion of interests in Out-of-Door Life and Woodcraft, the preservation of Wild Life and Landscape, and the promotion of Good Fellowship among its members.

Article III

Membership

Section I. Persons eligible for membership must be over years of age (18 is usual for a grown-up tribe, 8 for a boy tribe, but some tribes take all ages).

Section II. The membership shall be limited to .

Section III. Application for membership must be made in writing through one of the Council. The name of such applicant shall then be proposed and seconded by members in good standing, and shall be 14) publicly posted for not less than seven suns. A ballot of the Tribe shall thereupon be taken and two blackballs shall exclude.

Article IV

Meetings

Section I. A monthly Council of the Tribe shall be held on the first Monday of each Moon.

Section II. The Annual Council for the election of officers shall be held on the first sun of the Awakening Moon (March).[3]

Section III. Special Councils may be called by the Chief, and must be called by him upon the written request of one fourth of the Council or one third of the Tribe.

Section IV. A majority shall be a quorum of the Council or Tribe. 15)

Section V. A member may vote at any Council of the Tribe by proxy in his own handwriting.

Article V

The Officers and Their Dulles

Head War Chief. He should be strong as well as popular, because his duties are to lead and to enforce the laws. He is head of the Council and of the Tribe and also Herald or Crier.

He has charge of the standard of the Tribe. This is a staff about eight feet long, painted red and ornamented with any of the designs shown in the illustrations, the drawing on the shield being always the totem of the Tribe. The small shield on top is white with blue horns. This standard is carried around when a proclamation is being made. If the Chief deputes another to be Herald, he also gives him the standard to carry as a badge of authority.

When not thus in use it is stuck in the ground near the Chief's teepee or place in Council, or perhaps hung on the totem pole.

Second War Chief. To take the Head Chief's place when he is absent; otherwise he is merely a Councillor.

Third War Chief. For leader when the other two are away. 16)

Wampum Chief. He has charge of the money and public property of the Tribe, except the records. He ought to have a lock box or small trunk to keep valuables in.

Chief of the Painted Robe, or Feather Tally. He keeps the tribal records, including the Book of Laws, the Roster or Roll, the Winter Count or Record of Camps and Seasons, and the Feather Tally or Record of Honors and Exploits. He enters nothing except on instructions from the Council. He should be an artist.

Chief of the Council-Fire. It is his exclusive privilege to make fire. He must do it without matches. He must also see that the camp and woods are kept clean.

Sometimes one Councillor or Chief holds more than one of these last three offices; especially it is well to have the Head Chief also Chief of the Council Fire.

One or even two Medicine-men may be voted into the Council without regard to age, attainments, or position.

Add to these not more than twelve elected Councillors, and all the Sachems or Sagamores. (See p. 46.) These officers and Councillors form the governing body.

All disputes, etc., are settled by the Chief and the Council. The Council makes the laws and fixes the dues. The Chief enforces the laws.

All officers are elected for one year or until their 17) successors are chosen. The election to take place on or as soon as possible after Spring Day, the first Sun of the Awakening Moon (1st March).

(Whenever in doubt we try to follow the National Constitution.)

Vow of The Head Chief

(To be signed with his name and totem in the Tally-book)

I solemnly promise to maintain the Laws, to see fair play in all the doings of the Tribe, and to protect the weak.

Vow of each Brave on joining

(To be signed with the name and totem of each in the Tally-book)

I solemnly promise that I will obey the Chief and Council of my Tribe, and if I fail in my duty I will appear before the Council when ordered and submit without murmuring to their decision.

Article VI

Amendments

Section I. Amendments to this Constitution may be made at any meeting by a two-thirds vote of all the Tribe.

Section II. Notice of proposed amendments shall be made public for at least seven suns before the meeting. 18) Article VII

Dues

Section I. Dues shall be, first, … a year; second, all assessments made by the Council for tribal property; and third, when necessary the Council shall assess those taking part in camp.

Section II. The initiation fee for new braves shall be … , which shall include the first year's dues, but this shall not include assesments.

Article VIII

Council of Tribe

The doings of the Tribe in Council shall be considered confidential.

Article IX

Laws

1. Don't rebel. Rebellion by any one against any decision of the Council is punishable by expulsion. Absolute obedience is always enforced.

2. Don't kindle a wild fire, To start a wild fire – that is, to set the woods or prairie afire – is a crime against the State, and well as the Tribe. Never leave a fire in camp, without some one to watch it.

3. Protect the song-birds, It is forbidden to kill or injure or frighten song-birds, or to disturb their nests. 19) or eggs, or to molest squirrels. (This does not apply to creatures declared vermin by law.)

4. Don't make a dirty camp. Keep the woods and streams clean by burying all garbage.

5. Don't bring firearms of any kind into the camps of those under fourteen. Bows and arrows are enough for their needs. Never point a weapon at any one.

6. Keep the game laws.

7. No smoking (for those under eighteen).

8. No firewater in camp.

9. Play fair. Cheating in the games or records, or wearing honors not conferred by the Council, are crimes.

10. Word of honor is sacred.

Punishments are meted out by the Chief and Council after a hearing of the case. They consist of, —

Exclusion from the games or boats for a time.

Of reduction in rank or of fines.

The extreme penalty is banishment from the Tribe.

ORDER OF DOINGS IN COUNCIL

The Head Chief, or the Herald he may appoint, walks around with the standard announcing that a Council is to be held, and all must come to Council.

Opening Council.

Roll-call.

Tally of last Council and Report of Tally Chief. 20)

Report of Wampum Chief.

Report of Scouts.

Left-over business.

Complaints.

Honors awarded.

New Braves.

New business.

Challenges, etc.

Social doings, songs, dances, stories.

Closing Council.

TOTEM

The Totem of the whole nation of Woodcraft Indians is the White Buffalo head, symbolized by the Horned White Shield.

Each band needs a totem of its own in addition. This is selected by the Council, and should be something easy to draw. Each brave adds a private totem of his own, usually a drawing of his Indian name.

The first of these Tribes took as its totem a Blue Buffalo, and so became the Blue Buffalo Band, and Deerfoot, the Chief, uses the Blue Buffalo totem with his own added underneath.

Any bird, animal, tree, or flower will do. It is all the better if it have some special reason.

One Tribe set out on a long journey to look for a totem. They agreed to take the first living wild thing 21) that they saw and knew the name of. They travelled all one day and saw nothing to suit, but next day in a swamp they startled a Blue Heron. It went off with a harsh cry. So they became the "Blue Herons," and adopted as a war-cry the croak of the bird and its name – "Hrrrrr — Blue Heron." Another band have the Wolf totem. Another, the Flying Eagle, and yet another the Snapping Turtle.

TOTEM POLE

In some prominent place in camp is set up the Totem-pole. This bears the national emblems, tribal totems, enemies' scalps, and the totems of warriors who have brought honors to the Tribe. It also serves as a notice board and carries the Sacred Medicine Scalp. The board below is supposed to be the skin of a White Buffalo.

The big shield is white and twenty inches across, the horns pale blue and each twenty inches long. The pole is twelve feet high and the arms four and one half feet across; pole and arms are red. This is the same in all tribes. The smaller shield is twelve inches across; it bears the tribal colors and totems, and, of course, varies in color with each tribe. The skin is four and one half feet long and eighteen inches at widest place. It is dull yellow where dotted, but the circle at its upper end is white; in the middle of this is a peg on which 22) hangs the Medicine Scalp; the wooden feathers are white with black tips. If made smaller it should keep these same proportions.

INDIAN NAMES

Each brave aims at winning a name. These Indian names are a sort of honorable nickname given in recognition of some exploit or personal gift. Thus Deerfoot was the great runner and Hawkeye had the sharp eyes. Killdeer was famous in our deer hunt, as also was Deerslayer; Gray-wolf was the best scout; Eel-scoat was the one who slipped through the enemies' lines as often as he pleased; Little Beaver was the best worker; Chicadee was the smallest; the noisy chatterer, forever showing off without doing any work, was called Bluejay; Spycatcher was given to a warrior who captured a Hostile Spy by a deed of unusual daring; one small boy whose tears were ever ready to flow was named Rain-in-the-Face, and an awkward brave who upset the canoe several times was called Tippecanoe.

When a brave has an objectionable nickname he can get rid of it by doing some great exploit. The chief then writes the old name on a piece of birch bark and publicly burns it in the camp-fire. After that it is forgotten; no one may use or mention it. Then the warrior is given his new name of honor. The following have been bestowed as distinctions: — 23)

"Black Hawk," "Redjacket," "Wolverine," "Krag," "Mustang," "Bald Eagle," "Big Otter," "Karonawa" (the runner), "Speardeep," "Deerblinder," "Little Thunder," "Neverscare," "Strongheart," "Big Moose," "Redarrow," "Manytongues," "Strongbow," "Eagle Eye," "Hawkeye," "Little Beaver," etc.

On rare occasions the name is an inglorious one. Thus a lazy boy was called "Young-man-afraid-of-a-Shovel," or "Shovel" for short; another was "Scare-cat," because of his timidity, but they can get rid of them as soon as they do something highly creditable.

When the Council decides that a bad name is to be dropped, the Chief or Medicine-man writes it on a piece of wood or bark. Then, making a speech explaining the circumstances, he burns the bark in the Council Fire, announcing that that name is forgotten. No one must mention it again under pain of punishment.

When a new name is given, the Chief makes a speech as before, tells of the exploit and announces the name. It is written down in the Tally; then each Chief and Councillor comes forward, shakes hands with the brave, saying "Bo-jou, Nichy" — followed by the new name.

HEAD-BAND

Each brave needs a head band. This holds his feathers as they are won, and his scalp is fastened to it behind. It consists of a strip of soft leather, long 24) enough to go around the head and overlap by two inches; it is fastened at the rear, with a lace through the four holes, like the lace of machine belting. A bead pattern ornaments the front and it may be finished at each side in some broader design. It is the foundation for the war-bonnet and has places for twenty-four feathers (two eagle tails).

The feathers are made of white Pond-eagle[4] quill feathers, the tip dyed dark brown or black; a leather loop is lashed to the quill end of each to fasten it on to the head-band. Each feather stands for an exploit and is awarded by the Council. (See p. 45, etc.) An oval of paper is glued on near the high end. This bears a symbol of the feat it commemorates. If it was Grand Coup or High Honor, the feather has a tuft of red horsehair lashed on the top.

WAR -BONNET

As each feather is won it is fastened in the head-band and thus forms part of the war-bonnet.

The feathers are held in place on the band by a lace through the bottom loop to hold them to the body of the cap, and another lace around them higher up. When the circle is complete the upper lace is not needed; instead is a stout thread through the 25) middle of each midrib, stringing them together and holding them the right distance apart.

The war-bonnet is the most important of all decorations. It is a complete record of the owner's exploits, as well as a splendid ornament. The making of it is fully described in The Ladies' Home Journal for July, 1902, and in "Two Little Savages."

BADGES

One cannot always wear the war-bonnet, and yet may wish to wear a visible record of his rank. To meet this need we have a badge adapted from an old Iroquois silver brooch.

In this the White or Silver Buffalo head represents the whole nation. The owner can put his initials on the Buffalo's forehead, if desired.

To pin in the middle is the real Indian style. To fasten the brooch, throw back the pin, work a pucker of the coat through the opening from behind; when it sticks out far enough bend it to one side and pierce it with the pin, then press the pin down and work the pucker back smooth. This can never work loose or get lost.

The rank of the wearer is thus shown: —

The ordinary brave as soon as admitted wears the simple badge.

Every one in the Council may add a beard to the 26) Buffalo, using silk, wool, or thread through the nostrils.

The Head Chief wears a horned shield. On the circle of the shield is engraved the totem of the Tribe.

The horns are worn only by a War Chief. The following shows their importance: —

"No one wears the headdress surmounted with horns except the dignitaries who are very high is authority, and whose exceeding valor, worth, and power are admitted by all the nation.

"This man (Mah-to-toh-pa) was the only man in the nation who was allowed to wear the horns, and all, I found, looked upon him as the leader who had the power to lead all the warriors in time of war." (Catlin, Vol. I, p. 103.)

The second and third War Chiefs wear the same badge as the first, except that it has one lower half of the shield hidder, with a lashing of colored thread.

The Medicine-man's badge has a shield without horns.

WAMPUM MEDALS

These medals are made of very beautiful shells, flat and cut in two sizes, the largest being about one inch by three quarters of an inch. They are engraved with the symbol of the deed for which given. They make decorations for the coat, the head-band or necklace, etc. They are awarded according to the standards 27) for coups and grand coups given later. They do not take the place of the feathers, but repeat the honor in another form. Thus a brave may wear both the eagle feather and the wampum medal for one feat.

SCALPS

Each brave wears a long tuft of black horsehair that answers as his scalp. The skin of this should be about one and a half inches across; it is furnished with a cord loop; the hair is as long as possible. This scalp is presented to the brave on entering the Tribe. After he has promised obedience and allegiance and signed the roll, the Medicine-man gives it to him, saying:—

"This is your scalp. Treasure this as your honor. You may lose it without absolute disgrace, but not without some humiliation."

He can lose it only in an important competition, approved by the Council, in which he stakes his scalp against that of some other brave. If he loses he surrenders his tuft to the winner and goes tuftless until the Council thinks proper to give him a new scalp. But he never gets back the old one, which remains the property of the winner for a teepee or other decoration.

The brave without tuft cannot vote or sit in Council or take part in the competitions. 28)

The member is a brave till he has taken a scalp, after that he is a warrior.

TEEPEES AND TENTS

The Indian teepee has the advantage of picturesqueness, also of comfort in cold weather, because it admits of an open fire inside. It has the disadvantages of allowing some rain to enter through the smoke-vent in very wet weather. A twelve-foot teepee (needing four-teen poles), big enough for half a dozen boys, can be made for three dollars, plus labor (see "Two Little Savages"), or it can be bought ready made for about thrice that.

There is one great evil that campers should beware of, that is rheumatism. But none need suffer if they will take the simple precaution of changing their wet clothes when not in action and never sleeping directly on the ground. A warm, dry place for the bed should be prepared in every tent and teepee.

An adapted teepee that is rain-proof is among those now on the market, or the old-fashioned teepee may be improved with a three-foot "bull boat" or storm-cap of canvas, to cover the ends of the poles.

Tents of any good kind will answer, but they do not admit of a fire within. They are, however, excellent for storage. A tent painted teepee-fashion may be made very picturesque. 29) 30) 31) 32) The Birch-Bark RoU RKD— AH parts marked so : llllllllll . Smoke-flaps and all tops of teepees, stem of pipe, lower lialf-circle under pipe, middle part of bowl, wound oil side of Elk, blood falllnK f'l o<> trail; Horse, middle Buffalo, two inner bars of pathway up back; also short, dark crossbars, spot on middle of two door-hangers, and fringe of totem at top of pathway, and two' 'ack lines on doorway. yELI.OW — All parts marked so: I '.' I - I'pper half-circle under pipe stem, upper half of each feather on pipe ; horseman with bridle, saddle and one hindfnot of Horse; the laricesl Buffalo, the outside upright of the palhwav ; the ground colors of the totem ; the spotted crossbars of pathway ; the four MIchM Dcxt the ground, the two palcbeaovwdoor, and the rings of door-hanger. ORBEN — All parts marked so: Bowl of pipe, spot over it; feather li^-* of same; Elk, first Buffalo, middle line on each side path- way, and around tee|>ee top; two dashol crossbars on totem and dsMiMl crossbars on iMUhway ; bar on wbicb Hon* walks; lower ctlgt Md liM c( vou on upper part of door. 33)

The drawing (p. 26) shows a real Sioux teepee at present in my collection.

This was made of skins. The ground color was of soft gray; the design in pale flat tints of delicate red, yellow, and green, as below. No other outlines were used.

Putting up the Teepee. Drive a small stake in the ground where the centre of the teepee will come, and about this as centre mark a circle, the same diameter as the tent. For a twelve-foot teepee, a twelve-foot circle, etc.

With one end of a twenty-foot rope tie together three of the poles at a point as high as the top of the canvas. Set them as a tripod, their ends touching the edge of the circle. Then set up the other poles (except three, including the two slender ones) for the frame of the teepee, their ends on the circumference of the circle, their tops resting in the angles of the tripod. Now with the loose end of the twenty-foot rope bind all the poles where they cross by walking several times around the frame on the outside, and drawing the rope tight as you go. The loose end may be left hanging down inside for an anchor.

Now fasten the top of the teepee cover to one of the poles left over, at a point twelve feet up. Raise this into its place, and the teepee cover with it, opposite when the door is to be. Carry the two wings of the tent around till they overlap and fasten together with 34) the lacing-pins. Put the end of a vent-pole in each of the vent-flap pockets, outside of the teepee. Peg down the edges of the canvas at each loop if a storm is coming, otherwise a few will do. Hang the door on a convenient lacing-pin. Drive a stout stake inside the teepee, tie the anchor rope to this and the teepee is ready for weather. In the centre dig a hole eighteen inches wide and six inches deep for the fire. The fire is the great advantage of the teepee, and the smoke one of the disadvantages, but experience will show how to manage this, Keep the smoke- vent swung down wind, or at least quartering down. Sometimes you must leave the door a little open or raise the bottom of the teepee cover a little on the windward side. If this makes too much draft on your back stretch a piece of canvas between two or three of the poles inside the teepee, in front of the opening made, and reaching to the ground. This is alining or dew-cloth. The draft will gp up behind this.

ART

All students of the Indian art are satisfied that in this we find the beginnings of something that may develop into a great and original school of decoration. Not having learned their traditions, conventions, and inner impulse, we believe that 35) at present we shall do best by preserving and closely copying the best of the truly native productions.

Therefore, in decorating teepees, etc., we use only literal copies of the good Indian work.

MUSIC

We encourage musical talent as much as possible. Around the nightly camp-fire songs and music are in great demand. The drum is essential also for the numerous song-dances and song-plays.

ARCHERY

The Tribe should own a Standard Target, that is, four feet across, circular, made of straw, with a thin oilcloth cover, marked with a nine and six-tenths inch centre of gold (called by some of our Tribes "the Buffalo's Eye"); outside of that a four and eight-tenths inch band of red, next a similar band of blue, next of black, next of white. In scoring, the gold is 9, the red 7, the blue 5, the black 3, the white 1. The shortest match range for the target is forty yards. If it is a three-foot target the match range is reduced to thirts yards.

A target can be made of a burlap sack about five feet square. This should be stuffed full of hay or straw, then flattened by a few quilting stitches put right through with a long packing needle. On this the target is painted of exact right size and color. 36)

Each brave should have a bow that pulls from ten pounds up; about one pound for each year of his age is a safe guide for boys up to sixteen. He should have at least six arrows and a quiver. The arrows twenty-five inches long, with three feathers, cone-points of steel or iron; brass points are useless. A guard or bracer for the left wrist is needed, and most boys require a glove to protect the fingers of the right hand.

The correct way to shoot with a bow is fully set forth in "Two Little Savages."

THE GAMES

Deer-Hunting

The Deer Hunt has proved one of our most successful games.

The Deer is a dummy, best made with a wire frame, on which soft hay is wrapped till it is of proper size and shape, then all is covered with open burlap. A few touches of white and black make it very realistic.

If time does not admit of a well-finished Deer, one can be made of a sack stuffed with hay, decorated at one end with a smaller sack for head and neck, and set on four thin sticks.

The side of the Deer is marked with a large oval, and over the heart is a smaller one.

Bows and arrows only are used to shoot this deer.

A pocket full of corn, peas, or other large grain is now needed for scent. The boy who is the Deer for 37) the first hunt takes the dummy under his arm and runs off, getting ten minutes start, or until he comes and shouts "ready!" He leaves a trail of corn, dropping two or three grains for every yard and making the trail as crooked as he likes, playing such tricks as a Deer would do to baffle his pursuers. Then he hides the Deer in any place he fancies, but not among rocks or on the top of a ridge, because in one case many arrows would be broken, and in the other, lost.

The hunters now hunt for this Deer just as for a real Deer, either following the trail or watching the woods ahead; the best hunters combine the two. If at any time the trail is quite lost the one in charge shouts "Lost Trail!" After that the one who finds the trail scores two. Any one giving a false alarm by shouting "Deer" is fined five.

Thus they go till some one finds the Deer. He shouts "Deer!" and scores ten for finding it. The others shout "Second," "Third," etc., in order of seeing it, but they do not score.

The finder must shoot at the Deer with his bow and arrow from the very spot whence he saw it. If he misses, the second hunter may step up five paces, and have his shot. If he misses, the third one goes five, and so on till some one hits the Deer, or until the ten-yard limit is reached. If the finder is within ten yards on sighting the Deer, and misses his shot, the other hunters go back to the ten-yard limit. Once the 38) Deer is hit, all the shooting must be from the exact spot whence the successful shot was fired.

A shot in the big oval is a body wound; that scores five. A shot outside that is a scratch; that scores two. A shot in the small oval or heart is a heart wound; it scores ten, and ends the hunt. Arrows which do not stick do not count, unless it can be proved that they passed right through, in which case they take the highest score that they pierced.

If all the arrows are used and none in the heart, the Deer escapes, and the boy who was Deer scores twenty-five.

The one who found the dummy is Deer for the next hunt. A clever Deer can add greatly to the excitement of the game.

Originally we used paper for scent, but found it bad. It littered the woods, yesterday's trail was confused with that of to-day, etc. Corn proved better, because the birds and the squirrels kept it cleaned up from day to day, and thus the ground was always ready for a fresh start. But the best of all is the hoof mark for the shoe. These iron hoof marks are fast to a pair of shoes, and leave a trail much like a real Deer. This has several advantages. It gives the hunter a chance to tell where the trail doubled, and which way the Deer was going. It is more realistic, and a boy who can follow this skilfully can follow a living Deer. In actual practice it is found well to 39) use a little corn with this on the hard places, a plan quite consistent with realism, as every hunter will recall.

THE BEAR HUNT or THE HUNTING OF MISHI-MOKWA

This is played by half a dozen or more boys. Each has a club about the size and shape of a base ball club, but made of straw tied around two or three switches and tightly sewn up in burlap.

One big fellow is selected for the Bear. He has a school-bag tightly strapped on his back, and in that a toy balloon fully blown up. This is his heart. On his neck is a bear-claw necklace of wooden beads and claws. (See cut.) 40)

He has three dens about one hundred yards apart in a triangle. While in his den the Bear is safe. If the den is a tree or rock, he is safe while touching it. He is obliged to come out when the chief hunter counts 100, and must go the rounds of the three till the hunt is settled.

The object of the hunters is to break the balloon or heart, that is, kill the Bear. He must drop dead when the heart bursts. The hunter who kills him claims the necklace.

But the Bear also has a club for defence. Each hunter must wear a hat, and once the Bear knocks a hunter's hat off, that one is dead and out of this hunt. He must drop where his hat falls.

Tackling of any kind is forbidden.

The Bear wins be killing or putting to flight all the hunters. In this case he keeps the necklace.

The savageness of these big Bears is indescribable. Many lives are lost in each hunt, and it has several times happened that the whole party of hunters has been exterminated by some monster of unusual ferocity.

This game has also been developed into a play.

SPEARING THE GREAT STURGEON

This water game is exceedingly popular and is especially good for public exhibition, being spectacular and full of amusement and excitement. 41)

The outfit needed is: —

(1) A Sturgeon roughly formed of soft wood; it should be about seven feet long and nearly a foot thick at the head. It may be made realistic, or a small log pointed at both ends will serve.

(2) Two spears with six-inch steel heads and wooden handles (about four feet long). The points should be sharp, but not the barbs. Each head should have an eye to which is attached twenty feet of one-quarter inch rope. On each rope, six feet from the spearhead, is a fathom-mark made by tying on a rag or cord.

(3) Two boats with crews. Each crew consists of a Spearman, who is captain, and one or two oarsmen or paddlers, of which the after one is the pilot. All should be expert swimmerr or else wear life belts during the game.

The Game. Each boat has a base or harbor; this is a given part of shore opposite that of the enemy. The Sturgeon is left by the Medicine-man's canoe at a point midway between the bases. At the word "Go!" each boat leaves its base and, making for the Sturgeon, tries to spear it, then drag it by the line to his base. When both get their spears into it the contest becomes a tug of war until one of the spears pulls out.

The Sturgeon is landed when the prow of the boat that has it in tow touches its proper base, even though the spear of the enemy is then in the fish; or it is landed 42) when the fish itself touches base. The boats change basos after each heat.

Matches are usually for one, three, or five Sturgeon. Points are counted only for the landing of the fish, but the Medicine-man may give the decision on a foul or a succession of fouls, or the delinquent may be set back one or more boat lengths.

Sometimes the game is played in canoes or boats, with one man as Spearman and crew.

Rules. It is not allowed to push the Sturgeon into a new position with the spear or paddle before striking.

It is allowed to pull the Sturgeon under the boat or pass it around by using the line after spearing.

It is allowed to lay hands on the other boat to prevent a collision, but otherwise it is forbidden to touch the other boat or crew or paddle or spear or line, or to lay hands on the fish, or to touch it with the paddle or oar, or touch your own spear while it is in the fish, or to tie the line around the fish except so far as this may be accidentally done in spearing.

It is allowed to dislodge the enemy's spear by throwing your own over it. The purpose of the barbs is to assist in this.

It is allowed to run onto the Sturgeon with the boat.

It is absolutely forbidden to throw over the other boat or over the heads of your crew.

In towing the Sturgeon the fathom-mark must be over the gunwale — at least six feet of fine should be 43) out when the fish is in tow. It is not a foul to have less, but the Spearman must at once let it out if the umpire or the other crew cries "fathom!"

The Spearman is allowed to drop the spear and use the paddle or oar at will, but not to resign his spear to another of the crew. The Spearman must be in his boat when the spear is thrown.

If a boat is upset the Medicine-man's canoe helps them to right.

Each crew must accept the backset of its accidents.

TILTING IN THE WATER

For this we usually have two boats or war canoes manned by four men each. These are a Spearman, who is also Captain, a Pilot, and two Oarsmen.

The Spearman is armed with a light pole or bamboo twelve feet long, with a soft pad on the end. Sometimes this is further provided with a hook. This is a forked branch with limbs a foot long; one is lashed to the bamboo, the other projecting out a foot, and slightly backward. The end of the spear and the fork are now thoroughly padded with burlap to the shape of a Duck's head and bill. And it is all the better if cased in waterproof, as this keeps it from getting wet and heavy. The object of the hook is to change suddenly from pushing, and to pull the enemy by hooking round his neck. Each boat should have a 44) quarter-deck or raised platform at one end, on which the Spearman stands.

The battle is fought in rounds and by points.

To put your opponent back into the canoe with one foot counts you 5; two feet, 10. If he loses his spear you count 5 (excepting when he is put overboard).

If you put him down on one knee on the fighting deck, you count 5; two knees, 10. If you put him overboard it counts 25. One hundred points is a round.

A battle is for one or more rounds, as agreed on.

It is forbidden to hook or strike below the belt.

The umpire may dock for fouls.

CANOE TAG

Any number of canoes or boats may engage in this. A rubber cushion, a hot-water bag full of air, any rubber 45) football, or a cotton bag with a lot of corks in it, is needed. The game is to tag the other canoe by throwing this into it.

The rules are as in ordinary cross-tag.

SCOUTING

Scouts are sent out in pairs or singly. A number of points are marked on the map at equal distances from camp, and the scouts draw straws to see who goes where. If one place is obviously hard, the scout is allowed a fair number of points as handicap. All set out at same time, go direct, and return as soon as possible.

Points are thus allowed:—

Last back, zero for travelling.

The others count one for each minute they are ahead of the last.

Points up to 100 are allowed for their story on return.

Sometimes we allow 10 points for each Turtle they bring back; 10 for each Owl seen and properly named; 5 for each Hawk, and 1 each for other wild birds; also 2 for a Cat; 1 for a Dog.

No information is given the scout; he is told to go to such a point and do so and so, but is fined points if he hesitates or asks how or why, etc. 46)

POLE STAR

Each competitor is given a long, straight stick, in daytime, and told to lay it due north and south. In doing this he may guide himself by sun, moss, or anything he can find in nature, — anything, indeed, except a compass.

The direction is checked by a good compass corrected for the locality. The one who comes nearest wins.

It is optional with the judges whether the use of a time-piece is to be allowed.

THE GAME OF QUICKSIGHT

Make two boards about a foot square, divide each into twenty-five squares; just ten nuts and ten pebbles. Give to one player one third, five nuts, and five pebbles 47) He places these on the squares in any pattern he fancies, and when ready the other player is allowed to see it for five seconds. Then it is covered up, and from the memory of what he saw the second player must reproduce the pattern on his own board. He counts one for each that was right, and takes off one for each that was wrong. They take turn and turn about.

This game is a wonderful developer of the power to see and memorize quickly.

FAR-SIGHT, OR SPOT-THE-RABBIT

Take two six-inch squares of stiff white pasteboard or whitened wood. On each of these draw an outline Rabbit, one an exact duplicate of the other. Make twenty round black wafers or spots, each half an inch across. Let one player stick a few of these on one Rabbit-board and set it up in full light. The other, beginning at one hundred yards, draws near till he can see the spots well enough to reproduce the pattern on the other which he carries. If he ran do it at seventy-five yards he has wonderful eyes. Down even to seventy he counts grand coup; from seventy to sixty counts coup. Below that does not count at all.

RABBIT HUNT

The game of Rabbit-hunting is suited for two hunters in limited grounds. 48)

Three little sacks of brown burlap, each about eight inches by twelve, are stuffed with hay.

At any given place in the woods the two hunters stand in a ten-foot circle with their bows and arrows. One boy is blind-folded; the other, without leaving the circle, throws the Rabbits into good hiding places on the ground. Then the second hunter has to find the Rabbits and shoot them without leaving the circle. The lowest number of points wins, as in Golf. If the hunter has to leave the circle he gets one point for every step he takes outside. After he sees the Rabbit he must keep to that spot and shoot till it is hit once. One shot kills it, no matter where struck. For every shot he misses he gets five points.

After his first shot at each Rabbit the hider takes alternate shots with him.

If it is the hider who kills the Rabbit, the hunter adds ten points to his score. If the hunter hits it, he takes ten off his score.

If the hunter fails to find all the Rabbits he scores twenty-five for each one he gives up.

The hider cannot score at all. He can only help his friend into trouble. Next time the two change places.

A match is usually for two brace of Rabbits. 49)

HOSTILE SPY

Hanging from the Totem-pole is a red or yellow horsetail. This is the Grand Medicine Scalp of the Tribe. The Hostile Spy has to steal it. The Medicine-man goes around on the morning of the day and whispers to various braves, "Look out — there's a spy in camp." At length he gets secretly near the one he has selected for Spy and whispers, "Look out, there's a spy in camp, and you are it." He gives him at the same time some bright-colored badge, that he must wear as soon as he has ai iired inc Medicine Scalp. He must not hide the scalp on liis person, but keep it in view. He has all day till sunset to get away with it. If he gets across the river or other limit, with warriors in close pursuit, they give him ten arrowheads (two and one half cents each), or other ransom agreed on. If he gets away safely and hides it, he can come back and claim fifteen arrow-heads from the Council as ransom for the scalp. If he is caught he pays his captor ten arrow-heads ransom for his life.

THE MAN HUNT

This is played with a Scout and ten or more Hostiles, or hounds, according to the country, more when it is rough or wooded. The Scout is given a letter addressed to the "Mili- 50) tary Commandant"* of any given place a mile or two away. He is told to take the letter to any one of three given houses, and get it endorsed, with the hour when he arrived, then return to the starting point within a certain 4ime. The Hostiles are sent to a point half way, and let go by a starter at the same lime as the Scout leaves the Camp. They are to intercept him. If they catch him before he delivers the letter he must ransom his life by paying each two arrow-heads (or other forfeit) and his captor keeps the letter as a trophy If he gets through, but is caught on the road back, he pays half as much for his life. If he gets through, but is over time, it is a draw. If he gets through successfully on time he claims three arrow- heads from each Hostae and keeps the letter as a trophy. They may not follow him into the house (that is, the Fort), but may surround it at one hundred yaids distance, or nearer if they do not show themselves. They do not know which three houses he is free to enter, but they do know that these are within certain narrow limits. The Scout should wear a conspicuous badge (hat, shirt, coat, or feather,) and may ride a wheel or go in a wagon etc., as long as his badge is clearly visible. •The "Military Commandant" is usuafly the lady of the house 51)

To "tag" the Scout is not to capture. "The block- ade to be binding must be effectual."

A LIST OF EXPLOITS OR COUPS THAT ENTITLE THE BRAVE TO A DECORATION

These exploits are intended to distinguish those braves who are first class in their department and those who are so good that they may be considered in the record-making class. They may be called Honors and High Honors, but the Plains Indians speak of their exploits as Coup (pronounced coo) and Grand Coup. The Sioux, I am informed, use the French word coup, but call them "Jus-tee-na coo" and " Tonka coo," the "Little Deed," and the "Big Deed." The decoration for a Coup or Honor is a Pond-eagle feather for the war-bonnet, or a wampum medal for the coat, or both. For the High Honor or Grand Coup the Pond- eagle feather has a red tuft of horsehair on the top, and the wampum medal is of double size with a circle around the symbol. No one can count both Coup and Grand Coup, or repeat their honor in the same department, except for Heroism, Mountain-climbing, and others that are specified as " repeaters," in which each honor is added to that previously worn. No honors are conferred unless the exploit has been 52) properly witnessed or proven, as though for the Cen- tury Bar of the L. A. W. Honors are allowed accord- ing to the standard of the year in which the application was made. , , , <. An honor once won can never be lost for subsequent failure to reach the standard. Except when otherwise stated the exploits arc ineant for all ages. , , u Any brave making Coup according to the class above hun may count it a Grand Coup in his own class, unless otherwise provided.

SACHEMS AND SAGAMORES

Those with 12 Coups are Sub-Sachems. Those who have won 24 Coups, that is, who have completed the circle of feathe- in their headdress, are Sachems. , o , Those with 24 Grand Coups are Grand Sachems. Those with 48 Coups, that is, who have completed both circle and tail of the headdress, are Sagamores. Those with 48 Grand Coups are Grand Sagamores. All of these except the Sub-Sachems are entitled to sit in the Council without election. They are Red, White, or Blue Sagamores or Sachems, according to the class in which they have won most honors, and they rank in the order here given. 53)

CLASS I. RED HONORS

HEROISM

1. Honors are allowed for saving a human life at risk of one's own; it is a coup or grand coup, at the discretion of the Council.

2. A soldier's war medals count for a grand coup each.

3. Courage. The measure of courage has not yet been discovered.

CLASS II. WHITE HONORS

CAMPERCRAFT

4. Come to camp through strange woods from a point one mile off and return in 30 minutes, for coup; in 20 for grand coup.

5. Light 15 camp fires in succession with 15 matches, all at different places, all with stuff found in the woods by the boy himself, one at least to be on a wet day, for coup; if all 15 are done on wet days, or if he does 30, of which two are on wet days, it counts grand coup.

6. Light a fire with fire drill or rubbing sticks, with material of one's own gathering, counts a coup; to do it in one minute counts a grand coup.

7. To chop down three 6-inch trees in succession in 60 seconds each, throwing them to drive each a given stake, coup; in 45 seconds each, grand coup. 54)

8. Know and name 15 star groups, for coup; know 20 star groups and tell the names and something about at least one star in each, for grand coup.

9. Take the latitude from the stars at night with a cartwheel, or some home-made instrument, three times from different points, within two degrees of average error, for coup; one degree for grand coup.

10. To measure the height of 10 trees without climbing, or 10 distances across a river, etc., without crossing, within 10 per cent of average error, for coup; 5 per cent for grand coup. Tools, an axe and a pocket rule only.

11. To guess one inch, one foot, one yard, one rod, one acre, 100 yards, 200 yards, one-quarter mile, one-half mile, and a mile, within 20 per cent of average error, for coup; 10 per cent for grand coup.

12. To guess the height of 10 trees or other high things, and the weight of 10 stones or other things ranging from one ounce to 100 pounds, within 10 per cent of average error, for coup; 5 per cent for grand coup.

13. Camper. A coup for passing 30 successive days out of doors, never once sleeping under shingles, but in tent, teepee, or bivouac, every night. A grand coup for 60 days of the same.

14. Lone tramper. A coup for travelling alone on foot, 100 miles, carrying one's outfit, sleeping out every night; a grand coup for 200 miles.

15. Gang-tramper. A coup for travelling 150 miles 55) on foot with a party, carrying one's own outfit, sleeping out every night; a grand coup for 250 miles.

16. Traveller. A grand coup for having passed the Royal Geographical Society's examination of "expert traveller."

17. Arctic traveller. A coup for entering the Arctic circle by sea; a grand coup by land.

18. Tropic traveller, A coup for crossing the equator by sea or rail; a grand coup on foot.

19. Red Cross. A grand coup for having passed the Red Cross examination of first aid to the wounded.

20. Boat-builder. Build a boat that will carry two men and that can be paddled, rowed or sailed by them 6 miles an hour, coup; 7 miles an hour, grand coup.

21. To have made a birch canoe that has travelled, with at least one man aboard, 100 miles or more in safety, grand coup.

22. Expert canoeman. A coup is allowed to those who can paddle (single) a canoe on dead water, make their canoe coup (see No. 68), spill the canoe and get into her again, and bale her alone; a grand coup when they make their canoe coup, spill, right, and bale the canoe alone, three times in succession, and have run a rapid that falls six feet in 200 yards.

23. In sign-talking, to know and use correctly 50 signs, for coup; 100 signs, grand coup.

24. Knots. To make 20 different standard knots in a rope, for coup; 30 for grand coup. 56)

25. Tread a sawlog 100 yards in any time, without going overboard, for coup; do it 100 yards and back in 30 minutes for grand coup.

FISHING

(Outdoors)

By Dr. Henry Van Dyke, author of Little Rivers, Fisherman's Luck, Etc.

BOYS ARE THOSE UNDER 14; LADS, 14 TO 18; MEN, OVER 18.

26. Boys: Tomake a 6-foot leader of clean gut, with smooth knots, to stand a strain of 5 lbs., coup. To tie 6 different flies, of regular patterns, on number 8-12 hooks, and take trout with each of them, by daylight casting, in clear water, grand coup. Lads: To make a bait rod of 3 joints, straight and sound, 14 oz. or less in weight, 10 feet or less in length, to stand a stram of 1j lbs. at the tip, 13 lbs. at the grip, coup. To make a jointed fly-rod 8-10 feet long, 4-6 ozs. in weight, capable of casting a fly 60 feet, grand coup.

27. Boys and Lads: To take with the fly, unassisted, a 3-lb. trout or black bass, on a rod not more than 5 oz. in weight, coup. To take a 5-lb. trout or black bass or a 4-lb. landlocked salmon under the same conditions, grand coup.

28. Boys and Lads: To take on a rod, without 57) The Bifch-Batk Rott assistance in hooking, playing, or landing, a trout, black bass, pike, muscallonge, grayling, salmon, blue- fish, weakfish, striped bass, kingfish, sheepshead, or other game fish, whose weight in pounds equak or ex- ceeds that of the rod in ounces, coup. To take, under the same conditions, a game fish over 20 lbs., grand coup. Men: To hook and land with the fly, unassisted, without net or gaff, a trout or landlocked salmon over 4 lbs. or a salmon over 12 lbs., coup. To take, under the same conditions, a salmon over 25 lbs., grand coup. . Indoor Fly-Casting. Boys: To cast a fly with a rod of 5 oz. less, not over 10 feet bng, 40 feet, coup; 55 feet, grand coup. Lads: 65 feet, coup; 80 feet, grand coup. Men: 80 feet, coup; 95 feet, grand coup. BAIT-CASTING Revised by Mr. L. S. Darting, of New York. . With 1-oz. dummy frog, 5-foot rod, indoors, overhead casting, tournament style: — Boy class, 60 feet for coup ; 70 feet for grand coup Lad " 80 " " " 90 " " " " Man " 100 « " " 120 " " " " If out of doors, add xo per cmt to each of the disr- tances. RIDING, ETC., TO THE END OF ATHLETICS ARE RED HONORS . To ride a horse one mile in three minutes, clearing a 4-foot hurdle and an 8-foot water-jiunp, 58) The Birch-Bark RoU counts coup; to do it in two minutes, clearing a 5-foot hurdle and a 12-foot water-jump, grand coup. . Trick-riding. To pick up oat*» hat nom the ground while at full gallop on a horse ol not less than 13 hands coimts coup. To do it three times without failure, from each side, with horse of at least 15 hands, counts grand coup. . To catch 10 horses or cattle in corral, with 10 throws of the lasso, counts coup; to catch 10 on the range in 10 throws counts a grand coup. a. To catch a horse or beef by each of his four feet in four successive throws, grand coup. . Diamond hitch. Pack a horse with not less than 100 pounds of stuff, with diamond hitch, to hold during eight hours of travel, coup. Ten days in succession, a grand coup. SHOOTING (Open to men only) . Revolver-Shot. Target 4 x 4 feet. Bull's-eye 8 inches (counts 4 points). Inner ring 2 feet (3 points). Outer, the rest of target (a pomts). Distance, 30 yards. 96 shots divided in any number up to six days, one hand, standing: —

pomts count coup; 300, grand coup. 

3Sa. Half with left hand only; half with right only: — 230 points, coup; 260, grand coup. a 59) The Bifch-Bark Rott . Rifleman * To be a marksman according to militia standaids, a coup; to be sharpshooter, a grand coup. ARCHERY Revised by Mr. WiU H. Thompson, of SeaUk, Wash. . Make a total score of 300 with 60 shots (in one or^wo meets), 4-foot target at 40 yards (or 3-foot target at 30 yards), for coup; make 400 for grand coup. . Shoot so fast and far as to have 6 anows m the air at once, for coup; 7, for grand coup. (Accordhig to Catlin the record is 8.) . For boys (10 to 14), to send an arrow 100 yards, coup; 135, g«nd ^° an arrow ^25 yards, coup; 150, grand coup. For men (over 18), to send an arrow 200 yards, coup; 250, grand coup. . . . _^ r * . To hit the Burlap Deer m the heart, first shot: — , J For boys at 45 yards, coup; 55 yards, grand coup " lads " 60 « " 70 " « men" 75 " " ^5 " " (The heart is 9 inches across.)

  • Everything that can be said in favor of fireams for use "» gen"?^

sport appUes to the rifle only (and its understudy the revolver). The Satter^ has no official existence for us. It is ruinaUpn toAe marksiS^s power and should be aboUshed. A nfle range »»d^ able adjunct of all grown-iq»cMiq». Honon •» awmided waxwdtt^ to the anny studarda. 60) The Birch-BMk Roll . MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING (AU afoot) (Not open to boys, ijt., those under 14) The exploits in this class arc repeaters. Fo« Lads (Under 18). COUP: — In Great Britain: Ben Macdhuic; Ben Nevis; Ben Lomond; Ben Cruachan; Snowdon; Hcl- vellyn. In Europe: Vesuvius. In North America: Mt. Wash- ington; Electric Peak, Wyo. GRAND COUP:— In Europe: Mt. Blanc; Breit- horn: Etna. In North America: Pike'aPtoak; Shasta; Adams. In Asia: Fujiyama; Tabor. This expltut is a repeater. For All Over 18. COUP: — In Europe: Mt Blanc; Monte Rosa; Breithom; Monte Viao; Etna. In North America: St. Helen's; Adams; ShaaU; Hood;Rai^. In Africa: Teneiiffr. GRAND COUP: — In Europe: Matterhom; Wet- terhom; Aig. Verte; M%. du Dru; Aig. du Geant; Point des Ecrins; Ortler-Spitze. In South America: Chimboiazo; Cotopaxi; Illimani; Aconcagua. In Asia: Everest*; KinAiw - jun^*; Ararat. In Africa: Kilimandjaro. This exploit is a repeater. Other mountains will be added later. EYESIGHT . To spot the Rabbit three times at 60 yards, or to distinguish and map out correctly six Pleiades and see clearly the "Pappoose (Alcor) on the Squaw's CMizar) back," counts a coup; to spot the Rabbit three times at 70 yards and see seven Pleiades and • Means "not yet climbed." The firet one to climb a standard peak gets double honors; one for climb, one for first dimb. 61) The Kfch-BMk Rott the Pappoosc counts a far-sight grand coup. (Those who habitually wear glasses may use them in this test.) Sec Far-sight among the games, p. 41. . To make a 75 score in ten tries in the game of Quicksight, with ten counters, counts coup; a 95 score counts a grand coup. (See Quicksight among the games, p. 40.) ATHLFHCS NMvVorkPMc roi TBMC OMon 14.* . Coup: Walk 3J measured miles in i hr. (heel and toe). Grand Coup: 4 miles . Coup: Walk i mile in 4 m. Gimnd Coup: | mile lOa THOSX OVEB I4 1*. Coup: 4} nfin in 1 hr. Grand Coop: sm Coup: I mik in 3 m. Grand Coup: mile in a} m. . Coup mile in 13 m. Grand Coup Walk mile m II m. Coup: 1 10 m. Grand Coup: mile in 9} m. KW TBOBX ovn 18. Coup: si miles. Gimnd Coup : 6} miles. (Rec. 7 inilet, 1318 yd8.)*» Coiq>: I mik, i m. 50 «. Gnad Coup: i m. 40 s. (Rec. X m. 93 s.) in Coup: i mile in 8) m. Grand Coup: i mile, 7 m. 45 s. (Rec. 6 m. agj s.) • B a itaiKlard is doired for thoae under ten. it may be madt by taking the roup at the i4-rear-oldi ai the unit tad mbtractiiig 7) and 15 per cent respectively for grand coup and coup when it b dijtaaca, or Mldiag to it 7« wd 15 per ont when it is time.

    • Reea(ds acoocdiag to Spridtag*! Almanac.

62) The Birch-Bark RoU ATHLETICS (ConHmm$i) KM raOSB VNDM 14.' - Coup: Run loo yds. in 14 t. Onnd Com: 100 yd in 13 ■. FO» Til 1 ■¥ .J Eti , 4W» UNDO iS. toe fdt in S> Not open.

  • Notopaa.

So> Notofwa. SI. Coup: Standing iMgh jump without weights. 3 ft. GiWKi Coup: 3 II. 4 in. Coup. o Is iir Coup Gram! ' ^ ,,: Grami col»: 100 vdfc yd*«n ills. {in loif «. ^ (Rec. 9j ,.) Coup: Run laol Com: aao vdi. fai yds. in 88 1. Us. " Grind Coup: ab s. Grand Cup: in ■ Coup Run I mile „, IS". Gnnd Coup; in 4 m. 45 »• (Rec. 4 m. i5f 8.) Coup: Rwi 10 miles in 80 m. (.rand'^oyp in 70m. (Rec. sam. Coxp: 4 ft. a in. Gnnd Coup: 4 ft. 6 Not open. Notopoi. Coup: 3 ft. 4 In. Grand Co^>: 3 ft 9 in. (Rec. 5 ft. 5 J in.) •Urn Oftht I, kiti 63) The Kt^h-Buk RQ«i ATHLETICS (C. R TB<vsi; OVm 14 • ,u N»B* it. TH 'SE (.» , « iS. S3. Coil, high jump with ut weights, 3 ft. 6 In. Trand Coup: 4 a. Rui -lingi. li .1 Grai •> C> 4 £1. 6 in. S3. Coup: SundiagiCoup: 7 ft. Iwoad jump wltboiit|Onnd C<Atp; 8 ft weights, 6 ft. . ^ j Onnd Coup: 61 ft. . Coup: Runnin(( broad jump without wetKhU, 13 ft. ( -^and r p: i ?t. . Coup: Hop, and imp, wltb w^^ornm, 16 ft GnadCoiq>: 19 ft j6. Not OfMB. p: 15' Old C 'A. • Coup. aft. GriindCwp: —ft "oup: H throw (la 1 it. handle. T-f* cirr. h. .60, f>1m. Cou ! f- n a. .tii Coup. 30 ft> S4 ft. 7| in.)

oup 23 ft.

Grand Coup: jo II. Rec. 30 ft. 3 »«•)

ifa» ) '^5 ft. 

Coup (16 ^ou; Gimi Iba.) 75 (Kec. oe ft. s ui-> •If -(k hr 4-> u " thi- iiiii oup u a«M* IS time. a tb Oder tai. it may be na<ie by taking the coup ■t aau ,.i*r*c*«| 7* Mi* far 64) The Biceh-Bark RoO ATHLETICS (Contimied) FOB THOSE UNDEB 14.* FOB THOSE OVEB I4 AND UNDEB 18. . Coup: Shot put from a 7-ft. circle (13 lbs.), 18 ft. ^ Gnnd Coup: ao ft . Throw regulation baseball, 60 yds. Gimnd Coup: 70 yda, - Coup: Batting baaeball, 55 yds. Grand Coup: 65 yds. Coup: as ft. Grand Coup: aSft, FOB TUOSE OVEB l8. Coup: 75 yds. Orand Coup: yds. Coup: 70 yds. Grand Coup: yds.


»*!l!Pi. T^irowjngCoup: no yds.

  • Lacrosse. Grand Coup: 130

the yds. Grand Coup: 100 yds. . Coup: To kick (drop) a goal in football, 30 y<ls. Grand Coup: 35 yds . May try if they like yds. Coup: 40 yds. Grand Coup: yds.

May try if they oke. Coup: (16 lbs.) 36 ft. Grand Coup: (16 lbs.) 40 ft. ^ (Rec. 47 ft.) Coup: 100 yds. Grand Coup: no yds. (Rec. 197 J^s- 2i in.) Coup: 95 yds. Grand Coup: 105 yds. ^Rec. 118 yds. 10 in.) Coup: 130 yds. Grand Coup: 150yds. (Rec. i6s jndi. a ft, 7J in.) Coup: 50 yds. Grand Coup: 55 yds. (Rec. 63 yds. n in.) Grand Coup: Put two Rugby footbaUs in mid- dle of Rugbjr fidd and kick a riipit and left goal. Mf a standard is d«irtd for tho« uiid« ten. k may be made b, I.U|« the coud of the 14-year-olda M the unil «>d subtnctiBa 7« rnnd i< ner »^ i^*^ r«d«.p «d coup .to. u I. di-JTS-CJ L'ZT^s^^' 65) The Bbch-Bttk Rofl ATHLETICS (Continrnd) worn THOSE DNDEB I4-* rOK TBOSE OVXB I4 AND UNDEB 18. . Coup: To climb the 18-ft. rope, hands only used, 13 s. Grend Coup: 11 1. . Coup: To diin the bar 4 times. Grand Coup: 6 toes. S- like. May try if they Coup: 9 s. Grand Coup: Coup: 6 times. Grand Coup: times.

Coup: TocMnthe bar with one hand once. Grand Coup: With each hand in suc- cession. . Coup: Skate 100 yds. in 15 s. Grand Coup: 13 s . Coup: Row (single sculls) i mile in II m. Grand Coup: 10 m . Coup: Paddle (single) I mile in 13 m Grand Coup: 12 m. Coup: 13 s. Grand Coi^>: 12 s. Coup: 9 m. Grand Coup: 8 m Coup: 19 m. Grand Coup: XI m roa Twwa ovu 18. Coup: 6 s. Grand Coup: $ •• (Rec. 3i s.) Coup: 10 tunes. Grand Coup: 15 times. (Rec. 39 times.) Coup: To chin the bt- with each hand. • iiTind Coup: With each hand twice. (Rec. 13 times.) Coup: iii 8. Grand Coup: lof s. (Rec. with wind, 9 s.) Coup: 7 m. 25 s. Grand Coup: 6 m. SOS. Coup: 10 m. Grand Coup: 9 m. • II a ttandard is desired lor those under ten, it may be made by taking the coup ol the 14-year-olds as the unit and subtracting 7* «nd «5 pw respectively lor gnud caap tad coup when it to dirtance, or adding to it u>d '5 bbdow. 66) The Bifch-Bark Rolf ATHLETICS (CMMMwi) ton THOSE UNDER 1 4.* . Coup: Swim loo yds. in any time at all. Grand C<Hq>: aoo yds. in 4 m. . Notq|)eB. . Not open. FOR THOSE OVER 14 Ata> CMOM 18. . Notf^ea. Coup: Swim loo vds. in any time at kll. Grand Coup: 300 yds. in 3 m. 45 a. Coup: Swim i mile in 50 m. Gnmd Coop: in 45 m. Coup (Medley Race) : Go 400 yds.; running 100, rowing 100, walk- ing 100, and swim' nung 100 (in any order) in 6 m. Grud Coup: 5 m Coup: On Ucyck I mUe 3 m. 30 1. Gnad Coiq>: 3 m Coup: Swim 100 yds. in any time at all. Grand Coup: 300 yds. in 3 m. (Rec. 3 m. 30 s.) Coup: 45 m. Grand Coup: 35 m. (Rec. 94 m. 46f s.) n» THOSB ovn 18. Coup: 4} m. Grand Coup: 4 m. Coiq>: X mile 9 m. 50*. Giaad Coup: t m. S. • If aiuiidudUdcdmlte&gnttwl«lM,knay teaadibirtrtiagteMMp o( the M-ycu-olds u tlw aait aad Mbtncliaf ?! aad ts p« cM iwpidMr iar gnnd coup and coup mhm it it dirtaM*, or aMlM ts it tI «M «Imb 67) The Bitch-Bark RoU ATHLETICS {Conavded) The foUcwing honors are open to those only who are n years tti or over : . Coup: Walk xo miles in i hr. 45 m. Grand Cotq>: I hr. 30 m. (Rec z hr. 17 m. 4of s.) . Coup: Walk 100 miles in 30 his. (Srand Coup: in 3$ his. (Rec ai his. 4a s.) . Coup: Swim 5 mQes in 4 hmm. Grand Coup: in 3 J hours. (Rec. 3 hrs. 58 m. ^ s.) . Coup: Swim 10 miles in any time. . Grand Coup: Swim 15 miles in any time. . Coup: Bicycle, zoo miles in one day aoowding to L. A. W. rules. GtandCoiq>: aoo miles. [thSMMp 68) The Bfach-Buk Roll Until further notice the National Council will allow honors on all properly recognized outdoor exploitT not herein hsted, on the foUowing general basia- Con testants over eighteen must make^^o per^'oH?; amateur record distance for coup, and 95 Ser cent for grand coup; or if it is a time exploit, not eTceeTg thejcord by 10 per cent, for coup; 5 per cent fo? pnd coup. Contestants under eighteen and over fourteen must make 85 and 90 per cent, or not exceed time by more than 15 and 10 per cent. Those under S.'i n^f """i, "S^^^ ^5 per cent of distance and not exceed time by more than 20 and 15 per cent. The records are as given in Spalding's Official Athletic Ahnanac (lo cents of aU bookseUere). CLASS III. BLUE HONORS NATURE STUDY-VERTEBRATES Revised by Mr Frank M. Chapman, of the Ameri- can Museum of Natural HiskJyTNew York City 79- Know and name correctly 25 native wild quadrupeds, for coup; know and name correcUy co. ai^ ten something about each, for grand coup. 80. Know and draw unmistakable pictures of

tracks of our four-foot animals, for coup: of co for 

grand coup. *^ x. Know and name correctly 100 of our native 69) The Birch-Bairk RoU birds as seen mounted in a museum, the female and young to count separately when they are wholly dif- ferent from the male. This counts coup; aoo birds for grand coup. . Know and name correctly 50 wild birds in the field; this counts coup; 100, grand coup. . Recognize 50 wild lards by note, for coup; 100 for grand coup. . Klnow and name 10 turtles for coup, 20 for grand coup, with something interesting about each. . Know and name 10 different snakes, telling which are poisonous, for coup; 20 snakes for grand coup. . Know and name correctly 10 Batrachians for coup; 20 for grand coup. . Know and name 25 fish, for coup; 50 6ah for grand coup. NATURE STUDY— LOWER FORMS OF LIFE Revised by Mr. John Burroughs. . Know and name 25 native land and fresh water shells, for coup; 50 for grand coup. . Know and name 25 moths, for coup; 50 fat grand coup. . Know and name 25 butterflies, for coup; 50 butterflies for grand coup. . Know and name 50 other insects, for coup; zoo for grand coup. 70) The Bifch-B«k RoO . Know and name correctly, i.e., with the ac- cepted English names, according to any standard authority, 35 trees, and tell something interesting about them, counts coup; 50 for grand coup. . Know and name correctly 50 of our wild flowers, for coup; 100 for grand coup. . Know and name correctly 25 of our wild ferns, for coup; 50 for gnind coup. . Know and name correctly 25 of our native mosses, for coup; 50 for grand coup. . Know and name 50 common toadstools or muduooms, for coup; 100 for grand coup. GEOLOGY, ETC. Revised by Prof. Charles D. WalcoU, Chief U. S. Geological Survey . Paleontology. Know and name, referring to their proper strata, 50 native fosdls, for coup; 100 for grand coup. . Mineralogy. Know and name 50 minerab, for coup; 100 for grand coup. . Geology. Know and name and describe the 14 great divisions of the earth's crust, according to Geikie, also d^nt watershed, ddta, drift, fault, gkider, terrace, stratum, dip, and identify 10 different kinds of rock, for coup. In addition to the first, define sedi- ment, metamorphic, anticlinal, syndinal, moraine, coal, 71) The Birch-Bark RoU metal, mineral, petroleum, and identify in all 90 kinds of rock, for grand coup. PHOTOGRAPHY Reinsed by Mr. A. Redely f}e Dugmore, of "ComUiy Lije," New York. . Make a good recognizable photograph of any wild bird larger than a robin, while on its nest, the bird itself to be at least one inch long on plate, for coup. . Make a good photograph of a Ruffed Grouse drumming, the bird to be at least one inch kmg on plate, for grand coup. . Make a good recognizable photograph of a wild animal in the air, for coup, or grand coup, according to merit, the image to be at least one inch on the plate. . Ditto for a fish. . Get a good photograph of any lai]ge wild animal in its native surroundings, and not looking at you, the animal to be at least one inch long <m the pkte, for coup, or grand coup, according to merit. (As these are tests of Woodcraft, menagerie animab do not count.) This list is made by the National Council. The exploits are founded on world-wide standards, and 72) with the help of the best experts. The Council will gladly consider any suggestion, but it must be understood that no local tribe has any power to add to or vary the exploits in any way whatsoever. 73) BOOKS BY ERNEST THOMPSON SETOM p^bUahed by DOUBLEDAY. PAGE ft CO. 133 E**t i6th Btratt, New York City TWO LITTLE SAVAaSS, 1903 A book of adventure and woodcraft and camping out for boys, telling how to make bows, arrows, moccasins, costumes, teepee, war-bonnet, etc., and how to make a fire with rubbing sticks, read Indian signs, etc. Price, $1.75 net. THS WILD ANIMAL PLAT, 1900 A musical play in which tl - parts of Lobo, Wthb, ViMtn, etc., are taken by boys and girls. Price, soc. Published by CHARLES SCRIBNBR'S SONS sss mh A«WM% M«w Twk CMy WILD AUXMALS X HATI XVOWV. 1898 The stories of Lobo, Sil^-erspot, Mdtty CottontMl, UnflO, Vixen, The Pacing MusUng, Wully and Redniff. Pnce, «3M. LOBO, SAO AVD TIZIV, 1800 This is a school edition of the abant, with Mme of the itoiiM and many of the pirturee left out. Price, Soc net. TBI niAIL or TBI tAVSBXLL ITAft, 1899 The story of a loDg hunt that ended wilhoitt a tnfedy. Price, $1.50. TBI £Zm or TBI BUVTID. 1801 The stories of Krag, Randy, Johnny Bear^ Tte ^^^r Teal, Chink, The Kargartio Rat, and Tho, the Coyote. Price, $1-75 net. SBAG AND JOHNNT BlAB, 1908 This is a schod edition of the above, with aome of the 1 and many of d» pktwes kit oM. Price,50Ciiet. 74) / noTVBu or wzld mmoum, hoi Twdve laife pictuitt for fnuning (no text), vis., Kng, Lcbo, Tito Cub, Kanffuoo Rat, Griitly, Buffalo, Bear FamUv, Johnny Bear, SaadUU Stas, Cooa Famify, Courttut the Wolf, Tito and her family, race, t6.oe. MO gH O H. TBI no BIAR OF TILLAO, MM The at(»7 ol a big Califoroia Griady that ia Uvii^ jret. Pike, net. AMIMAL BIBOni. IMS The stories of a Slum Cat, a Homiiw Pigeon, The Wolf that Won, A Lynx, A Jackrabbit, A Bull-terrier, llie Wnnipeg Wolf and A White Reindeer. Price, I1.7S net. MAMSCALB OF MAHITOBA. To be isaued shortly. PnbUahad by THB CENTURY COMFAMY Union Square, New York CKjr KOOftAPHT or ▲ OBIZSLT. 1900 The story of old Wahb from Cub-hood to the scene in Death Gulch. Price, $1.50. WOODMTTH AVD riBLI, 1906 A cdkction of fablei, woodland venes, and camp storica. Price, ti.a5 net. BY MRS. ERNEST THOMPSON SETON Publiahed by DOUBLEDAY, PAGE ft CO. A WOMAN TENDEBFOOT A book of outdoor adventures and camping for women and giris. How to dress for it, where to go, and now to profit the mout by amp Hfe. Price, $2.00. 75) A LIST OF BOOKS RECOMMENDED FOR NATURE STUDENTS MAMMALS OF THE~ADIRONDACKS By C. hart MERRIAM, M.D. Hrary 6* C:, Ntm York CUy, Prkt, BAVDBOOK or BISDt OF BAITIEV VOBTB AMBBIOA By frank M. chapman D. Apfltttm 6» Co., New York CUy. Price, $3.00 BAITDBOOK OF BIBDi OF WBITIBM VMXTID STATES FLORENCE MERRIAM BAILEY Houghton, Mifflin Co., Boitm, Mau. Price, $3.50 THE HATUBE UBBABT Published by Dotibkday, Pagi tt Co. Sold by tubstriftiom. Price OK application. Volume I conuins the genenl introduction to the library, by John Burroughs, and Ndtje BUnchan givea an mtroductory acquaintance wTth 150 bWt uroaDy found to the gardens, meadows, and woods about our homes. The birds are classified in five different ways, making identification immedUtely p<»- sible without technical knoi^e^. There are 48 P»ates in colors, and i6in black-and-white. »u . Volume II, Iw Neltje Bfamduta, fa dcyoted to Uiat Hunt and are Hunted." O. O. SWekfa hu wiittm tite liitio- duction to this account <rf 170 binfa ol pfw, pHM wros, and waterfowl. 64 color plate* and 16 plates hi Mack-«iid-wMle. Volume III, by A. RadcMfe Dupwxe. fa ft ctMnplete manual of binl'i-neatt, eggs, and bwediii« habits cortaimngdso .lu- able hints on nature photorapl^ photographs of bird Hie haw Buds Urn fuooaa. 16 cdat plates and 8a other pictures. Volume IV fa the atfy book wWdi sums up »W»4"j2r2 dw maaa of new kaonrledge about American iMnmill wUcii 76) science hu. gathrred during the last quarter of a century. By . f .irturcs are marvellous feats of the nera, nearly all Dcing photographed from hie, generally uf wild animals. There are also eight colored plates. 'olunie V, by David Starr Jordan and Barton W. Evermann, fills a long-felt need in popular scientific works, being a full account of the life-histoncs and methods of capture o? North American food and game fish. With lo lithographed color plates, lOO photographs of live fish in the water, and aoo text cuts. Volume VI is by Dr. W. J. Holland, who has introduced thousands of readers to the delightful study of butterfliei and caterpillars. Its 48 color plates are the finest ever made by the three-color photographic process, and in these and the teat cuts fully a thousand different species of butterflies are ^uwn. There an ftepint oo tite cajitttit and pnwrvMkm of bimer> flies. Volume VII, also by Dr. Holland, ukcs up the subject of mothi. There are i ,500 figures in the colored plates and 300 text cuts of the moths of North Amerii .1 Volume VIII, by D.'. L. O. Howard rents of bees, wasps, ants, grasshoppers, flies, and other Nortti American inaecti, admirably suited to the general reader. It has t6 color plates and 3a black-and-white, all photographed ban litt iaiectB themselves, besides nearly 300 text cuts. Volume IX, by Neltie Blanchan, enables any one to identify all the common wild llowen of the North .American continent, and introduces the reader to their marvellous life-histories and the pan which insects play in these. Illustrations: 33 color plates and 48 black-aad^iriiite, aU fnm phomg w pha of ^ actual flower. Volume X, by Nina L. Marshall, is an invaluable aid to all who are interested in fungi as food or as a limitless subject of study. 34 color plates and 40 bUdtHMad - w l i to ban piMlto' graphs by Mr. and Miss Anderson. Volume XI, by Julia E. Rogers, has many features th.. 1 no other work on treen approaches. It tells how to know the trees; the »iscs and value of trees; the care of trees; how to grow trees; the preservation of forests. The 350 beautiful pbotoeraj^iic ilhis- tnuoBtt Of A» Ra DagBMnt show budi Witmer Stone and William Everitt The 80 full 77) and the wood of *H the Imporunt tpedet, and then tn i«  •^vSiiJic^xTl u a most *o*^**!7 S:£!S^!3r and contains a weahh <.f original obi«vadoB rfro|. and t.>ad. thatta a ^^trSj^^^S^^S^L^^Si plates in clor and IIMify JOO hhelW**«Wli pl»<i»o|»p*« WW life by the author. OUR HATXVI TBIM HARRIET L. KEELER, 1900 Charks Scribner's S<ms, New York City. Priet, liM OlOLOOXOAL STOBY BBOFLT TOtD JAMES D. DANA Amryican Book Co., New ■ City. Prkt. $i.iS FBIMBB OF OBOLOaY ARCHIBALD GEIKIE American Book Co., New York City. Price, 3SC immmf with ah opbba olam GARRETT P. SERVISS D. Apphtm^ Co., N'w York City. Price, ti-So irAUMMV OmOlAL ATHLinO ALXAMAC EDITED BY J. E. SULLIVAN ^ 78)



  1. Prize are nit honors.
  2. It is usual to select an Indian name of local application.
  3. March First, Awakening, or Crow Moon (blue).
    April Wild-goose or Green-grass Moon (green).
    May Song Moon (purple).
    June Rose Moon (rose).
    July Thunder Moon (copper).
    August Red or Green-corn Moon (red).
    September Hunting Moon (yellow).
    October Leaf-falling Moon (fiery).
    November Mad Moon (smoky).
    December Long-night Moon (black).
    January Snow Moon (white).
    February Hunger Moon or Wan Moon (pale or ashy),
  4. Pond-eagle — white goose feathers made up in imitation of eagle feathers.