1 86 The Book of Woodcraft camper, light, comfortable, and of wildwood stuff, is the Indian or willow bed, described on p 495. WATER, OR THE INDIAN WELL If there is swamp or pond, but no pure water at hand, you can dig an Indian well in half an hour. This is simply a hole about 18 inches across and down about 6 inches below water-level, a few paces from the pond. Bail it out quickly; let it fill again, bail it a second time, and the third time it fills, it will be full of filtered water, clear of every- thing except matter actually dissolved. It is now well known that ordinary vegetable matter does not cause disease. All contamination is from animal refuse or excreta, therefore a well of this kind in a truly wild region is as safe as a spring. MOSQUITOES, BLACK FLIES, ETC. If you are camping in mosquito or fly season, the trip may be ruined, if you are not fully prepared. For extreme cases, use the ready-made head-nets. They are hot, but effectual. You can easily get used to the net; no man can stand the flies. In my Arctic trip of 1907, we could not have endured life without the nets. Indians and all wore them. Of the various dopes that are used, one of the simplest and best is Colonel N. Fletcher's, given in Kephart's "Book of Camping and Woodcraft": "Pure pine tar ...... i oz. Oil pennyroyal i oz. Vaseline 3 ozs. Mix cold in a mortar. If you wish, you can add 3 per cent. carboHc acid to above. Some make it i^ ozs. tar."
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