The American Boy Scout, 1910 (book)

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1) 2)

THE AMERICAN BOY SCOUT, 1910

„Děti Živěny”, Beroun 1913 (Miloš Seifert)

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„Děti Živěny” v Berouně (1913)
THE AMERICAN BOY SCOUT
The Official Hand-Book of Woodcraft for the Boy Scouts of America
Being the eighth edition of
“THE BIRCH-BARK ROLL”
By
ERNEST THOMPSON SETON

New York
Doubleday, Page & Company
1910

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1st Edition in Ladies’ Home Journal
Copyright, 1902, by
THE CURTIS PUBLISHING COMPANY

2d Edition
Copyright, 1903, by
THE CURTIS PUBLISHING COMPANY

3d Edition
Copyright, 1904, by
ERNEST THOMPSON SETON

4th Edition in “Association Boys” for June
Copyright, 1905, by
ERNEST THOMPSON SETON

5th Edition
Copyright, 1906, by
ERNEST THOMPSON SETON

6th Edition
December, 1906

7th Edition
Copyright, 1908, by
ERNEST THOMPSON SETON

8th Edition
Copyright, 1910, by
DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY

6) CONTENTS Inrropuction. The Nine Principles PART I— THE HONORS Ciass I— RED Honors Heroism Riding. General Athletics, by Mr. J.E. ‘Sullivan and Dr. L. H. ‘Gulick Athletic Specialties Long-distance Athletics, by. Mr. J. E. Sullivan and Dr. L. H. Gulick Water-sports and Travel . : Mountain-clim bing by 5 Sir Martin Conway . Target-shooting . : Eyesight Crass I] — Wuarrre Honors Campercraft and Scouting, by Gen. R. S. S. Baden-Powell,C.B. Archery, by Mr. Will H. Thompson . Long-range, Clout, or Flight Shooting Fishing, by Dr. Henry van Dyke . Bait-casting, by Mr. Lou S. Darling . Crass III — Biue Honors Nature-study — Vertebrates, by Mr. Frank Chapman Nature-study — Lower forms of life, by Mr. John hn Burroughs. Geology, by Pro}. Charles D, Walcott. Photography, by Mr. A. Radelyfe Pugmore Titles... . Form of Honor Claim PAGE 12 12 13 19 19 20 22 24 24 26 29 30 32 7) Contents PART II — THE GAMES Deer-hunting . The Bear Hunt, or the Hunting of Mishi- Mokwa . Spearing the Great Sturgeon Tilting in the Water. Canoe Tag Scouting Pole Star . The Game of Quicksight . Far-sight, or Shot-the-rabbit Rabbit Hunt . an Hostile Spy . The Man Hunt . PART II— THE INDIAN STYLE To organize as a Band of Indians Indian or Tribal Constitution . Order of Doings in Council Totem foe Totem Pole Indian Names . Naming the Camp or t Keeping the W inter-Count Head-band . War-bonnet Badges : Wampum Medals? Scalps . : Tepees and Tents Archery Art Music PAGE 39 42 43 46 47 48 49 50 50 51 52 8)

The Birch-Bark Roll

INTRODUCTION

This is a time when the whole nation is turning toward the Outdoor Life, seeking in it the physical regeneration so needful for continued national existence — is waking to the fact long known to thoughtful men, that those live longest who live nearest to the ground, that is, who live the simple life of primitive times, divested, however, of the evils that ignorance in those times begot.

Consumption, the white man’s plague since he has become a house race, is vanquished by the sun and air, and many ills of the mind also are forgotten, when the sufferer boldly takes to the life in tents.

Half our diseases are in our minds and half in our houses. We can safely leave the rest to the physicians for treatment.

Sport is the great incentive to Outdoor Life; nature study is the intellectual side of sport.

I should like to lead this whole nation into the way of living out-doors for at least a month each year, reviving and expanding a custom that as far back as Moses was deemed essential to the national well-being. 9)

Not long ago a benevolent rich man, impressed with this idea, chartered a steamer and took some hundreds of slum boys up to the Catskills for a day in the woods. They were duly landed and told to “go in now and have a glorious time.” It was like gathering up a netful of catfish and throwing them into the woods, saying, “go and have a glorious time.”

The boys sulked around and sullenly disappeared. An hour later, on being looked up, they were found in groups under the bushes, smoking cigarettes, shooting “craps,” and playing cards, — the only things they knew.

Thus the well-meaning rich man learned that it is not enough to take men out-of-doors. We must also teach them to enjoy it.

The purpose of this Roll is to show how Outdoor Life may be followed to advantage.

Nine leading principles are kept in view:

(1) This movement is essentially for recreation.

(2) Camp-life. Camping is the simple life reduced to actual practice, as well as the culmination of the outdoor life.

Camping has no great popularity to-day, because men have the idea that it is possible only after an expensive journey to the wilderness; and women that it is inconvenient, dirty, and dangerous.

These are errors. They have arisen because camping as an art is not understood: When intelligently 10) followed camp-life must take its placeas a cheap and delightful way of living, as well as a mental and physical savior of those strained and broken by the grind of the over-busy world.

The wilderness affords the ideal camping, but many of the benefits can be got by living in a tent on a town lot, piazza, or even house-top.

(3) Self-government. Control from without is a poor thing when you can get control from within. As far as possible, then, we make these camps self-governing. Each full member has a vote in affairs.

(4) The Magic of the Camp-fire. What is a camp without a camp-fire? — no camp at all, but a chilly place in the landscape, where some people happen to have some things.

When first the brutal anthropoid stood up and walked erect — was man, the great event was symbolized and marked by the lighting of the first camp-fire.

For millions of years our race has seen in this blessed fire the means and emblem of light, warmth, protection, friendly gathering, council. All the hallow of the ancient thoughts, hearth, fireside, home, is centred in its glow, and the home-tie itself is weakened with the waning of the home-fire. Not in the steam radiator can we find the spell; not in the water coil; not even in the gas-log: they do not reach the heart. Only the ancient sacred fire of wood has power to touch and thrill the chords of primitive remembrance. When men sit 11) together at the camp-fire, they seem to shed all modern form and poise, and hark back to the primitive — to meet as man and man — to show the naked soul. Your camp-fire partner wins your love, or hate, mostly your love; and having camped in peace together, is a lasting bond of union, — however wide your worlds may be apart.

The camp-fire, then, is the focal centre of all primitive brotherhood. We shall not fail to use its magic powers.

(5) Woodcraft Pursuits. Realizing that manhood, not scholarship, is the first aim of education, we have sought out those pursuits which develop the finest character, the finest physique, and which may be followed out of doors, which, in a word, make for manhood.

By nearly every process of logic we are led primarily to Woodcraft, that is, Woodcraft in its largest sense, — meaning every accomplishment of an all-round Woodman: — Riding, Hunting, Camper-craft, Scouting, Mountaineering, Indian-craft, Star-craft, Signalling, and Boating. To this we add all good Outdoor Athletics and Sports, including Sailing and Motoring, and Nature-Study, of which Wild Animal Photography is an important branch, but above all, Heroism.

About one hundred and fifty deeds or exploits are recognized in these various departments, and the membersare given decorations that show what they achieved.

(6) Honors by Standards. The competitive principle 12) is responsible for much that is evil. We see it rampant in our colleges to-day, where every effort is made to discover and develop a champion, while the great body of students is neglected. That is, the ones who are in need of physical development do not get it, and those who do not need it are over developed. The result is much unsoundness of many kinds. A great deal of this would be avoided if we strive to bring all the individuals up to a certain standard. In our noncompetitive tests the enemies are not “the other fellows,” but time and space, the forces of Nature. We try not to down the others, but to raise ourselves. A thorough application of this principle would end many of the evils now demoralizing college athletics. Therefore, all our honors are bestowed according to worldwide standards. (Prizes are not honors.)

(7) Personal Decoration for Personal Achievements. The love of glory is the strongest motive in a savage. Civilized man is supposed to find in high principle his master impulse. But those who believe that the men of our race, not to mention boys, are civilized in this highest sense, would be greatly surprised if confronted with figures. Nevertheless, a human weakness may be good material to work with. I face the facts as they are. All have a chance for glory through the standards, and we blazon it forth in personal decorations that all can see, have, and desire.

(8) A Heroic Ideal. The boy from ten to fifteen, 13) like the savage, is purely physical in his ideals. I do not know that I ever met a boy that would not rather be John L. Sullivan than Darwin or Tolstoi. Therefore, I accept the fact, and seck to keep in view an ideal that is physical, but also clean, manly, heroic, already familiar, and leading with certainty to higher things.

(9) Picturesqueness in Everything. Very great importance should be attached to this. The effect of the picturesque is magical and all the more subtle and irresistible because it is not on the face of it reasonable. The charm of titles and gay costumes, of the beautiful in ceremony, phrase, dance and song, are utilized in all ways.

Form of Goverment

When two or three young people camp out, they can live as a sort of family, especially if a grown-up be with them; but when a dozen or more go, it is necessary to organize.

What manner of organization will be practicable and also give full recognition to the eight principles set forth? What form of government lends itself best to —

Recreation,
Outdoor life,
Self-rule,
The camp-fire,

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Woodcraft traditions,
Personal decoration for personal achievement,
A heroic ideal,
Picturesqueness in all things?

In my opinion, the Tribal or Indian form.

Fundamentally, it is a republic or limited monarchy, and many experiments have proved it the best. It makes its members self-governing. It offers appropriate things to do outdoors; it is so plastic that it can be adopted in a whole or in part, at once or gradually; its picturesqueness takes immediate hold of all; and it lends itself so well to existing ideas that, soon or late, most camps are forced into its essentials, call them what they will.

No large band of boys ever yet camped out for a month without finding it necessary to recognize leaders, a senior form, or ruling set whose position rests on merit, some wise grown person to guide them in difficulties, and a place to display the emblems of the camp; that is, they have-adopted the system of the Chief’s Council, Medicine-man and Totem-pole.

Moreover, the ideal Indian, whether he ever existed or not, stands for the highest type of the primitive life, and he was a master of Woodcraft, which is our principal study; he was unsordid, clean, manly, heroic, and picturesque always.

Nevertheless it must not be thought that I consider the Indian externals essential. Many camps have 15) been run successfully on other lines, and it is hoped that Brigade Camps, Summer Camps, Chautauquas and all manner of clubs, and even Army Camps, will find in this method, not a rival, but a new auxiliary, which will make their own work more effective.

The plan aims to give the young people “something to do, something to think about, and something to enjoy in the woods,” with a view always to character-building. We do not, however, disband when the camping season is over. As will be seen, ample provision is made in the games and honors for continuing the organization the whole year round. Most of the Tribes find abundant amusement throughout the winter in preparing their weapons, dress, teepees, ornaments, and songs for the summer camp.

By leading the young people along these lines we shall be helping the whole nation on the road to health.

Although originally begun with boys from 10 to 15, the plan has proved so sound that we have had to expand the age limit both ways: and now we take them from 8 to 80.

Whatever diversity of opinion may exist on our form of government, all seem fairly agreed on the Standards of Honors. Therefore I give these first.

This code has been officially adopted, not only by many young people’s associations, such as “the Knights of King Arthur,” the “Sons of Daniel Boone,” but 16) also by Men’s Sporting Clubs, Athletic Clubs, Gymnasiums, Chautauqua’s, etc., in various parts of the country.

Each class of outdoor sport recognized as national has been treated by an undoubted authority who is responsible for his department. 17)

PART I. THE HONORS

COUP LIST OR STANDARDS OF HONORABLE EXPLOIT.

These exploits are intended to distinguish those who are first-class in their department, and those who are so good that they may be considered in the record-making class. They may be called Honors and High Honors, but the Plains Indians speak of their exploits as Coup (prounonced coo) and Grand Coup. The Sioux, I am informed, use the French word coup, but call them “ Jus-tee-na coo” and “ Tonka coo,” the “Little Deed,” and the “Big Deed.”

Sometimes they are called Feathers and High Feath- ers. In the Sons-of-Daniel-Boone Camps, founded by Mr. Dan Beard, they are called ‘‘Notches” and ‘“'Topnotches”’ on the gun stock. , The decoration for a Coup or Honor is a Pond-eagle feather for the war-bonnet, or a wampum medal for the coat, —or both.

For the High Honor or Grand Coup the Pond-eagle 18)

Feather has a red tuft of horsehair on the top, and the wampum medal is of double size.

No one can count both Coup and Grand Coup, or repeat their honor in the same department, except for Heroism, Mountain-climbing, and others that are spec- ified as “repeaters,” in which each honor is added to that previously worn.

No honors are conferred unless the exploit has been properly witnessed or proven, as though for the Cen- tury Bar of the L. A. W. When it is a question of time under one minute, only stop-watches are allowed.

Honors are allowed according to the standard of the year in which the application was made. ~

An honor, once fairly won, can never be lost for subse- quent failure to reach the standard.

Except when otherwise stated the exploits are meant for all ages.

Any one making Coup according to the class above him may count it a Grand Coup in his own class, unless otherwise provided.


This list is made by the National Council. The exploits are founded on world-wide standards, and with the help of the best experts. The Council will gladly consider any suggestion, but it must be under- stood that no local tribe has any power to add to or vary the exploits in any way whatsoever. 19)

CLASS I. RED HONORS

HEROISM

1. Honors are allowed for saving a human life at risk of one’s own; it is a coup or a grand coup, at the discretion of the Council.

2. A soldier’s war medals count for a grand coup each. ce ee

3. Courage. (The measure of courage has not yet been discovered.)

RIDING

6. To ride a horse 1 mile in 3 minutes, clearing a 4-foot hurdle and an 8-foot water-jump, counts coup; to do it in 2 minutes, clearing a 5-foot hurdle and a 12-foot water-jump, grand coup.

7. Trick-riding. To pick up one’s hat from the ground wheel at full gallop on a horse of not less than 13 hands counts coup. To do it 3 times without failure, from each side, with horse of at least 15 hands, counts grand coup. 20)

GENERAL ATHLETICS

Advisers: J. E, Sullivan, Secretary of Amateur Athletic Union; Dr. Luther H. Gulick, Director of Physical Training, New York Public Schools. Those under to are children; those over ro and under 14 are boys; those over 14 and under 18 are lads; those over 18 are men. Girls take the standards according to their ages up to 18, but for athletics are never over that. No matter what their age, thenceforth they continue in the “lad class,” and in filing the claim need only mention their class. Men over 7o return to the lad class. The records are given according to Spalding’s Al- manac, where will be found the names of those who made them, with date and place. A dash (-) means ‘“‘not open.” Children Boys Lads Men i.e. under | 10 to14 | 14 to 18 | over 18 Record 10 Walking |coup: g. c./coup? g.c./coup: g.c.jcoup: g.c. 50 yards j16s; 5 |r4; 13 ~ - -_ ~- too yards (31s; 29 |27; 25 | - -/| -— = 220 yards i708; 65 |60; 56} ~ — - = 363 s 440 yards |4 m; 34] 35 ako - = |pm23s 880 yards (64m; 6/53; 5] - - - -— |3m 2%s 1 mile I4™M; 13]/12; EL {103 93) 84 7716 m 298 s in one hour| - — |34 mi; 4 mil44 mi; 5 mis} mi 64 mij7 mi; 1318 yds’ 12 hours - — |20mi: 25mi)30 mi; 35mil4o mi 50 mi 5 miles - —_|90m; 80m/7o m; 6sm|60m; 50m) 38 m 58 s q3 21) The Birch-Bark Rolf GENERAL ATHLETICS (Continued) Children Boys Lads Men i.e. under] 10 to 14 | 14 to 18 | over 18 Record 10 Running soyards'|7$s; 7) 7; 68 - -} =) - 5% too yards - — jr44s; 13%/12%; rra4jr0o$; 102 9% 220 yards - - - - 129; 27 (26; 24 2igyy 440 yards | — -~ | — = (63; 58 156; 52 478 880 yards - - -— -—- | 24m; 24) 24; 2h m 53¢%5 1 mile - - - = - -—- | 54m; 484m 15¢s 5 miles - - - -| = = (35m; 30 |25 m 23%s Running backward so yards "]148; 13 |13; 412 /|t1; 10] 9; 8 | 7#s too yards |238; 22 j21; 20/19; 18 j|17; 16 |I4s Standing high jump without weights abit; 23 3; 38] 34; 38) 48; 4g 5 ft shin Running high jump without . weights 3ft; 34] 38; 44] 43; 48) 5d; 54] 6 ft 5S in Standing broad jump without weights 5 ft; 54 6; 641 7; 831 9; roj1r ft 34 in Running broad jump without > weights raft; 13 |14; 1g |153; 164/174; 19 |24 ft 74 in 14 22) The Birch-Bark Roll GENERAL ATHLETICS (Continued) Children Boys Lads Men z.e. under] ro to 14 | 14 to 18 | over 18 Record 10 Hop, step,and jump without weights or run%; 15 |16; 19 |20; 22 123; 26 |30 ft 3in + “— Hopping on one leg 50 yards - — |138; 12 |1I; 10 | 9; 8 | 7s 100 yards - - | - -— J2os; 18 |17; 16 [133s Hammer thrown 34-ft. handle (12 lb. (16 lb. from 7-ft- cir- hammer, | hammer) cle, both - - ~ — |60 ft; 70 165; 75 |100 ft 5 in hands (16 Yb. . Shot-put shot) ~-ft. circle (12) — — |j20 ft; 24 {28; 30 |36; 40 147 ft lb. shot) Discus . 7-ft. circle (44, - - ~ = |vo ft; 85 j90; 100 |128 ft rofin pounds) Throw base- ball 50 yds; 55 160; 70 |75; 95 |100; 110 |127 yds 2} in (regulation) Baiting 45 yds; 50 155; 65 |70; 90 Jos; 105 |r18 yds roin baseball 15 23) The Birch-Bark Rolf GENERAL ATHLETICS (Continued) . o Chin the bar Children Boys Lads Men i.e. under] 10 to 14 | 14 to 18 | over 18 Record 10 Throwing 165 yds; lacrosse ball o yds; 80 j90; 100 |110; 130 |130; 150 2ft 74 in with stick Foothall kick yds; 25 130; 35 |403 45 j593 55 [63 yds In in a drop goal may try {Grand Football Coup: Put two rugby footballs in middle of rugby field and, kick a right and left goal Football... Place kick counted to where ball first strikes |. ground 3syds; 40 140; 45 1453 50 155; Go 66 yds 2 ft 8 in Running . high kick sf ft; 61 64; 63) 7; 7h 8; 84g ft 8 in .- Climb rope . 18 ft.; hands only used |rg5 8; r4 1335 Ii | 93 7 | 6; 5 |38 secs. 3 times; 4 | 6; 8 {103 52: |13;_ ~——«15.[39 times 16 24) The Birch-Bark Rofl GENERAL ATHLETICS (Continued) Children Boys Lads Men i.e. under | 10 to 14 | 14 to 18 | over 18 Record 10 Chin bar once for jonce with with one hand coup;onceleach hand pane? with each !coup, hand in |twice with|r2 times succession jeach hand for grand |grand coup coup , Hand walk “on hands, heels up sft; 10 175; 25 130; $0 }75; FOO Parallel bar _3 successive “arm jumps with swings j10 ft; x1 |12; 13 {145 15 |16; 18 [19 ft 9 in Push up with- out swing ro times; 12/75; 18 |20; 25 130; 40° 58 times Dumb-bell Putup5 poun- , der with one hand to full arm’s length (10 (10 above shoul- pounder) ; pounder) ders. sotimes;100]150 — 200 j200 ~ 300 | 4oo — 600|8,431 times Skating roo yards [17 8; r6its; 13 4133-2 |rI4; 1o%l9 s (with wind) 440 yards ~' = lyss; 70 165; 60 |50; 45 |355 Secs. 880 yards - — |t60s;150 |145; 140 |135; 130 |I mM 203 so 17 25) The Birch-Bark Roll GENERAL ATHLETICS (Concluded) Children Boys Lads Men 4.e. under | 10 to 14 | 14 to 18 | over 18 Record 10 ‘ 1 mile - - | 4m; 39) 34 = 34!) 3; 23} 23§ mins. 5 miles - - - = la5m; 21 |19; 17 |14m24s ro miles ~ - — 155m; 48 |42; 36 |31muits 1§ miles - - - -— j90m; 80 j70; 60 Jag m 172s 20 miles - - - -— | 2fhr;2 | 1%; 14/1 hr. 6 m 362s 25 miles - - - -— | 3hr; 24] 24; 2 |r hr. 31 m 29s Rowing , (single sculls) rmile + [13m; 12 |11; 10] 9; 8 | 723; 638 Paddle (single) 1 mile ism; 14 {13; 12 {12; II {10; 9 Swim roo yards any time | any time | any time | any time coup coup coup coup 585 200 yards | §m,g.c. | 4m,g.c. [33 m,g.c.) 3m, g.C.| 2m 205 x mile ~ — J] 7 = 180M; 45 145; 35 |24 m 4645 Medley Race (400 yards) rowing 100 swimming 100 walking 100 - - -~ - 16m; 5144; 4 running 100 Bicycle x mile - -— | - ~ | 34m; 3 | 2835 28§ 26) The Birch-Bark Roll ATHLETIC SPECIALTIES LONG DISTANCE ATHLETICS (Open only to those who are over 21) Run 10 miles, Coup 80 m., Gr. C. 70 m., Rec. 52 m. 33% s. eS et Be Re Beeman (8 20 vt ah a 4 «  “ “ek 3, “ “ 6c 3 “ “ “ 3 ““c “ 30 4} 4 3° 36 3 «“c 40 (ns) 64 “cc “ 6 6 “ce “6 5“ 204 “cc arn cc 50 “ __ ce 9 ce ce “ee 8 ce ce 7 cc 29 ce 47 “ ce 75 oe — FF 16 ce “ “i 4 ce ee 12 “e 20 ee Io “ “300 “eke 24 “c « « ay “ 17 “ 36 “ 14 “ Walk ro miles, Coup 1? h., Gr. C. r$h., Rec. 1h. 17 m. 403 s 6 “ “c 6“ 6 43 “ “c “ “ “e I 2 2“ “ 5 ce oe 3 “ce “ee “ce 3 “ce “e “se 4 ce 44 ce 20 4 3t 3 8 10 “e 25 ce “6 5 iT “ce ce 4t ce ae 4 ce 3 ce 35 ce & 30 “ ‘“ ah “ce 6h “ “ 5 “ 33 “ BR“ 46 40 cz7 “ Io “ce “ ce 9 “ ce 7 ce 25 “ 41 e “ ce ce oe “ “ce ce ce ce cs cc 50 13 12 9 “ 29 22 oe 75 ce ce 18 “ce ce ce 165 ce 6 15 ci ° “ce 15 ce ce “ « ce cc “ “ a ce ae ae 100 30 25 21 ° 42 Skate 50 miles, Coup 5 h.,Gr. C. 4h, Rec. 3h.,15 m. 59% s. “ 6 “ce “ee “c 6 “e “ “ A te I 16% “ 75 cc “ 73 “ “et ca “cc ee 5 cr 9 “ce gi oe 100 12 Io q ir “ 38% Swim 5 miles, Coup 4h., Gr. C. 34 h., Rec. 2 h. 58 m. of “ “10 “in any time “ow “ Gr. C. in any time Bicyle 100 miles in 24 hrs., coup. “ 200 “ in 24 hrs., grand coup. (Acc. to L. A. W. rules.) Weight Throwing. Throw the 56-lb. weight from a 7-ft. circle: c. 22 ft.; g. c. 28 ft.; Rec. 38 ft. 73 in. 19 27)

Dumb-bell. Pushing up one 50-lb. dumb-bell with one hand to full arm length above the shoulder: 15 times for coup; 30 times, grand coup; Rec. 94 times.

Ditto with 100 lb. dumb bell: 5 times, coup; 10 times, grand coup; Rec. 20 times.

Ditto with two 100 lb. dumb-bells once; one in each hand, same time, grand coup.

To turn a wheel, coup.

Handspring. To throw a tumbler or 4-legged hand-spring, coup; to throw a clean handspring, grand coup;

Back Handspring. A clean back handspring, grand coup.

WATER-SPORTS AND TRAVEL

(For swimming, rowing, etc., see classified athletics on a previous page)

Bathing. A coup for having bathed out-of-doors in water of natural temperature anywhere north of N. Lat. 30, or south of S. Lat. 30 for 300 days in the year; a grand coup for 365 days.

Sailing. To have sailed any two-man craft for 30 successive days, 12 hours a day at the wheel, — the other man not a professional sailor, — coup.

Sixty days of the same in salt water, grand coup.

Log-riding. Tread a sawlog 100 yards in any time, without going overboard, for coup; do it 100 yards and back in 30 minutes for grand coup.

Canoeman. A coup is allowed to those who can 28) paddle (single) a canoe on dead water, make their canoe coup (see No. 68), spill the canoe and get into her again, and bale her alone.

A grand coup, when they make their canoe cows, spill, right, and bale the canoe alone, three times in succession, and have run a rapid that falls 6 feet in 200 yards.

Canoe-camper. To have made a continuous canoe-trip of 500 miles, sleeping out every night, coup; 1000 miles of the same, grand coup.

Saddle-camper. To have made a continuous saddle-trip of 500 miles, sleeping out every night, coup; 1000 miles, grand coup.

Camper. A coup, for passing 30 successive nights out-of-doors, never once sleeping under shingles, but in tent, teepee, or bivouac, every night. A grand coup, for 60 nights of the same.

Lone-tramper. A coup, for travelling alone, on foot, 100 miles, carrying one’s outfit, sleeping out every night; a grand coup, for 200 miles.

Gang-tramper. A coup, for travelling 150 miles on foot with a party, carrying one’s own outfit, sleeping out every night; a grand coup, for 250 miles.

Ski-man. To have travelled 6 miles in an hour, 40 miles in one day, covered 40 feet in a jump, and travelled 500 miles all told, counts a coup. To have travelled 7 miles in an hour, 50 miles in one day, made a 50-foot jump, and travelled 1000 miles all told, counts a grand coup. 29)

Arctic Traveller. A coup for entering the Arctic circle by sea; a grand coup, by land.

Tropic Traveller. A coup, for crossing the equator by sea or rail; a grand coup, on foot.

Motoring. To have covered 1000 miles within 30 days, acting as your own chauffeur and mechanic, coup. To have covered 1000 miles in 4 days, 100 miles in 2 hours, acting as your own chauffeur and mechanic, grand coup.

(In both cases garage privileges allowed.)

MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING (All afoot)

{{small|(Not open to boys, i.e., those under 14)

By Sir Martin Conway, ex-President of the Alpine Club

The exploits in this class are repeaters.

The first one to climb a standard peak gets double honors; one for climb, one for first climb.

For Lads (i.e., over 14 and under 18)

Coup

In Great Britain — Ben Macdhuie; Ben Nevis; Ben Lomond; Ben Cruachan; Snowdon; Scarfell.

In Europe — Vesuvius, Breithorn.

In North America: Mt. Washington; Electric Peak, Wyo.

Grand Coup

In Europe: Mt. Blanc; Monte Viso; Etna; Monte Rosa. 30) The Bitch-Bark Roll In North America: Pike’s Peak; Shasta; Adams. In Asia: Fujiyama; Tabor. Add to this all the coup-list of next. For Men (i.e., all over 18) Coup In Europe: Mont Blanc, Monte Rosa, Monte Viso, Ecrins, Grand Paradis, Jungfrau, Finsteraarhorn, Wet- terhorn, Bernina, Ortler, Gross Glochner, Matterhorn from Zermatt. In North America: St. Helen’s; Adams; Shasta; Hood; Rainier; Mt. Shaughnessy; Mt. Stephen; Po- pocatapetl; Orizaba. GRAND Coup In Europe: Meije, Aig. du Grépon, Aig. du Géant, Aig. du Dru, Matterhorn (by Italian or Stockje ridges), Dent Blanche, Mischabelhémer from Seas, Schreck- horn, Monte di Scerscen, Fiinffinger Sp., Kleine Zinne. In North America: Mt. Sir Donald, Mt. Logan, Mt. Assiniboine, Mt. Fairweather, Mt. St. Elias, Grand Teton, Mt. McKinley. Any peak in Alaska over 13,000 ft. high. In South America: Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, Illimani, Aconcagua. In Asia: Any peak over 19,000 ft. high. In Ajrica: Any peak over 15,000 ft. high. 23 31) ‘The Birch-Bark Roll 4 Crise see. TARGET-SHOOTING (Open to Men only) Everything that can be said in favor of firearms for use in general sport applies to the rifle only (and its understudy the revolver). The scatter-gun has no official existence for us. It is ruination to the marksman’s power and should be abolished. A rifle range is a desir- able adjunct to all grown-up camps. Honors are awarded according to the army standards. Revolver-Shot. Target 4x4 feet. Bulls eye 8 inches (counts 4 points). Inner ring 2 feet (3 points). Outer, the rest of target (2 points). : Distance, 30 yards. 96 shots divided in any number up to six days, one hand, standing: — 250 points count coup; 300, grand coup. Half with left hand only; half with right only: — 230 points, coup; 260, grand coup. Rifleman. To be a marksman according to militia standards, a coup; to be a sharpshooter, or an expert rifle-man, a grand coup. EYESIGHT To spot the Rabbit three times out of five at 60 yards, also to distinguish and map out correctly six Pleiades and see clearly the ‘Pappoose (Alcor) on the Squaw’s (Mizar) back,” counts a coup; to spot the Rabbit three times out of five at 70 yards and seven Pleiades and the Pappoose counts a far-sight grand coup. (Those 24 32) The Birch-Bark Roll who habitually wear glasses may use them in this test.) See Far-sight among the games, p. 50. To make a 7s score in ten tries in the game of Quick- » ./ sight, with ten counters, counts coup; a 95 score counts a grand coup. (See Quicksight among the games, p. 49-) 25 33) CLASS II. WHITE HONORS CAMPERCRAFT AND SCOUTING Revised by Gen. R. S. S. Baden-Powell. Bee-line. Come to camp through strange woods from a point one mile off and return in 30 minutes, for coup; in 20 for grand coup. Match-fire. Light 15 camp-fires in succession with 15 matches, all at different places, all with stuff found in the woods by himself, one at least to be on a wet day, for coup; if all 15 are done on wet days, or if he does 30, of which two are on wet days, it counts grand coup. ‘w,. Flint and Steel Fire. To light 15 camp-fires in suc- cession with wildwood tinder, one at least on a wet day, and none to take over a minute from striking the flint, to having the blazes, coup; if all 15 are done on one day, or if he does 30 fires in unbroken succession, two at least on wet days, and in no case more than half a minute from strike to blaze, grand coup. Rubbing-stick Fire. Light a fire with fire-drill or rubbing sticks, with material of one’s own gathering, — counts a coup; to do it in one minute counts a grand coup. Axeman. To chop down three 6-inch trees in suc- 26 34) The Birch-Bark Roll cession in 60 seconds each, throwing them to drive each a given stake, coup; in 45 seconds each, grand coup. Knots. To make 30 different standard knots in a rope, for coup; 50 for grand coup. Lasso. To catch to horses or cattle in corral, with 10 throws of the lasso, counts coup; to catch 1o on the range in ro throws counts a grand coup. Lasso. To catch a horse or beef by each of his four feet in four successive throws, grand coup. Lasso. To catch, throw, and “hog-tie” a beef or horse in 2} minutes for cowp; in 14 minutes for grand coup. The record is said to be 4o seconds. _ +» Diamond Hitch. Pack a horse with not less than .'too pounds of stuff, with diamond hitch, to hold during 8 hours of travel, coup. Ten days in succession, a grand coup. Size-guessing. To guess one inch, one foot, one yard, one rod, one acre, too yards, 200 yards, one-quarter mile, one-half mile, and a mile, within 20 per cent of average error, for coup; 10 per cent for grand coup. Height and Weight Guessing. ‘To guess the height of 10 trees or other high things, and the weight of 10 stones or other things ranging from one ounce to Ioo pounds, within 10 per cent of average error, for coup; 5 per cent for grand coup. Gauging-jarness. To measure the height of ro trees without climbing, or 10 distances across a river, etc., without crossing, within 10 per cent of average error, 27 35) The Birch-Bark Roll for coup; 5 per cent for grand coup. Tools, an axe and a pocket rule only. Star-gazing. Know and name 15 star groups, for coup; know 20 star groups and tell the names and something about at least one star in each, for grand coup. Latitude. Take the latitude from the stars at night with a cartwheel, or some home-made instrument, 10 times from different points, within one degree of average error, for cowp; one-half degree for grand coup. Traveller. A coup for being able to take correct latitude, longitude, and local time. A grand coup for having passed the Royal Geographical Society’s ex- amination of “expert traveller.” Red Cross. A grand coup for having passed, the Red Cross examination of first aid to the wounded. Boat-builder. Build a boat that will carry two men and that can be paddled, rowed, or sailed by them 6 miles an hour, coup; 7 miles an hour, grand coup. Birch Canoe. To have made a birch canoe that has travelled, with at least one man aboard, 100 miles or more in safety, grand coup. In Sign-talking, to know and use correctly 50 signs, for coup; 100 signs, grand coup. Wig-wag Signalling. To know the semaphore code and signal, as well as receive a message a quarter mile off, at the rate of 2 words a minute, for coup. 28 Slee ti Arche EM ro eR ee SFR oe So voi ens 36) The Birch-Bark Roll The same, at a mile, 10 words a minute, for grand coup. ARCHERY ° « o Revised by Mr. Will H. Thompson, of Seattle, Wash. Make a total score of 300 with 60 shots (in one or two meets), 4-foot target at 4o yards (or 3-foot target at 30 yards), for coup; make 4oo for grand coup. Shoot so fast and far as to have 6 arrows in the air at once, for cowp; 7, for grand coup. (According to Cat- lin the record is 8.) For children (under 10), to send an arrow go yards, coup; 115 yards, grand coup. For boys (10 to 14), to send an arrow 128 yards, coup; 150, grand coup. For lads (14 to 18), to send an arrow 175 yards, coup, 200, grand coup. For men (over 18), to send an arrow 250 yards, coup; 275, grand coup. To hit the Burlap Deer in the heart, first shot: — For Boys at 45 yards coup; 55 yards, grand coup ce Lads a9 60 sé “ec 70 ac cc 66 a9 Men ce 75 «se ce 85 66 ce 6c (The heart is 9 inches across.) To cover a mile: — Children in 19 shots for coup; 15 shots for grand coup Boys 6c 14 6a “cc oe It oe oe cs ce Lads “cc Io ce 6c ce 9 “cb “s ce ch Men oc 8 “ce 6c ot 7 66 ce 6s 6c 29 37) The Birch-Bark Roll LONG-RANGE, CLOUT, OR FLIGHT ws SHOOTING oN AM Lads. 3-foot target at 130 yards, if possible on a steep hillside. In the target is a bull’s eye, and counts 9 Within 3 ft. of outside of target “ 7 oe 6 ce ae ac 6é se oe 5 ce ee «e ce ce “ ce - 9 3 et 12 ce ce ce ae et ce I Coup is for 300 at 60 consecutive shots. Grand coup is for 4oo at 60 consecutive shots. (In one or two meets) Men. 4-foot target at 180 yards, if possible on a steep hillside. In the target is a bull’s cye, and counts 9 Within 6 ft. of outside of target “ 7 oe “ ec ee ce ce ce ce %° te «e ce ce ce oe 5 ce s ce 6c “ic “cc oe cc 5 Coup for 300 at 60 consecutive shots. Grand coup for 400 at 60 consecutive shots. (In one or two meets) 30 38) The Birch-Bark Roll FISHING By Dr. Henry van Dyke, author of Little Rivers, Pish- erman’s Luck, elc. Boys are those under 14; Lads, 14 to 18; Men, over 18. Tackle-making. Boys: To make a 6-foot leader of clean gut, with smooth knots, to stand a strain of 5 lbs., coup. To tic 6 different flies, of regular patterns, on number 8-12 hooks, and take trout with each of them, by daylight casting, in clear water, grand coup. Lads: To make a bait rod of 3 joints, straight and sound, 14 oz. or less in weight, 10 fect or less in length, to stand a strain of 14 lb. at the tip, 13 Ib. at the grip, coup. To make a jointed fly-rod 8-10 fect long, 4-6 ozs. in weight, capable of casting a fly 60 fect, grand coup. Fly-fishing. Boys and Lads: To take with the fly, unassisted, a 3-lb. trout or black bass, on a rod not more than 5 oz. in weight, coup. To take a 5-lb. trout or black bass or a 4-lb. landlocked salmon under the same conditions, a grand coup. , Men: To hook and land with the fly, unassisted, without net or gaff, a trout or landlocked salmon over 4 lb., or a salmon over 12 |b., coup. To take, under the same conditions, a salmon over 25 Ib., grand coup. General Fishing. Boys, Lads and Men: To take on a rod, without assistance in hooking, playing, or 3r 39) The Birch-Bark Rolf landing, a trout, black bass, pike, muscallonge, gray- ling, salmon, bluefish, weakfish, striped bass, kingfish, sheepshead, or other game fish, whose weight in pounds equals or exceeds that of the rod in ounces, coup. To take under the same conditions, a game fish that is double in pounds the ounces of the rod, grand coup. Indoor Fly-casting. Boys: To cast a fly with a rod of 5 oz. or less, not over 10 feet long, 40 feet, coup; 55 feet, grand coup. Lads: 65 feet, coup; 80 feet, grand coup. Men, 80 feet, coup; 95 feet, grand coup. “Every fish caught and kept, but not used, is a rotten spot in the angler’s record.” H. v. D. BAIT-CASTING Revised by Mr. Lou S. Darling, of New York Author of “Tournament Casting and the Proper Equipment.” With }4-oz. dummy frog, 5-foot rod, indoors, over- head casting, tournament style: — Child class, 40 feet for coup; 50 feet for grand coup Boy “ 60 ce rx9 ce 70 a3 cs ce wo hb Lad cc 80 oe ee ce go ce . & “e cc Man 66 100 6 ce 6c [20 6c ae ce ce If out-of-doors, add 10 per cent to each of the distances, if cast is made with the wind. If a wooden plug is used instead of the dummy-frog, add 30 per cent to each distance. 32 40) CLASS III. BLUE HONORS NATURE STUDY — VERTEBRATES Revised by Mr. Frank M. Chapman, of the American Museum of Natural History, New York City. Know and name correctly 25 native wild quadrupeds, for coup; know and name correctly 50, and tell some- thing about each, for grand coup. Know and draw unmistakable pictures of 25 tracks of our four-foot animals, for coup; of 50 for grand coup. Know and name correctly too of our native birds as seen mounted in a museum, the female and young to count separately, when they are wholly different from the male. This counts coup; 200 birds for grand coup. Know and name correctly 50 wild birds in the field; this counts coup; 100, grand coup. Recognize 50 wild birds by note, for coup; 100 for grand coup. Know and name to turtles for coup; 20 for grand coup, with something interesting about each. Know and name io different snakes, telling which are poisonous, for coup; 20 snakes for grand coup. 33 41) The Bitch-Bark Roll Know and name correctly 10 Batrachians for coup; 20 for grand coup. Know and name 25 fish, for cowp; 50 fish for grand coup. 8 NATURE STUDY — LOWER FORMS OF LIFE Revised by Mr. John Burroughs. Know and name 25 native land and fresh water shells, for coup; 50 for grand coup. Know and name 25 moths, for cowp; 50 for grand | coup. Know and name 25 butterflies, for cowp; 50 butter- flies for grand coup. Know and name 50 other insects, for coup; too for grand coup. Know and name correctly, i.e, with the accepted English names, according to any standard authority, 25 trees, and tell something interesting about them, counts coup; 50 for grand coup. Know and name correctly 50 of our wild flowers, for coup; 100 for grand coup. Know and name correctly 25 of our wild ferns, for coup; 50 for grand coup. Know and name correctly 25 of our native mosses, - for coup; 50 for grand coup. Know and name 50 common toadstools or mush- rooms, for coup; 100 for grand coup. 34 42) The Birch-Bark Rolf GEOLOGY, ETC. Revised by Prof. Charles D. Walcott, Secretary Smith- _ sonian Institution. Paleontology. Know and name, referring to their proper strata, 50 native fossils, for coup; 100 for grand coup. Mineralogy. Know and name 50 mincrals, for coup, 100 for grand coup. Geology. Know and name and describe the 14 great divisions of the earth’s crust, according to Geikie, also define watershed, delta, drift, fault, glacier, terrace, stratum, dip, and identify 10 different kinds of rock, for coup. In addition to the first, define sediment, metamorphic, anticlinal, synclinal, moraine, coal, metal, mineral, petroleum, and identify in all 20 kinds of rock, for grand coup. PHOTOGRAPHY Revised by Mr. A. Radclyffe Dugmore, of “Country Lije in America,’ New York. Make a good recognizable photograph of any wild bird larger than a robin, while on its nest, the bird itself to be at least one inch long on original plate, for coup. With image 3 inches long for grand coup. Make a good photograph of a Ruffed Grouse drum- ming, a Prairie-chicken dancing, a Woodcock or a 35 43) Let ‘ _ ved ply f « bbat velar” The Bitch-Bark Roll Wild Turkey strutting, the bird to be at least one inch long on plate, for grand coup. Make a good recognizable photograph of a wild an- imal in the air, for coup, or grand coup, according to merit, the image to be at least one inch long on the plate. Ditto for a fish. Get a good photograph of any large wild animal in its native surroundings, and not looking at you, the an- imal to be at least one inch long on the plate, for coup, or grand coup, according to merit. (As these are tests of Woodcraft, meanagerie animals do not count.) 1 tele ee TITLES Those who have won 24 Coups, that is, who have completed the circle of feathers in their headdress, are Sagamores. [4 -- <9 es btig, Basch 0 Gore ok Soe, a Those with 24 Grand Coups are » Grand Sagamores. ae . 3 - Those with 48 Coups, that is, who have completed * both circle and tail of headdress, are Sachems. © .+,.,. 4 Those with 48 Grand Coups are Grand Sachems. Cohet pd All of these Sagamores and Sachems are entitled to ~~ sit in the Council without election. They are Red, White, or Blue Sagamores or Sachems, according to the class in which they have won most honors, and they rank in the order here given, 36 44) 45) 46) PART fI. THE GAMES DEER-HUNTING The Deer Hunt has proved one of our most successful games. The Deer is a dummy, best made with a wire frame, on which soft hay is wrapped till it is of proper size and shape, then all is covered with open burlap. A few touches of white and black make it very realistic. Tf time does not admit of a well-finished Deer, one can be made of a sack stuffed with hay, decorated at one end with a smaller sack for head and neck, and set on four thin sticks. The side of the Deer is marked with a large oval, and over the heart is a smaller one. Bows and arrows only are used to shoot this deer. A pocket full of com, peas, or other large grain is now needed for scent. The boy who is the Deer for the first hunt takes the dummy under his arm and runs off, getting ten minutes’ start, or until he comes and shouts “ready!”” He leaves a trail of cor, drop- ping two or three grains for every yard and making the trail as crooked as he likes, playing such tricks as 47) The Birch-Bark Roll a Deer would do to baffle his pursuers. Then he hides the Deer in any place he fancies, but not among rocks or on the top of a ridge, because in one case many arrows would be broken, and in the other, lost. The Hunters now hunt for this Deer just as for a real Deer, either following the trail or watching the woods ahead; the best hunters combine the two. If at any time the trail is quite lost the one in charge shouts “Lest Trai!” After that the one who finds the trail scores two. Any one giving a false alarm by shouting ‘‘ Deer” is fined jive. Thus they go till some one finds the Decr. He shouts ‘‘ Deer!” and scores ten for finding it. The others shout “Second,” “Third,” etc., in order of see- ing it, but they do not score. The finder must shoot at the Deer with his bow and arrow from the very spot whence he saw it. If he misses, the second hunter may step up five paces, and have his shot. If ke misses, the’ third one goes five, and so on till some one hits the Deer, or until the ten-yard limit is reached. If the finder is within ten yards on sighting the Deer, and misses his shot, the other hunters go back to the ten-yard limit. Once the Deer is hit, all the shooting must be from the exact spot whence the successful shot was fired. A shot in the big oval is a body wound; that scores jive. A shot outside that is a scratch; that scores iwo. 4o 48) The Birch-Bark Roll A shot in the small oval or heart is a heart wound; it scores en, and ends the hunt. Arrows which do not stick do not count, unless it can be proved that they passed right through, in which case they take the high- est score that they pierced. If all the arrows are used, and none in the heart, the Deer escapes, and the boy who was Deer scores twenty-five. The one who found the dummy is Deer for the next hunt. A clever Deer can add greatly to the excite- ment of the game. Originally we used paper for scent, but found it bad. It littered the woods, yesterday’s trail was con- fused with that of to-day, etc. Corn proved better, because the birds and the squirrels kept it cleaned up from day to day, and thus the ground was always ready for a fresh start. But the best of all is the hoof mark for the shoe. These iron hoof marks are fast to a pair of shoes, and leave a trail much like a real Deer. This has several advantages. It gives the hunter a chance to tell where the trail doubled, and which way the Deer was going. It is more realistic, and a boy who can follow this skilfully can follow a living Deer. In actual practice it is found well to use a little corn with this on the hard places, a plan quite consistent with realism, as evety hunter will recall, 4l 49) The Birch-Bark Roll THE BEAR HUNT

OR

THE HUNTING OF MISHI-MOKWA This is played by half a dozen or more boys. Each has a club about the size and shape of a baseball club, but made of straw tied around two or three switches and tightly sewn up in burlap. One big fellow is selected for the Bear. He has a Zé Bear-claw Necklace Z a school-bag tightly strapped on his back, and in that a toy balloon fully blown up. This is his heart. On his neck is a bear-claw necklace of wooden beads and claws. (See cut.) He has three dens about one hundred yards apart in a triangle. While in his den the Bear is safe. If the den is a tree or rock, he is safe while touching it. 42 50) The Birch-Bark Roll He is obliged to come out when the chief hunter counts 100, and must go the rounds of the three till the hunt is settled. The object of the hunters is to break the balloon or heart, that is, kill the Bear. He must drop dead when the heart bursts. The hunter who kills him claims the necklace. But the Bear also has a club for defence. Each hunter must wear a hat, and once the Bear knocks a hunter’s hat off, that one is dead and out of this hunt. He must drop where his hat falls. Tackling of any kind is forbidden. The Bear wins by killing or putting to flight all the hunters. In this case he keeps the necklace. The savageness of these big Bears is indescribable. Many lives are lost in each hunt, and it has several times happened that the whole party of hunters has been exterminated by some monster of unusual fe- rocity. This game has also been developed into a play. SPEARING THE GREAT STURGEON This water game is exceedingly popular and is es- pecially good for public exhibition, being spectacular and full of amusement and excitement. The outfit needed is: (t) A Sturgeon roughly formed of soft wood ; it 43 Straw Club 51) spray ado sul wet The Birch-Bark Roll should be about seven feet long and nearly a foot thick at the head. It may be made realistic, or a small log pointed at both ends will serve. (2) Two spears with six-inch steel heads and wooden handles (about four fect long). The points should be sharp, but not the barbs. Each head should have an eye to which is attached twenty feet of one-quarter inch rope. On each rope, six fect from the spear- head, is a fathom-mark made by tying on a rag or cord. (3) Two boats with crews. Each crew consists of a Spearman, who is captain, and one or two oars- men or paddlers, of which the after one is the pilot. All should -be expert swimmers or else wear life belts during the game. The Game. Each boat has a base or harbor; this is a given part of shore opposite that of the enemy. The Sturgeon is left by the Medicine-man’s canoe at a point midway between the bases. At the word “Gol” each boat leaves its base and, making for the Sturgeon, tries to spear it, then drag it by the line to his base. When both get their spears into it the contest becomes a tug of war until one of the spears pulls out,,,.. The Sturgeon is landed when the prow of the boat that has it in tow touches its proper base, even though the spear of the enemy is then in the fish: or it is landed ~when the fish itself touches base. The boats change bases after each heat. 44 | The Wooden Stu rg éor~ Waight for ballast . 52) The Birch-Bark Roll Matches are usually for one, three or five Sturgeon. Points are counted only for the landing of the fish, but the Medicine-man may give the decision on a foul or a succession of fouls, or the delinquent may be sect back one or more boat lengths. Sometimes the game is played in canoes or boats, with one man as Spearman and crew. Rules. It is not allowed to push the Sturgeon into a new position with the spear or paddle before strik- ing. It ts allowed to pull the Sturgeon under the boat or pass it around by using the line after spcaring, It 2s allowed to lay hands on the other boat to prevent a collision, but otherwise it is forbidden to touch the other boat or crew or paddle or spear or line, or to lay hands on the fish, or to touch it with the paddle or oar, or touch your own spear while it is in the fish, or to tic the line around the fish except so far as this may be accidentally done in spearing. It 7s allowed to dislodge the enemy’s spear by throw- ing your own over it. The purpose of the barbs is to assist in this. It 7s allowed to run onto the Sturgeon with the boat. It cs absolutely forbidden to throw over the other boat or over the heads of your crew. In towing the Sturgeon the fathom-mark must be over the gunwale — at least six fect of line should be 45 53) The Birch-Bark Rolf out when the fish is in tow. It is not a foul to have less, but the Spearman must at once let it out if the umpire or the other crew cries “fathom!” The Spearman is allowed to drop the spear and use the paddle or oar at will, but not to resign his spear to another of the crew. The Spearman must be in his boat when the spear is thrown. If the boat is upset the Medicine-man’s canoe helps them to right. Each crew must accept the backset of its accidents. TILTING IN THE WATER For this we usually have two boats or war canoes manned by four men each. These are a Spearman, who is also a Captain, a Pilot, and two Oarsmen. Head of Tilting Spear. The Spearman is armed with a light pole or bamboo twelve feet long, with a soft pad on the end. Some- 46 54) The Birch-Bark Rolf times this is further provided with a hook. This isa ' forked branch with limbs a foot long; one is lashed to the bamboo, the other projecting out a foot, and slightly backward. The end of the spear and the fork are now thoroughly padded with burlap to the shape of a Duck’s head and bill. And it is all the better if cased in waterproof, as this keeps it from getting wet and heavy. The object of the hook is to change sud- denly from pushing, and to pull the enemy by hooking round his neck. Each boat should have a quarter- deck-or raised platform at one end, on which the Spearman stands. The battle is fought in rounds and by points. To put your opponent back into the canoe with one foot counts you 5; two feet, 10. If he loses his spear you count 5 (excepting when he is put overboard). If you put him down on one knee on the fighting deck, you count 5; two knees, 10. If you put him overboard it counts 25. One hundred points is a round. A battle is for one or more rounds, as agreed on. It is forbidden to hook or strike below the belt. The umpire may dock for fouls. CANOE TAG Any number of canoes or boats may engage in this. A rubber cushion, a hot-water bag full of air, any rubber football, or a cotton bag with a lot of corks in it, is 47 55) ‘The Birch-Bark Roll needed. The game is to tag the other canoe by throw- ing this ito it. The rules are as in ordinary cross-tag. SCOUTING Scouts are sent out in pairs or singly. A number of points are marked on the map at equal distances from camp, and the scouts draw straws to see who goes where. If one place is obviously hard, the scout is allowed a fair number of. points as handicap. All set out at same time, go direct, and return as soon as possible. Points are thus allowed: — Last back, zero for travelling. The other counts one for each minute they are ahead of the last. Points up to 100 are allowed for their story on return. Sometimes we allow 10 points for cach Turtle they bring back; 10 for each Owl seen and properly named; 5 for cach Hawk, and 1 each for other wild birds; also 2 for a Cat; 1 for a Deg, No information is given the scout; he is told to go to such a point and do so and so, but is fined points if he hestitates or asks how or why, etc. POLE STAR Each competitor is given a long, straight stick, in daytime, and told to lay it due north and south. In 48 56) The Birch-Bark Rolf doing this he may guide himself by sun, moss, or any- thing he can find in nature, — anything, indeed, except a compass. The direction is checked by a good compass corrected for the locality. The one who comes nearest wins. It is optional with the judges whether the use of a time-piece is to be allowed. THE GAME OF QUICKSIGHT Make two boards about a foot square, divide each into twenty-five squares; get ten nuts and ten pebbles. Give to one player one board, five nuts, and five peb- bles. He places these on the squares in any pattern he fancies, and when ready the other player is allowed to see it for five seconds. Then it is covered up, and from ° |8 ej © © ©| » © ° Quicksight Game @@ Soo gooee 49 57) The Birch-Bark Roll the memory of what he saw the second player must reproduce the pattern on his own board. He counts one for each that was right, and takes off one for each that was wrong. They take turn and turn about. This game is a wonderful developer of the power to see and memorize quickly. FAR-SIGHT, OR SPOT-THE-RABBIT Take two six-inch squares of stiff white pasteboard or whitened wood. On each of these draw an outline Rabbit, one an exact duplicate of the other. Make twenty round black wafers or spots, each half an inch across. Let one player stick a few of these on one Rabbit-board and set it up in full light. The other, beginning at roo yards, draws near till he can see the spots well enough to reproduce the pattern on the other which he carries. If he can do it at 75 yards he has wonderful eyes. Down even to 7o (done 3 times out of 5) he counts grand coup; from 70 to 60 counts coup. Below that does not count at all. RABBIT HUNT | The game of Rabbit-hunting is suited for two hunters in limited grounds. Three little sacks of brown burlap, each about eight inches by twelve, are stuffed with hay. a At any given place in the woods the two hunters . 59 2 Obs =64'0%m 254 am 58) The Birch-Bark Roll stand in a ten-foot circle with their bows and arrows. One boy is blind-folded; the other, without leaving the circle, throws the Rabbits into good hiding-places on the ground. Then the second hunter has to find the Rabbits and shoot them without leaving the circle. The lowest number of points wins, as in Golf. Ti the hunter has to leave the circle he gets one point for every step he takes outside. After he sees the Rabbit he must keep to that spot and shoot till it is hit once. One shot kills it, no matter where struck. For every shot he misses he gets five points. After his first shot at cach Rabbit the hider takes alternate shots with him. If it is the hider who kills the Rabbit, the hunter adds ten points to his score. If the hunter hits it, he takes ten off his score. If the hunter fails to find all the Rabbits he scores twenty-five for each one he gives up. The hider cannot score at all. He can only help his friend into trouble. Next time the two change places. A match is usually for two brace of Rabbits. HOSTILE SPY Hanging from the totem pole is a red or yellow horsetail. This is the Grand Medicine Scalp of the Tribe. The Hostile Spy has to steal it. The Medi- cine-man goes around on the morning of the day and 51 59) The Birch-Bark Roll whispers to the various braves, “Look out — there’s a spy in camp.” At length he gets secretly near the one he has selected for spy and whispers, “ Look out, there’s a spy in camp, and you are il.” He gives him at the same time some bright-colored badge, that he must wear as soon as he has secured the Medicine Scalp. He must not hide the scalp on his person, but keep it in view. He has all day till sunset to get away with it. If he gets across the river or other limit, with warriors in close pursuit, they give him ten arrow- heads (two and one half cents each), or other ransom agrecd on. If he gets away safely and hides it, he can come back and claim fifteen arrowheads from the Council as ransom for the scalp. If he is caught he pays his captor ten arrow-heads ransom for his life. THE MAN HUNT This is played with a Scout and ten or more Hostiles, or hounds, according to the country, more when it is rough or wooded. The Scout is given a letter addressed to the ‘“ Mili- tary Commandant” ! of any given place a mile or two away. He is told to take the letter to any one of three given houses, and get it endorsed, with the hour when 1The “Military Commandant” is usually the lady of the house that he gets to. 52 60) The Birch-Bark Roll he arrived, then rcturn to the starting-point within a certain time. The Hostiles are sent to a point half way, and let go by a starter at the same time as the Scout leaves the Camp. Thcy are to intercept him. If they catch him before he delivers the letter he must ransom his life by paying each two arrow-heads (or other forfeit) and his captor keeps the Ictter as a trophy. If he gets through, but is caught on the road back, he pays half as much for his life. If he gets through, but is over time, it is a draw. Hf he gets through successfully on time he claims three arrow- heads from each Hostile and keeps the letter as a trophy. . They may not follow him into the house (that is, the Fort), but may surround it at one hundred yards distance. They do not know which three houses he is free to enter, but they do know that these are within certain narrow limits. The Scout should wear a conspicuous badge (hat, shirt, coat, or feather), and may ride a wheel or go in a wagon, ctc., as long as his badge is clearly visible. To “tag” the Scout is not to capture. “The block- ade to be binding must be effectual.” 53 61) PART II. THE INDIAN STYLE TO ORGANIZE AS A BAND OF INDIANS First get the young people together, any number from 10 up — 15 to so are best for a beginning — and with them at least one experienced grown-up person, who will act as Medicine-man in the Council, and as teacher when needed. OUTFIT FOR SMALL TRIBE Birch-bark roll, or Book of Laws. Blank book for tally. Teepecs or tents enough to house the Tribe. A totem pole. A supply of scalps, at least one for each. A supply of about 100 feathers or other honor tokens. A red horsc-tail for feather tips and medicine scalp. A drum. A target, and range. Cooking outfit and food. Also the things for the games they wish to play (see later), the Deer-hunt for land, and the Sturgecn spear- ing for water, being especially recommended. 54 62) ‘The Birch-Bark Rolf Each BRAVE NEEDS 1 good 5-foot bow, complete with string. 6 standard arrows, 25 in. long; 3 feathers, steel points. 1 quiver of waterproof canvas. 1 plain arm-guard. 1 head band. 1 pair trunks. 1 waterproof shect, 6 ft. x 5. 2 woollen blankets. To these he may add as much Indian costume as he likes. But costumes, feathers, etc., are non-essen- tials. Many tribes wear only the ordinary clothes of out-door life. INDIAN OR TRIBAL CONSTITUTION ARTICLE I Name This organization shall be known as the* oo Tribe of Woodcrajt (or Seton Indians as many have pre- ferred to call themselves). ARTICLE II Objects

The objects of this organization are the promotion of

interests in Out-of-Door Life and Woodcraft, the pres- 1 Tt is usual to select an Indian name of local application. 55 i 63) The Birch-Bark Roll ervation of Wild Life and Landscape, and the promo- tion of Good Fellowship among its:members. ARTICLE III Membership Section I. Persons eligible for membership must be over years of age (18 is usual for a grown-up tribe, 8 for a boy tribe, but some tribes take all ages). Section II. The membership must be limited to .. Section II. Application for membership musi be made in writing through one of the Council. The name of such applicant shall then be proposed and seconded by members in good standing, and shall be publicly posted for not less than seven suns. A ballot of the Tribe shall thereupon be taken and two black- balls shall exclude. , ARTICLE IV Meetings . Section I. A monthly Council of the Tribe shall be held on the first Monday of each Moon. Section IT. The Annual Council for the election of officers shall be held on the first sun_of the Crow Moon (March).* or as soon after as possible.

  • March — Crow Moon, First, or Awakening (blue). Crane Moon.

April — Wild-goose or Grass Moon (green). Honker Moon. May — Fawn or Song Moon (purple). 64) The Birch-Bark Roll Section If. Special Councils may be called by the Chief, and must be called by him upon the written request of one fourth of the Council or one third of the Tribe. Section IV. A quarter shall be a quorum of the Council or Tribe. Section V. A member may vote at any Council of the Tribe by proxy in his own handwriting. ARTICLE V The Officers and their Duties Heap War Cuter. He should be strong as well as popular, because his dutics are to lead and to enforce the laws. He is head of the Council and of the Tribe and also Herald or Cricr. He has charge of the standard of the Tribe. This is a staff about cight feet long, pointed red and orna- mented with any of the designs shown in the illustra- tions, the drawing on the shicld being always the totem of the Tribe. The small shield on top is white with June — Rose Moon (rose). July —— Thunder Moon (copper). August ~- Red or Green-corn Moon (red). September -— Hunting Moon (yellow) October — Leaf-falling Moon (fiery). November — Mad Moon (smoky). December — Long-night Moon (black). January — Snow Moon (white). February — Hunger Moon or Wan Moon (pale or ashy). 57 65) The Birch-Bark Rolf blue horns. This standard is carried around when a proclamation is being made. If the Chief deputes another to be Herald, he also gives him the standard to carry as a badge of authority. When not thus in use it is stuck in the ground near the Chief’s teepee or place in Council, or perhaps hung on the totem pole. SECOND War CuilEF. To take the Head Chief’s place when he is absent; otherwise he is merely a Councillor. THIRD War Cuter. For leader when the other two are away. Wampum Curer or KEEPER. He has charge of the Red- trail: money and public property of the Tribe, except the Standard records. He ought to have a lock box or small trunk to keep valuables in. | Flying CHIEF OF THE PoINTED Rosr, ¢ OR FEATHER TALLY. Eater He keeps the tribal records, including the Book of 7 — Laws, the Roster or Roll, the Winter Count or Record of Camps and Seasons, and the Feather Tally or Rec- ord of Honors and Exploits. He enters nothing ex- cept on instructions from the Council. He should be an artist. KEEPER OF THE : Counct- Fire. IJt is his exclusive privilege to make fire. He must do it without matches. & inches 66) The Birch-Bark Roll He must also see that the camp and woods are kept clean. Sometimes one Councillor or Chief holds more than one of these last three offices; especially it is well to have the Head Chief also Keeper of the Council Fire. One or even two Medicine-men may be voted into the Council without regard to age, attainments, or position. Add to these not more than twelve elected Coun- cillors, and all the Sachems or Sagamores. (Sce p. 36.) Provided always that the number of non-elec- tive members shall of exceed the number of elective. These officers and Councillors form the governing body. All disputes, etc., are settled by the Chief and the Council. The Council makes the laws and fixes the dues. The Chief enforces the laws. All officers are elected for one year or until their successors are chosen. The election to take place on or as soon as possible after Spring Day, the first Sun of the Crow Moon (ist March). Each year an Honorary Life member } may be elected. (Whenever in doubi we try to follow the National Constitution.) Vow oF THE HEAD CHIEF (To be signed with his name and totem in the Tally-book) I solemnly promise to maintain the Laws, to see fair 59 67) The Birch-Bark Roll play in all the doings of the Tribe, and to protect the weak. Vow or Each Brave on Jorninc (Lo be signed with the name and totem of each in the Tally-book) I solemnly promise that I will obey the Chief and Council of my Tribe, and if I fail in my duty I will appear before the Council when ordered and submit without murmuring to their decision. ARTICLE VI Amendments Section I. Amendments to this Constitution may be made at any meeting by a two-thirds vote of all the Tribe. SECTION II. Notice of proposed amendments shall be made public for at least seven suns before the meet- ing. ARTICLE VII Dues Secrion I. Dues shall be, first, . . . a year; second, all assessments made by the Council for tribal property; and third, when necessary the Council shall assess those taking part in camp. SECTION I]. The initiation fee for new braves shall 60 68) be … which shall include the first year’s dues, but this shall not include assessments.

ARTICLE VIII

Council of Tribe

The doings of the Tribe in Council shall be considered confidential.

ARTICLE IX

Laws

1. Don’t rebel. Rebellion by any one against any decision of the Council is punishable by expulsion. Absolute obedience is always enforced.
2. Don’t kindle a wild fire. To start a wild fire — that is, to set the woods or prairie afire — is a crime against the State, as well as the Tribe. Never leave a fire in camp without some one to watch it.
3. Protect the song-birds. It is forbidden to kill or injure or frighten song-birds, or to disturb their nests or eggs, or tu molest squirrels. (This does not apply to creatures declared vermin by law.)
4. Don’t make a dirty camp. Keep the woods and streams clean by burying all garbage.
5. Don’t bring firearms of any kind into the camps of those under fourteen. Bows and arrows are enough for their needs. Never point a weapon at any one.
6. Keep the game laws.

69)

7. No smoking (for those under eighteen).
8. No firewater in camp.
9. Play fair. Cheating in the games or records, or wearing honors not conferred by the Council, are crimes.
10. Word of honor is sacred.

Punishments are meted out by the Chief and Council after a hearing of the case. They consist of, —

Exclusion from the games or boats for a time.
Of reduction in rank or of fines.
The extreme penalty is banishment from the Tribe.

70)

ORDER OF DOINGS IN COUNCIL

The Head Chief, or the Herald he may appoint, walks around with the standard announcing that a Council is to be held, and all must come to Council.

The form used among the Ogallala is Neetah Kolah nahoonpo onnee-chee-yay nee-chopi. (My friends, give ear, a Council we hold.)

Opening Council.
Roll-call.
Tally of last Council and Report of Tally Chief.
Report of Wampum Chief.
Reports of Scouts.
Left-over business.
Complaints.
Honors awarded.
New braves.
New business.
Challenges, etc.
Social doing, songs, dances, stories.
Closing Council.

71)

TOTEM

The Totem of the whole nation of Woodcraft Indians is the White Buffalo head, symbolized by the Horned White Shield.

Each band needs a totem of its own in addition. This is selected by the Council, and should be some- thing easy to draw. Each brave adds a private totem of his own, usually a drawing of his Indian name.

The first of these tribes took as its Totem a Blue Buffalo, and so became the Blue Buffalo Band, and Deerfoot, the Chief, uses the Blue Buffalo totem with his own added underneath.

Any bird, animal, tree or flower will do. It is all the better if it have some special reason.

One Tribe set out on a long journey to look for a totem. They agreed to take the first living wild thing that they saw and knew the name of. They travelled all one day and saw nothing to suit, but next day in a swamp they startled a Blue Heron. It went off with a harsh cry. So they became the “Blue Herons,” and adopted as a war-cry the croak of the bird and its name — “Hrrrrr— Blue Heron.” Another band have the Wolf totem. Another, the Flying Eagle, and yet another the Snapping Turtle. 72)

TOTEM POLE

In some prominent place in camp is set up the Totem Qf pole. This bears the national emblems, tribal totems, enemies’ scalps, and the totems of warriors who have brought honors to the Tribe. It also serves as a notice board and carries the Sacred Medicine Scalp. The board below is supposed to be the skin of a White Buffalo.

The big shield is white and twenty inches across, the horns pale blue and each twenty inches long. The pole is twelve feet high and the arms four and one half feet across; pole and arms are red. This is the same in all tribes. The smaller shield is twelve inches across, it bears the tribal colors and totems, and, of course, varies in color with each tribe. The skin is four and one half feet long and eighteen inches at widest place. It is dull yellow where dotted, but the circle at its upper end is white; in the middle of this is a peg on which hangs the Medicine Scalp; the wooden feathers are white with black tips. If made smaller it should keep these same proportions. 73)

INDIAN NAMES

Each brave aims at winning a name. These Indian names are a sort of honorable nickname given in recog- nition of some exploit or personal gift. Thus Deerfoot was the great runner and Hawkeye had the sharp eyes. Killdcer was famous in our deer hunt, as also was Deerslayer; Grey-wolf was the best scout; Eel-scout was the one who slipped through the enemies’ lines as often as he pleased; Little Beaver was the best worker; Chicadee was the smallest; the noisy chatterer, for- ever showing off without doing any work, was called Bluejay; Spycatcher was given to a warrior who cap- tured a Hostile Spy by a deed of unusual daring.

The following also have been bestowed as honor- able distinctions: —

“Black Hawk,” “Redjacket,” “Wolverine,” “Krag,” “Mustang,” “Bald Eagle,” “Big Otter,” “Karonawa” (the runner), ‘“Speardeep,” “Decrblinder,” ‘Little Thunder,” ‘‘Neverscare,” “‘Strongheart,” “Big Moose,” “Redarrow,” “Manytongues,” “Strongbow,” “Eagle Eye,” “Plenty-coups,” “Twinklefoot,” ‘Sheet-light- ning,” “Wing-foot,” “White Thunderbolt,” “Leaping Panther,” etc.

On rare occasions the name was an inglorious one. Thus a lazy boy was called ‘“Young-man-afraid-of-a Shovel,” or “Shovel,” for short; another was “Scare- cat,” because of his timidity; one small boy whose 74) tears were ever ready to flow was named “‘Rain-in-the Face,” and an awkward brave who upsct the canoe several times was called “Tippecanoe,” but they can get rid of them as soon as they do something highly creditable.

Naming the Brave. When the Council decides that a bad name or annoying nickname is to be dropped, the Chief or Medicine-Man writes it on a piece of wood or bark. Then, making a speech explaining the cir- cumstances, he burns the bark in the Council Fire, announcing that that name be forgotten. No one must mention it again under pain of punishment.

Then the brave is given his new name of honor; the Chief makes a speech as before, telling of the exploit and announcing the name. It is written down in the Tally; then each Chief and Councillor comes forward, shakes hands with the brave, saying ‘“Bo-jou, Nichy” — followed by the new name.

NAMING THE CAMP or KEEPING THE WINTER-COUNT

When the return of the Grass-moon told the Indians that the New Vear had come and that the old year had gone, the Council debated the question: By what name shall we remember this last year? All _names suggested by events were brought in. Smallpox 75) Year, White-buffalo Year, Many-scalps Year and so on. When a decision was reached the Keeper of the Winter-count made a pictograph in proper place on the Painted Robe, and so this record was kept.

In our Tribes we select the name by which each Camp- out is likely to be remembered, and enter that in the Tally-book.

Thus we have: Camp-nothing-but-rain, Camp Bully-fun, Camp-robin’s-nest-on-the-teepee, etc.

HEAD-BAND

Each brave needs a head-band. This holds his feathers as they are won, and his scalp is fastened to it behind. It consists of a strip of soft leather, long enough to go around the head and overlap by two inches; it is fastened at the rear, with a lace through the four holes, like the lace of machine belting. A bead pattern ornaments the front and it may be finished at each side in some broader design. It is the founda- tion for the war-bonnet and has places for twenty-four feathers (two eagle tails).

The feathers are made of white Pond-eagle! quill feathers, the tip dyed dark brown or black; a leather loop is lashed to the quill end of each to fasten it on to _ the head-band. Each feather stands for an exploit 1 Pond-eagle — white goose feathers made up in imitation of eagle feathers. 76) and is awarded by the Council. (See p. ro, etc.) An oval of paper is glued on near the high end. This bears a symbol of the feat it commemorates. If it was Grand Coup or High Honor, the feather has a tuft of red horsehair lashed on the top.

WAR-BONNET

As each feather is won it is fastened in the head- band and thus forms part of the war-bonnet. The feathers are held in place on the band by a lace through the bottom loop to hold them to the body of the cap, and another lace around them higher up. When the circle is complete the upper lace is not needed; instead is a stout thread through the middle of each midrib, stringing them together and holding them the right distance apart.

The war-bonnet is the most important of all decora- tions. It is a complete record of the owner’s exploits, as well as a splendid ornament. The making of it is fully described in The Ladies’ Home Journat for July, tg02, and in ‘‘Two Little Savages.”

BADGES

One cannot always wear the war-bonnet, nd yet may wish to wear a visible record of his rank. To meet this need we have a badge adapted from an old Iroquois silver brooch. 77)

In this the White or Silver Buffalo head represents the whole nation. The owner can put his initials on the Buffalo’s forehead, if desired.

To pin in the middle is the real Indian style. To fasten the brooch, throw back the pin, work a pucker of the coat through the opening from behind; when it sticks out far enough bend it to onc side and pierce it with the pin, then press the pin down and work the pucker back smooth. This can never work loose or get lost.

The rank of the wearer is thus shown: —

The ordinary brave as soon as admitted wears the simple badge.

Every one in the Council may add a beard to the Buffalo, using silk, wool, or thread through the nos- trils.

The Head Chief wears a horned shield. On the circle of the shield is engraved the totem of the Tribe.

The horns are worn only by a War Chief. The following shows their importance: —

‘“No one wears the headdress surmounted with horns except the dignitaries who are very high in authority, and whose exceeding valor, worth, and power are admitted by all the nation.

“This man (Mah-to-toh-pa) was the only man in the nation who was allowed to wear the horns, and all, I found, looked upon him as the leader who had the 78) power to lead all the warriors in time of war.” (Cat- lin, Vol. J, p. 103.)

The second and third War Chiefs wear the same badge as the first, except that it has the lower half of the shield hidden with a lashing of colored thread.

The Medicine-man’s badge has a shield without horns.

WAMPUM MEDALS

These medals are made of very beautiful shells, flat and cut in two sizes, the largest being about one inch by three quarters of an inch. They are engraved with the symbol of the deed for which given. They make decorations for the coat, the head-band or neck- lace, etc. They are awarded according to the stand- ards for coups and grand coups already given. They do not take the place of the feathers, but repeat the honor in another form. Thus a brave may wear both the eagle feather and the wampum medal for one feat.

SCALPS

Each brave wears a long tuft of black horsehair that answers as his scalp. The skin of this should be about one and a half inches across; it is furnished with a cord loop; the hair is as long as possible. This scalp is presented to the brave on entering the Tribe. After he has promised obedience and allegiance and 79) signed the roll, the Medicine-man gives it to him, saying : —

“This is your scalp. Treasure this as your honor. You may lose it without absolute disgrace, but not without some humiliation.”

He can lose it only in an important competition, approved by the Council, in which he stakes his scalp against that of some other brave. If he loses, he sur- renders his tuft to the winner and goes tuftless, that is, he is dead, until the Council thinks proper to revive him by giving him a new scalp. But he never gets back the old one, which remains the property of the winner for a teepee or other decoration.

A dead brave cannot vote or sit in Council or take part in the competitions.

The member is a brave till he has taken a scalp, after that he is a warrior.

TEEPEES AND TENTS

The Indian teepee has the advantage of picturesque- ness, also of comfort in cold weather, because it admits of an open fire inside. It has the disadvantage-of allow- ing some rain to enter through the smoke-vent in very wet weather. A twelve-foot teepee (needing fourteen poles), big enough for half a dozen boys, can be made for three dollars, plus labor (see “Two Little Savages’’), or it can be bought ready made for about thrice that. 80)

There is one great evil that campers should beware of, that is rheumatism. But none need suffer if they will take the simple precaution of changing their wet clothes when not in action, and never sleeping directly on the ground. A warm, dry place for the bed should be prepared in every tent and teepee.

An adapted teepee that is rain-proof is among those now on the market, or the old-fashined teepee may be improved with a three-foot ‘‘bull boat” or storm-cap of canvas, to cover the ends of the poles.

Tents of any good kind will answer, but they do not admit of a fire within. They are, however, excel- lent for storage. A tent, painted teepee-fasion, may be made very picturesque.

This drawing (p. 77) shows a real Sioux teepee at present in my collection.

It is made of skins. The ground color is of soft gray; the design in pale flat tints of delicate red, yel- low, and green, as below. No other outlines are used.

Putting up the Teepee. Drive a small stake in the ground where the centre of the teepee will come, and about this as centre mark a circle, the same diameter as the tent. For a twelve-foot teepee, a twelve-foot circle, etc.

With one end of a twenty-foot rope tie together éhree of the poles at a point as high as the top of the canvas. Set them as a tripod, their ends touching the edge of the circle. Then set up the other poles (except three, 81)

Various Tepees (Smoke-Poles left out)

82)

Pattern of 10-Foot Teepee.

The Complete Teepee Cover — Unornamented.
A - Frame for Door.
B - Door Comleted.

83)

Thunder Bull´s Teepee.

Decorations of a Teepee and Two Examples of Doors.

84)

RED — All parts marked so:▅ Smoke-flaps and all tops of teepees stem of pipe, lower half-circle under pipe, middle part of bowl, wound on side of Elk, blood falling and on trail; Horse, middle Buffalo, two inner bars of pathway up back; aiso short, dark crossbars, spot on middle of two door-hangers, and fringe of totem at top of pathway, and two black lines on doorway.

YELLOW — All parts marked so:▅ Upper half-circle under pipe stem, upper half of each feather on pipe; horseman with bridle, saddle and one hindfoot of Horse; the largest Buffalo, the outside upright of the pathway ; the ground colors of the totem; the spotted crossbars of pathway ; the four patches next the ground, the two patches over door, and the rings of door-hanger.

GREEN—All parts marked so:▅ Bowl of pipe, spot over it; feather tips of same; Elk, first Buffalo, middle line on each side pathway, and around teepee top; two dashed crossbars on totem and dashed crossbars on pathway; bar on which Horse walks; lower edge and line of spots on upper part of door. 85) including the two slender ones) for the frame of the teepee, their ends on the circumference of the circle, their tops resting in the angles of the tripod. Now with the loose end of the twenty-foot rope bind all the poles where they cross by walking several times around the frame on the outside, and drawing the rope tight as you go. The loose end may be left hanging down inside for an anchor.

Now fasten the top of the teepee cover to one of the poles left over, at a point twelve feet up. Raise this into its place, and the teepee cover with it, opposite where the door is to be. Carry the two wings of the tent around till they overlap and fasten together with the lacing-pins. Put the end of a vent-pole in each of the vent-flap pockets, outside of the teepee. Peg down the edges of the canvas at each loop if a storm is coming, otherwise a few will do. Hang the door on a convenient lacing-pin. Drive a stout stake inside the teepee, tie the anchor rope to this and the teepec is ready for weather. In the centre dig a hole eighteen inches wide and six inches deep for the fire. The fire is the great advantage of the teepee, and the smoke one of the disadvantages, but experience will show how to manage this. Keep the smoke-vent swung down wind, or at least quartering down. Sometimes you must leave the door a little open or raise the bottom of the teepee cover a little on the windward side. H this makes too rauch draft on your back stretch a piece of 86) canvas between two or three of the poles inside the teepee, in front of the opening made, and reaching to the ground. Thisis a lining ordew-cloth. The draft will go up behind this.

ARCHERY

The Tribe should own a Standard Target, that is, 4 feet across, circular, made of straw, with a thin oil- cloth cover, marked with a 9.6 inch centre of gold (called by some of our Tribes “the Buffalo’s Eye’); outside of that a 4.8 inch band of red, next a similar band of blue, next of black, next of white. In scoring, the gold is g, the red 7, the blue 5, the black 3, the white 1. The shortest match range for the target is 4o yards. If it is a 3-foot target the match range is reduced to 30 yards.

A target can be made of a burlap sack about 5 feet square. This should be stuffed full of hay or straw, then flattened by a few quilting stitches put right through with a long packing needle. On this the target is painted of exact right size and color.

Each brave should have a bow that pulls from 10 pounds up; about one pound for each year of his age is a safe guide for boys up to sixteen. He should have at least 6 arrows and a quiver. The arrows 25 inches long, with 3 feathers, cone-points of steel or iron; brass points are useless. A guard or bracer for the left 87) TEEPEES Thunder Bull’a Teepee Gray Wolf (Crow) Blackfoot Omaha (Cheyenne) wrist is needed,

and most boys require a glove to pro- tect the fingers of the right hand.

The correct way to shoot with a bow is fully set forth in “Two Little Savages.”

ART

All students of the Indian art are satisfied that in this we find the beginnings of something that may develop into a great and original school of decoration. Not having learned their traditions, conventions, and inner impulse, we believe that at present we shall do best by preserving and closely copying the best of the truly native productions.

Therefore, in decorating teepees, etc.. we use only literal copies of the good Indian work. 88)

MUSIC

We encourage musical talent as much as possible, and if it seems to be here put in a secondary place, that means simply that we have not yet found the inspired camp musician. Around the nightly camp-fires songs and music are in great demand. The drum is essential also for the numerous song-dances and song-plays.

TEEPEES 89)

BOOKS BY ERNEST THOMPSON SETON
Published by DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & CO.,
133 East 16th Street, New York City

TWO LITTLE SAVAGES, 1903

A book of adventure and woodcraft and camping out for boys, telling how to make bows,arrows, moccasins, costumes, teepee, war-bonnet, etc., and how to make a fire with rubbing sticks, read Indian signs, etc. Price, $1.75 net.

THE WILD ANIMAL PLAY, 1900

A musical play in which the parts of Lobo, Wahb, Vixen, etc., are taken by boys and girls. Price, 50c.


Published by CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS,
153 Fifth Avenue, New York City

WILD ANIMALS I HAVE KNOWN, 1898

The stories of Lobo, Silverspot, Molly Cottontail, Bingo, Vixen, The Pacing Mustang, Wully and Redruff. Price, $2.00.

LOBO, RAG AND VIXEN, 1900

This is a school edition of the above, with some of the stories and many of the pictures left out. Price, 50c net.

THE TRAIL OF THE SANDHILL STAG, 1899

The story of a long hunt that ended without a tragedy. Price, $1.50.

THE LIVES OF THE HUNTED, 1901

The stories of Krag, Randy, Johnny Bear, The Mother Teal, Chink, The Kangaroo Rat, and Tito, the Coyote. Price, $1.75 net.

KRAG AND JOHNNY BEAR, 1902

This is a school edition of the above, with some of the stories and many of the pictures left out. Price, 50c net. 90)

PICTURES OF WILD ANIMALS, 1901

Twelve large pictures for framing (no text), viz., Krag, Lobo, Tito Cub, Kangaroo Rat, Grizzly, Buffalo, Bear Family, Johnny Bear, Sandhill Stag, Coon Family, Courtaut the Wolf, Tito and her family. Price, $6.00.

MONARCH, THE BIG BEAR OF TALLAC, 1904

The story of a big California Grizzly that is living yet. Price, $1.25 net.

ANIMAL HEROES, 1905

The stories of a Slum Cat, a Homing Pigeon, The Wolf that Won, A Lynx, A Jackrabbit, A Bull-terrier, The Winnipeg Wolf and A White Reindeer. Price, $1.75 net.

LIFE-HISTORIES OF NORTHERN ANIMALS OR THE QUADRUPEDS OF MANITOBA

To be issued shortly.


Published by THE CENTURY COMPANY,
Union Square, New York City

BIOGRAPHY OF A GRIZZLY, 1900

The story of old Wahb from Cub-hood to the scene in Death Gulch. Price, $1.50.

WOODMYTH AND FABLE, 1905

A collection of fables, woodland verses, and camp stories. Price, $1.25 net.



BY MRS. ERNEST THOMPSON SETON
Published by DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & CO.

A WOMAN TENDERFOOT

A book of outdoor adventures and camping for women and girls. How to dress for it, where to go, and how to profit the most by camp life. Price, $2.00.

NIMROD’S WIFE

A book of adventures in the Rockies, High Sierra, and the Ottawa. Price, $1.75 net. 91)

A LIST OF BOOKS RECOMMENDED FOR NATURE STUDENTS RECOMMENDED BY ERNEST THOMPSON SETON

MAMMALS OF THE ADIRONDACKS

By C. Hart Merriam, M.D.,
Henry Holt & Co., New York City. Price, $2.00

HANDBOOK OF BIRDS OF EASTERN NORTH AMERICA

By Frank M. Chapman,
D. Appleton & Co., New York City. Price, $3.00

HANDBOOK OF BIRDS OF WESTERN UNITED STATES

Florence Merriam Bailey,
Honghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston, Mass. Price, $3.50

THE NATURE LIBRARY

Published by Doubleday, Page & Co. Sold by subscription. Price on application.

Volume I Bird Neighbors

Contains the general introduction to the library, by John Burroughs, and Neltje Blanchan gives an introductory acquaintance with 150 birds usually found in the gardens, meadows, and woods about our homes. The birds are classified in five different ways, making identification immediately possible without technical knowledge. There are 48 plates in colors, and 16 in black-and-white.

Volume II Birds That Hunt and are Hunted

By Neltje Blanchan, is devoted to “Birds that Hunt and are Hunted.” G. O. Shields has written the introduction to this account of 170 birds of prey, game birds, and waterfowl. 64 color plates and 16 plates in black-and-white.

Volume III Bird Homes

By A. Radclyffe Dugmore, is a complete manual of bird's-nests, eggs, and breeding habits, containing also valuable hints on 92) nature photography, by an author whose intimate photographs of bird life have made him famous. 16 color plates and 82 other pictures.

Volume IV American Animals

Is the only book which sums up in popular form the mass of new knowledge about American mammals which science has gathered during the last quarter of a century. By Witmer Stone and William Everitt Cram. The 80 full pages of pictures are marvellous feats of the camera, nearly all being photographed from life, generally of wild animals. There are also eight colored plates.

Volume V American Food and Game Fishes

By David Starr Jordan and Barton W. Evermann, fills a longfelt need in popular scientific works, being a full account of the life-histories and methods of capture of North American food and game fish. With 10 lithographed color plates, 100 photographs of live fish in the water, and 200 text cuts.

Volume VI The Butterfly Book

By Dr. W. J. Holland, who has introduced thousands of readers to the delightful study of butterflies and caterpillars. Its 48 color plates are the finest ever made by the three-color photographic process, and in these and the text cuts fully a thousand different species of butterflies are shown. There are chapters on the capture and preservation of butterflies.

Volume VII The Moth Book

Also by Dr. Holland, takes up the subject of moths. There are 1,500 figures in the colored plates and 300 text cuts of the moths of North America.

Volume VIII The Insect Book

By Dr. L. O. Howard, treats of bees, wasps, ants, grasshoppers, flies, and other North American insects, admirably suited to the general reader. It has 16 color plates and 32 black-and-white, all photographed from the insects themselves, besides nearly 300 text cuts.

Volume IX Nature’s Garden

By Neltje Blanchan, enables any one to identify all the common wild flowers of the North American continent, and introduces the reader to their marvellous life-histories and the part which insects play in these. Illustrations: 32 color plates and 48 black-and-white, all from photographs of the actual flower. 93)

Volume X Mosses and Lichens

By Nina L. Marshall, is an invaluable aid to all who are interested in fungi as food or as a limitless subject of study. 24 color plates and 40 black-and-white from photographs by Mr. and Miss Anderson.

Volume XI The Tree Book

By Julia E. Rogers, has many features that no other work on trees approaches. It tells how to know the trees; the uses and value of trees; the care of trees; how to grow trees; the preservation of forests. The 350 beautiful photographic illustrations, by A. R. Dugmore, show bud, blossoms, full leaf, fruit, and the wood of all the important species, and there are 16 plates in color.

Volume XII The Frog Book

Is a most fascinating work by Mary C. Dickerson, and contains a wealth of original observation and pioneer work on frogs and toads that is a real contribution to science. Sixteen plates in color and nearly 300 black-and-white photographs from life by the author.


OUR NATIVE TREES

HARRIET L. KEELER, 1900,
Charles Scribner's Sons, New York City. Price, $2.00

GEOLOGICAL STORY BRIEFLY TOLD

JAMES D. DANA,
American Book Co., New York City. Price, $1.15

PRIMER OF GEOLOGY

ARCHIBALD GEIKIE,
American Book Co., New York City. Price, 35c.

ASTRONOMY WITH AN OPERA GLASS

GARRETT P. SERVISS,
D. Appleton 6- Co., New York City. Price, $1.50

SPALDING'S OFFICIAL ATHLETIC ALMANAC

Edited by J. E. SULLIVAN,
American Sports Publishing Co., New York City. Price, 10c.

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